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ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ


«ОМСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ МЕДИЦИНСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОГО АГЕНСТВА ПО ЗДРАВООХРАНЕНИЮ
И СОЦИАЛЬНОМУ РАЗВИТИЮ»

ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ-МЕДИКОВ

ENGLISH
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY
FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS
ОМСК – 2011

УДК 61+413+415=111]:378.18(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1я7
У-912

Грамматика и лексика английского языка для студентов-медиков: Учебное


пособие. - Омск: Изд-во ОмГМА, 2011. – 193 с.

Рецензенты:

Жура В.В. - доктор филологических наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой иностранных


языков с курсом латинского языка Волгоградского ГМУ
М.В. Моисеев - кандидат филологических наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой
английской филологии Омского Государственного Университета

Составитель:

Ходаков Р.В. - старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков ОмГМА

Учебное пособие предназначается для студентов лечебного,


педиатрического и медико-профилактического факультетов. Задача настоящего
пособия - сформировать рецептивные грамматические и лексические навыки
английского языка и подготовить учащихся к чтению оригинальной
иностранной научной литературы по специальности с целью извлечения из
нее необходимой информации.

Рекомендовано Учебно-методическим объединением по медицинскому и


фармацевтическому образованию вузов России в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов, обучающихся по специальности 060101 (040100) – Лечебное
дело; 060103 (0402200) – Педиатрия; 060104 (040300) – Медико-
профилактическое дело (УМО- №17-29/308 от 11.07.2011)

© Ходаков Р.В.

2
© ГОУ ВПО «Омская государственная медицинская академия Росздрава»,
2011.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
(CONTENTS)

Введение (INTRODUCTION)
ЧАСТЬ I. ГРАММАТИКА (PART I. GRAMMAR)
Имя существительное (THE NOUN)
Глаголы TO BE/TO HAVE
Конструкция THERE + TO BE
Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, возвратные (PRONOUNS:
PERSONAL, POSSESSIVE, REFLEXIVE)
Неопределенные местоимения (INDEFINITE PRONOUNS)
Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий (THE DEGREES OF
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS)
Глагол. Действительный залог (THE VERB. THE ACTIVE VOICE)
Времена группы Indefinite (THE INDEFINITE TENSES)
Времена группы Continuous (THE CONTINUOUS TENSES)
Времена группы Perfect (THE PERFECT TENSES)
Времена группы Perfect Continuous (THE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES)
Глагол. Страдательный залог (THE VERB. THE PASSIVE VOICE)
Придаточные предложения (SUBORDINATE CLAUSES)
Согласование времен (THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES)
Инфинитив (THE INFINITIVE)
Модальные глаголы (MODAL VERBS)
Причастие прошедшего времени (PAST PARTICIPLE)
Причастие настоящего времени (PRESENT PARTICIPLE)
Самостоятельный причастный оборот (THE ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE
CONSTRUCTION)
Сложное подлежащее (THE COMPLEX SUBJECT)
Сложное дополнение (THE COMPLEX OBJECT)
Герундий (THE GERUND)
Условные предложения. Сослагательное наклонение (CONDITIONAL
SENTENCES / THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)
Функции и значения глаголов TO BE и TO HAVE (FUNCTIONS AND
MEANINGS OF THE VERBS TO BE AND TO HAVE)
Парные союзы BOTH…AND, EITHER…OR, NEITHER…NOR
IT – формальное подлежащее
Неопределенно-личные обороты
Усилительная конструкция IT IS … THAT
Слово ONE
Слово AS
Слово SINCE
Конструкция USED TO
Дифференцировочный грамматический тренинг
Итоговый тест (FINAL TEST)
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ЧАСТЬ II. ЛЕКСИКА (PART II. VOCABULARY)
РАЗДЕЛ I. СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ (SECTION I. WORD FORMATION)
Словосложение (COMPOUNDING)
Аффиксация (AFFIXATION)
Конверсия (CONVERSION)
Полисемия (POLYSEMANTICISM)
Интернациональная лексика (INTERNATIONAL WORDS)
CHECK YOURSELF
РАЗДЕЛ II. АНАТОМИЧЕСКАЯ ЛЕКСИКА (SECTION II.
ANATOMICAL VOCABULARY)
Скелет (THE SKELETAL SYSTEM)
Пищеварительная система (THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM)
Мочевая система(THE URINARY SYSTEM)
Сердечно-сосудистая система (THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM)
Дыхательная система (THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM)
CHECK YOURSELF
РАЗДЕЛ III. КЛИНИЧЕСКАЯ ЛЕКСИКА (SECTION III. CLINICAL
VOCABULARY)
Части речи (PARTS OF SPEECH)
Синонимы (SYNONYMS)
Антонимы (ANTONYMS)
Медицинские инструменты и оборудование (MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS AND
EQUIPMENT)
Медицинские специальности (MEDICAL SPECIALITIES)
Повседневная работа врача (A DOCTOR’S DAILY ROUTINE)
Заболевания (DISEASES)
Симптомы (SYMPTOMS)
Официальные и неофициальные названия (FORMAL AND INFORMAL
NAMES)
Методы диагностики и лечения (DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT TECHNIQUES)
Инструкция к медицинскому препарату (INSTRUCTION FOR MEDICAL
PREPARATION)
CHECK YOURSELF
Неправильные глаголы (IRREGULAR VERBS)
Англо-русский словарь (ENGLISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY)

4
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
(INTRODUCTION)

Учебное пособие предназначается для студентов лечебного,


педиатрического и медико-профилактического факультетов. Оно ставит целью
формирование рецептивных грамматических и лексических навыков
английского языка.
Основная цель преподавания иностранного языка в медицинском вузе
состоит в обучении студентов чтению и переводу иностранной научной
литературы по специальности в оригинале для извлечения из нее необходимой
информации. В связи с этим, рецептивный лексико-грамматический
компонент языка приобретает огромную важность, так как именно он
обусловливает адекватность передачи научной мысли с иностранного языка на
русский язык.
Предлагаемое пособие обладает значительной степенью
самодостаточности: оно содержит схематичные структурированные
комментарии и разнообразные упражнения (дифференцировочные,
подстановочные, трансформационные) по основным темам грамматики
английского языка и базовой лексике, а также тесты и краткий англо-русский
медицинский словарь.
Лексико-грамматический материал отбирался с учетом его
функциональной и профессиональной направленности, информативной
ценности, структурно-грамматических характеристик, обрабатывался
методически таким образом, чтобы обеспечить постепенный переход к чтению
специальных текстов.
Практика перевода с иностранного языка предложений из оригинальной
научной медицинской литературы внесет большой вклад в формирование у
студентов такого профессионального качества, как речевая компетентность,
которая регулирует профессиональную речь, определяет её направленность,
адекватность употребления речевых средств и индивидуальное разнообразие.
При составлении данного пособия использовались некоторые
материалы из следующих источников:
1. Vocabulary for medicine, 2nd ed. Peter Collin publishing Ltd, 2000.
2. Марковина И.Ю., Максимова З.К., Вайнштейн М.Б. Английский язык:
учебник для медицинских вузов и медицинских специалистов. – М.:
ГЭОТАР-МЕД, 2003.
3. Маслова А.М., Вайнштейн З.И., Плебейская Л.С. Учебник английского
языка для медицинских вузов. – М.: Лист Нью, 2002.
4. Муравейская М.С., Орлова Л.К. Английский язык для медиков. – М.:
Наука, 2001.
5. Щедрина Т.П. Английский язык в медицине. Практика чтения и устной
речи. – М.: Выш. шк., 1997.

5
ЧАСТЬ I
PART I

ГРАММАТИКА
GRAMMAR

6
ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ
(THE NOUN)

ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ МНОЖЕСТВЕННОГО ЧИСЛА

Большинство существительных присоединяют окончание –s в форме


множественного числа:
book - books student – students
Обратите внимание на изменения, которые происходят с некоторыми
существительными при добавлении окончания –s:

–s, -sh, –ch, -x → –es: bus – buses church – churches box - boxes
согласная+y → –ies: country – countries party - parties
–f, -ife, -lf → –ves: leaf – leaves wife – wives wolf - wolves

Исключения:

man — men человек, мужчина — люди, мужчины


woman — women женщина — женщины
child — children ребенок — дети
foot — feet стопа — стопы
sheep — sheep овца — овцы
fish – fish рыба - рыбы
mouse — mice мышь — мыши
tooth — teeth зуб — зубы

1. Напишите следующие существительные во множественном числе:

Science, substance, city, box, nurse, training, wife, knife, leaf, hospital, patient, lady, man,
woman, child, tooth, match, year, class, method, process, mouse, doctor, teacher.

Обратите внимание! В английской и американской медицинской научной


литературе часто встречаются существительные, заимствованные из
латинского и греческого языков, которые сохранили форму множественного
числа этих языков.

formula – formulae bacillus – bacilli bacterium – bacteria crisis – crises

2. Образуйте множественное число существительных, заимствованных


из латинского и греческого языков.

Thesis, crisis, datum, formula, nucleus, basis, focus, phenomenon, stratum, serum,
analysis, bacterium, locus, chorda, cortex, atrium, coccus, criterion, spectrum,
fibula, fungus, varix, larva, fossa, humerus.
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ПАДЕЖ

Большинство существительных в современном английском языке имеет


один падеж: общий, не имеющий специальных окончаний. Одушевленные
существительные имеют два падежа: общий и притяжательный, который
указывает на принадлежность чего-либо кому-либо и частично соответствует
родительному падежу в русском (все остальные падежные отношения
выражаются с помощью предлогов). Притяжательный падеж образуется
прибавлением к существительному апострофа (’) и окончания -s:

John’s book книга Джона


Dr Hill’s article статья доктора Хилла

В единственном или множественном числе к существительным, которые


уже имеют окончание -s, прибавляется только апостроф.

boss’ computer компьютер начальника


patients’ analyses анализы пациентов

Притяжательный падеж употребляется только с определенными


существительными, обозначающими одушевленные предметы, время,
расстояние, меры длины или веса, стоимость:

my friend’s work работа моего друга


an hour’s interval часовой перерыв
а day’s work однодневная работа
two weeks’ rest двухнедельный отдых
two kilometres’ distance расстояние в 2 км

3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление


притяжательного падежа.

1. Our group’s experiment was successful.


2. Scientists’ work gave good results.
3. Specialists’ opinion is very important for me.
4. The doctor’s diagnosis turned out to be wrong.
5. The doctor’s name is John Woodcraft.
6. The most common source of infection in medical practice is direct contact
with a patient’s blood.
7. The patient’s condition is under control.
8. The students’ researches are in their report.
9. This is Professor Smith’s hypothesis.

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СОЧЕТАНИЕ ДВУХ СУЩУСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ

Существительное без предлога может исполнять роль определения к


другому существительному. В этом случае оно обычно не имеет формы
множественного числа и может переводиться прилагательным,
существительным с предлогом или существительным в каком-либо падеже:

summer time летнее время


institute library библиотека института
а light beam луч света (или световой луч)
the particle size размер частицы
blood serum сыворотка крови

4. Переведите следующие словосочетания.

Air passage, blood cell, blood vessel, body temperature, brain death, disease
germ, heart attack, milk teeth, mortality rates, nerve node, nerve tissue, study
project, case history, risk factor, cell membrane, drug addiction, eye drops, muscle
fibers, kidney transplantation, laboratory method.

АРТИКЛЬ

Артикль – служебная часть речи, выполняющая функцию определителя


имени существительного.
В английском языке существует два артикля — неопределенный: а (an) и
определенный: the.
А — неопределенный артикль, употребляется со словами,
начинающимися с согласного звука (a book). Перед существительными,
начинающимися с гласных, артикль принимает форму an: (an apple).
Неопределенный артикль имеет значение: один из многих. Как правило, этот
артикль не переводится, но иногда для более точной передачи смысла его
можно переводить словами «один», «какой-то», «какой-нибудь».

I have a computer. У меня есть компьютер.

Give me а book to read. Дайте мне почитать какую-нибудь книгу.

The — определенный артикль. Поскольку с его помощью указывают на


какой-то определенный предмет или лицо (уже известные собеседнику), то он
часто переводится словами «этот», «данный», «тот самый».

The book is very interesting. Эта книга очень интересная.

The method is helpful. Данный метод полезен.

9
Определенный артикль всегда употребляется с названиями рек (The
Thames), морей (The Black Sea), океанов (The Pacific Ocean), групп островов
(the Canaries), горных цепей (the Alps).
Без артикля употребляются названия городов (London), стран (France),
континентов (Africa), озер (Lake Baikal), отдельных островов (Elba) или гор
(Everest).
Артикль может отсутствовать перед научными и техническими
терминами, названиями учебных дисциплин, перед существительными,
обозначающими вещество или массу, а также существительными во
множественном числе. В современной научной литературе намечается
тенденция обходиться без артикля.

5. Объясните употребление или отсутствие артиклей перед


выделенными словами:

1. Helen is a student. She wants to be a cardiologist. She lives with 2 friends in


a hostel near the Academy where she is studying. The hostel is full of
students and she likes it.
2. The knowledge of Physiology is very important for medical students.
3. Is he ill with pneumonia?
4. The findings of our experiments are very important.
5. My brother works at a biological department of the academy.
6. Hippocrates was a son of a doctor.
7. My brother is a general practitioner.
8. Biology is a study of living organisms.
9. I have a headache. I need an analgesic.
10. Fats are found in meat, fish and diary products.
11. Vitamins are essential ingredients of food.

10
ГЛАГОЛЫ TO BE/TO HAVE

TO BE (БЫТЬ)
Present Past Future
I am
I/he/she/it was I/we shall be
We/you/they are
We/you/they were You/he/she/it we/they will be
He/she/it is
TO HAVE (ИМЕТЬ)
Present Past Future

I/we/you/they have I/we/you/they/he/she/it had I/we shall have


He/she/it has You/he/she/it we/they will have

6. Переведите предложения и определите время, в котором стоит


глагол-сказуемое:
1. I am a student.
2. My grandfather was a doctor.
3. My favorite subject is Biology.
4. I have three courses of chemistry in the Academy such as general, organic
and inorganic chemistry.
5. I shall be a therapeutist.
6. We had an English lesson two days ago.
7. Students will have a practice at the end of each year.
8. The methods are intensive.
9. My sister has a seminar today.
10.At the end of the third year students have practice in pharmacognosy.

7. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных колонках.

Caries a headache yesterday.


The book a serious disease.
Medical journals a textbook for medical students.
I a very big library at the University.
We is always of use to medical students.
They are Anatomy classes tomorrow.
Mr. Simpson was busy now.
Jane were free at the weekend.
The doctor has Greek in origin.
This clinic have in the ward № 3.
Doctor Smith had is my favorite subject.
The atmosphere of this clinic shall have many friends among college students.
All these subjects will have many patients in his register.
Chemistry really good.
The names of many diseases really warm and welcoming.
They slight temperature after the vaccination.
She very important for medical students.
11
8. Поставьте глагол to be или to have в нужную временную форму:

1. In a year we (to be) members of the Physiology Scientific circle.


2. I (to be) a doctor in 6 years.
3. When my sister studied at school she (to have) a great interest in Chemistry.
4. (to be) you friendly with many students of your group at present?
5. Yesterday we all (to be) present at an interesting lecture on Anatomy.
6. In how many years (to be) you a doctor?
7. (to have) you a lecture in Physiology?
8. We (to have) a practice at the end of the year.
9. Each student (to have) an atlas in Anatomy.
10.He (to have) an English lesson yesterday.

9. *Переведите предложения. Укажите временную форму


глаголов to be и to have 1 .

1. A number of techniques and methods of investigation is new.


2. Arterial walls have three linings.
3. He had a bad headache yesterday.
4. Human body is a unique mechanism, the base of which is the skeleton.
5. I have a lot of trouble with my teeth.
6. I shall have a Diploma in Medicine next year.
7. Last week we had an exam in Latin.
8. That paper is neither for doctors nor chemists. It is for sportsmen.
9. The ear has a central part, the vestibule.
10.The efforts were of use in recent years.
11.The methods of treatment were extensive in the past years.
12. The paper is a review on basic research in medicine.
13.The paper is in the field of pediatrics.
14.The purpose of the review is usually to give insight in the problem.
15.The research was up-to-date.
16. The table of contents is not on page 3.
17.The trend was up-to-date.
18.They have lectures and seminars every day but Sunday.
19. Those reviews are both for medical students and doctors.
20.Two years ago my father had an operation.

1
Здесь и далее отмеченные звездочкой упражнения могут использоваться в качестве контрольных по
разделам.
12
КОНСТРУКЦИЯ THERE + TO BE

Данная конструкция указывает на наличие или отсутствие чего-либо и


переводится на русский язык словами есть (было, будет), имеется,
находится. Перевод следует начинать с обстоятельства места (или времени),
которое обычно находится в конце предложения.

There is a case record on the table.


На столе находится (лежит) выписка из истории болезни.
There was no admission in the polyclinic on Sunday.
В воскресенье в поликлинике не было приема.

При отсутствии в предложении обстоятельства места конструкция может


переводиться словом существует.

There are many articles about this disease.


Существует много статей об этой болезни.

Иногда в конструкции «there + to be» вместо глагола to be употребляются


такие глаголы, как to appear, to exist, to result, to observe.

There appeared а new method of treatment.


Появился новый метод лечения.
There was observed а new phenomenon.
Наблюдалось новое явление.

10. Выберите правильный вариант для русского предложения.


Обратите внимание на порядок слов русского и английского
предложений.

Somebody is in the laboratory.


В лаборатории кто-то находится.
There is somebody is in the laboratory.
Many students are present at the lecture.
На лекции присутствует много студентов.
There are many students at the lecture.
Рядом с нашим институтом находится There is a hostel near our Institute.
общежитие. The hostel is near our Institute.
There was an interesting meeting at our
На нашем факультете было интересное faculty last week.
собрание два дня назад. An interesting meeting was at our faculty last
week.
A new patient will be in this ward tomorrow.
В этой палате завтра будет новый пациент. There will be a new patient in this ward
tomorrow.

13
11. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию
there+ to be.

1. There are also more admissions to the mental hospitals during summer.
2. Sunshine makes people feel good as long as there is not too much of it.
3. We hope that there will be men who will continue to advance medicine.
4. There is a limiting factor in the growth of tissue.
5. There was no change in biopsies compared.
6. There are more than 300,000 Americans who are treated for the loss of
eyesight as a result of diabetes.
7. There is an increasing number of research workers in medicine.
8. There are plenty of theories of cancer nature.
9. In some hospitals there appeared a new way for the treatment cancer
tumours.
10. There are two further important indications for laser beams.
11. There are to date no published studies in this newly developing area of
research.
12.There are many guides to lasers in medicine written for the non-specialists.

12. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных


колонках.

a new X-ray apparatus


an interesting lecture in the laboratory tomorrow
There is chemist’s and prescription departments in the pharmacy next month
There are interesting reports in our clinic yesterday
There was many students at the lecture today
There were many unique publications at the conference last week
There will be new equipment in our library
no changes in patient’s state
problems with laser techniques

13. *Переведите предложения с конструкцией there+ to be.

1. In recent years there have been advances in the field of oncology.


2. There are significant developments in the laser treatment of tumours.
3. There are detailed chapters on many diseases in the new textbook.
4. There is a possibility to develop a therapy for this disease.
5. There are tests that can be used to detect the body’s biological activity.
6. There are areas in human body that are difficult to reach. The laser makes it
possible.
7. There are procedures that can be done only in clinics.
8. There are many guides to lasers in medicine.
9. There are current findings on the ultrastructure of cerebral tissue lesions.
10. The laser is taking place next to the scalpel as there are new ways to use a
cutting beam on a variety of patients.

14
11. There are the newest models of apparatus for blood circulation, artificial
heart valves.
12. There is a special reagent which coagulates blood and the results of the
analysis are displayed on a screen.

15
МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ: ЛИЧНЫЕ, ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНЫЕ, ВОЗВРАТНЫЕ
(PRONOUNS: PERSONAL, POSSESSIVE, REFLEXIVE)

Личные местоимения Притяжательные Возвратные


местоимения местоимения
Именитель- Объектный
ный падеж падеж
I (я) me (мне, меня) my (мой) myself
we (мы) us (нам, нас) our (наш) ourselves
you you your yourself
(ты, Вы) (тебе, тебя/Вам/Вас) (твой, Ваш) (yourselves)
he (он) him (ему, его) his (его) himself
she (она) her (ей, ее) her (ее) herself
it (он/а/о) it (ему/его/ей/ее) its (его/ее) itself
it употребляется по отношению к неодушевленным предметам
they (они) them (им/их) their (их) themselves

Обратите внимание!

Личные местоимения имеют две формы — субъектную и объектную.


Местоимение в субъектной форме – именительном падеже («кто?» «что?») –
всегда является подлежащим и предшествует сказуемому. Местоимение в
объектном падеже («кого?» «что?» «кому?» «чему?») всегда выполняет роль
дополнения и стоит после сказуемого.

I know her. She knows me.


Я знаю ее. Она знает меня.

Притяжательные местоимения отвечают на вопросы «чей?», «чья?». Они


выражают принадлежность существительного и соответствуют личным
местоимениям.

This is my computer.
Это мой компьютер.
That man is his doctor.
Тот человек - его врач.

Возвратные местоимения используются, если лицо или предмет, к которому


они относятся, совпадает с лицом или предметом, обозначенным
подлежащим (переводятся «сам», «себя» или возвратным глаголом (-ся)).

I can translate this text myself.

16
Я могу перевести этот текст сам.
He cut himself when he was performing an operation.
Он порезался, когда делал операцию.

14. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу личными


местоимениями.

1. These articles are very interesting. Read … at home.


2. You can translate this text without a dictionary. … is not very difficult.
3. … am a student of the Medical Academy.
4. Can … help me with translation?
5. All students of my group study well but Alex is the best student among ….
6. Liz is a student. … goes to college.
7. Alan is going home please give … his coat.
8. Doctor N. asked to help … to perform the operation.
9. I went home from my winter vacation. Let … tell … how I spent ….
10. The lectures of Professor Smith are very interesting. Students never miss ….
11. She teaches … Biology.
12. This is my book of Inorganic Chemistry. I’m going to work on … today and
I’ll give … to … tomorrow.

15. Заполните пропуски подходящими притяжательными


местоимениями:

1. Take the textbooks from the shelf and put them into … bag.
2. … classes on Biology start at 10.30 and end at 12.50.
3. … father is a dentist. He is always busy. He starts … work early in the
morning.
4. The article was translated from Russian into English by … teacher.
5. Helen has 3 children. I know … names: Alan, Sam and Ann.
6. … classrooms are big and bright.
7. They know me and … sister.
8. Her mother is a chemist. He works at the drug store and devotes … whole life
to it.
9. Last term we worked hard for … examinations.
10.What is … favourite subject?
11.He is a surgeon like many of … relatives.
12. … group is the best at the faculty.

16. Заполните пропуски соответствующими возвратными


местоимениями.

1. I want to make a diagnosis …


2. Physicians prescribe the medication …
3. She stopped the physical therapy …
4. Smoking … remains a contraindication for a patient.
17
5. The dietician administers the treatment …
6. The study … suggests new ways of treatment.
7. They prepare the report …
8. We study the tissue sample under the microscope …
9. You can read this article …

18
НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ
(INDEFINITE PRONOUNS)

Неопределенные местоимения some, any, no.


Неопределенные местоимения some, any обозначают «некоторые»,
«несколько», «какие-нибудь», «некоторое количество», при этом some
употребляется в утвердительных предложениях, а any в вопросительных и
отрицательных. В отрицательном предложении местоимение any переводится
«никакой», «нисколько».

I have some books. У меня есть несколько книг.


Do you have any English books? У тебя есть какие-нибудь книги на
английском языке?
He has not any books. У него нет никаких книг.

Any может также употребляться в утвердительных предложениях со


значением «любой».

Take any book. Возьми любую книгу.

No — «никакой», «ни один», «нисколько».

I have no English books. У меня совсем нет английских книг.


We have no information. У нас нет никаких сведений.

Производные местоимений some, any, no и прилагательного every:

Somebody/thing/where/how кто-то/что-то/где-то/как-то
Anybody/thing/where/how кто-нибудь/что-нибудь/где-нибудь/как-нибудь
Nobody/thing/where/how никто/ничто/нигде/никак (никоим образом)
Everybody/thing/where каждый(все)/всё/везде (повсюду)

17. Переведите предложения с неопределенными местоимениями.

1. Some students of Group 10 will take an active part in research work.


2. Yesterday Dr. West did not go out to any calls.
3. The doctor who examined me asked me to make some analyses.
4. Did you take any medicine when you had a sore throat?
5. This patient's X-ray examination revealed no lung troubles.
6. Did the doctor prescribe to you any medicine when you had a high
temperature?

19
7. I suffered no diseases in my childhood.
8. Are there any certificates of health on the nurse's table?
9. Anyone may catch a respiratory disease here.
10. Everyone knows the earliest symptoms of bronchitis.
11. Anything he does is very important for us.
12. Somehow he got over the disease.

Обратите внимание!

В английском языке не может быть двух отрицаний.

No conclusions were drawn from this experiment.


Никаких выводов не было сделано из этого опыта.

Nobody examined this patient.


Никто не обследовал этого пациента.

18. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык,


используя двойное отрицание.

1. The doctor has observed no considerable changes in the lungs.


2. No difference exists between the substance of the bones of the lower and upper
extremities.
3. The surgeon came to no exact conclusion after he had examined the patient.
4. No human being can exist without oxygen.
5. Nothing can help me in this case.
6. Many years ago nobody knew about chloroform.

19. Заполните пропуски неопределенными местоимениями


some, any, no. Переведите предложения.

1. Let me have a look at your throat. Oh, I see there is ... inflammation. I ' l l
prescribe to you ... medicine for it.
2. As my fellow student had fallen ill with ... serious disease he was
admitted to the hospital to undergo a course of treatment and arrest...
possible complications.
3. Has he ever had... complication after quinsy?
4. Must the students of your group arrange ... conference next term?
5. At the chemist's department you may buy... drugs right away.

20
6. Don't confuse these remedies because ... of them are poisonous and
may cause death.
7. The doctor has prescribed to me... antiseptic mouth-wash with which
I have to gargle my sore throat.
8. We have ... cod-liver oil at home, but we can buy it at . . . chemist's.
9. Has the doctor in charge determined... dull heart sounds?
10. It's quite clear this patient has ... serious impairment of his inner
organs.

20. Замените слова в скобках соответствующими производными


неопределенных местоимений.

1. (Все) understood well the significance of this problem.


2. (Никто) felt tiredness after a long walk.
3. Can you see (что-нибудь) on the lateral surface of the right lower extremity?
4. Does the pain spread (куда-нибудь) when you breathe in?
5. There is (ничего) new about the process of inhibition in the report.

21. Заполните пропуски в предложениях производными


неопределенных местоимений some, any, no и прилагательного
every (somebody, anybody, nobody, nowhere, nothing, everybody и др).

1. "… has just come to see you," said the nurse.


2. … new has been found out during this experiment.
3. We shall go … on Sunday.
4. Have you discovered … new during the examination?
5. Has the doctor seen … already?
6. Did you go … last summer?
7. The scientist did not observe … new.
8. My friend did not see … there.
9. … must count the number of the red blood cells.
10.Has … already accomplished the research work?
11. … was discharged from the hospital yesterday.
12. … interesting was proved.
13. He could find this book....

22. *Переведите предложения с неопределенными местоимениями.

1. No support for this statement was presented.


2. No disorder was found on examination.

21
3. No complications have been noted.
4. When the hospital was opened it was visited by some American doctors.
5. Their patients had no haemorrhage.
6. Dr M. had no permission to examine some patients.
7. I have seen many patients in the hospital. Some of them are children.
8. Some agents are harmful. Don't take any.
9. We know no other laboratory in which so much work was done.
10. No alterations in hemodynamics were noted in a majority of these patients.
11. You know some doctors in the hospital. Speak to any of them.
12. Take any paper and read it. Everything is interesting.
13. None of these drugs has yet been tested for their effects on man.
14. None of the hybrid viruses were temperature sensitive.
15. Nobody had myocardial infarction or died during follow-up study.

22
СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ И НАРЕЧИЙ
(THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS)

Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий


Сравнительная и превосходная степени образуются двумя способами:

1. При помощи суффиксов -er, -est (у односложных и некоторых двусложных,


оканчивающихся на –y, -ow, -er или согласную + le):
long - longer - the longest
длинный более длинный самый длинный

2. При помощи служебных слов (у многосложных):


восходящие степени - more (более), the most (наиболее; самый);
нисходящие степени - less (менее), the least (наименее)
comfortable - more comfortable - the most comfortable
удобный более удобный самый удобный

Исключения:

good (well) хороший (хорошо) better the best


bad (badly) плохой (плохо) worse the worst
little маленький, мало less the least
much, many много more the most

Способы выражения сравнения:

as…as Now the patient is as weak as he was yesterday. такой же слабый, как
not so … as I’m not so tall as he is. Я не такой высокий, как он.
than She is taller than me. Она выше, чем я.
the … the … The sooner the better. Чем скорее, тем лучше

23. Определите по формальным признакам степени сравнения


прилагательных, выделенных полужирным шрифтом в упр.
17, и распределите их в три колонки:

Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная

24. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на степени


сравнения прилагательных.

23
1. Everyone must be responsible for his work.
2. The cavity above the diaphragm is larger than the cavity below the
diaphragm.
3. The cell is the smallest biological unit.
4. Colds and respiratory diseases are more common in spring months.
5. The heat is the most important factor in the increase of emotional problems.
6. He decided to achieve better results in the second term.
7. Hippocrates was an excellent practitioner.
8. He knows Latin worse than other students in the group.
9. Many infectious diseases are dangerous because it is difficult to treat them.
10.People are sleepier when barometric pressure is below normal.
11.The abdomen is the largest cavity in the body.
12.Barometric pressure tends to have more effect on joints.
13.The effect on growth of viruses is less easy to predict.
14.The heart has to pump harder to keep the body warm.
15.The more people are physically trained, the more oxygen they have in their
blood.
16.We finished our experiment earlier than usual.

25. Выберите правильный вариант степени сравнения


прилагательного.

1. Anatomy is more difficult/the most difficult subject for me.


2. Earlier/the earliest symptoms of bronchitis must be known to everyone.
3. I know the structure of the heart better/the best than that of the lungs.
4. In cold weather the heart has to work harder/the hardest.
5. In the past the weather was warmer/ the warmest and drier/the driest than
now.
6. Sunshine makes you more sociable/the most sociable.
7. The aorta is the larger/the largest artery which distributes the blood
throughout the body.
8. The higher/the highest the treatment dose, the greater/the greatest the
probability of side effects.
9. The human heart weighs less/the least than a pound.
10.The journal is an important/more important source of the latest research on
infectious diseases.
11.The last experiment is more successful/the most successful of all they did
before.
12.The veins are larger/the largest than capillaries.
13.The weaker/the weakest the organism, the more susceptible/the most
susceptible it is to diseases.
14.The woman’s heart beats 6 or 8 times a minute faster/ the fastest than that of
the man.

26. *Перепишите и переведите предложения.


Подчеркните прилагательные и укажите степени сравнения.
24
1. The longer the days, the later people stay out(doors).
2. Some scientists think that the sun gave less heat, others that it gave more.
3. The journal is the most important source of the latest research on complex
biological events.
4. The need for a better service for patients is stressed now.
5. The rate of intermolecular condensation is much higher than intermolecular
The last word in the treatment of pneumonia is numerous antibiotics.
6. The effect on growth of viruses is less easy to predict.
7. The results of the study can be understood with much less information about
the cells.
8. The most difficult chapter on biochemistry is written by a very experienced
worker.
9. Adults can be more active participants in children's preschool development.
10.Tumors in certain areas have a much worse prognosis when they are not
treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
11.Climate and temperature are the most important factors.
12.The days are shorter in winter.
13.More people are admitted to hospitals on winter days.
14.Atmospheric pressure plays a most important role in patients with heart
diseases.
15.What affects health most of all?
16.People have more health problems when the atmospheric pressure goes up
sharply.
17.The lower the temperature, the more common colds.
18.Ice is lighter than water, water is heavier than ice.

25
ГЛАГОЛ. ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ
(THE VERB. THE ACTIVE VOICE)

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ INDEFINITE


(THE INDEFINITE TENSES)
описывают действие безотносительно к характеру его протекания.

Present Indefinite
Глаголы в Present Indefinite называют действие или состояние, которое
свойственно подлежащему и происходит обычно, всегда, регулярно,
периодически.

They translate articles. Они переводят статьи.


Не (she) translates articles. Он(а) переводит статьи.

Past Indefinite
Глаголы в Past Indefinite называют действие или состояние, которое имело
место в прошлом.

They translated articles and wrote* down the translation.


Они переводили (перевели) статьи и записывали (записали) перевод.

Future Indefinite
Глаголы в форме Future Indefinite называют действие или состояние, которое
произойдет в будущем.

I (we) shall translate articles. Я переведу (буду переводить) статьи.


They will translate articles. Они переведут (будут переводить) статьи.
*
см. таблицу неправильных глаголов
27. Определите по формальным признакам время глаголов,
выделенных полужирным шрифтом в упр. 21, и распределите
их в три колонки:

Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite

28. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы


времен группы Indefinite.

1. Those drugs reduce the risk of reinfection.


2. He needed an immediate operation.
26
3. They will receive all necessary medications.
4. The amount of sugar in the blood sample exceeded the norm.
5. A person with low resistance catches diseases more easily.
6. His father died of a coronary thrombosis.
7. Sleeping more than 9 hours and less than 6 hours a night shortens your life
expectancy.
8. They will undergo a full course of chemotherapy.
9. Many people believe that the brain rests when the body sleeps.
10. A child felt bad pain in his stomach after meals.

29. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных


колонках.

Our teacher examined in bed every day


First year students will work at the hospital last week/month /year
Professor Brown walk(s) the functions of the brain half an hour ago
Medical students arrived the pain two days ago
He will explain an operation without anaesthesia yesterday
The doctor deliver(s) new grammar later
Jane visit(s) in the anatomy museum tomorrow
Tom relieved lectures on Biology next week/month /year
The patient will discuss scientific articles from English till the end of the week
They translate(s) to the Academy
We performed the dentist
The medicine will stay the tissue under the microscope

30. *Переведите предложения, выпишите сказуемые и укажите


их формы (Present/Past/Future Indefinite).

1. The book contains a number of new theories.


2. The journal includes the description of a new method.
3. The paper presents a new technique.
4. The scientist demonstrated new technique.
5. Each description will present a number of problems.
6. The book contains new trends.
7. The review covers a variety of problems.
8. The scientists demonstrated a new form of treatment.
9. Books and journals usually cover major studies.
10.The paper will clarify the question.
11. She completed the course of treatment.
12.They investigated the disease.
13.Professor D. heads the laboratory.
14.The review in the journal includes new data.
15.He will try to prove the hypothesis.

27
УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ НАСТОЯЩЕГО ВРЕМЕНИ В ПРИДАТОЧНЫХ
ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯХ ВРЕМЕНИ И УСЛОВИЯ

В придаточных предложениях времени и условия, вводимых союзами


if, when, as soon as, before, after, till (until) в английском языке употребляется
настоящее время вместо будущего. Следовательно, если сказуемое главного
предложения стоит в будущем времени, то сказуемое придаточного также
необходимо переводить будущим временем.

The doctor will examine you when (if) you come.


Врач осмотрит вас, когда (если) вы придете.

31. Переведите следующие предложения.

1. If the doctor's history and clinical examination are not restricted to one
symptom, he will be able to detect other disorders.
2. The doctor will obtain important data if his approach to clinical problems is
not restricted by a narrow training.
3. The doctor will make good use of his knowledge if he deliberately tries to be
comprehensive (всесторонний).
4. Ophthalmologists and nonophthalmologists will profit enormously from the
up-to-date information on immunology and radio therapy as soon as they
read the book.
5. The book will be of particular value for the oncologist when he treats breast
cancer and other breast diseases.
6. When the person follows medical advice his chance of survive increases.
7. We recommend such transfusions until the patient’s state improves.
8. I will treat this patient keeping her in bed until all the sensitivity of the joint
disappears.

32. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных


колонках.

1 If I have spare time, a after we get off the train.


2 I will tell him about it b as soon as the rain stops.
3 We shall go for a walk c before I leave for London.
4 When I go shopping, d I will read the article.
5 If you miss this bus, e before you go to work.
28
6 If John study hard, f after I find somewhere to live.
7 I will give you my address g he will pass his examinations.
8 As soon as I get the journal, h I will buy some food.
9 If I find the book, i if I see him tomorrow.
10 If you do not keep your diet, j I will go to the cinema.
11 I will buy an ice cream for you k you will be late for your work.
12 They will not cross the road l I will give it to you.
13 I will visit you m until the green light is on.
14 Please, wake me up n you will be fat soon.
33. Соедините два предложения в одно как показано в примере.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
He will come back. I shall ring you up.
I shall ring you up (когда?) when he comes back.
I shall ring you up (в каком случае?) if he comes back.

1. The researchers will publish the data. The researchers will consider it
reasonable. (when) (if)
2. The stones will be shattered. The doctors will have a new laser device.
(when) (if)
3. The diet will be changed. The doctor will recommend it. (when) (if)
4. She will detect your biological rhythms. You will ask her to do that.
(when) (if)
5. The OPG system will detect carotid occlusive disease. You will use it
correctly. (if)
6. The technique will cut the likelihood of irregular heartbeat. You will carry
out the recommendation. (if)

34. *Переведите следующие предложения.

1. If the red blood cell count decreases the patient will require additional treatment.
2. The development of cortical inhibition will begin after the experimental animal
is given the proper drug.
3. The infant will be fed artificially until the mother’s health is restored.
4. If you come to me we shall study Anatomy.
5. As soon as the patient is admitted to the hospital the doctor will examine him.
6. Before the surgeon performs the operation he will have to observe the patient’s
condition for some days.
7. When dehydration occurs from excessive vomiting, parenteral feeding
will be used.
8. If the diagnosis is correct, the patient will be properly treated.
9. If coma develops, the patient will be transferred to hospital as soon as
possible.
10. If some infectious fever is diagnosed, the patient will be moved to the
hospital in an ambulance.
29
11. If you hold your breath, carbon dioxide will immediately begin to
accumulate in the blood.
12. If there is any dysfunction of the kidney, it will affect the process of urine
formation.
13. When the renal blood vessels are dilated, the inflow of blood will increase.
14. If the renal blood vessels are constricted, less urine will be formed.

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ CONTINUOUS


(THE CONTINUOUS TENSES)
описывают действие, которое протекает в определенный момент или
отрезок времени в настоящем, прошлом или будущем.

Времена группы Continuous образуются по формуле: to be + Present


Participle, в которой глагол to be является вспомогательным и изменяется
по временам, лицам и числам.

Present Continuous
Professor Connor is writing an article now.
Профессор Коннор пишет статью сейчас.

Past Continuous
Professor Connor was writing an article at 5 o’clock yesterday.
Профессор Коннор писал статью вчера в 5 часов.

Future Continuous
Professor Connor will be writing an article at 5 o’clock tomorrow.
Профессор Коннор будет писать статью завтра в 5 часов.

35. Объясните различие в употреблении подчеркнутых временных


форм.

Dr Gordon delivers lectures on Physiology.


Dr Gordon is delivering a lecture on Physiology now.

Dr Gordon delivered a lecture on Physiology yesterday.


Dr Gordon was delivering a lecture on Physiology at 3 o’clock yesterday.

Dr Gordon will deliver a lecture on Physiology tomorrow.


Dr Gordon will be delivering a lecture on Physiology at 12 o’clock tomorrow.

36. Определите по формальным признакам время глаголов,


выделенных полужирным шрифтом в упр. 30, и распределите
их в три колонки:

30
Present Continuous Past Future Continuous
Continuo
us

37. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы


времен группы Continuous.

1. When the doctor was examining me he applied a stethoscope to my chest to


listen to my heart.
2. While patient Smirnov's blood pressure was high he was following a light
diet.
3. Yesterday this patient complained of a sore throat when Dr Sedov was
examining him.
4. Last night I slept badly because I was suffering from a bad pain in my back.
5. Dr Jonson is filling in a patient’s card at the moment.
6. The registering clerk told me in what consulting room Dr Belov was seeing
his patients.
7. While I was swallowing this tablet I felt a bad pain in my throat.
8. My mother will be undergoing an X-ray therapy at 3 o’clock tomorrow.
9. Did you find any interesting articles while you were reading this medical
journal?
10. The patient with a bad pain in his stomach was following a light diet.

38. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных


колонках.

Sam writing a report for the seminar now


They performing an experiment at the moment
The scientist observing at the laboratory from 9 to 11
am
The doctor examining a new technology tomorrow
is
She taking a kidney transplant all weekend
are
George visiting for the exam at 5 yesterday
was
We waiting for you when I first met
were
He studying my brother in hospital him
shall be
I preparing medicine the whole evening
will be
This patient waiting her examination in biology for many years
The researches experiencing bacteria under a microscope from 4 to 5
They working the child’s throat yesterday

39. *Переведите предложения, выпишите сказуемые и укажите их


формы (Present/Past Continuous).

1. Doctors are designing new techniques to treat many diseases.


2. Doctors are looking for new ways to help patients.
3. Scientists are using aggressive therapy for cancer patients.
4. From drugs to light beams, doctors are designing a lot of techniques to fight
malignant disease.

31
5. Survival rates for many cancer patients are gradually improving.
6. Doctors are sometimes increasing the dose of the drugs.
7. In the laboratory researchers are looking for new ways to diagnose and treat
the country's most feared disease.
8. Bombardment using high-energy particles from an accelerator is proving
effective for patients with eye tumours.
9. The chapters in the paper are dealing with the laboratory work.
10. Aggressive therapy is also improving the outlook for patients with the most
acute form of lymphoma.
11. The combination of light beams and drugs is showing success in the
treatment of patients with lung or bladder cancer.
12. Medical scientists are developing fresh techniques to increase the
effectiveness of anticancer agents.
13. The doctors are using agents not to kill cancer cells but to convert them into
benign form.
14. In-patient care is expanding.
15. The chapter in the paper is dealing with cancer research.
16. An increasing number of research workers is taking part in some fields of
medicine.
17. Many experiments are now beginning to throw more light on human
illnesses.
18. Clinicians are dealing with the basic mechanisms of oncological diseases.
19. Alcoholism is reaching epidemic proportions in some parts of the world.
20.The new technique is becoming increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis.

Конструкция to be going to

Конструкция to be going to употребляется для выражения действия в


будущем, которое действующее лицо либо планирует, либо намеревается
осуществить.

My sister is going to become a doctor.


Моя сестра собирается стать врачом.

They are going to carry on another experiment.


Они собираются провести еще один эксперимент.

NB! Данная конструкция может также выражать тенденцию к чему-либо


в связи с существующими обстоятельствами или данными.

We are going to be late.


Мы можем опоздать.
The patient is going to walk by himself very soon.
Пациент уже скоро начнет ходить самостоятельно.

32
40. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию
to be going to.

1. He is going to visit a dentist tomorrow.


2. I am feeling very tired. And I am going to have a rest.
3. I am going to visit my brother in hospital.
4. Is he going to phone you?
5. It is going to rain.
6. My condition is not well. I am going to visit a doctor.
7. She feels terrible. She thinks she is going to be sick.
8. The doctor is going to discontinue the treatment.
9. They are going to operate on him on Monday.
10.They are going to transfer the patient to a special unit.
11.We are going to attend the lecture on muscles.
12.Where are you going to enter when you leave school?

33
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT
(THE PERFECT TENSES)
подчеркивают завершенность действия к определенному моменту
в настоящем, прошлом или будущем.

Времена группы Perfect образуются формуле: to have + Past Participle, в


которой глагол to have является вспомогательным и изменяется по
временам, лицам и числам.

Present Perfect
Выражает действие, завершенное к настоящему моменту, т.е. результат на
данный момент.
Переводится глаголом в прошедшем времени (!!!) совершенного вида.

The students have examined the patient.


Студенты осмотрели пациента.
The doctor has examined the patient.
Доктор осмотрел пациента. (Важно не время, когда это было, а результат -
пациент осмотрен).

Past Perfect
Выражает действие, закончившееся до начала другого действия (a) или
указанного момента в прошлом (b). Переводится глаголом в прошедшем
времени совершенного вида.

(a) The doctor had examined the patient when you came.
Доктор (уже) осмотрел пациента, когда вы пришли.
(b) The doctor had examined the patient by 12 o’clock yesterday.
Доктор осмотрел пациента вчера к 12 часам.

Future Perfect
Выражает действие, которое закончится до начала другого действия или до
указанного момента в будущем. Переводится глаголом в будущем времени
совершенного вида.

34
The doctor will have examined the patients by two o’clock.
Доктор осмотрит этих пациентов к двум часам.

41. Объясните различие в употреблении подчеркнутых временных форм.

The students attended the lecture on Anatomy last week.


The students have just attended the lecture on Anatomy.

The old man died because nobody could help him.


The old man had died before the ambulance arrived.

The doctor will operate the patient tomorrow.


The doctor will have operated the patient by 6 o’clock tomorrow.

42. Определите время глаголов, выделенных полужирным


шрифтом в упр. 36, и распределите их в три колонки:

Present Perfect Past Future Perfect


Perfe
ct
43. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы
времен группы Perfect.
1. The nurse has removed the dressing carefully.
2. The doctor had determined dull heart sounds by auscultation before
the electrocardiogram was taken.
3. The doctor in charge thinks that by tomorrow morning this patient's tem-
perature will have fallen to normal.
4. The doctors have set the fractured bones.
5. The nurse has put a new outer bandage on the patient's wound.
6. I'm sure the whole course of treatment will have produced a marked
effect on the patient's condition by the end of this week.
7. The surgeon has just performed the operation for appendicitis.
8. The surgeon has taken out the stitches today.
9. The surgeon on duty has arrested a profuse abdominal bleeding.
10.The surgeons have put the fractured bones in plaster of Paris.
11.The urinalysis had confirmed the presence of albumin before the diet was
prescribed.
12.These tablets had relieved an unbearable pain in my back by 2 o'clock
yesterday.
35
44. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных
колонках.
The doctor translated a drug to the patient by the end of this
The student published a lecture on Anatomy month
My group attended a new book before we came
mates has operated an article by the 1st of April
Professor have finished as a family doctor by 2 o’clock
Jones had begun at the hospital yesterday
The meeting shall have taken her examination in by that time
The nurse will have arrived Histology by 12 o’clock
My sister weighed our experiment since 2007
Dr Harrison learned the baby on the scales recently
We worked the patient this week
She administered the structure of the body this month
45. *Переведите предложения, выпишите сказуемые и укажите их
временные формы (Present или Past Perfect):

1. Some scientists had worked in the laboratory before they started their work at
the University.
2. Prof L. gave lectures at the Institute of Medical Sciences after she had visited
Strangeways Laboratory.
3. The aim of the report has been to give a review of the scientific work.
4. Dr N. studied in detail some enzymes that he had isolated.
5. They discovered some effect of pH that other workers had missed.
6. The use of this procedure has resulted in the discovery of some previously
unknown enzymes.
7. Researchers have described numerous trends in heart disease mortality and
morbidity and in the use of cardiac diagnostic and surgical services since
1968.
8. Pacemaker insertion rates have increased since 1970.
9. It is interesting to note that scientists have examined both heart and kidney.
10.Control studies that the scientists had used before didn't show the same
results.
11.It is necessary to mention the work of technical staff, some of them had
worked at the laboratory all their lives.
12.The growth of coronary angiography over the past two decades has increased
information on anatomic anomalies of coronary circulation.
13.A group of scienticts have examined the possible disadvantages of the
approaches in a large series of liver transplantations.
14.Dr N. examined some 100 patients whose cases he had followed.
15.Objective measurements have convincingly proved the hypothesis.
16.This hypothesis has attracted many followers.
17.We have concentrated our interest on the study of angina at rest.
18.The surgeon has always been an integral part of medical science.
19.The great advances in surgery have been dependent on medical discoveries
in other fields.

36
20.The use of blood transfusion, the control of fluid in the body and the use of
drugs for various symptoms have also aided success in surgery.

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT CONTINUOUS


(THE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES)
выражают действие, которое началось до определенного момента в
настоящем, прошлом или будущем, длилось какое-то время и либо
закончилось пред этим моментом, либо все еще продолжается.

Времена группы Perfect образуются формуле: to have been + Present


Participle, в которой глагол to have изменяется по временам, лицам и
числам.

Present Perfect Continuous

Dr Jones has been treating this patient for 3 months.


Доктор Джонс лечит этого пациента (уже) 3 месяца.

Past Perfect Continuous

Dr Jones had been treating this patient for 2 months when his health began to
improve.
Доктор Джонс лечил этого пациента (уже) 2 месяца, когда его состояние
начало улучшаться.

Future Perfect Continuous

Dr Jones will have been treating this patient for 4 months by the 27 th of
September.
Доктор Джонс будет лечить этого пациента (уже) 4 месяца к двадцать
седьмому сентября.

46. Объясните различие в употреблении подчеркнутых временных форм.

37
I am waiting for the findings of my blood analysis.
I have been waiting for the findings of my blood analysis for an hour.

Dry rales are disappearing slowly.


Dry rales have been disappearing during this week.

The nurse is giving the injections.


The nurse has been giving the injections for two hours.

47. Определите по формальным признакам время глаголов,


выделенных полужирным шрифтом в упр. 41, и распределите их в
три колонки:
Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
Continuous Continuous Continuous

48. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы


времен группы Perfect Continuous.

1. Doctors have been trying to transplant ‘living skin’ since it was invented.
2. Doctors have been using lidocaine to prevent irregular heartbeat since the
discovery was unveiled.
3. Dr. Hull has been obtaining positive results for a month.
4. How long has the patient been complaining of nausea?
5. My friend will have been living in Moscow for a month when I come there.
6. My mother had been suffering from a severe stomachache for an hour
before we made a call to the First Aid Station.
7. Sensors have been transmitting electrical impulses for ten minutes.
8. The doctors have been arresting profuse arterial bleeding for five minutes
but the male patient is still bleeding.
9. The laboratory has been developing this device for years.
10.The signs of heart impairment had been developing for a week before the
woman was examined by a cardiologist.
11.The victim of a street accident had been moaning since he was run over
by a car.
12. This patient has been wearing a splint for several months.

49. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных


колонках.

38
a chemistry
Sam studying experiment for 20 minutes
They operating a foreign language for 2 hours
Scientists preparing a new article since 3 o’clock
Susan explaining for a vaccine for 50 minutes by 3
have
He working against AIDS o’clock tomorrow
has
We taking a patient for half an hour when
had been
This patient translating anatomy you come
will have
Prof. Jones looking exams for 10 minutes when we
My sister performing for a seminar met him (her)
Dr Harrison living in a private clinic for some time
The student learning new words for an hour when we
The teacher examining new grammar arrived
in a student hostel

50. *Переведите предложения, выпишите сказуемые и укажите их


временные формы (Present/Past/Future Perfect Continuous):

1. The patient has been making a slow recovery for a month.


2. We shall have been investigating this case for three weeks by the end of the year.
3. The patient had been coughing for a month by the time he was admitted to the
hospital.
4. My mother has been suffering from a bad pain in the substernal area for three
hours.
5. The patient had been complaining of a considerable muscular pain before he
was admitted to the hospital.
6. By 3 o’clock the professor will have been delivering the lecture for half an
hour.
7. Although the patient had been receiving the injections of streptomycin for several
days she showed little improvement.
8. The red blood cell count has been gradually returning to normal as the patient is
being given blood transfusions.
9. Since when has the pain been radiating to the left arm and shoulder?
10. As fever has been persisting for about three weeks the patient’s condition is very
poor.
11. The researcher had been investigating the origin of the inflammation for about a
week before he drew a definite conclusion.
12.Some symptoms of the vascular impairment of the brain had been developing
gradually for some time before they became clearly marked.

39
ГЛАГОЛ. СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ
(THE VERB. THE PASSIVE VOICE)
употребляется в предложении, подлежащим которого является предмет, на
который направлено действие, выраженное глаголом.

Формула страдательного залога:


TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Таблица спряжения глагола to translate в страдательном залоге.

Формы
Время Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect
Continuous
Articles are Articles are Articles have _
Present
translated. being translated. been translated.
Articles were Articles were Articles had _
Past
translated. being translated. been translated.
Articles will _ Articles will have _
Future
be translated. been translated.

Способы перевода страдательного залога:

Статьи переведены.
Articles are translated. Статьи переводятся.
Статьи переводят.

Обратите внимание, как при изменении залога объект глагола в


действительном залоге становится подлежащим в страдательном залоге:

40
PRESENT ACTIVE PASSIVE
Indefinite We translate articles. Articles are translated.
Continuous We are translating articles. Articles are being translated.
Perfect We have translated articles. Articles have been translated.
Modal Verbs We can translate articles. Articles can be translated.

51. Переведите предложения, выпишите подлежащее+сказуемое,


укажите их перевод и форму сказуемого.

Например: He is examined - его обследуют (Present Indefinite Passive)

1. Such changes in the stomach are caused by stress.


2. These changes in the stomach were caused by stress.
3. Some cases of this disease were given by a doctor in the proceedings of the
Royal Society of Medicine.
4. Smallpox is eradicated and there are very rare cases of the disease in the
world.
5. Stomach energy is usually measured by means of this device.
6. Stomach energy was carefully measured by means of this device.
7. The flow of oxygen to the blood is reduced due to the heart defect.
8. No specific therapy was used for this disease.
9. All the trials will be undertaken with plasma from convalescents.
10.The effectiveness of the method is not established.
11. Only aspirin is used in such cases.
12.The phenomenon was reported by several workers.
13.The intestinal tract is lined by mucous membrane.
14.The current views in the field of virology will be reflected in the
publication.
15.My father was examined thoroughly before the operation.

52. Составьте предложения в Present, Past или Future Indefinite


Passive, подбирая их части в разных колонках.

This book published next month


А new kind of operation performed last month
Patients finished a year ago
Exercise 2 written soon
This house done a week ago
My watch is repaired before the end of the century
Medical students are built every year
New discoveries was studied every month
This work were used tomorrow
This news will be examined last century
Our Academy invented on Monday
This theory read yesterday
English discussed many centuries ago

41
Our plans taught in medical institutes
The paper spoken

53. Замените действительный залог страдательным (Indefinite).

Например: . The doctor examines patients every day.


Patients are examined by the doctor every day.

1. The nurse sponges the patient's skin.


2. A poisonous remedy causes death.
3. This healing ointment relieves skin irritation.
4. The doctor administers healing ointments.
5. He rubbed in a healing ointment to relieve pain.
6. That drug caused a skin irritation.
7. I bought a medicine dropper at the chemist's department.
8. The doctor prescribed sleeping-draughts.
9. Professor Smirnov will deliver a lecture in Histology tomorrow.
10.The therapeutist will put my sister on a sick-leave tomorrow.

54. *Переведите предложения, выпишите сказуемые и укажите их


формы (Present/Past Indefinite Passive).

1.The medium is influenced by the temperature.


2.The results of the investigation were affected by the presence of virus.
3.The reaction was followed by the rise of temperature.
4.This paper was followed by another one.
5.This theory is referred to in the journal.
6.Not every experiment is relied on.
7.This work is much spoken about.
8.Poliomyelitis was eliminated by special methods of treatment.
9. Clinical techniques were provided by the authorities in the field.
10.The general practitioner is provided with an up-to-date critical review of the
treatment of viral diseases.
11. DNA is enclosed in the nucleus by nuclear membrane.
12.Tolerance is influenced by the general condition.
13.The results were not affected significantly by the technique.
14.The cardiovascular system was not affected by the drugs.
15.The results were influenced by the presence of toxins.
16.Virus infection is influenced by interferon.

55. Переведите предложения, выпишите подлежащее+сказуемое,


укажите их перевод и форму сказуемого.

42
Например: He is being examined - его обследуют (Present Continuous
Passive)

1. He is being asked by his teacher now.


2. Yesterday at 12 a. m. the students of our group were being delivered a lecture
in Anatomy.
3. The old woman was being prescribed sleeping-draughts as she could not
sleep.
4. Patients are being examined thoroughly by the doctor in his consulting room.
5. He is being allowed to watch the operation.
6. An excess of hormones was being produced by the gland.
7. A rise in cases of whooping cough is being predicted by doctors.
8. Oxygen is being continually taken up from the lungs.

56. Составьте предложения в Present и Past Continuous Passive,


подбирая их части в разных колонках.

Some old rules


The work corrected
before the operation now
Our mistakes done
sleeping-draughts at the moment
Their house searched
by a very skilled at 12 a. m.
He revised
surgeon yesterday
My father is being prescribed
by his teacher at 4 o’clock
The old woman are being delivered
by Professor Smith yesterday
The students of our was being examined
by the police from 4 to 5
group were being asked
by the teacher yesterday
A new school built
in class the whole evening
The film demonstrated
in our district all weekend
A new book written
in the lecture room
The patient operated on
A lecture in Anatomy

57. Замените действительный залог страдательным (Continuous).

Например: The doctor is examining a patient now.


A patient is being examined by the doctor now.

1. She is rubbing in a healing ointment to relieve pain and skin irritation.


2. The nurse was giving me the injection of camphor when my friend came in.
3. The students are taking notes of the lecture now.
4. The chemist was marking bottles of poisonous drugs.
5. The doctor is taking the patient's blood pressure now.
6. The therapeutists were questioning their patients thoroughly.
7. The doctors were carefully treating me at our out-patient department this
winter.
8. The doctor is checking the patient's eyesight.
43
58. Переведите предложения, выпишите подлежащее+сказуемое,
укажите их перевод и форму сказуемого.

Например: He has been examined - его обследовали


(Present Perfect Passive)

1. A new outer bandage has been put on the patient's wound by the nurse.
2. Dull heart sounds had been determined by the doctor before the
electrocardiogram was taken.
3. A profuse abdominal bleeding has been arrested by the surgeon on duty.
4. The operation for appendicitis has just been performed by the surgeon.
5. An unbearable pain in my back had been relieved by these tablets by 2
o'clock yesterday.
6. The scientist says that his research will have been accomplished by the end
of this week.
7. The patient will have been cured by the doctor by summer.

59. Составьте предложения в Present, Past или Future Perfect


Passive, подбирая их части в разных колонках.

My homework accomplished by September


All the books cured by the doctor by the end of this week
We destroyed by the storm by summer
His letter discussed openly by the end of this month
The money have been done before we came
They has been found by the police by the 1st of April
All the pictures had been informed of this incident by 2 o’clock yesterday
This problem will have been received by that time
A lost baby returned to the library by 12 o’clock
Our car sent back to Canada since 2007
Many houses sold recently
This research stolen this week
The patient told about it this month

60. Замените действительный залог страдательным (Perfect).

Например: The doctor had examined the patient by 2 o’clock yesterday.


The patient had been examined by the doctor by 2 o’clock
yesterday.

1. The surgeons have operated on these patients.


2. These drugs have arrested bleeding.
3. The doctor has examined all the limbs.
4. The surgeon has prevented the fatal outcome of the disease.
5. The therapeutist had discharged this convalescent.
6. The nurse had introduced the solution of antibiotics into the wound.
7. The patient had survived the operation for cholecystitis well.
44
8. The stomach ulcer had caused a profuse abdominal bleeding.
9. The doctor will have operated on the patient by Friday.

61. *Переведите предложения, выпишите сказуемые и укажите их


формы (Present/Past/Future Perfect Passive).

1. The direction of the nerve fibers has already been established


experimentally.
2. Several new medical schools have been founded in our country recently.
3. The exact amount of the blood in the experimental animal has just been
estimated.
4. I have been treated at this clinic.
5. The lecture on the exchange of gases in the lungs has been delivered
today.
6. Scientists consider that our brain is the most complicated mechanism
which has ever been constructed.
7. The scientist says that his research will have been accomplished by the end
of this week.
8. The patient will have been cured by the doctor by summer.
9. A booklet with the history of the Laboratory was published and this started
the series of annual reports which have been maintained since.
10.The patients had been told that they were at the hospital not only for treatment
but for research as well.
11. Shortly after the hospital had been opened it was visited by many doctors.
12.One of the enzymes had not previously been named and they called it
cathepsin G.
13.This finding suggested that some of the cells had been examined before.
14.It is interesting to note that both heart and kidney have been examined.
15.Control studies that had been used didn't show the same results.

62. Переведите предложения, выпишите подлежащее+сказуемое и


укажите их перевод.

Например: He must be examined – он должен быть обследован

1. The electron microscope should be used to study living cells.


2. The information provided by all the available techniques must be
combined.
3. The drug may be used in a general treatment programme.
4. The film should be developed for 1 min.
5. Spasm may be caused by various factors.
6. Ultraviolet light, fluorescence and sensitive television cameras must be
developed.
7. The variants can be identified by a variety of methods.
8. A special reagent that coagulates blood must be used.

45
63. Замените Modal Verb+Active Infinitive на Modal Verb+Passive
Infinitive.

Например: The doctor must examine the patient.


The patient must be examined by the doctor.

1. We can investigate the ribosomes.


2. Staining (окрашивание) can show invisible structures.
3. He must describe the properties of this substance.
4. The doctor can detect an improvement in his patient’s condition.
5. You should take an aspirin.
6. Patients should follow the doctor's treatment.
7. You must use this apparatus very carefully.
8. The doctor can diagnose the disease thanks to use of modern equipment.

ПРИДАТОЧНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
(SUBORDINATE CLAUSES)

Придаточные Отвечают на
Вводятся союзами:
предложения: вопрос:
1. Дополнительные that, whether, if, when,
что?
why
2. Определительные какой/ая/ие? who, that, which
3. Обстоятельственные
when, while, after,
-времени когда? before, as soon as (как
только)
-места где? where
при каком if, in case (в случае), on
-условия
условии? condition (при условии)
because, since, as (так
-причины почему?
как)
so that, in order to (для
-цели зачем?
того, чтобы)
in spite of (не смотря
-уступки вопреки чему?
на), although (хотя)

64. Переведите и определите типы придаточных предложений.

1. Because the book is very interesting it is to be recommended as


important for both clinicians and scientists.
2. In order to make some experiments one has to know the methods well.
3. It was postulated that endotoxins might enter the fetal circulation.
4. The experiment which they carried on yesterday was very useful.

46
5. The gauze drain which the doctor took out of the wound was soaked with
pus.
6. The investigators stressed that one of the routes of infection was breast-
feeding.
7. The new methods of immobilization of limbs which the young surgeon
advised were very effective.
8. The paper defined that urinary tract infection occurred in
approximately 1% (per cent) of all infants .
9. The paper is a good introduction to the subject as it has a large number of
figures.
10.The patient who complains of tenderness in his abdomen must be examined
right away.
11.The prescription which the doctor wrote out was for a cough mixture.
12.The young man who is taking the patient's temperature is my fellow student.
13.This new book must be revised since there are a lot of mistakes in it.
14.We believe that many major advances in the field of heart research will be
made in the near future .
15.When I do my morning exercises and have a cold rubdown I harden myself
against colds.
16.When we attend the lectures of this professor we acquire a lot of knowledge
of medicine.

Обратите внимание!

Союзы whether/if переводятся как «ли». Как правило, они вводят косвенный
вопрос, а также дополнительные придаточные предложения, выражающие
неуверенность или предполагающие выбор из нескольких альтернатив.

She asked his colleague whether he knew about that invention.


Она спросила у своего коллеги, знал ли он об этом изобретении.
When he was bitten by a snake, he didn’t know if he would survive or die.
Когда его укусила змея, он не знал, выживет он или умрет.

65. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление


союзов whether/if.

1. It is often difficult to determine whether stenosis is a primary lesion.


2. We don't know whether immunization induces greater numbers of
histamine-responsive cells.
3. Closely linked genes determine whether cytotoxic T cells will be generated or
not.
4. The clinician may be unable to predict if the drug will be beneficial or
cause some problems.
5. The purpose of the presented study was to determine if these unique
biologic properties of galactose could be used therapeutically.

47
6. The study was designed to determine if apoliprotein A-l might be better
than HDL cholesterol.

66. Найдите границы обстоятельственных придаточных


предложений и определите, к какому типу они относятся.

1. The research could be carried out in a hospital where many patients were
treated.
2. The Academy of Medical Sciences was established in 1944 in order to create a
centre of medical science.
3. In spite of a great number of studies the work has not been finished yet.
4. This method of tissue culture is useful since it can differentiate the origin of
the tissue.
5.Normal function may sometimes be restored when it is disordered.
6. In the past the relief of postoperative pain did not play an important
part in the management of the patient after the operation had been
performed.
7. The book is to be recommended to medical students as it deals with some
useful data.
8. Since specific plans are suggested for the observation of affected
muscles, patients with such disorders can be treated.

67. *Переведите и определите типы придаточных предложений.

1. Although milk is an excellent source of protein and calcium, millions of


people can’t digest it.
2. I remember the day when I first performed an operation.
3. I want to know why she decided to study the simplest organisms.
4. If oxygen is denied for even ten minutes, the brain cells die.
5. In order to make some experiments one has to know the methods well.
6. In spite of a great number of studies the work has not been finished yet.
7. Pictures should be taken while the injection is still in progress.
8. The analyses which were made in the laboratory confirmed the diagnosis of
the disease.
9. The animals that we prepared for the experiment were intravenously injected.
10.The discussion which was arranged by our group was very interesting.
11.The doctor asked me if I followed the prescribed diet.
12.The doctor who is examining the man’s eyes now is our new
ophthalmologist.
13.The doctors must know what to do in an emergency.
14.The ointment which I rubbed in relieved the skin irritation in three days.
15.The spread of infection to organ after organ can occur rapidly as the blood
carries the infections throughout the body.
16.The surgeon who is performing the operation now is the assistant doctor of
our group.
17.The teacher explains that all animals and plants consist of cells.
48
18.When food is not properly digested, it leads to poisoning of the whole body.
19.Wherever a doctor can’t do good, he must keep from doing harm
(Hippocrates).
20.You must keep to a regular diet so that your bowels will act normally.

Бессоюзные придаточные предложения


дополнительные определительные

I’m sure you are right. The surgeon the patients are speaking about is very
Я уверен, что ты experienced.
прав. Хирург, о котором говорят больные, очень
опытный.

68. Переведите и укажите типы бессоюзных придаточных


предложений.

1. What method was useful to the problem Dr S. studied?


2. The journal gives some methods the researchers follow.
3. The system is controlled in experiments the investigators make.
4. I do not think the work was very difficult.
5. The research this work is relevant to includes some diseases.
6. The patients knew of the medicine they were given.
7. He examined patients in the room he works in.
8. It was decided to carry out the research in the field Dr S. was one of the
pioneers.
9. I see you are busy.
10.Dr N. got for the laboratory he organized some new equipment.
11.In no patients the surgeons had operated on the complications developed.
12.The effects they have tested were beneficial.
13.I know you are right.
14.I feel the experiment will not confirm the hypothesis.
15.The association we studied was also clear from the data.

49
СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН
(THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES)

Правило согласования времен касается дополнительных придаточных


предложений и заключается в следующем: если глагол-сказуемое главного
предложения стоит в прошедшем времени, то глагол-сказуемое придаточного
предложения также должен стоять в одном из прошедших времен (часто
используется в косвенной речи).

“I operate on patients”. (Present Indefinite - одновременность)


Прямая речь:
The doctor says: “I operated on patients”. (Past Indefinite - предшествование)

“I will operate on patients”. (Future Indefinite - следование)

Косвенная речь:
Главное предложение Придаточное предложение
(стоит в прошедшем времени)
одновременность (Past Indefinite)
that he operated on patients.
что он оперирует (!!!) пациентов.
The doctor said
Доктор сказал, предшествование (Past Perfect)
(Past Indefinite) that he had operated on patients.
что он оперировал пациентов.

следование (Future-in-the-Past:
shall should/will would)
50
that he would operate on patients.
что он будет оперировать пациентов.

NB! She says: “He is a surgeon." She said that he was a surgeon.
I know they are studying Anatomy. I knew they were studying Anatomy.

69. Определите временную форму в придаточном предложении,


установите время действия в придаточном предложении по
отношению к главному и переведите.

1. I knew that he was a good doctor.


2. He told me that he would not smoke so much.
3. I knew that researchers had found a new virus.
4. They said that the surgeon had already operated the patient.
5. He said that he had been ill.
6. She said that her Father was ill.
7. We thought about the mistake that he had made.
8. There was no evidence that the disease would spread.
9. The professor said that nobody had come to the lecture.
10.She said that she wanted to be a dentist.

70. Раскройте скобки и исправьте грамматическую форму


сказуемого в соответствии с правилом согласования времен:

1. An assistant said that the surgical instruments (are) not ready yet.
2. He informed that the laboratory (analyzed) the blood sample a week before.
3. The government convinced us that the clinic (will get) new equipment soon.
4. They assured us there (are) no spare beds in the hospital at the moment.
5. She thought the ointment (will help) me.
6. I did not know that he (worked) as a therapist all his life.
7. The physician noted that the patient (breathes) with difficulty.
8. He prescribed me the drug that (will relieve) an acute pain.
9. The case history reported she (suffered) constant pain and (controlled) it by
morphine.
10.It was noticed that those drugs (reduced) the risk of reinfection.
11.We found that the tissue (is) infected.
12.I diagnosed that the patient (have) pneumonia.

71. Переведите прямую речь в косвенную, объясняя выбор


временной формы:

1. The doctor said: “I want to examine the patient.”


2. My friend told me: “Our students came to the Institute to listen to the lecture
on bones.”
3. Professor Jones said: “I shall deliver lectures on Anatomy.”
4. Mother said to the doctor: “The child has a high temperature.”
51
5. The researcher found out: the heart of the rabbit made 170 contractions per
minute.
6. The biology teacher informed: “The students will carry out experiments next
week.”
7. The nurse said: “I want to determine the patient’s blood group.”
8. A student said: “I translated some articles in a medical journal.”
9. The doctor said: “The patient will be able to walk only next month.”
10.The scientist reported: “Everything is ready for the experiment”.

72. *Установите время действия в придаточном предложении по


отношению к главному, назовите временную форму в
придаточном предложении и переведите:

1. The ambulance doctor said the victim of the street accident was in a bad
state.
2. The doctor said she had already made an order for the X-ray
examination.
3. The patient said he had several injuries of the left lower extremity.
4. The surgeon said there were many bruises and abrasions on the patient's
body.
5. My mother said she felt rotten.
6. It turned out this patient's respiration was accelerated.
7. My father said he was suffering from indigestion.
8. It was well known that a tourniquet was applied in case of profuse
bleeding.
9. The nurse said my wound would be dressed after the doctor completed his
round.
10. The surgeon thought the fractured bone had been set properly.
11. The doctor in charge said that patient Dmitriev was quite alert.
12. The ambulance doctor said he had already given first aid to the injured
man.
13. The mother said her daughter had suffered from chicken-pox in her early
childhood.
14.They said this man had been run over by a car.
15.The surgeon was sure this operation would prevent the rupture of the
spleen.

52
ИНФИНИТИВ
(THE INFINITIVE)
неопределенная форма глагола, отвечающая на вопросы
«что делать?», «что сделать?».

Формы инфинитива
Active Passive
Indefinite to write to be written
Continuous to be writing
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect
to have been writing
Continuous

Синтаксические функции инфинитива

Подлежащее To study English is necessary.


It is necessary to study English.
Часть сказуемого a) составного именного:
Our task is to study English.
b) составного глагольного: He began to study.
c) модального: He can study.
Дополнение He likes to study.
Обстоятельство a) цели:
We study English to translate articles. (=чтобы)
b) следствия (too/enough):
He is too young to work.
Определение The article to read is important.

53
(=которую нужно прочитать)
Однородное I came to find the door locked.
сказуемое (=пришел и обнаружил)

73. Переведите предложения и определите формы инфинитива.

1. Does a patient’s blood sample help a doctor to diagnose the disease?


2. I am glad to be helping my sick friend.
3. Here is the diet to be prescribed in your case.
4. I am glad to have helped my sick friend.
5. I am glad to have been working with you all these years.
6. I am sorry to have troubled you.
7. The article seems to have been published many years ago.

74. Переведите предложения, определяя функции инфинитива.

1. To permit better knowledge of computed tomographic findings, other studies


are presented for comparison.
2. The book is to be used by every member of the care unit.
3. To understand the basic signs of the disease is a desire of every doctor.
4. Participants of the conference assembled to study, discuss and exchange
information on the subject in question.
5. To prevent heart attacks remains an urgent problem.
6. The book is intended for those who want to work in the field of neurology.
7. To illustrate cases roentgenograms are also utilized.
8. This book deserves to be on the shelf of a practising cardiologist.
9. It was our intention to bring together currently available information from
a variety of investigators.
10.It is now possible to examine the electrocardiogram of the fetus through most
of pregnancy.
11. Which is better: to prevent fatal road accidents or to use the hearts of the
victims to perform heart transplants?
12.Some of the topics to be discussed include arrhythmia and ischemia
detection, blood pressure monitoring.
13.The tissue to be used for electron microscopy is selected with a dissecting
microscope.
14.The subject to be examined is maintained in a vertical position.
15.The data to be presented support this conclusion.
16.In experiments to be reported elsewhere we observed that daily injections of
cobalt chloride reduced the oxygen consumption of rats about 15%.
17.Papers to be presented at the annual scientific session are to be sent to the
address...
18.Suggested loads to be maintained for at least 4 minutes are as follows: ...

54
75. В каждом из данных предложений пропущен инфинитив,
указанный в скобках. Найдите место, на котором он должен
стоять.

1. I entered the Academy a cardiologist. (to become - становиться)


2. He will try the first half of that report tonight. (to finish - заканчивать)
3. He was glad an excellent mark. (to get - получать)
4. Vitamin A has the power vision. (to improve - улучшать)
5. It took Tony a long time from his illness. (to recover - выздоравливать)
6. How long does it take a heart operation? (to perform - выполнять)
7. He came round after her health. (to ask - спрашивать)
8. Most teenagers are persuaded by their friends. (to smoke - курить)

76. Заполните пропуски в анкете об оказании первой


медицинской помощи подходящими глаголами в форме
инфинитива (глагол to do используется в нескольких
предложениях).

to bandage накладывать повязку


to do делать
to feel зд. щупать пульс
to help помогать
to move зд. транспортировать
to stop останавливать
to treat зд. обращаться, обходиться с кем-л.

1. Do you know what … if someone faints?


2. Do you know how … someone who has swallowed poison?
3. Do you know how … a cut?
4. Do you know what … with a broken arm?
5. Do you know how … someone’s pulse?
6. Do you know how … bleeding?
7. Do you know what … with a burn?
8. Do you know how … a person in a shock?
9. Do you know where … an unconscious person?
10. Do you know what … if someone is choking?

77. *Переведите предложения и определите формы и функции


инфинитива.

1. The valves help to maintain the pressure necessary for circulation.


2. The purpose of the book is to inform the practising cardiologists.
3. This new publication aims to provide a practical guide for clinicians.
4. To obtain as well as to interpret cytologic specimens is of importance to
clinicians.
5. It is important to consider the clinical aspects of the cases under discussion.
55
6. To prevent cardiovascular diseases is our main task.
7. Ischemic disease continues to be associated with high mortality.
8. This book is an attempt to bring together new information for the general
practitioner.
9. The aim of this book is to be a guide for students.
10.To understand the basic signs of the disease is a desire of every doctor.
11. Every effort has been made to provide up-to-date information.
12.This book is to become a necessary work for all those interested in heart
diseases.
13.An important research problem to be investigated is that of cardiovascular
disease.
14.Approaches are designed to clarify definitions.
15.Procedures to be used are developed.
16.A doctor to face the epidemic of heart disease is the key to preventive
medicine.
17.Most symptoms to be dealt with by doctors are known.
18.Leading authorities have devoted much time to improve the medical care
given to patients with infarction.
19.This new publication aims to provide a practical guide for clinicians.
20.Clinicians perform cytologic procedures in order to determine and diagnose
lung cancer.
МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ
(MODAL VERBS)

выражают отношение субъекта к действию.

Модальный глагол и
возможные русские Значение
эквиваленты
can/could способность, физическая
(могут/могли) возможность
may/might возможность,
(могут/могли) допустимость
must
долг, обязанность
(должны, обязаны)
The should/ought to do this
students (следует, следовало work. совет
бы)
have to вынужденность по
(должны, придется) обстоятельствам
are to* действие согласно плану,
(должны, предстоит) расписанию
или договоренности
*форма настоящего времени модального глагола “to be to”.

56
78. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на модальные
глаголы.

1. If you have a bad headache you should take some medicine.


2. You can see patients in this consulting room.
3. C a n you tell me what subjects the first-year curriculum includes?
4. We can perform instant blood test.
5. I had to answer a lot of questions at the examination.
6. I have a toothache. I have to go to the dentist.
7. In the UK you have to be 17 to get a driving license.
8. Patients have to listen carefully to their doctor’s advice.
9. She must be on a strict diet every day to be strong and healthy.
10.The doctor must have your blood analysis to be sure of your diagnosis.
11.The lecture is to begin in five minutes.
12. They were to be here an hour ago.
13. This patient may have bad complications after the operation.
14. What may cause serious complications after the grippe?
15. You should follow the doctor's treatment if you want to be well
again soon.
16. They may use this equipment.
79. Выберите правильный вариант:

1. A modern chemist can/can not use the methods of physical chemistry.


2. You must/may use this apparatus very carefully.
3. You must/may use this equipment for your experiment.
4. The doctor can/must diagnose the disease instantly thanks to use of modern
equipment.
5. A pure substance can/should be a solid, a liquid, or a gas.
6. One can/can not cure the flu in 2 days.

80. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами can, must, may,


should или их отрицательными формами (+ not):

1. We ______ understand the medical action of drugs without the knowledge


provided by chemistry.
2. Many people study chemistry so that they _____ apply it to their own field of
interest.
3. Unrefrigerated milk _____ turn sour.
4. The students of pharmacy _____ know chemistry well.
5. You _____ come for consultation on chemistry any time from 5 to 8.
6. Who _____ describe the properties of this matter?
7. Every person _____ have sodium to keep the right amount of water in his
body.
8. We _____ find Vitamin C in lemons, oranges and tomatoes.
57
9. You _____ drink it. It’s poison.

81. *Переведите предложения с модальными глаголами:

1. We could not investigate the ribosomes.


2. The electron microscope should be used to study living cells.
3. Can staining (окрашивание) show invisible structures?
4. The information provided by all the available techniques must be
combined.
5. The drug may be used in a general treatment programme.
6. Experiments such as these should help in the work.
7. The film should be developed for 1 min.
8. Tolerance may develop in some patients.
9. Spasm may be caused by various factors.
10. Ultraviolet light, fluorescence and sensitive television cameras must be
developed.
11. The variants can be identified by a variety of methods.
12. He could describe the properties of this substance.
13. A special reagent that coagulates blood must be used.
14. The normal heart rate may be about 70 beats per minute.
15. The doctor can detect an improvement in his patient’s condition.

ЗАМЕНИТЕЛИ МОДАЛЬНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ

Таблица заменителей модальных глаголов

Past Present Future


Could Can
was able to to be able to shall be able to
were will

Might May
was allowed to be allowed shall be allowed to
to to will
were

Must
had to have to shall have to
will

82. Напишите следующие предложения в a) Past Indefinite; 6) Future


Indefinite согласно образцу:

He must pass the examination in anatomy.


He had to pass the examination in anatomy.
58
He will have to pass the examination in anatomy.

1. The students may take all necessary textbooks from the Institute library.
2. He can help you with your translation.
3. You must repeat the material of the lectures before the examination.
4. They cannot translate these articles without a dictionary.
5. He may not write out prescriptions.

83. Замените в следующих предложениях модальные глаголы их


эквивалентами.

1. The doctor says that you may walk.


2. The vitamins are substances which must be found in the diets of animals in
order that they can utilize the organic foodstuffs to best advantage.
3. When the appetite is impaired and nausea and vomiting are common, meals
must be small and be given at frequent intervals.
4. With the disappearance of symptoms the patient with infective hepatitis may
leave his bed for purposes of toilet.

84. *Переведите предложения и укажите эквиваленты модальных


глаголов.

1. Did the doctor h a v e to direct you to the X-ray examination?


2. As my sister has caught a bad cold she had to stay in bed.
3. Were you able to cope with the task which the teacher gave you some days
ago?
4. A r e you able to tell me what subjects the first-year curriculum includes?
5. You are allowed to use this equipment for your experiment.
6. Our district doctor will be able to go out to the calls in the afternoon.
7. My brother had to make an appointment with his doctor for 9 a.m.
8. Some first-year students are allowed to attend scientific circles.
9. Everybody has to keep the thermometer in the armpit for 10 minutes.
l0. He was able to take an active part in this discussion.
1 1 . A r e you a l l o w e d to go out shortly after such a difficult operation?
12. The patient had to wait for his district doctor in the waiting room.
13. The doctor was able to diagnose the disease instantly thanks to use of modern
equipment.
14. We had been waiting for a long time before we were allowed to come into the
room.
15. He was able to describe the properties of this substance.
16. Dr. N. had to operate without his assistant’s help.

59
УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ МОДАЛЬНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ
В ЗНАЧЕНИИ ПРЕДПОЛОЖЕНИЯ

be writing –пишет (сейчас)


may/might have written – (на)писал a new
Dr West (возможно) have been writing - пишет book.
must (уже какое-то время)
(вероятно)
can’t be written - пишется,
A new (не может быть, что ...) написана by
book have been written - была Dr West.
написана

write – написать (сейчас, в будущем)


Dr West a new book.
have written – написать (в прошлом)
can/could
(мог/ла
be written – быть написана (сейчас, в
бы)
A new будущем) by
book have been written – быть написана (в Dr West.
прошлом)
60
write – (на)писать (сейчас, в
будущем) a new
Dr West should
have written – (на)писать (в book.
(следовало бы)
прошлом)
should not
( не следует/не
be written – (на)писать (сейчас, в
следовало)
A new будущем)
book have been written – (на)писать (в
прошлом)

85. Переведите предложения и определите формы инфинитива:


Perfect Active Infinitive, Perfect Passive Infinitive:

1. The onset of the infection was after 3 months of age, and the delay may have
been related to the low infecting dose of the drug.
2. The doctor says that his patient could have lived without the muscle graft but
that it has improved her quality of life.
3. One such event may have been the development of methods for the safe surgical
removal of lung tissue.
4. The conflicting results might have resulted from the use of different enzymic
methods.
5. These infants develop brain damage which may have passed unnoticed within
the first months of life.
6. The substance found in the urine might have been derived from injured tissue.
7. It is a general principle that drugs should not be taken during pregnancy.
8. People with obesity could have been at risk from gallstones.
9. Changes in insulin receptors may have affected ageing.
10.Attention should have been given to the detection of growth regulators.
11.The recent publication could have been recommended to all students and
research workers in the biological sciences.
12.There is a new group of drugs which might have affected the immune
processes.

86. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных колонках.

He must know your sister


might be busy
can’t be ill
be tired
be hungry
He must be sleeping
might working hard
can’t watching TV
having dinner
playing football

He must have forgotten your address


might lost your book
can’t missed the train
caught a cold
fallen ill
left the country
sold his computer
bought a car

87. *Переведите предложения и определите формы инфинитива:


Indefinite Active Infinitive, Perfect Active Infinitive, Perfect Continuous
Active Infinitive, Perfect Passive Infinitive:

1. Some biological defect might reside in hypothalamus.


2. The defect may have been found.
3. A nerve-regulating chemical might have influenced appetite regulation.
4. Some injections must have caused reduced food intake.
5. Injections of some drugs could have elicited satiety-like behaviour.
6. Overweight people should have known what to eat.
7. The percentage might have been larger.
8. Some patients have associated lesions which could have been the cause of
haemorrhage.
9. One may suppose in early stage of hypertension that blood flow must have been
increased.
10.Indeed, we could have compared the maximum concentrations.
11.Increased intake of milk could have provided more calcium and phosphate for
absorption.
12.We know that thousands of people in some countries must have been suffering
from AIDS for some years.

62
ПРИЧАСТИЯ
(PARTICIPLES)

PAST PARTICIPLE

Причастие прошедшего времени (Past Participle) имеет только одну форму,


например:

- у правильных глаголов: asked спрошенный, спрашиваемый


connected соединенный, соединяемый

- у неправильных глаголов: written написанный


made сделанный
lost потерянный

Синтаксические функции
причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle)

Определение The operated on patient is asleep now.


The patient operated on looked happy.
Часть определительного The patient operated on by Professor Brown
причастного оборота
63
yesterday will be discharged tomorrow.
Обстоятельство времени When operated on the patient felt better.
Обстоятельство условия If operated on immediately the patient’s life
may be saved.

88. Определите, от каких глаголов образованы следующие причастия,


и дайте все возможные варианты их перевода.

64
demonstrated elected detected
presented organized treated
included summarized directed
translated discussed tested
89. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Past
Participle в различных функциях:

1. The techniques demonstrated in the lab are new.


2. A variety of problems presented in the journal gives readers insight in the field of
medicine.
3. The reviews included covered new trends in science.
4. The aim of the research presented was to explore the subject in depth.
5. Each journal contains papers translated into Russian.
6. Elected corresponding member in 1958 he became full member of the Academy
in 1962.
7. When organized the laboratory studied nucleic acids.
9. The knowledge of functions and properties of cells summarized took place in the
last two decades.
10. The problem discussed is of interest.
11. This problem, when discussed, attracted much attention.
12. The problem discussed attracted much attention.
13. If undetected and untreated mild hearing loss may give rise in some children to
psychological, medical and educational problems.
14. Chloraseptic is not used for children under three unless directed by his physician.
15. When tested as a treatment for osteoporosis, the drug produced severe side-effects
like stomach-bleeding.

90. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных колонках.

The label served by blood cells


1 a h belong to alkaloids.
One of the most
stuck on this bottle is quite reasonable.
2 important functions b i

The interest found in citrus plants gave relief.


3 c j
known as caffeine,
Medicines are called citric acids.
4 d morphine, nicotine k

produced by is the ingestion of


5 The components e Pharmaceutical factories l foreign particles.

The healing ointment shown by people for are derived from natural
6 f vitamins m substances.

rubbed in every three hours indicated a drug for


7 Organic acids g n
external use.
91. *Переведите предложения и определите функции Past Participle:

1. The translated paper is interesting.


2. The copy of the paper translated into English is in the journal.
3. Spoken English is difficult.
4. The paper written by the researcher is interesting.
5. The paper translated from Russian is of interest to physicians.
6. The method used helped to predict the disease.
7. When translated into Russian the paper proved to be of interest.
8. The method presented varied from ours.
9. Early clinical studies showed increased amounts of the enzyme.
10.All other mice tested produced antibodies.
11. In four (4) patients a liver scan performed revealed a defect.
12.The techniques applied in drying of plants are new.
13.Once established, the causes of the disease must be eliminated.
14.If used in conditions unrelated to the eye, this medication may cause cataract.
15.The recommendation, if carried out, will save many of those who would otherwise
die.

67
PRESENT PARTICIPLE

Формы причастия настоящего времени (Present Participle)

Indefinite Perfect
asking having asked
Active
спрашивающий, спрашивая спросив
being asked having been asked
Passive будучи спрошен, будучи спрошен
спрашиваемый

Синтаксические функции
причастия настоящего времени (Present Participle)

Определение The examining doctor is in Room 15.


Часть определительного The doctor examining the patient
причастного оборота is very experienced.
Обстоятельство времени или (When) examining the patient
условия the doctor found some pathology.
Обстоятельство образа
The doctor was standing near the
действия или сопутствующих
patient examining him carefully.
обстоятельств

92. Определите, от каких глаголов образованы следующие причастия,


и дайте все возможные варианты их перевода.

examining having been put


being being set
changing having been operated
recovering having examined
having attended being questioned

68
93. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление
причастия (Present Participle) в различных формах и функциях.

1. The doctor examining the patient revealed moist rales in the lungs.
2. Examining the patient the doctor listened to his heart.
3. Being dangerous to life suppurative appendicitis must be treated in time.
4. The changing condition of the patient became worse yesterday.
5. Having attended all classes in Surgery the students of our group got
acquainted with the ways of treating compound fractures.
6. The recovering patient N. will be discharged in a week.
7. Having been put a fresh dressing the patient was wheeled on a stretcher cart
from the dressing room.
8. When being set a fractured bone the patient felt an unbearable pain.
9. Being on a sick-leave the patient was following a strict bed regime.
10. Having been operated on for acute appendicitis a month before my
sister still complained of tenderness on physical exertion.
11.Having examined the patient the surgeon noted swelling of the right
lower extremity.
12. Being questioned on his post-operative condition the patient said he had
no complaints.

94. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных колонках.

1 All the people a helping the professor in his experiments f are students.
2 The experiment b living in this hostel g is quite new.
3 The apparatus c being carried out now in the laboratory h studies at our faculty.
4 The young man d taking books from the library i is absolutely secret.
5 Students e standing on the table in the corner j must return them in time.
of the laboratory

95. Замените русские слова соответствующими формами Present


Participle и переведите предложения. Используйте следующие
глаголы:

lead bandage break concern place attend call collect

1. This hospital is a (ведущий) cancer hospital in the country.


2. (Будучи перевязанной) the wound stopped bleeding.
3. (Сломав) his leg the patient had to stay in bed.
4. The problem (касающаяся) cancer is a most urgent one.
5. (Разместив) the patient in the examination chair the dentist began to examine the
patient.
69
6. (Посещая) classes in Biology, students get knowledge necessary for their future
work.
7. (Будучи вызванной) to a child an ambulance came in no time.
8. (Собрав) the data of all investigations the students made a diagnosis.

Обратите внимание!

the doctor operating on the patient (оперирующий - Present Participle)


the patient operated on by the doctor (прооперированный - Past Participle)
96. Выберите правильный вариант (Present Participle или Past
Participle).

1. The prescription writing out/written out by the doctor was for a cough mixture.
2. The ointment rubbing in/rubbed in relieved the skin irritation in three days.
3. The young man taking/taken the patient's temperature is my fellow student.
4. The experiment carrying on/carried on yesterday was very useful.
5. The discussion organizing/organized by our group was very interesting.
6. The new methods of immobilization of limbs advising/advised by the young
surgeon were very effective.
7. The surgeon performing/performed the operation now is the assistant doctor of our
group.
8. The analyses making/made in the laboratory confirmed the diagnosis of the
disease.
9. The patient complaining/complained of pain in his abdomen must be examined
right away.

97. *Переведите предложения и определите формы и функции


причастия (Present Participle).

1. The nurse giving injection is very experienced.


2. Being ill the student missed some lectures.
3. The aim of biology is to present the surrounding world in a logical fashion and to
give fundamental understanding of its changing units.
4. Having discussed all pros and contras, the doctors decided to operate on the
patient.
5. Having been hospitalized in time, the patient avoided severe complications.
6. Following the doctor’s advice, she took metabolism–adjusting drugs for weight
loss.
7. The analyses being made now will be ready only tomorrow.
8. Having been given an injection of an anesthetic, the patient fell asleep.
9. How can doctors spare surrounding tissue?
10.Treating cancer patients doctors use a lot of techniques.
11.When using some agents doctors can kill cancer cells.
70
12.An increasing number of research workers is taking part in some fields of
medicine.
13.Examining the patient the doctor felt his pulse.
14.Being at the sanatorium the patient began to feel much better.
15.The doctor was standing near the patient examining him attentively.

САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ


(THE ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION)

Данная конструкция состоит из существительного или местоимения


в общем падеже (подлежащего) и причастия, которое выполняет
функцию сказуемого. Если такой оборот находится в начале
предложения, то при переводе необходимо добавить союзы когда или
так как (1), а если в конце - а, но, при этом (2):

(1) The lecture being very interesting, the students listened to it attentively.
Так как лекция была очень интересной, студенты слушали её
внимательно.
(2) The doctor palpated the patient’s abdomen, the pain becoming severe.
Врач пальпировал живот больного, при этом боль становилась сильнее.

Перфектные формы причастия переводятся прошедшим временем:

The doctor having performed the operation, the patient’s condition began to
improve. После того как врач сделал операцию, состояние больного
начало улучшаться.
The operation having been performed, the patient’s condition began to
improve. После того как была сделана операция, стояние больного
начало улучшаться.

NB! Самостоятельный причастный оборот всегда отделяется запятой.

98. Найдите самостоятельный причастный оборот и определите в нем


слово, играющее роль подлежащего. Переведите предложения.

1. The boy suffering from a bad pain, we called in a doctor.


2. The procedure being over, the scientists discussed the results.
3. The doctor being out, we could not talk to him.
71
4. The patients were between the ages 30-50, the highest incidence being between
46 and 50 years.
5. He read several books in English, the latest being a biography of Darwin.
6. The cards being done, he began grouping the cards according to the properties of
the elements on them.
7. A remarkable regularity being observed, the professor arranged his elements in
order of ascending atomic weight.
8. Glenn Seabord having discovered element 101, it was named mendelevium in
recognition of the great Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev.
9. The window having been closed, there was very little air in the room.
10.The presence of free gas in the abdominal cavity being revealed, a pathologic
process was suggested.
11.Generalized abdominal pains having increased, the doctor asked the nurse to give
the patient an injection.
12.The report being in French, we could not understand one word.

99. Составьте предложения c независимым причастным оборотом,


подбирая их части в левой и правой колонках.

1 The experiment being over, a the patient’s condition began to improve.


2 The doctor being out, b he was allowed to walk.
3 The patient suffering from pneumonia, c Anatomy being most difficult.
4 The patient feeling better, d we called in a doctor.
5 The patient’s condition becoming worse, e the doctors decided to operate on him.
6 My friend suffering from a severe pain, f the doctor decided to hospitalize him.
7 The doctor having performed the operation, g they went home.
8 The work being done, h no side effects having been noted.
9 The students passed several exams, i the scientists discussed the results.
10 Clinical tests of the medicine were successful, j we could not talk to him.

100. *Переведите предложения с самостоятельным причастным


оборотом и укажите форму причастия.

1. My brother being operated on for appendicitis successfully, his post-operative


course was uneventful.
2. I felt an unbearable pain in the lower part of the abdomen, it increasing on the
slightest physical exertion.
3. I having recovered my consciousness, the nurse was staying at my bedside.
4. Food mass and turbid exudates being found in the abdominal cavity, the surgeon
cleansed it thoroughly.
5. Surgeon Belov having got ready for the operation, his assistants followed him
into the operating room.
6. The presence of free gas in the abdominal cavity being revealed, a pathologic
process was suggested.
72
7. The operating surgeon must always have the necessary set of surgical instruments,
scalpels, pincers and clamps being the most important of them.
8. 500 ml of antibiotics having been introduced into the abdominal cavity, the
patient was transfused preserved blood as well.
9. Her friends being gone, she started to clear the table.
10.A dark cloud having appeared in the sky, we decided to stay at home.
11.My brother being operated successfully, his post-operative course was uneventful.
12.Surgeon Belov having got ready for the operation, his assistants followed him into
the operating-room.

СЛОЖНОЕ ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ
(THE COMPLEX SUBJECT)

Известно, что она изучает английский язык.

При переводе сказуемое выносится перед подлежащим и переводится


неопределенно-личной формой глагола типа «говорят», «известно»,
«сообщается» и т. д., а сам комплекс переводится придаточным предложением
с союзом «что» или «чтобы». Именная часть комплекса переводится
подлежащим придаточного предложения, а инфинитив — сказуемым.

Сказуемое в таком предложении может быть выражено глаголами:

А) в страдательном залоге:
to think, to believe, to suppose, to consider, to feel — думать, считать, полагать;
to expect — ожидать; to know — знать; to allow — разрешать; to see —
видеть; to say, to tell, to report — говорить, сообщать, утверждать; to find —
обнаруживать, to show, to demonstrate — показывать и др.
He is said to work in this hospital.
Говорят, что он работает в этой больнице.
В) в действительном залоге:
to seem - казаться; to appear, to chance, to turn out, to prove, to happen -
оказываться
The patient seems to have taken an overdose.
Кажется, что пациент принял слишком большую дозу лекарства.
С) сочетаниями:
to be sure, to be certain — несомненно, to be likely (unlikely) — вероятно
73
(маловероятно).
(После этих сочетаний инфинитив переводится будущим временем).
The patient is likely to recover soon.
Вероятно, пациент скоро поправится.

Сложное подлежащее в определительных придаточных предложениях:


The paper which is reported to be published is interesting.
Статья, которая, как сообщают, опубликована, интересна.

Способы перевода инфинитива в составе сложного подлежащего:

to write - пишет (вообще, периодически), будет писать


to be writing –пишет (сейчас)
to have written – (на)писал
to have been writing - пишет (уже какое-то время)
to be written - пишут, пишется, написано
to have been written - было написано

101. Преведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление


сложного подлежащего.

1. Spring and autumn are known to be those seasons when the patients with ulcer suffer
from the recurrence of the disease.
2. Constant fatigue, the lesions of the nervous system and past diseases are considered to
contribute to the onset of gastritis.
3. The characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease appeared to be haemorrhage,
vomiting and nausea.
4. Exacerbation of duodenal ulcers is known to occur in spring and autumn.
5. Renal and splenic infarctions are likely to occur in endocarditis.
6. Brain cortex stimuli are considered to send impulses to the stomach and duodenum.
7. Jaundice appears to be present in the diseases of liver as well as in the diseases of
intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ducts.
8. The characteristic clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma are known to be
epigastric pains, loss of weight, nausea and vomiting of blood.
9. Too hot food is supposed to contribute to the development of gastritis.
10.These X-ray findings were reported to be diagnostic of gastro-intestinal
scleroderma.
11. The present report appears to be the first paper published on the clinical use of this
medicine in typhoid in the United States.
12.A 12-year-old boy was first seen in February 1998. He was known to have had
heart murmurs since he was 4 years of age.
13.The polypoid tumor proved to be a lipoma, with mucosal ulceration over the tumor.
74
14.Brucellosis is known to involve the lungs in varied forms.
15.The patient was known to have had hypertension for fifteen years and had suffered
a slight cerebrovascular accident in November 2004.
16.The wound was found to be healing nicely, the entire cavity was filled with clean
and healthy granulations and there was only a little discharge about the edges of
the wound.

102. Выберите подходящую форму инфинитива в составе сложного


подлежащего.

1. The patient was known ... stool retention accompanied by nausea a month before his
present admission to the hospital.
a) to have
b) to have had
c) to be having
2. Sensitivity to antibiotics was reported ... not only in this patient but in all the other
members of the family as well since their early age.
a) to be present
b) to have been present
3. Prophylactic vaccination was found ... since no cases of hepatitis were diagnosed after
its administration.
a) to be effective
b) to have been effective
4. Skin irritation was revealed ... after each parenteral administration of this preparation.
a) to occur
b) to have occurred
c) to be occurring
103. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных колонках.
Our teacher is/are said to have only excellent marks
Some students is/are known to get up early every day
Professor Brown is/was reported to attend all lectures
Medical students is believed to be on time for classes
He is likely to learn two foreign languages
Jane seem(s) to know how to use computers
Tom appear(s) to miss practical classes
They to be traveling around the world now
We to be taking examinations at the moment
to have received the results of the test
to have bought a new mobile phone

75
104. Трансформируйте следующие предложения, используя The
Complex Subject.

Например: It is said that the rash is often associated with itching.


The rash is said to be often associated with itching.
It was known that she had studied medicine.
She was known to have studied medicine.
It appears that Dr Hill will come to the conference.
Dr Hill appears to come to the conference.

1. It seems that the patient has become rather alert after these procedures.
2. It appears that the initial diagnosis will be confirmed by laboratory analyses.
3. It is likely that dull heart sounds will not be heard.
4. It is expected that the patient's family history will supply all the data regarding
his health.
5. It was reported that the onset of the last attack of substernal pain had been
associated with vomiting.
6. It was known that the patient had not been operated on before.
7. It was considered that the urinalysis confirmed a serious kidney trouble.
8. It is certain that the doctor examines the inner organs carefully to be sure of his
diagnosis.
9. It is likely that the patient will calm down after the injection of a sedative.
10. It is well known that cod liver oil is an effective remedy in the treatment of
rickets (рахит).
11. It proved that cold rubdowns had produced a marked effect on his health.

105. *Преведите предложения, выпишите подлежащее и сказуемое и


укажите форму инфинитива в составе сложного подлежащего.

Например: The doctor is reported to be working (Continuous Active


Infinitive).

1. The levels were found to be unaltered.


2. The results presented here seem to support the views described above.
3. Environmental factors are known to be of significance.
4. The process appears to be similar to that observed in ne utrophils.
5. Additional studies are required to determine the precise role of protein.
6. Macrophages appear to be the first cells to interact with the arterial wall in
marked hypercholesteremia.
7. Coronary patients have now been established to be at increased risk of cardiac
mortality.
8. The cell happened to have divided during the experiment.
9. The factors are known to be associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
10.This phenomenon has been found to have a wide occurrence.
76
11. This group of patients appears to represent a unique subgroup with anticardiolipin
syndrome.
12. Human milk seems to be able to prevent sensitization to other foreign proteins as
well (также).
13. Goat’s milk has been proved to be good for eyes owning to the rich presence of
vitamin A.
14. Combination therapy with aspirin and dipyramidole has been reported to reduce
platelet deposition in patients with some grafts.
15. After vitamin injections some patients seem to have improved.
16. He was known to have had a hernia for many years.

СЛОЖНОЕ ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ
(THE COMPLEX OBJECT)

выражено местоимением в объектном падеже или существительным в общем


падеже + инфинитив:
I want him to explain this method.
Я хочу, чтобы он объяснил этот метод.
(переводится придаточным предложением, которое вводится союзом «что»,
«как», «чтобы»).
Сложное дополнение употребляется после глаголов, выражающих:
1. желание, намерение:
to want — хотеть, to like — хорошо относиться, любить, to hate — не
любить, ненавидеть, should like — хотел бы
I want him to explain this method.
Я хочу, чтобы он объяснил этот метод.
2. умственную деятельность:
to think—думать, to consider, to suppose, to believe— полагать, считать, to
suspect — подозревать, to know — знать, to expect — ожидать, to imagine —
представлять (себе)
Не believes them to be experts in the field.
Он считает, что они эксперты в этой области.
3. побуждение, допущение и др.:
to let — позволять, to have, to force, to make— заставлять, to get —
убеждать, уговаривать, to order —приказывать, to allow, to permit —
разрешать.
They ordered the equipment to be changed.
Они приказали, чтобы оборудование было заменено.
4. обнаружение и доказательство:
to find — находить, обнаруживать, to prove — доказывать, to show —
показывать, доказывать.
She proved the hypothesis (to be) correct.
Она доказала, что гипотеза верна.
5. физическое восприятие:
77
В этом случае перед инфинитивом не стоит частица to (может также
употребляться Present Participle).
to see— видеть, to watch— следить, наблюдать, to notice— замечать, to
observe— наблюдать, to hear— слышать, to feel— чувствовать
We watched them make the experiment.
или: We watched them making the experiment.
Мы следили за тем, как они проводили эксперимент.

Перевод сложного дополнения зависит от формы инфинитива, т.е.


простой инфинитив переводится настоящим временем, перфектный –
прошедшим, а страдательный – сказуемым страдательного залога.
106. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сложное
дополнение.
1. I want you to explain the following phenomena.
2. This observation permits us to draw some conclusions on the pathogenesis of the
disease.
3. His physician did not allow him to work until January.
4. Objective physical laboratory examinations showed them to be healthy.
5. Perlman found migratory polyarthritis to be present in approximately 69% of
the cases.
6. Improved pre- and postoperative cardiopulmonary care can allow more patients to
undergo surgery safely.
7. We considered this method to be an interesting finding deserving confirmation.
8. Dr S. found the lipofuscin granules to appear for the first time at the age of 16
months.
9. Serum markers allow the clinician to follow the course of the disease and make
therapeutic decisions.
10.The results lead us to believe that the technique is useful.
11. The use of such probes permits a general assessment to be made of an extended region
of the lesion.
12.The scientists watched the levels change with the increase of temperature.

107. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных колонках.

78
I know(s) to write a report
We expect(s) to look for a new job
They want(s) to study English
Scientists would like to prepare for classes every day
He to work hard
We him to stay at the Academy after classes
Professor Jones her to work during the vacation
My sister us to take notes of all lectures
Dr Harrison saw Sam watch(ing) television
The student watched Susan work(ing) on computer
The teacher noticed Joe clean(ing) the lecture rooms
heard walk(ing) in the park
work(ing) in the laboratory
prepar(ing) for the seminar
talk(ing) on the phone

108. Трансформируйте следующие предложения, используя The


Complex Object.

Например: Не believes that they are experts in the field.


Не believes them to be experts in the field.
I think that she studies English.
I think her to study English.
We know that Dr Hill worked in this hospital last year.
We know Dr Hill to have worked in this hospital last year.

1. The therapeutist did not think that chills would recur after this course treatment.
2. At the follow-up examination the surgeon noticed that the patient had become better
nourished.
3. Everybody believed that the initial diagnosis would be confirmed by X-ray and
laboratory examinations.
4. The X-ray examination confirmed that the patient had organic change in the mitral,
aortic and tricuspid valves.
5. The physician determined that the primary focus of infection had been eliminated due
to antibiotic therapy.
6. Physicians consider that the loss of weight is one of the typical signs of pulmonary
tuberculosis.
7. At the Institute of Cardiology in Moscow the researchers have found that mental
overstrain is the factor causing the infarction in 35% of patients.
8. They have observed that the direct association between infarctions and the nerves
occurs only in the age-group of patients over 40.
9. At the Institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg the scientists have found that
cholesterol is produced in the body itself in the amounts sufficient to cause
atherosclerosis.
79
10.Cardiologists have observed that children with congenital heart defects have no clinical
manifestations of the disease until years after birth, when it may be too late to operate.

109. *Перепишите и переведите предложения. Подчеркните сложное


дополнение.

1. I have not seen surgeons close wounds in layers.


2. The doctors didn't expect the patient to recover his consciousness so soon.
3. We know this surgeon to treat perforated ulcers skillfully.
4. They did not notice me entering the scrub-up room.
5. The surgeons expect the patient to get ready for the operation in time.
6. The doctor considers my eyesight to be good.
7. The professor thinks the post-operative course of this patient to be uneventful.
8. Everybody knows rupture of the spleen to be dangerous to life.
9. The surgeon believes the patient to survive the operation well.
10.We did not expect the patient to become alert so soon.
11. The doctor wanted the nurse to give injections immediately.
12.We expected the patient to be discharged from the hospital in a week.
13.The doctor heard this patient coughing badly at night.
14.We watched typical signs of intoxication appearing gradually.
15.The X-ray examination confirmed the patient to have organic changes in the mitral
valve.
16.Physicians consider loss of weight to be one of the typical signs of pulmonary
tuberculosis.

80
ГЕРУНДИЙ
(THE GERUND)

Герундий занимает промежуточное место между существительным


и инфинитивом глагола и показывает опредмеченное
действие, например: хождение, чтение и т. д. На русский язык
герундий переводится существительным или инфинитивом (иногда
деепричастием).

Reading is useful.
Чтение (читать) полезно.

П р и м е ч а н и е : Перед герундием, в отличие от причастия, может стоять


предлог:
in reading при чтении; on (upon) reading после чтения; by reading путем,
при помощи чтения; through reading благодаря чтению; without reading
не читая

Синтаксические функции герундия:

а) п о д л е ж а щ е е:
Reading is useful. Чтение полезно. (Читать полезно.)
б) д о п о л н е н и е :
I like reading. Я люблю читать (чтение).
в) и м е н н а я ч а с т ь
сказуемого:
His favourite occupation is reading. Его любимое занятие — чтение.
г) о п р е д е л е н и е (несогласованное):
I like your idea of reading Мне нравится ваше намерение
this book. прочесть эту книгу.
81
д) о б с т о я т е л ь с т в о в р е м е н и :
After reading I began to После чтения я начал писать
write a letter. письмо.
е) о б с т о я т е л ь с т в о о б р а з а д е й с т в и я :
We cannot live without reading. Мы не можем жить без чтения (не
читая).

Формы герундия

Gerund Indefinite Perfect


Active writing having written
Passive being written having been written

NB! Сложные формы герундия Indefinite Passive, Perfect Active и


Perfect Passive переводятся на русский язык личной формой глагола
придаточного предложения с союзом что (чтобы); то, что; о том,
что; в том, что; после того, как и т. д.

On having examined the patient the doctor made the diagnosis оf bronchitis.

После того, как врач обследовал больного, он поставил диагноз – бронхит.

110. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление


герундия в различных формах и функциях.

1. Before making his daily round of visits the doctor went to the polyclinic.
2. Stripping to the waist is necessary when the therapeutist listens to the heart and
lungs.
3. After gargling his throat with this mouth-wash the patient felt an instant relief.
4. Before starting to examine the patient the doctor put on his white gown.
5. On swallowing heavy food the patient felt a bad pain in his esophagus.
6. On having been operated on the patient was gradually recovering.
7. The patient could not fall asleep without being given an injection of a pain-
killer.
8. His having been treated properly and attentively enabled him to be discharged
from the hospital so soon.
9. Would you mind my closing the window? I am afraid of catching a cold.
10.On having taken the patient's electrocardiogram the cardiologist noted some
abnormalities in its readings.
11. My father did not mind being operated on by this surgeon.
12. This convalescent cannot be discharged without being completely cured.

82
13. The doctor’s having diagnosed suppurative appendicitis in time helped him to
save the patient's life.

111. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в разных колонках.

I like(s) going to the cinema


My friends dislike(s) going to a swimming-pool
Some people enjoy(s) studying on Sundays
They remember(s) going shopping
Some students (be) thinking of going to a dentist
Medical students (be) fond of discussing the news
She (be) against jogging every morning
He don’t mind studying at the Academy
Our teacher (be) interested in working in the library
Scientists driving a car
Dr Harrison reading English books in the original
This patient your taking part in this experiment
112. Заполн
ите пропуски подходящей формой герундия.

83
becoming going smoking
being having been assisted sneezing
being examined having seen talking
doubling looking walking
driving reading
1. He never thought of becoming a surgeon.
2. Try to avoid … in a bad light.
3. She gave up … a car after the accident.
4. He is busy … for the books for his report.
5. I can’t help …; I caught a cold yesterday.
6. The doctor insisted on … the dose.
7. I don’t remember … Professor N. there.
8. He denies … in the job.
9. We recognize the importance of … by a specialist regularly.
10.He still walks five miles a day in spite of … seventy years old.
11.… fast is a good exercise.
12.… so much is bad for your health.
13.It’s no use …. We have to act.
14.You should clean your teeth before … to bed.
Обратите внимание на различные значения ing-форм:

В следующих предложениях "reading" – причастие

In the library you see many people reading books.


Reading his newspaper, the patient fell asleep.
В следующих предложениях "reading" – герундий

Reading a good book gives me a lot of pleasure.


I like reading a good book.
I am thinking of reading a new book.
I remember reading a very interesting article on surgery.

113. Определите ing-формы в следующих предложениях (причастие


или герундий).
1. The connective tissue covering a bone is called periosteum, while that lining the
large cavities of bones is called endosteum.
2. Staphylococci have the general properties of other micrococci, forming
irregular clumps being gram-positive and growing well on ordinary laboratory
media.
3. On examination food poisoning was diagnosed.
4. Returning home from his work on the day previous to the onset of his
illness the man felt a bad headache and chill. In the morning feeling an in -
creasing chill accompanied by elevated temperature, he stayed in bed.
5. After my brother's recovery the doctor advised him to avoid catching cold.
6. Rapid walking, running, jumping, heavy lifting and swimming or any
muscular exertion accelerates the respiratory rate for a time.
7. Palpation is the act of examining an underlying inner organ by feeling with
the hand or fingers the overlying surface.
8. Healing does not occur until infection subsides.
9. Healing wounds seldom bleed.
10.Chest trauma may do a great deal of impairment causing very profuse
bleeding, either external or internal.
114. *Переведите предложения и укажите формы и функции герундия.
1. Different ways of grouping patients are suitable to different problems.
2. Selection of recipients for cardiac transplantation may be the most important
factor in determining long-term survival.
3. Computerized tomography is ideal for detecting pleural abnormalities and
displaying parenchymal disease.
4. How can one avoid getting heart disease?
5. By carefully tracing borders of the ventricular aneurysms recorded on each
cinematographic film, we found that the aneurysm was akinetic.
6. If a book's worth reading it's worth reading twice; and if you want to get
something substantial out of it must be read at least twice, and probably a lot
more.
7. Healthy eating means eating less fat.
8. Try drinking your tea or coffee without sugar.
9. On examining the child they decided to apply chemotherapy.
10.Being exposed to disco music over a period of time results in damage to the
auditory nerve. Hearing loss causes some concern.
11. On entering the lung, all these vessels ran towards the nearest airway.
12.Knowledge is the key to preventing this fast-spreading disease.
Обратите внимание!

Окончание –ing имеют не только причастие и герундий, но и отглагольное


существительное. Оно обладает всеми свойствами существительного:
- имеет форму множественного числа;
- употребляется с артиклем;
- может определяться прилагательным;
- в предложении может выполнять все функции существительного;
- после отглагольного существительного часто следует существительное с
предлогом “of”.
The physician started the examining of the patient.
Врач начал осмотр пациента.
The readings of this device are wrong.
Показания этого прибора ошибочны.
115. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление
отглагольного существительного.
1. An understanding of the principle is essential.
2. Blood groupings were based on antigens.
3. The reading of books is useful.
4. Human beings cannot live without oxygen.
5. The smoking of these cigarettes is extremely harmful for you.

УСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ / СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ


(CONDITIONAL SENTENCES / THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)

Условные предложения

Изъявительное наклонение
Реальное условие Настоящее If he is not in hospital, he is at a sanatorium.
время
Прошедшее If he was not in hospital, he was at a
время sanatorium.
Будущее If he was not in hospital, he will come.
время Should you see him, tell him to come.
Сослагательное наклонение
Маловероятное Настоящее и If the patient were better now (next week),
условие будущее время we should discharge him.
Were the patient better now, we should
discharge him.
Should the patient be better, we should
discharge him.
Нереальное Прошедшее If the patient had been better last week, we
условие время should have discharged him.
Had the patient been better, we should have
discharged him.

116. Объясните различия в переводе следующих условных


предложений.

1. If the results of experiments confirm the finding, the new method is applied.
2. If the results of the experiments confirm the finding, the new method will be
applied.
3. Should the results of the experiments confirm the finding, the new method will be
applied.
4. Provided the results of the experiments confirmed the finding, the new method was
applied.
5. Providing the results of the experiments confirmed the finding, the new method
would be applied.
6. Should the results of the experiments confirm the finding, the new method would
be applied.
7. If the result were confirmed, the method would be applied.
8. Were the results confirmed, we should apply the method.
9. Unless the results of experiments had confirmed the finding, the new method
would not have been applied.
10. Had the results of the experiments confirmed the finding, the new method
would have been applied.
11. If some results had been confirmed, we should apply the method.
12. We applied the method as if the results had been confirmed.

117. Переведите условные предложения.

1. If cardiac pacemakers had been implanted to help people with slow heartbeats,
they could have led normal lives.
2. Provided medical researchers implanted electronic generator, it would be a life
saving aid to patients.
3. If additional studies had been carried on, they might have determined the
precise role of the protein.
4. Provided all the factors had been known, it could have been possible to reveal
a risk group of patients.
5. If doctors could prevent sensitization to foreign proteins, the problem of many
allergic problems would be solved.
6. If every effort of organ transplants could be made, patients might be able to
survive.
7. Had a human population developed immunity to the viruses, the latter would all
be killed off.

118. Составьте микродиалоги, подбирая части предложений в


разных колонках.

1. Реальное условие

-What will you do if you feel sick?


- If I feel sick, I will call a doctor.

If I live in the south I will bathe every day.


come home late go to bed at once
go to the wood gather many mushrooms
live in the country go to the wood very often
receive his letter be very happy
fall ill go to the doctor
find my book be very glad
lose my money be very sorry
see my friend ask his advice

2. Маловероятное условие
-What would you do if you were in Washington?
- If I were in Washington, I would visit the White House.

If I lived in London I would visit Buckingham Palace every year


were at home now go to bed at once
knew French help you to translate this text
worked systematically have more free time
had a lot of money travel around the world
If I were a scientist I would invent a time machine
I wish I were a composer write beautiful music
a poet write beautiful poetry
a writer write interesting novels
a spaceman fly to other planets
a sailor sail to Africa

3. Нереальное условие

-What would have happened if you had come to that shop yesterday?
- If I had come to that shop yesterday, I would have bought the book.

If I had translated the article yesterday I would have found out all about this discovery
I wish I had met you yesterday told you something
read this new book told you about it
seen your brother yesterday asked him to come to our place
bought a dictionary translated the text
learned my lesson got a good mark
rung him up yesterday found out all about his illness
gone to the library got that book
had more practice in football won the game yesterday
joined you in fishing caught much fish
had a ticket yesterday gone to the theatre with you
asked you to help me done the work well
called on my friend yesterday met interesting people
won the championship been sent abroad
heard about it yesterday been pleased

119. *Переведите предложения и определите тип условия.

1. If you suffer from stomach problems, do not take aspirin.


2. If aspirin causes ringing in the ears or chest pain, stop taking it at once.
3. If you have got flue, then undoubtedly you have been infected by influenza virus.
4. If you want to illustrate a case, you should also utilize roentgenograms.
5. Should doctors prevent heart attacks, the latter won't remain an urgent problem.
6. Provided the results of the experiment are presented, we shall be able to support
the conclusion.
7. Unless adequate comparative studies are available, the potency of the drag cannot
be clearly stated.
8. Should the participants of the conference assemble, they could exchange
information on the subject.
9. If dangerous heart condition were detected, it could prevent a fatal cardiac
attack.
10.If the doctor were provided with up-to-date recommendations on treating
patients, he would be able to apply them into practice.
11. On condition that the results of the studies confirmed the finding, the
question of the safety of other chemicals would be raised.
12.Unless collaborative efforts were made, toxic effects could result from
exposures to chemicals.
13.Provided adequate controls had been taken, some chemicals could not have
interfered with vital living processes.
14.Unless a series of tragic incidents had occurred, much consideration for
possible health effects would not have been taken.
15.Had the chapters of this book been written by leading authorities, it
would have been of interest to all research workers and clinicians involved in
the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease.
16.The quality of the environment could escalate unless some vigorous action is
taken to control the usage of chemicals.
120. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на способ
выражения сослагательного наклонения в английском языке.

It is necessary (important/requested/desirable) that you should read this book.


Необходимо (важно/требуется/желательно), чтобы вы прочитали эту книгу.

1. It is necessary that papers should be submitted to the Editor in three copies.


2. It is desirable that manuscripts should be typed on good quality paper with
wide margins.
3. It is important that authors should order reprints of articles in advance of
publication.
4. It is suggested that photographs should be provided.
5. It is requested that all abbreviations should be defined in a footnote (сноска).
6. It is demanded that abbreviated phrases should be written out at first mention,
followed by the abbreviation in brackets.
7. It is recommended that use of abbreviated phrases should be kept to an
absolute minimum.
8. To ensure rapid publication it is recommended that manuscript should keep to
the style of the journal.
9. It is required that manuscripts should be written in acceptable English.
10.Requests for permission to reproduce figures, tables, or portions of articles
originally published in the journal should be addressed to ... (addressee).
ФУНКЦИИ И ЗНАЧЕНИЯ ГЛАГОЛОВ TO BE И TO HAVE
(FUNCTIONS AND MEANINGS OF THE VERBS TO BE AND TO HAVE)

Употребление
глагола Функция/Значение Примеры
to be
1. to be + смысловой глагол находиться The surgeon is in the clinic.
существительное с
предлогом;
в конструкции There are many patients in
there + to be this clinic today.
2. to be + глагол-связка являться
существительное
без предлога, My friend is a surgeon.
прилагательное, The book is interesting.
местоимение, It is me.
числительное They are five.
3. to be + ing-form вспомогательный глагол для The surgeon is performing
образования времен группы an operation.
Continuous (на русский язык
самостоятельно не
переводится)
4. to be + Past вспомогательный глагол для The patient is operated on.
Participle образования страдательного
залога (на русский язык
самостоятельно не
переводится)
5. to be + модальное значение: действие The surgeon is to operate on
инфинитив по заранее намеченному плану this patient.
или доженствование

121. Определите функции глагола to be в следующих предложениях.

1. There are a lot of things to do.


2. It’s six o’clock. He is in the hospital at this time.
3. She is too young to understand it.
4. The whole country is going on strike.
5. The new film is to be on at our cinema next week.
6. He is taking his English exam tomorrow.
7. The new method of treatment will be shown on TV.
8. The door was open.
9. She is to return on Saturday.
10. It was a nasty day. It was raining cats and dogs.
11. I was surprised that there were only few students in the library.
12. Sentence 5 is on page 15.
13. What am I to do?
14. Sunday is my day off (выходной).
15. My mother was 40 yesterday.
16. Have you ever been in the operating-room?

Употребление
глагола Функция/Значение Примеры
to have
1. to have + смысловое иметь My friend has an atlas.
существительное
2. to have + вспомогательный глагол для He has proved his
Past Participle образования времен группы hypothesis.
Perfect (на русский язык
самостоятельно не
переводится)
3. to have + модальное: необходимость в We have to examine him.
инфинитив силу определенных
глагола обстоятельств
NB! Глагол to have может также выступать как часть устойчивого
словосочетания. В сочетании с рядом существительных глагол to have означает
совершение единичного акта, связанного со значением существительного,
например:

to have a bath (a wash) — принять ванну, помыться


to have a break — сделать перерыв
to have a good time – хорошо провести время
to have a rest— отдохнуть
to have a try — попытаться
to have a walk — прогуляться
to have tea (coffee) — выпить чай (кофе)

122. Определите функции глагола to have в следующих


предложениях.

1. It has been a hard day.


2. Jane has a good voice.
3. We haven’t operated on this patient yet.
4. You don’t have to worry.
5. We have no time left.
6. I had a lesson in Biology on Monday.
7. She had ten minutes before she had to leave for work.
8. I hope you had a good time yesterday.
9. We will have two lectures tomorrow.
10. I have never been to Athens and I have never been to Rome.
11. I have to work tomorrow.
12. She has a headache today.
13. I don’t mind having a rest.
14. Let’s have a break.
15. It has been raining since morning.
16. They will have slight temperature after the vaccination.
ПАРНЫЕ СОЮЗЫ BOTH…AND, EITHER…OR, NEITHER…NOR

123. Переведите предложения с парными союзами:

both...and и...и..., как...так и


either...or или...или
neither...nor ни...ни

1. The book includes both new data and interpretations of experimental results.
2. The paper covers both clinical and basic research in the field of internal
medicine.
3. The theory clarifies both the aim and the scope of that method.
4. Both this paper and that review present a broad range of new techniques.
5. The paper covers data both on children and adults.
6. The study includes both men and women.
7. The scientist uses either this method or that technique.
8. Neither the paper nor the review covers the results of the investigation.
9. The patient complained both of a high temperature and of the pain in the chest.
10.Both the therapeutist and the surgeon have come to the conclusion to treat the patient
at home.
124. Заполните пропуски в предложениях парными союзами
both...and, neither...nor или either...or.

1. You must investigate … the blood gases … the corpuscular elements of the blood.
2. The therapeutist did not administer him … a bed regimen … a diet.
3. The physician revealed … the increased respiratory rate … the increased pulse rate.
4. … experienced therapeutists … neurologists work at this polyclinic.
5. At the polyclinic consulting hours may be … in the morning … in the
evening.
6. The nurse … fills in temperature charts … gives injections.
7. The patient was in such a poor condition that he could … sit up … move.
8. This patient with pneumonia will be administered … streptomycin …
penicillin injections.
9. The growth was revealed … in the lungs … in the mediastinum.
10.You may take this medicine … before … after meals.

IT – ФОРМАЛЬНОЕ ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ

125. Преведите предложения, в которых it не переводится отдельным


словом.

1. It is difficult to study English.


2. It is not easy to study English.
3. It is important to read journals.
4. It is necessary to work hard.
5. It is important to do the work well.
6. It is important to do the work in time
7. It is important to diagnose the disease in time.
8. It is necessary to use up-to-date methods in research.
9. It is not necessary to read a review.
10. It is important to cover new trends in the book.
11. It is necessary to cover a number of new techniques.
НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННО-ЛИЧНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ

126. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на


неопределенно-личные обороты, которые образуются по формуле:
«It+глагол в страдательном залоге».

Например: It is said говорят


It is thought думают
It is known известно и др.

1. It is observed that effective measures are needed by doctors to treat viral


diseases.
2. It is seen that unknown substances are released by an infected cell.
3. It is stated that immunoglobulin proteins are produced by the body.
4. It is noted that the body produces special immunoglobulin.
5. It is established that the use of preventive vaccines reduced the incidence of
infectious disease.
6. It is known that doctors need effective preventive measures to eliminate virus
diseases.
7. It is reported that virologists study the mode of replication of influenza virus.
8. It is believed that a review of the literature helped the author's analysis of the
data.
УСИЛИТЕЛЬНАЯ КОНСТРУКЦИЯ IT IS … THAT

Усилительная конструкция
It is (was) … that (who, where)

It was Alexander Fleming who discovered penicillin.


выделяемый член

Именно Александр Флеминг открыл пенициллин.

127. Переведите предложения с усилительной конструкцией


It is (was) … that (who, where).

1. It is this study of the nervous system that requires a number of histological


techniques.
2. It is during cellular division that DNA is reproduced.
3. It was with the help of metallic salts that it was possible study certain tissue.
4. It is this text which presents an integrated approach to the traditional diagnostic
methods.
5. It is from a plant that aspirin got its name (spirea plant).
6. When the heart rate is increased, it is the diastolic phase in particular which is
shortened.
7. It was laser therapy that was used in some patients.
8. It is this study that suggests the value of laser therapy.
9. It was in 1958 when Shawlow and Jownes proposed the laser principle.
10.It is the laser beam which can be focused into an area of small dimension.
11. It was the Ruby laser that was developed first.
12.It is a completely different system of laser that was developed in 1967.

СЛОВО ONE

Функции слова ONE:


а) неопределенное местоимение: может переводиться словами «каждый»,
«всякий», «человек». В некоторых случаях one на русский язык не переводится.

One can see various apparatuses in the laboratory.


В лаборатории можно (каждый может) увидеть различную аппаратуру.
b) слово-заместитель: может замещать существительное.

The left pupil is larger than the right one. (= the right pupil)
Левый зрачок шире, чем правый.

128. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные


функции слова One.

1. One never knows what to do in such cases.


2. One can see various apparatuses in the laboratory.
3. The laboratory tables are higher than usual ones.
4. One should be careful when working with reagents.
5. It is impossible to prevent spreading of whooping cough without isolating sick
children from healthy ones.
6. The mercury thermometer is more accurate than the alcohol one.
7. I don’t like these test-tubes. Can you give me better ones?
8. It was necessary to use hydrochloric acid as well as sulphuric one.
9. In order to make some experiments one has to know the methods well.
10.One can see various apparatuses in the laboratory.
11. One can say that the temperature has also a positive effect on the solubility.
12.The left pupil is larger than the right one.

129. *Переведите предложения и укажите функцию слова One


(неопределенное местоимение/слово-заместитель).

1. All the cases were selected ones.


2. One may say that all techniques have their, own limitations.
3. This is a difficult problem but a useful one.
4. One has to stress the value of the new method.
5. One wanted to understand the reason for the man's behaviour.
6. One should know these problems.
7. Can one be certain that on the second day the pacemaker catheter is at the same
spot as on the first day of testing?
8. One should get new data on the subject.
9. One must study English to read scientific journals.
10.The information indicates that one must use the method for therapeutic
purposes.
11. The results of the first discussion are not so useful as the ones obtained by the
second.
12. One supposes that the analysis of blood can help to spot some type of cancer.

СЛОВО AS

Перевод слова as:


1. как (наречие)
2. в качестве
3. когда (временной союз)
4. в то время как
5. по мере того как
6. так как, поскольку (причинный союз)

as follows следующим образом


as well as так же как и
as well а также (обычно стоит в конце
предложения; при переводе
выносится в начало предложения)

130. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на


различные значения as:

1. Dr B. worked as a laboratory assistant in the biochemistry department.


2. As the book covers recent medical research it is of interest to medical students.
3. Doctors gain knowledge on cure of diseases as they read current journals.
4. The paper describes the method as follows: ...
5. Modern medical journals cover recent research as well as reviews on a variety
of problems.
6. This method serves as the basis for the treatment of the disease.
7. Belozersky studied nucleic acids as well as antibiotics.
8. He analysed nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
9. As a result, he predicted the existence of a messenger RNA.
10.He investigated a few antibiotics as well.
11.As the author says in the paper, the method is useful.
12.As the student reads English papers, he learns many new words.
13.As the text is difficult, use a dictionary.
14.As it is time, we begin our lessons.

СЛОВО SINCE
Значения слова SINCE:
ЧАСТЬ РЕЧИ ПЕРЕВОД
Наречие с тех пор
Предлог с (после)
Союз поскольку (так как)/с тех пор как

131. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на


различные значения since:

1. 58 years have passed since the initial description.


2. Since then a number of other substances have been isolated.
3. In summary, since beta-blockers influence a number of biologic systems, their
hypotensive effect usually is the result of a number of effects.
4. Since their report, numerous studies have shown a relation between coronary-
artery diseases and HDL cholesterol.
5. Since these qualities were difficult to get by other methods, gel
chromatography came rapidly into extensive use.
6. We have seen the effect many times since.
Конструкция USED TO

Конструкция used to

Конструкция used to употребляется для выражения обычного


повторяющегося действия в прошлом, которое для настоящего уже
нехарактерно. На русский язык переводится словами «бывало»,
«обычно», «раньше».
He used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day.
Он раньше выкуривал по 20 сигарет в день.

132. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на used to:

1. High-fat low carbohydrate diet used to be the treatment of diabetes before the
days of insulin.
2. The higher incidence of infection in patients with calculous obstruction has
been attributed to incomplete bile duct obstruction and used to support this
hypothesis.
3. Scientists used to believe that rats respond like automations.
4. Can animals think reason and remember like humans? It used to be thought
that they cannot. The results, reported at Columbia University during the first
American conference on animal cognition, indicate that “the human mind is not
unique.”
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ ДИФФЕРЕНЦИРОВОЧНЫЙ ТРЕНИНГ

Грамматическое Возможный Определение Исходная


№ явление перевод грамматического явления (словарная)
форма
1. includes включает гл., Present Indefinite (Active) include
2. were discovered были открыты гл., Past Indefinite (Passive) discover
3. warmer более тёплый прил., сравнительная степень warm

ПЕРВЫЙ КУРС

1. is 2. was 3. were 4. are 5. am 6. will be 7. have 8. has 9. had 10. will have 11.
some/any/no/every 12. shorter 13. more sociable 14. the longest 15. the most
important 16. contains 17. demonstrated 18. will present 19. include 20 is reading
21. was suffering 22. will be undergoing 23. has confirmed 24. had determined 25.
will have produced 26. is translated 27. was examined 28. will be reflected 29. is
being asked 30. was being prescribed 31. has been established 32. had been used
33. will have been accomplished 34. can 35. must 36. should 37. may 38. h a v e to
39. be allowed to 40. be able to 41. to prevent 42. the doctor examining the patient
43. having been operated 44. the surrounding world 45. the analyses being made
now 46. having discussed 47. to maintain 48. the translated paper 49. a broken bone
50. There was no evidence that the disease would spread. 51. This is a difficult
problem but a useful one. 52. to be described 53. One should know these facts. 54. the
nurse giving injection. 55. a written test

ВТОРОЙ КУРС

1. reading is useful 2. on swallowing food 3. after gargling one’s throat 4. ways of


grouping patients 5. have been developing 6. had been moaning 7. will have been
working
8. The patient’s condition becoming worse, the doctors decided to operate on him.
9. The doctor heard this patient coughing badly at night.
10. The surgeons expect the patient to get ready for the operation in time
11. Environmental factors are known to play a very important role.
12. This phenomenon appears to have a wide occurrence.

ИТОГОВЫЙ ТЕСТ
(FINAL TEST)

Переведите предложения и определите подчеркнутые


грамматические явления.

Например: VII/1 When the hospital was opened it was visited by some American
doctors.
Когда больница была открыта, ее посетили некоторые американские врачи
(was opened – Past Indefinite (Passive)).

I.
1. The paper is a review on basic research in medicine.
2. The research was up-to-date.
3. I will be a doctor in 6 years.

II.
1. Some students of Group 10 will take an active part in research work.
2. Did you take any medicine when you had a sore throat?
3. I suffered no diseases in my childhood.
III.
1. Sunshine makes you more sociable.
2. The days are shorter in winter.
3. The most difficult chapter on biochemistry is written by a very experienced
worker.

IV.
1. The book contains a number of new theories.
2. The scientist demonstrated new technique.
3. The paper will clarify the question.

V.
1. Doctors are designing new techniques to treat many diseases.
2. Last night I slept badly because I was suffering from a bad pain in my back.
3. My mother will be undergoing an X-ray therapy at 3 o’clock tomorrow.

VI.
1. Dr N. studied in detail some enzymes that he had isolated.
2. It is interesting to note that scientists have examined both heart and kidney.
3. The doctor in charge thinks that by tomorrow morning this patient's temperature
will have fallen to normal.

VII.
1. The doctor must have your blood analysis to be sure of your diagnosis.
2. You can see patients in this consulting room.
3. What may cause serious complications after the grippe?

VIII.
1. The medium is influenced by the temperature.
2. This paper was followed by another one.
3. The results were influenced by the presence of toxins.

IX. Определите тип бессоюзного придаточного предложения


(дополнит./определит.):
1. What method was useful to the problem Dr S. studied?
2. The journal gives some methods the researchers follow.
3. The system is controlled in experiments the investigators make.

X. Как называется этот оборот?


1. It is known that doctors need effective preventive measures to eliminate virus
diseases.
2. It is reported that virologists study the mode of replication of influenza virus.
3. It is believed that a review of the literature helped the author's analysis of the data.

XI.
1. Our district doctor will be able to go out to the calls in the afternoon.
2. Some first-year students are allowed to attend scientific circles.
3. Everybody has to keep the thermometer in the armpit for 10 minutes.

XII. Определите функцию слова ONE (неопределенное местоимение/слово-


заместиель).
1. One never knows what to do in such cases.
2. The laboratory tables are higher than usual ones.
3. The mercury thermometer is more accurate than the alcohol one.

XIII.
1. It is this study of the nervous system that requires a number of histological
techniques.
2. When the heart rate is increased, it is the diastolic phase in particular which is
shortened.
3. It is the laser beam which can be focused into an area of small dimension.

XIV. Определите время действия в придаточном предложении по отношению


к главному:
1. The doctor said she had already made an order for the X-ray examination.
2. He told me that he would not smoke so much.
3. My mother said she felt better.

XV. Определите тип придаточного предложения:


1. The prescription which the doctor wrote out was for a cough mixture.
2. The teacher explains that all animals and plants consist of cells.
3. If oxygen is denied for even ten minutes, the brain cells die.

XVI.
1. The direction of the nerve fibers has already been established experimentally.
2. This finding suggested that some of the cells had been examined before.
3. It is interesting to note that both heart and kidney will have been examined.

XVII. + определите функцию в предложении:


1. Approaches are designed to clarify definitions.
2. Procedures to be used are developed.
3. To understand the basic signs of the disease is a desire of every doctor.
XVIII.
1. The victim of a street accident had been moaning since he was run over by a
car.
2. How long has the patient been complaining of nausea?
3. My mother had been suffering from a severe stomachache for an hour before we
made a call to the First Aid Station.
XIX. + определите функцию в предложении:
1. How can doctors spare surrounding tissue?
2. Following the doctor’s advice, she took metabolism–adjusting drugs for weight
loss.
3. Having discussed all pros and contras, the doctors decided to operate on the
patient.

XX. + определите функцию в предложении:


1. The techniques demonstrated in the lab are new.
2. Each journal contains papers translated into Russian.
3. When organized the laboratory studied nucleic acids.

XXI.
1. The levels were found to be unaltered.
2. Environmental factors are known to be of significance.
3. After vitamin injections some patients seem to have improved.

XXII.
1. I want you to explain the following phenomena.
2. Perlman found migratory polyarthritis to be present in approximately 69% of
the cases.
3. The scientists watched the levels change with the increase of temperature.
XXIII.
1. Different ways of grouping patients are suitable to different problems.
2. Healthy eating doesn't mean eating less of everything. Eating well means eating less
fat.
3. On examining the child they decided to apply chemotherapy.
XXIV.
1. My brother being operated on for appendicitis successfully, his post-operative
course was uneventful.
2. I felt an unbearable pain in the lower part of the abdomen, it increasing on the
slightest physical exertion.
3. 500 ml of antibiotics having been introduced into the abdominal cavity, the
patient was transfused preserved blood as well.

XXV. К какому времени относятся условие и следствие?


1. If the results of the experiments confirm the finding, the new method will be
applied.
2. If the results were confirmed, the method would be applied.
3. Had the results of the experiments confirmed the finding, the new method would
have been applied.

ЧАСТЬ II
PART II
ЛЕКСИКА
VOCABULARY

РАЗДЕЛ I
SECTION I
СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ
WORD FORMATION

СЛОВОСЛОЖЕНИЕ (COMPOUNDING)
образование новых слов путем сложения основ

head голова + ache боль = headache головная боль


Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
toothache, stomachache, earache, backache

АФФИКСАЦИЯ (AFFIXATION)
образование слов при помощи префиксов (приставок) и суффиксов

СУФФИКСЫ

Суффиксы существительных

- образует существительные structure строение,


ure от глагольных основ структура
(происходит от латинского –ur-a, measure мера
обозначающего «результат действия») pressure давление
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
nature, pleasure, mixture, lecture, picture, future, culture

- ion образует существительные to protect предохранять –


от глагольных основ protection охрана
(происходит от латинского to decide решать –
–io, обозначающего decision решение
«действие»)
1. Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
consultation, occlusion, attention, invasion, commission, production, session,
occupation, obstruction, conclusion, function, formation, occasion, eruption
2. Образуйте существительные с помощью суффикса -ion:
to discuss (обсуждать), to contract (сокращаться), to connect (соединять), to
impress (впечатлять), to invent (изобретать)

- образует существительные от прилагательных difficult трудный –


(i)ty со значением «состояние, положение» difficulty
трудность
1. Определите, где возможно, от каких слов образованы существительные и
переведите их:
activity, reality, humanity, ability, possibility, responsibility, quantity, quality
2. Образуйте существительные с помощью суффикса -ity:
equal (равный), human (человеческий), dense (плотный), immune (невосприимчивый),
certain (определенный)

-ment образует существительные to excite возбуждать —


от глаголов со значением «действие, excitement возбуждение,
состояние, результат действия» волнение
(происходит от латинского –ment-
um, обозначающего «средство,
инструмент»)
1. Определите, от каких слов образованы существительные и переведите их:
requirement, treatment, achievement, appointment, department
2. Образуйте существительные с помощью суффикса -ment:
to move (двигаться), to nourish (питать), to improve (улучшать), to develop (развивать),
to place (размещать)

- passage проход, проток


age bandage повязка

Прочтите и переведите.
village, cartilage, haemorrhage, bandage, language, usage, damage

-ance образуют существительные to enter входить, поступать


(-еnсе) преимущественно от глаголов –
entrance вход, поступление
Определите, где возможно, от каких слов образованы существительные и
переведите их: difference, assistance, attendance, presence, importance, conference,
substance

образует имя существительное от имени warm


прилагательного, иногда от глагола. теплый —
-th При образовании существительного от warmth
прилагательного при помощи суффикса -th часто теплота
происходит изменение ударной гласной корневого to grow
слова: strong сильный — strength сила. расти —
growth рост
Определите от каких слов образованы существительные и переведите их:
depth, length, truth, width, death

–ancy образует существительные infancy младенчество


(-ency) от прилагательных insufficiency
(прилагательноеnt недостаточность
существительное+ncy)
Определите от каких слов образованы существительные и переведите их:
sufficiency, urgency, persistency, emergency, deficiency, dependency, efficiency

-nes образует существительные weak слабый — weakness


s от прилагательных слабость

1. Определите, от каких слов образованы существительные и переведите их:


badness, readiness, coldness, whiteness, redness
2. Образуйте существительные с помощью суффикса -ness:
ill (больной), sick (больной), excessive (избыточный), distinctive (отличительный),
calm (спокойный)

-er образует существительные от глаголов to write писать –


со значением «лицо или устройство, writer писатель
совершающее действие» to magnify увеличивать -
magnifier увеличитель
1. Определите, от каких слов образованы существительные и переведите их:
worker, observer, invader, intensifier, amplifier.
2. Образуйте существительные с помощью суффикса -er:
to examine (обследовать), to lead (вести), to teach (учить), to organize
(организовать), to help (помогать)

-ist образует существительные, обозначающие ecologist


людей по профессии, занятию, убеждениям эколог
Определите, от каких слов образованы существительные и переведите их:
chemist, anatomist, physiologist, therapist, neurologist

-ship образует существительные friendship дружба


с отвлеченным значением leadership
лидерство
Прочтите и переведите: relationship, partnership, authorship, championship, hardship

-hood образует существительные brotherhood братство


с отвлеченным значением
Прочтите и переведите:
babyhood, motherhood, childhood, manhood, likelihood

Суффиксы прилагательных

-ic, -al, образуют прилагательные base основание —


-ar от основ существительных basic основной
(происходят от соответствующих person лицо —
латинских personal личный
–ic-us, -al-is, -ar-is, обозначающих cell клетка -
«относящийся к тому, что названо cellular клеточный
основой»)

1. Определите, от каких слов образованы прилагательные и переведите их:


experimental, prophylactic, anatomic, practical, democratic, social, medical,
ventricular, corpuscular, muscular, vascular, regular, particular
2. Образуйте прилагательные
a) с помощью суффикса -al: form (форма), practice (практика), person (личность),
experiment, clinic;
b) с помощью суффикса -ic: history, chemistry, mechanism, toxicity, spleen

-ive образует to connect соединять —


прилагательные connective соединительный
от глаголов
1. Определите, от каких слов образованы прилагательные и переведите их:
attentive, relative, effective, decisive, demonstrative
2. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффикса -ive:
to construct, to collect (собирать), to act (действовать), to illustrate (иллюстрировать),
to protect (защищать)

-ous образует прилагательные fame слава, известность —


от famous знаменитый, известный
существительных и
глаголов
(происходит от латинского
–os-us, обозначающего
«богатый, изобилующий»)
1. Почтите и переведите:
fibrous, numerous, continuous, various, infectious
2. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффикса -ous:
vena, nerve, danger (опасность)

-able (- образуют прилагательные to compare сравнивать


ible) от основы глаголов со значением –
«способный к тому, что названо основой» comparable сравнимый
(происходит от латинского –bil-is,
обозначающего «доступный действию»)
Определите, от каких слов образованы прилагательные и переведите их:
considerable, changeable, eatable, variable, comfortable, responsible, extensible,
possible, curable, predictable

-ant, (- constant постоянный


ent) significant важный,
существенный
Определите, от каких слов образованы прилагательные и переведите их:
distant, present, absent, important, dependent, different

-ish образует прилагательные от существительных, fever лихорадка —


а также от прилагательных (в этом случае feverish
вновь образованное прилагательное имеет лихорадочный
значение неполного качества) yellow желтый —
yellowish
желтоватый
Определите, от каких слов образованы прилагательные и переведите их:
reddish, thinnish, womanish, fattish, longish, blackish, thickish

образует прилагательные от существитель- hope надежда —


-ful ных и реже от глаголов, указывает на hopeful надеющийся
наличие того или иного качества to forget забывать —
(происходит от прилагательного full – forgetful забывчивый
полный (т.е. исполненный того или иного
качества)
1. Определите от каких слов образованы прилагательные и переведите их:
useful, beautiful, helpful, thankful, watchful
2. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффикса -ful:
pain (боль), harm (вред), rest (отдых, покой), care (забота), success (успех)

use польза —
-less useless
образует прилагательные от существительных,
бесполезный
указывает на отсутствие чего-либо или какого-
child дитя —
либо качества
childless
бездетный
1. Определите от каких слов образованы прилагательные и переведите их:
sleepless, careless, helpless, homeless, lifeless
2. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффикса -less:
pain (боль), hope (надежда), rest (отдых, покой), life (жизнь) frame (скелет, каркас)

Суффиксы наречий

- образует наречия от основы rapid быстрый—rapidly быст-


1у прилагательных и су- ро
ществительных hour час— hourly ежечасно
1. Определите, от каких слов образованы наречия и переведите их:
daily, greatly, beautifully, friendly, yearly, gradually
2. Образуйте наречия с помощью суффикса -1у:
normal, bad, real, short (короткий), part (часть), quick (быстрый), usual (обычный),
careful (заботливый)

-ward(s) образует наречия от основы существительных, upward вверх


прилагательных и наречий со значением forward
направления вперед
Прочтите и переведите:
inward, eastward, backward, onwards, outward

Суффиксы глаголов

- происходит от circulate циркулировать


ate основы супина –
одной из форм
латинского глагола
Прочтите и переведите:
calculate, radiate, operate, regulate, estimate

-ize (-yse, -yze, образует глаголы от основы summarize


-ise) прилагательных и резюмировать
существительных analyze анализировать
1. Определите, от каких слов образованы глаголы и переведите их:
realize, recognize, criticize, generalize, specialize
2. Образуйте глаголы с помощью суффикса -ize:
oxide, active, material, crystal, immune

-ify образует глаголы от существительных и class класс –


прилагательных со значением to classify
«производить действие» классифицировать
Определите, от каких слов образованы глаголы и переведите их:
purify, intensify, solidify, notify, signify

Суффиксы, встречающиеся у разных частей речи:

-у образует прилагательные от существительных


salt соль — salty соленый
NB! Этот суффикс также встречается у существительных и
глаголов:
remedy лекарство; carry нести.
У глаголов данный суффикс может читаться [ai]: to supply
снабжать.
Прочтите и переведите следующие слова:
а) существительные: difficulty, study, body
b) глаголы: apply, multiply, study
c) прилагательные: happy, airy, wordy, healthy, sunny, bony windy

-аrу (-еrу, -оrу) образуют существительные surgery хирургия


и прилагательные pulmonary
легочный.
Прочтите и переведите следующие слова:
ordinary, alimentary, primary, secondary, respiratory

-ian является суффиксом прилагательных Russian русский


а также существительных, pediatrician
обозначающих национальную принадлежность, педиатр
звание или профессию
Прочтите и переведите следующие слова:
а) прилагательные: Ukrainian, Indian, Siberian
б) существительные: musician, politician, academician

-ate (-ete,-ite,- суффикс прилагательных и graduate


ute) существительных выпускник
accurate точный
Прочтите и переведите следующие слова:
а) прилагательные: ultimate, complete, minute
б) существительные: delegate

-en образует прилагательные от существительных, wood дерево –


обозначающие материал, а также глаголы wooden
от именных основ деревянный
deep глубокий –
deepen углубляться
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов:
а) прилагательные: golden, woolen, leaden
б) глаголы: strengthen, moisten, lessen, straighten, lengthen

ПРЕФИКСЫ

un-, указывают на отрицание или usual обычный —


in-(im-, il-, отсутствие того, что unusual необычный
ir) выражается organic органический —
в корне слова inorganic неорганический
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
impossible, indefinite, irregular, undone, unhappy, illegal, unwritten, ineffective,
unimportant, illogical

intra означает cellular клеточный —


- внутри- intracellular
внутриклеточный
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
intracranial, intramuscular, intravenous, intracardiac, intrapleural intrathoracic,
intratracheal, intraspinal

inter- переводится меж-, interaction взаимодействие


между-, среди-, взаимно- intercostal межреберный
interspace промежуток (пространства,
времени) international международный.
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
to interact, interchange, to interconnect, intercellular, interauricular

sub соответствует в русском языке префиксу под: to divide разделять —


- to subdivide
подразделять.
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
subdivision, subacute, subtropical, subcostal, subcutaneous, subclass, subserous

over- придает слову значение «сверх, чрезмерно, dosage дозировка —


избыточно» overdosage
Соответствует русским приставкам сверх-, передозировка
над-, пере-
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
overstrain, overwork, overestimate, overpressure, overweight

dis образует слова со значением, противоположным to appear появляться —


- корню to disappear исчезать
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
discontinue, disorganize, discover, discovery, disconnect, disconnection

re- образует глаголы со значением to write писать –


«опять, снова, to rewrite
повторное действие» переписать
to read читать –
to reread перечитать
Определите, от каких слов образованы глаголы, и переведите их: replace, react,
re-examine, rebuild, reform, reorganize

in означает «в, на» to include включать (в


- себя)
to inhale вдыхать
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
inflame, inhale, inborn, indoors, induction

ex- означает «из» to exclude


исключать
to expel изгонять
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
exchange, exclusive, exhale, export

en- образует глаголы от основы large большой –


прилагательного, существительного или to enlarge увеличиваться
глагола to close закрывать –
to enclose окружать,
ограничивать
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
to enable, to encircle, to encourage, to enrage

mal- означает «плохой», «неправильное nutrition питание –


действие» malnutrition недоедание,
неправильное питание
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
malformation, malpractice, malposition, malocclusion, malfunction

anti- соответствует русской antiseptic антисептик


приставке (противогнилостный препарат)
против- (а также анти-)
Проанализируйте структуру следующих слов и переведите:
antifascist, antisocial, antithesis, antitoxic, antitumour
Определите часть речи у приведенных однокоренных слов и переведите
их. Проверьте значение слов по словарю.
1. accident (случай)— accidental — accidentally
2. act (акт, действие) — action — active — activity — activate — activation
— actively — to activize — activated — activization
3. assess (оценивать)— assessment — reassessment
4. automat — automacity — automatic — automatical — automatism
5. biologic(al) — biologist — biology
6. care (забота, внимание, осторожность) — careful — carefully —
careless — carefulness — carelessness
7. cause (причина, быть причиной) — causative — causal
8. collaborate (сотрудничать) — collaborator — collaborative —
collaboration
9. compare (сравнивать) — comparative — comparison — comparable
10. conclude (заключать) — conclusion — conclusive
11. death (смерть) — dead — deadly — to die
12. defect (дефект, недостаток) — defective
13. depend (зависеть) — dependant — dependence
14. differ (различать(ся) — difference — different — differential —
differentiate — differentiation — differently
15. effect (эффект, воздействие, воздействовать) — effective — effectively
— effectiveness
16. elaboration (разработка)— elaborate
17. epidemiology — epidemiologist — epidemic — epidemical
18. essential (существенный)— essence — essentially
19. evidence (явность, очевидность) — evident
20. examine (обследовать) — examination — examiner
21. exist (существовать) — existence — existent — preexisting
22. expect (ожидать) — expected — expectation — unexpected
23. expert — experience — experiment — experimental — experimentation
24. expose (подвергать действию) — exposed — exposition — exposure
25. extreme (крайность) — extremely — extremity
26. frequent (частый)— frequently — frequency
27. generate (генерировать, производить) — generation — generator
28. important (важный) — unimportant — importance
29. pathology — pathologic(al) — pathologist
30. incident (случай) — incidence — incidental — incidentally
31. increase (увеличиваться) — decrease
32. individual — individually
33. interest — interesting — interested
34. investigate (исследовать) — investigation — investigator — investigatory
35. mature (зрелый) — maturity — prematurity
36. nature (природа)— natural — to naturalize — naturalistic
37. normal — abnormal — normalize — normally
38. operation — to operate — preoperative — postoperative
39. order (порядок) — disorder
40. origin (происхождение) — original — originality — originally —
originate
41. pain (боль) — painful — painless
42. physiology — physiological(ly) — physiologist
43. practice (практика) — practically— practical — practise — practitioner
44. price (цена) — priceless
45. produce (производить) — reduce — induce — reduction — production
46. progress — to progress — progressive — progressively —
progressiveness
47. pure (чистый) — purity — purify — purified — purely — purification
—purifier
48. quantity (количество) — quantitative — quantify
49. react (реагировать) — reactive — reaction
50. flexion (наклон, сгибание, флексия) — flexibility — flexible
51. regular — regularity — regulate — regulation — regulator —
regulative
52. relate (иметь отношение) — relation — relationship — relative —
relativity
53. repeat (повторять) — repeatedly
54. rest (покой, отдых) — restless — restlessness
55. risk — risky — to risk
56. safe (безопасность) — safety— safely— save
57. science (наука) — scientist — scientific — scientifically
58. simple (простой) — simplify
59. society (общество) — social — socialism — socialist
60. special — especially — specialist — speciality — specialize
61. stimulate (стимулировать) — stimulant — stimulation — stimulus
(stimuli)
62. sudden (внезапный) — suddenly — suddenness
63. sufficient (достаточный) — sufficiency — insufficient — insufficiency
64. suggest (предлагать, предполагать) — suggestion — suggestive
65. system — systematic — systematize — systematically
66. to associate (ассоциировать, связывать) — association — associative
67. recover (выздоравливать) — recovery
68. to detect (выявлять) — a detective — detective
69. to determine (определять) — (un)determined — determination
70. to direct (направлять) — direction, (in)direct — director —
directly
71. technique — technical(ly) — technician
72. to extend (распространяться) — extension — extensive — extensively
73. to initiate (инициировать, начать) — initiation — initiator — initial(ly)
— initiative
74. to occur (происходить, случаться) — occurrence
75. to press (давить) — to depress — pressure — to impress — depression
— depressive — impressive — impression

КОНВЕРСИЯ
(CONVERSION)
способность одной и той же формы слова относиться к разным частям речи

work работа - to work


работать
help помощь - to help помогать

Определите часть речи выделенных слов и переведите предложения:

1. Group the results. Examine the group. (группа, группировать)


2. The results interest them. Biochemistry was of great interest to Gamaleya.
(интерес, интересовать)
3. The operation risk is great. The operation was a great risk, but the doctor risked
it. (риск, рисковать)
4. Read the reviews. The reviews were favourable. He reviews the methods.
(обзор, рецензия, обозревать, осматривать)
5. The studies are of importance. She studies antibiotics. (исследование,
исследовать)
6. How does the organ function? The function of the liver is to act as a filter. The
new heart functions well. Describe the major functions of the liver. (функция,
функционировать)
7. He plans to begin his scientific work in May. His scientific plans are very interesting.
(план, планировать)
8. Professors Ivanov and Smirnov head the Students’ Scientific Society. He was the
head of the delegation at the Congress of Russian Anatomists. (голова, глава,
возглавлять)
9. I need your help very much. A friend in need is a friend indeed (действительно).
Any patient with cardiac insufficiency needs the treatment with digitalis
(наперстянка) preparations. The Russian government pays great attention to the
needs of our public health. (нуждаться, нужда, потребность)
10.The nurses take care of the patients. She nurses the patients with great care.
(медсестра, ухаживать за больным)
11.The number of the vertebrae which form the coccyx may be from one to five. In the
human body the skeletal muscles number 600. A number of interesting findings was
found out experimentally. (число, насчитывать, ряд (чего-л.))
12.The muscles of the human body are different in their form. A number of muscular
fibers form a band. (форма, формировать)
13.Please count from one to ten! You must do the white blood cell count of this
patient. (считать, подсчет общего количества)
14.You must count how many days on an average we shall spend on this experiment.
What is the average temperature in the Crimea during August? (средний, в
среднем)
15. The doctor is going to discharge this patient from the hospital because
his condition has become good. Why does the wound continue to discharge
much blood? The discharge of blood out of the wound continues. (выделять,
выделение)
16. The patient had a bad ache in his ear. My head aches so badly that I cannot
read. (боль, болеть)
17. The X-ray examination did not reveal any lung trouble. The doctor wants to
know what troubles the patient. (болезнь, беспокойство, беспокоить)
18. I do not doubt that the patient will feel well after the treatment. There is no
doubt that the pain will be controlled soon. (сомнение, сомневаться)
19. During the operation the approach to the diseased portion of the colon was
difficult. The surgeon approached the valve on which he had to operate. (подход,
подходить, приближаться)
20. Numerous branches of small vessels branch off the coronary vessels.
(ветвь, разветвляться)
21. Some students of our group have made a marked progress in English that is
why their marks are much better now. (отметка, отмечать, отмеченный (т.е.
выраженный, явный))
22. A bandage was put on the arm to bandage the damaged blood vessels.
(бинт, (перевязочный материал), накладывать повязку (бинтовать))
23. The treatment resulted in wonderfully good results. (результат,
результировать (т.е. приводить к чему-л)).
24. Having returned home I took my temperature and noted its return to
normal. (возвращение, возвращаться)
25. At a polyclinic or a hospital all our citizens can receive medical advice free of
charge. Our physician always advises his patients the necessary effective treatment.
(совет, советовать)
26. Persons who have suffered smallpox have unpleasant marks on their
faces. The most important problems which face the medical science at present are
cardiovascular diseases and cancer. (лицо, стоять лицом к (чему-л.), быть
повернутым (в какую-л. сторону, в сторону чего-л.; смотреть в лицо, в глаза),
стоять перед ( кем-л. - о задаче, проблеме и т. п. )
ПОЛИСЕМИЯ
(POLYSEMANTICISM)

Поскольку английский язык является аналитическим, очень


распространено явление многозначности лексики (полисемии), т.е.
слово может обладать несколькими значениями, каждое из которых
имеет смысл только в определенном контексте.

Выберите из приведенных значений подчеркнутого слова наиболее


подходящее для того контекста, в котором оно используется:

1. Last month they had practical classes at the Chair of Therapy. These experiments
usually last for about two hours.
 прошлый
 длиться
 последний
2.There are two terms in the academic year. The first-year students study many
anatomical terms.
 термин
 семестр
 условие
3.In summer I usually rest in the village. My friend and I went to the theatre
and the rest of our group went to the cinema.
 отдых
 отдыхать
 остаток
 остальные
4.What kind of books do you like? We know that this doctor is a very kind and
intellectual person.
 вид
 сорт
 добрый
5.The doctor is going to discharge this patient from the hospital because his
condition has become good. Why does the wound continue to discharge
much blood?
 выписывать из больницы
 выделять (гной, жидкость)
6. The patient does not require any preparation to be treated with Adonis
preparation.
 подготовка
 приготовление
 препарат
7.At six sharp the patient felt a sharp pain in the heart area.
 ровно
 резкий
8. Here is a list of biological terms. List the symptoms.
 список
 перечислять
9. It is important to follow the doctor’s recommendations. The operated
children were followed to age 7 or 8.
 следовать
 следить
 наблюдать за кем/чем-либо
10. For the first time influenza virus was isolated in 1934. It was time to operate.
 время
 раз
11. This problem requires further study. No further infections occurred.
 новый
 добавочный
12. The effects mean that concentration is high. The mean dosage of verapamil was 320
mg/day. What do you mean?
 средний
 обозначать
 иметь в виду
 подразумевать
13. He was then referred to the hospital. The information available refers to a very strict
definition of angina.
 направлять
 ссылаться на что-либо
 упоминать
14. The two diseases have common etiologic background. The present study was aimed
to form a background for future studies with mutant animals. The director of the
laboratory would like to know about he new worker’s background.
 фон, задний план
 происхождение
 квалификация, образование
 основа, исходные данные
 состав, аспект

ИНТЕРНАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ ЛЕКСИКА
(INTERNATIONAL WORDS)
это слова, как правило, латинского или греческого происхождения, которые
почти одинаково пишутся и произносятся в разных языках

Сравните:

интернациональный (рус.)
international (англ.)
international(e) (франц.)
internacional (исп.)
internazionale (итал.)

1. Назовите однокоренные слова в русском языке.

Существительные (nouns)
anamnesis, anatomy, bacillus, biopsy, canal, caries, catarrh, chemotherapy, cirrhosis,
coma, component, contact, course, culture, defect, diagnosis, diet, discomfort, dose,
emotion, erosion, fermentation, function, furuncle, impulse, incubation, information,
injection, institution, instruction, invasion, manipulation, mechanism, membrane,
operation, patient, polyclinic, procedure, process, prognosis, reaction, reagent,
regimen, result, stimulus, tablet, toxemia, university, virus, vaccination, aetiology,
gangrene, anaemia, immunity, metastasis, pathogenesis, sepsis

Прилагательные (adjectives)
absolute, adequate, aerobic, alternative, alveolar, anaerobic, antibacterial,
atmospheric, chronic, clinical, effective, intensive, natural, ordinary, potential,
primitive, productive, progressive, rational, serious, typical, universal

Глаголы (verbs)
analyze, consult, isolate, neutralize, recommend, regulate, specialize

2. Приведите два русских эквивалента разного происхождения, например:

Существительные (nouns)
sinu сину пазуха
s с
a) general vocabulary
assistant, association, barrier, communication, condition, elasticity, experiment,
instruction, interval, patient, phenomenon, portion, service, status, structure,
substance, test, tolerance, version

b) clinical vocabulary
abscess, anomaly, asphyxia, auscultation, cancer, coagulation, collapse, constriction,
contusion, defect, deformation, diarrhea, herpes, intoxication, localization,
metabolism, mutation, necrosis, occlusion, palpation, paralysis, paresis, percussion,
perforation, pigmentation, prostration, regimen, rehabilitation, remission, resection,
sclerosis, spasm, stenosis, stupor, symptom, syndrome, therapy, toxicity,
transplantation, trauma

c) pharmaceutical vocabulary
absorption, alcohol, antidote, antitoxin, analgesia

Прилагательные (adjectives)

respiratory респираторный дыхательный

cranial, facial, cervical, sacral, vertebral, vascular, apical, costal, fibrous, pulmonary,
portal, lobular, lateral, visceral, membranous, cardiovascular, ordinary, special, total,
constant, preventive, natural, vital, local, selective, fatal, visual, local, organic,
diffuse, lethal, local, preventive, spastic, sensitive, infectious

Глаголы (verbs)
recommend рекомендовать советовать

characterize, neutralize, concentrate, correct, fix, prevent, sterilize, summarize

3. Используя знания латинского языка, подберите перевод к словам из


первой колонки. Обратите внимание на формальные различия латинских
и английских слов.

1 palate (лат. palatum) a проток


2 duct (лат. ductus) b кишечник
3 intestine (лат. intestinum) c небо
4 node (лат. nodus) d узел
5 bile (лат. bilis) e доля
6 cartilage (лат. cartilago) f край
7 cavity(лат. cavitas) g вена
8 lobe (лат. lobus) h желчь
9 vein(лат. vena) i полость
10 valve(лат. valva) j капсула
11 base (лат. basis) k железа
12 margin (лат. margo) l хрящ
13 capsule (лат. capsula) m клапан
14 gland (лат. glandula) n основание
15 arch (лат. arcus) o клетка
16 cell (лат. cellula) p дуга

4. Пользуясь ассоциативной подсказкой, соотнесите слова из правой


колонки со значениями, приведенными в левой.

Существительные (nouns)

1 accumulation a приступ
Ср. аккумулятор (в нем накапливается
электроэнергия)
2 area b карта (пациента)
Ср. ареал обитания
3 attack c углевод
Ср. атака, нападение
4 border d накопление
Ср. бордюр
5 carbohydrate e граница
Ср. лат. carbo (уголь) + hydro (вода)
6 chart f область
Ср. карта
7 circulation g человек
Ср. циркуляция (движение по кругу)
8 department h число
Ср. департамент
9 elevation i повышение
Ср. элеватор (температуры)
10 experience g случай
Ср. эксперимент
11 matter k растение
Ср. материя
12 number l отдел, отделение
Ср. номер
13 occasion m опыт
Ср. оказия
14 person n кровообращение
Ср. персона

15 plant o вещество, материал


Ср. плантация
16 protection p распространение
Ср. протекция (боли)
17 radiation q обслуживание,
Ср. радиация, излучение уход
18 service r защита
Ср. сервис

Прилагательные (adjectives)

1 separate a первоначальный,
Ср. сепаратор, сепаратизм предварительный
2 initial b постоянный
Ср. инициалы (первые, начальные буквы)
3 constant c отдельный
Ср. константа, постоянная величина

Глаголы (verbs)

1 to accelerate a назначать
Ср. акселератор (у автомобиля – педаль «газ») (лекарство)
2 to accompany b останавливать
Ср. с компанией (группой людей) (кровотечение)
3 to administer (a drug) c ускорять
Ср. администратор (тот, кто назначает, распределяет
обязанности)
4 to arrest (bleeding) d сопровождать
Ср. арестовывать (задерживать, останавливать)
преступника
5 to combine e составлять
Ср. комбинировать
6 to consist f объединять
Ср. консистенция, состав
7 to contain g отмечать
Ср. контейнер
8 to indicate h содержать
Ср. индикатор, указатель
9 to mark i указывать
Ср. маркер (им что-то выделяют, помечают)
10 to multiply j наблюдать
Ср. мультипликация (большое количество картинок)
11 to observe k обучать
Ср. обсерватория
12 to report l сообщать
Ср. рапорт(овать)
13 to train m размножаться
Ср. тренер

Обратите внимание!

Существует немногочисленная группа интернациональных слов (т. н. ложные


друзья переводчика), непосредственный перевод которых ближайшим по
звучанию словом русского языка может привести к ошибке и даже к
искажению смысла предложения.

English Word False Association Real meaning


datum дата данные
блестящий,
brilliant бриллиант
сверкающий
delicate деликатный тонкий, хрупкий
personal персонал личный
accurate аккуратный точный
CHECK YOURSELF

Заполните пропуски в следующих словах подходящими суффиксами и


префиксами.

SUFFIXES PREFIXES
bas… основной …cellular внутриклеточный
brother… братство …dosage передозировка
cellul… клеточный …large увеличиваться
circul… циркулировать …nutrition недоедание
deep… углубляться …organic неорганический
difficult… трудность …appear исчезать
ecolog… эколог …divide подразделять
fam… знаменитый, известный …write переписать
friend… дружба …usual необычный
hope…надеющийся …action взаимодействие
insuffici… недостаточность …hale вдыхать
pass… проход, проток …clude исключать
person… личный …toxic противоядный
press… давление
rapid… быстро
signific… важный, существенный
summar… резюмировать
protect… охрана
classi… классифицировать
compar… сравнимый
connect… соединительный
excite… возбуждение, волнение
grow… рост
magnifi… увеличитель
up… вверх
use… бесполезный
weak… слабость
yellow… желтоватый

РАЗДЕЛ II
SECTION II

АНАТОМИЧЕСКАЯ ЛЕКСИКА
ANATOMICAL VOCABULARY
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

1. Прочтите ключевые слова (KEY WORDS).

arch дуга
arm рука
backbone (spine) позвоночник
body тело
bone кость
breastbone грудина
cartilage хрящ
chest грудная клетка
coccyx копчик
collar-bone ключица
elbow локоть
extremity (limb) конечность
finger палец
foot стопа
forearm предплечье
hand кисть
head голова, головка
jaw челюсть
joint сустав
leg голень
ligament связка
neck шея, шейка
pelvis таз
rib ребро
shoulder girdle плечевой пояс
shoulder-blade лопатка
skeleton скелет
skull череп
thigh (hip) бедро Fig. 1. The Skeleton
thumb большой палец
руки
trunk туловище
upper arm предплечье
vertebra позвонок

2. Найдите слова латинского происхождения (интернационализмы).

3. Проанализируйте структуру сложных слов (разложите на компоненты).

4. Распределите слова по графам:

Parts of the
head trunk upper extremity lower extremity

5. Подберите к словам латинского происхождения английские


эквиваленты.

mandible limb
extremity lower jaw
maxilla collar-bone
clavicle upper jaw
dorsal chest
ventral back
sternum front
scapula shoulder-blade
thorax breastbone

6. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами:

joints body bones rib skeleton vertebra


skull trunk cartilages arch spine

1. The _____ is composed of bones.


2. In the adult the skeleton has over 200 _____.
3. The bones of the _____ consist of cranial and facial parts.
4. The _____ is a small bone, which is formed by the _____ and the _____.
5. The _____ consists of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae and
the coccyx.
6. Each _____ is composed of a head, neck and body.
7. On each side of the chest seven ribs are connected with the breastbone by
_____.
8. The bones of the _____ are the spinal column or the spine and the chest
(ribs and the breastbone).
9. The bones of the skeleton are connected together by the _____ or by the
cartilages and ligaments.

7. Поменяйте местами выделенные слова таким образом, чтобы


описание соответствовало нормальной анатомии. Запишите
полученные предложения.

The lower extremity consists of the upper arm, leg and hand. It is connected
with the trunk by the shoulder girdle. The upper extremity is formed by the
thigh, forearm and pelvis. It is connected with the trunk by the foot.

8. Замените латинские анатомические термины английскими словами.


Обращайте внимание на число существительных. Переведите
предложения.

1. The ossa form the skeleton of the corpus.


2. The most important part of the skeleton is the columna vertebralis.
3. The bones which form the skeleton of the body include the bones of the caput, the
bones of the truncus, the bones of the lower and upper extremitates.
4. At the upper end of the backbone there is the cranium.
5. Among the bones of the head there is a freely movable bone which forms the
mandibula.
6. The bones of the trunk include the spinal column, the costae and the sternum.
7. The arms join the body at the brachium, which itself consists of two bones —
the clavicula in front, and the scapula behind.
8. In the hand there are five long bones — one for each digitus and one for the
pollex.

9. Опишите части тела, используя рис. 1 и следующие выражения:

The skeleton consists of …


The bones of the head include …
The trunk is composed of …
The upper extremity is formed by …
The lower extremity is comprised of …
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

1. Прочтите ключевые слова (KEY WORDS).

abdomen брюшная полость


alimentary пищеварительный
(digestive)
caecum слепая кишка
capacity емкость, объем
colon ободочная кишка
duodenum двенадцатиперстная
кишка
esophagus пищевод
food пища
gallbladder желчный пузырь
hollow полый
ileum подвздошная кишка
small/large тонкий/толстый
intestine кишечник
jejunum тощая кишка
liver печень
mouth рот
membraneous перепончатый
oral cavity ротовая полость
pancreas поджелудочная
железа
pharynx глотка Fig. 2. The digestive system
portion часть, отдел, доля
rectum прямая кишка
hard/soft palate твердое/мягкое небо
salivary gland слюнная железа
stomach желудок
surface поверхность
tongue язык
tube труба, трубка

2. Найдите слова латинского происхождения (интернационализмы).

3. Заполните пропуски в схеме названиями частей пищеварительной


системы.

4. Соотнесите понятия и дефиниции.

1 Tube a a canal extending from the oral cavity to the anus


2 Food b is the same as the oral cavity
3 Portion c a portion of the alimentary tract following the
4 Palate esophagus
5 Tongue d a portion of the alimentary tract following the
6 Gallbladder stomach
7 Stomach e a hollow organ in the human body containing
8 Intestine bile
9 Mouth f a mobile muscular organ placed in one’s mouth
10 Alimentary tract g the upper wall of the mouth cavity
h what people eat in order to grow and stay alive
i a part of something larger
j a canal connecting some organs
b) This organ is pyriform (грушевидный) in shape. It is a dilated portion of
the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the
diaphragm. The liver is above this organ, and the colon is below it. The pancreas
is behind this organ.

6. Подберите существительные из правой колонки к прилагательным из


левой и заполните пропуски полученными словосочетаниями в следующих
предложениях:

salivary intestine
dilated glands
large portion
alimentary intestine
small tract

1. The __________ is a musculomembraneous canal about 8 ½ m (meters) in


length.
2. The soft and hard palates and the __________ are also in the oral cavity.
3. The stomach is a __________ of the alimentary canal.
4. The __________ is a thin-walled muscular tube about 6.5 meters long.
5. The __________ is about 1.5 meters long.

7. Какие части пищеварительной системы подразумеваются в тексте под


выделенными словами?

The Structure of the Alimentary Tract


This tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,
and large intestine. The liver with gallbladder and pancreas are the large glands of
this tract.
The first division of this tract is formed by it. Important structures of it are the
teeth and the tongue, which is the organ of taste (вкуса). From it food passes
through this place to the tube and then to that place.
That place is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. It
measures about 21-25 cm in length, 8-9 cm in its greatest diameter. It has a
capacity of from 2.14 to 4.28 1 (liters).
This muscular tube is located in the lower and central portions of the
abdominal and pelvic cavities. It is composed of the duodenum, jejunum and
ileum.
This portion is divided into caecum, colon and rectum.
This gland is the largest gland in the human body. It is in the right upper
part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. This gland is in the right side
of the abdomen. Its weight is 1,500 g.
This bile reservoir is a hollow sac (мешок) lying on the lower surface of the
liver.
Another gland is a long thin gland lying under and behind the stomach.

1. This - ……….. 6. This muscular tube - ………..


2. it - ……….. 7. This portion - ………..
3. this place - ……….. 8. This gland - ………..
4. the tube - ……….. 9. This bile reservoir - ………..
5. that place - ……….. 10. Another gland - ………..

8. Замените латинские анатомические термины английскими словами.


Обращайте внимание на число существительных. Переведите
предложения.

1. The os is situated on one’s face below the nose.


2. The patient’s lingua was coated.
3. The gaster serves as a container of food.
4. The hepar secretes bile which participates in the digestive process and has a
defensive function.
5. The vesica biliaris serves as a bile reservoir.

9. Вспомните, в какой последовательности располагаются части


пищеварительной системы и составьте микродиалоги по следующей
модели:

А: What comes after the oral cavity?


В: Pharynx comes after the oral cavity.
A: What comes below the pharynx?
В: ……………………………………
THE URINARY SYSTEM

1. Прочтите ключевые слова (KEY WORDS).

adipose capsule жировая капсула


apex вершина
bean-shaped бобовидной формы
bladder мочевой пузырь
capacity емкость, объем
coating оболочка, слой
connective tissue соединительная ткань
cover покрывать
excrete выделять
fibrous capsule волокнистая капсула
fluid жидкость
fold складка
fundus дно
hilus ворота органа
kidney почка
margin край
membrane оболочка, пленка
metabolism обмен веществ
mucous слизистый
parenchyma паренхима
perirenal fat околопочечный жир
peristaltic перистальтический
renal pelvis почечная лоханка
solid твердое вещество
surround окружать Fig. 3. The urinary system
ureter мочеточник
urethra мочеиспускат. канал
urinary мочевой
urine моча
wall стенка
waste products продукты распада

2. Найдите слова латинского происхождения (интернационализмы).

3. Проанализируйте структуру сложных слов (разложите на компоненты).

4. Распределите слова по графам:

существительны прилагательные глаголы


е
5. Соотнесите понятия и дефиниции.

The urinary a tube that leads from the bladder.


system
Kidneys the organ, along which the urine is passed out of the body.
The ureter a tube from each kidney which conveys the urine to the
bladder.
The bladder a pair of glands separating fluid and certain solids from the
blood.
The urethra the system which excretes fluid waste products of the body.

6. Подберите определение из левой колонки к существительному из правой


и заполните пропуски полученными словосочетаниями в следующих
предложениях:

adipose organs
bean-shaped capsule
perirenal products
fibrous fat
waste capsule
peristaltic tissue
connective movements

1. The connective tissue membrane which directly adheres to the kidney is called
the _______.
2. The fibrous capsule is surrounded by _______ and is called the _______.
3. The kidneys are two _______.
4. The kidneys contain one million small tubes, which excrete _______.
5. The wall of the bladder consists of three coatings — mucous, muscular and
_______.
6. As the muscular coat of the ureter contracts it performs _______.

7. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами.


bladder folds coatings kidneys fundus capacity apex wall

From _____ urine passes to the _____ which serves as a reservoir. It is situated in
the cavity of the pelvis. It has three parts: the superior part or _____, the middle part or
body, and the inferior part or _____. The _____ of the bladder consists of three
_____ — mucous, muscular and connective tissue. The mucous membrane of the
bladder forms numerous _____. If the bladder fills, the folds of the mucous coat will
straighten out. The _____ of the bladder of an adult is about 350—500 ml.

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

1. Прочтите ключевые слова (KEY WORDS).

apex верхушка
atrium предсердие
base основание
blood кровь
cardiovascular сердечно-
сосудистый
carry нести (кровь)
chamber камера
coat оболочка
contract сокращаться
dilate расширяться
entrance вход
exit выход
band пучок
heart сердце
hollow полый
inner внутренний
part часть
place размещать
separate отделять,
отдельный
septum перегородка
Fig. 4. The heart
simultaneously одновременно
thick толстый
tissue ткань
tricuspid трехстворчатый
valve клапан
vascular сосудистый
vein вена
ventricle желудочек
vessel сосуд
wall стенка

2. Прочтите и переведите следующие интернациональные слова.

aorta, artery, capillary, interventricular, mitral, pericardium, portal, pulmonary,


vena cava

5. Рассмотрите рис. 4 и заполните пропуски:

In its structure the ……. has the following parts:

the largest artery called …….;

the ……. artery which braches (разветвляется) into


1. …….,
2. …….;
two vanae cavae:
1. …….,
2. …….;
two atria:
1. …….,
2. …….;
four valves:
1. …….,
2. …….,
3. …….,
4. …….;
and two ventricles:
1. …….,
2. ……..
The ventricles are divided by the interventricular ……. .

4. Составьте предложения, подбирая их части в левой и правой колонках.

1 The heart is an inner hollow a the atria from the ventricles.


muscular organ
2 The heart consists of two separate b at the entrance and exit of each
chambers ventricle.
3 Each of the chambers has two c arteries, veins and capillaries.
connected parts:
4 The atrioventricular valves separate d placed within the chest and included
in the pericardium.
5 The valves are located i simultaneously with the action of
the heart.
6 The vascular system consists of f the atrium and the ventricle.
three groups of vessels:
7 The arteries dilate and contract g divided by the septum.

5. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами:


vessels coats pulmonary heart apex tissues
base veins fibrous bands

1. The _____ of the heart is against the third rib.


2. Its _____ is against the interspace between the fifth and sixth costal cartilages.
3. The weight of the _____ is about 300 grams (gr) in the male and about 220 gr in
the female.
4. The muscular structure of the heart consists of _____ _____ divided into two
groups — the first ones are the fibrous bands of the atria and the second ones are
the fibrous bands of the ventricles.
5. The _____ carrying blood to and from the _____ of the body compose the
general system. They are called the systemic vessels.
6. The _____ system is formed by the vessels carrying blood to and from the
lungs.
7. The portal system is formed by the _____ passing to the liver.
8. Most of the arteries are composed of three _____ .

6. Вместо каких частей сердечно-сосудистой системы в следующем тексте


используются слова-заместители?

The right atrium is larger than the left (1) one, but the walls of the left
atrium are thicker than (2)those of the right (3)one. The right ventricle is triangular
in form and has thick walls. The right ventricle is in the anterior part of the
heart. The left ventricle is longer and more conical than the right (4)one. The
walls of the left ventricle are three times as thick as the walls of the right (5)one.

(1) – …….
(2) – …….
(3) – …….
(4) – …….
(5) – …….
7. Замените латинские анатомические термины английскими словами.
Обращайте внимание на число существительных. Переведите
предложения.

1. The centre of the vascular system is the cor.


2. The basis of the heart is situated near the third rib.
3. Arteries are those vasa witch carry away blood from the heart towards other
organs.
4. The larger vessels the thicker their parietes.
5. The sanguis returns to the heart by means of venae.
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

1. Прочтите ключевые слова (KEY WORDS).

cavity полость
cilium ресница
coat оболочка
convex выпуклый
cover покрывать
dark темный
heavy тяжелый
laryngeal гортанные миндалины
tonsils
layer слой
line выстилать
lobe доля
lung легкое
mediastinum средостение
minute мельчайший
mucus слизь
nasopharynx носоглотка
nose нос
nostril ноздря
pale бледный
passage-way проход, воздухоносный
путь
respiratory дыхательный
shape форма
subserous подсерозный Fig. 5. The Respiratory System
surface поверхность
vital capacity жизненная емкость
voice box гортань
weight вес
windpipe дыхательное горло

2. Найдите слова латинского происхождения.

3. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова. Помните, что многие (но не все!)


существительные, заимствованные из латинского и греческого языков,
сохраняют форму множественного числа этих языков.

alveolus (pl. alveoli), bronchus (pl. bronchi), bronchiole, cilium (pl. cilia),
diaphragm, trachea, parenchyma, pleura (pl. pleurae)

4. Проанализируйте структуру сложных слов (разложите на компоненты).

5. Приведите два русских эквивалента разного происхождения.

respiratory респираторны дыхательны


й й
lateral
serous
sinus
visceral

6. Подберите к словам латинского происхождения английские


эквиваленты.
trachea voice box
cilium windpipe
pharynx hair
larynx oral cavity

7. Изучите диаграмму и заполните пропуски словами: left, right, two lobes


и three lobes.

The lobes of the lungs


The … lung consisting of … is
heavier than the …one because
the latter consists only of … .

Fig. 6. Diagram of lungs


8. Соотнесите понятия и определения.

1 laryngeal a sticky (вязкий) secretion that lines the mouth, nasal


tonsils passages, pharynx and trachea.
2 sinuses b a double-walled membrane which surrounds the lungs.
3 pleura c hairs in the nostrils that partially filter out dust particles.
4 mucus d masses of tissue in the nasopharynx or posterior portions of
the nasal passages.
5 cilia e cavities in the bones in the front part of the skull that
provide resonance to the voice.

9. Составьте утвердительные предложения из данных слов, расположив их


в нужном порядке. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

The Lungs

1. the main organs/are/of the respiratory system/the lungs


2. the mediastinum/are separated/by/they/from each other
3. the pleura/are covered/the lungs/with
4. are/shape/conical/in/they
5. of /the weight/the lungs/according to/varies/many conditions

10. Переведите заключенные в скобки словосочетания, используя слова в


рамке. Затем переведите полученные предложения.

subserous convex vital pale colour coat cavities


visceral lateral layer capacity tissue surface rose serous

1. There are two lungs in the human body located in the (боковые полости) of
the chest.
2. The base of the lung is located in the (выпуклая поверхность) of the
diaphragm.
3. The (жизненная емкость) of the lungs is 3.5-4 liters in the male and it is
3-3.5 liters in the female.
4. In infants the lungs are of a (бледно-розовый цвет), but later they become
darker.
5. The structure of the lung consists of an external ( серозная оболочка) , the
(внутренний слой) of the pleura, elastic (подсерозная ткань) and the
parenchyma or proper substance of the lungs.

11. Заполните пропуски в тексте подходящими словами.


lung pharynx minute nose trachea bronchi alveoli
bronchioles larynx tiny

Air is breathed through either the mouth or (1)… into the oral cavity, or (2)… . It
then passes through the voice box, or (3)…, into the windpipe, or (4)… . The trachea
divides into two smaller tubes, (5)…, one is going to each (6)… . The bronchi divide
into (7)… passage-ways that are named (8)…, which lead directly to (9)…air sacs,
or (10)… . The exchange of life-giving gases is effected through the walls of the
alveoli.

12. Ответьте на следующие вопросы, используя знания латыни.

1. What is the English for pulmo?


2. What is the English for lobus?
3. What is the English for nasus?
4. What is the English for cavitas?
5. What is the English for facies?
CHECK YOURSELF

Заполните пропуски в следующих текстах подходящими словами.

The Skeleton
bones chest shoulder girdle
breastbone joints skull
hand ligaments trunk
thigh ribs vertebra
The skeleton is composed of (1). In the adult the skeleton has over 200 bones.
The bones of the (2) consist of cranial and facial parts. There are 26 bones in
the skull.
The bones of the (3) are the spinal column or the spine and the chest (ribs
and the breastbone). The spine consists of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and
sacral vertebrae and the coccyx.
The (4) is a small bone, which is formed by the body and the arch. All the
vertebrae compose the spinal column or the spine. There are 32 or 34
vertebrae in the spine of the adult. In the spinal column there are seven
cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar, five sacral vertebrae
and from one to five vertebrae which form the coccyx. The cervical part of the
spine is formed by seven cervical vertebrae. Twelve thoracic vertebrae have large
bodies. The lumbar vertebrae are the largest vertebrae in the spinal column.
They have oval bodies.
The (5) (thorax) is composed of 12 thoracic vertebrae, the (6) and 12 pairs
(пap) of (7) . The breastbone is a long bone in the middle of the chest. I t is
composed of three main parts. The basic part of the chest is formed by the ribs.
On each side of the chest seven ribs are connected with the breastbone by
cartilages. The cartilages of three other ribs are connected with each other and with
the seventh rib. But the cartilages of these ribs are not connect ed with the
breastbone. The eleventh and the twelfth ribs are not connected with the
breastbone either. They are not connected with other ribs, they are free. Each
rib is composed of a head, neck and body.
The lower extremity consists of the (8), leg and foot. It is connected with the
trunk by the pelvis. The upper extremity is formed by the arm, forearm and (9).
It is connected with the trunk by the (10).
The bones of the skeleton are connected together by the (11) or by the
cartilages and (12). The bones consist of organic and inorganic substance.

The Digestive System

esophagus mouth small intestine


gallbladder pancreas stomach
large intestine pharynx tongue
liver salivary
The alimentary tract is a musculomembraneous canal about 8,5 m (meters) in
length. It extends from the oral cavity to the anus. It consists of the mouth, pharynx,
esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The liver with gallbladder
and pancreas are the large glands of the alimentary tract.
The first division of the alimentary tract is formed by the (1). Important
structures of the mouth are the teeth and the (2), which is the organ of taste
(вкуса). The soft and hard palates and the (3) glands are also in the oral cavity.
From the mouth food passes through the (4) to the (5) and then to the stomach.
The (6) is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the
abdomen under the diaphragm. It measures about 21-25 cm in length, 8-9 cm in
its greatest diameter. It has a capacity of from 2.14 to 4.28 1 (liters).
The (7) is a thin-walled muscular tube about 6.5 meters long. It is located in
the lower and central portions of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The small
intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum
The (8) is about 1.5 meters long. It is divided into caecum, colon and
rectum.
The (9) is the largest gland in the human body. It is in the right upper part
of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The liver is in the right side of
the abdomen. The weight of the liver is 1,500 g.
The (10) is a hollow sac (мешок) lying on the lower surface of the liver.
The (11) is a long thin gland lying under and behind the stomach.

The Urinary System


adipose folds ureters
bladder hilus urethra
capacity kidneys urine
excretes tubes waste products
The urinary system is the system which (1) the largest part of the (2) of the body.
It consists of the (3), right and left, the (4), a tube from each kidney which conveys
the urine to the (5), the (6), a tube that leads from the bladder, along which the
urine is passed out of the body.
The kidneys («renes» — Latin) are placed one on each side in the lumbar region
of the spine, on the posterior abdominal wall, at the level of the twelfth thoracic
and first-second lumbar vertebrae. A kidney weighs about 150 grams and is
covered by membranes. The connective tissue membrane which directly adheres
to the kidney is called the fibrous capsule. This capsule is surrounded by perirenal
fat and is called the (7) capsule. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs. The
kidneys contain one million small (8), which have to excrete products of metabolism
and control the concentrations of most of the constituents of body fluids. These small
tubules make up the parenchyma of the kidney. They are very fine and may be of
various shape. Since dissolved wastes may be excreted by diffusion through the various
cell membranes there is little evidence that such excretion occurs.
The inner margin of the kidney is known as the (9). At the hilus the ureter which
conveys urine is a tube about 30 cm long. When the ureter leaves the hilus it
descends along the posterior abdominal wall into the cavity of the pelvis where it
perforates the wall of the bladder and opens into its cavity. As the muscular coat of
the ureter contracts it has to perform peristaltic movements.
The bladder is a reservoir for (10). It is situated in the cavity of the pelvis. The
bladder has three parts: the superior part or apex, the middle part or body, and the
inferior part or fundus. The wall of the bladder consists of three coatings —
mucous, muscular and connective tissue. The mucous membrane of the bladder
forms numerous (11). If the bladder fills, the folds of the mucous coat will straighten
out. The muscular coat consists of three layers of smooth muscles which are able to
extend in different directions. It should be known that the (12) of the bladder of an
adult is about 350—500 ml.

The Cardiovascular System


atrium heart portal
chambers lungs valves
coats pericardium veins
The (1) is an inner hollow muscular organ placed within the chest and
included in the (2). The base of the heart is against the third rib. Its apex is
against the interspace between the fifth and sixth costal cartilages. The weight of
the heart is about 300 grams (gr) in the male and about 220 gr in the female.
The heart consists of two separate (3) divided by the septum. Each of the
chambers has two connected parts: the (4) and the ventricle. The atrioventricular
(5) separate the atria from the ventricles.
The right atrium is larger than the left one, but the walls of the left atrium
are thicker than those of the right one. The right ventricle is triangular in form and
has thick walls. The right ventricle is in the anterior part of the heart. The left
ventricle is longer and more conical than the right one. The walls of the left
ventricle are three times as thick as the walls of the right one. The valves are
located at the entrance and exit of each ventricle.
The muscular structure of the heart consists of fibrous bands divided into
two groups — the first ones are the fibrous bands of the atria and the second
ones are the fibrous bands of the ventricles.
The vascular system consists of three groups of vessels - arteries , (6) and
capillaries.
The vessels carrying blood to and from the tissues of the body compose
tne general system. They are called the systemic vessels.
The pulmonary system is formed by the vessels carrying blood to and from
the (7).
The (8) system is formed by the veins passing to the liver.
Most of the arteries are composed of three (9). The arteries dilate and
contract simultaneously with the action of the heart.

The Respiratory System


diaphragm lobes substance
lungs respiratory system vital capacity
mediastinum serous coat weight
pleura

The (1) are the main organs of the (2). There are two lungs in the human body
located in the lateral cavities of the chest. The lungs are separated from each
other by the (3). The lungs are covered with the (4). They are conical in shape.
Each lung has the base, apex, two borders and three surfaces.
The lung has the apex extending upward 3-4 centimetres (cm) above the
level of the first rib.
The base of the lung is located in the convex surface of the (5).
The posterior borders of the lungs are on each side of the spinal column. The
anterior border is thin and overlaps (частично покрывает) the pericardium.
The (6) of the lungs varies according to many conditions. In the adult male it
may be about 1,350 gr. The right lung is about 15% heavier than the left one.
The (7) of the lungs is 3.5-4 liters in the male and it is 3-3.5 liters in the
female.
The right lung consisting of three (8) is heavier than the left one because the
latter consists only of two lobes. The lower lobe of the left lung is larger than
the upper one.
In infants the lungs are of a pale rose colour, but later they become darker.
The structure of the lung consists of an external (9), the visceral layer of the
pleura, a subserous elastic tissue and the parenchyma or proper (10) of the lungs.
РАЗДЕЛ III
SECTION III

КЛИНИЧЕСКАЯ ЛЕКСИКА
CLINICAL VOCABULARY
ЧАСТИ РЕЧИ
(PARTS OF SPEECH)

NOUNS

1. Заполните пропуски подходящими существительными:

accident несчастный случай, катастрофа, авария


ambulance машина скорой помощи
complication осложнение
consent согласие
cure лекарство, средство
examination обследование
excess избыток
improvement улучшение
injection инъекция
intolerance непереносимость
obesity ожирение
operation операция
overdose передозировка
pain боль
prescription рецепт
referral направление
side-effects побочные эффекты
tissue ткань
treatment лечение
withdrawal отмена (лечения)

1. I made a full … of the patient.


2. I wrote a … for a course of antibiotics.
3. She took a course of steroid … .
4. She went into a coma after an … of heroin.
5. The … in his knee is so great that he can hardly walk.
6. The …was performed immediately.
7. The doctor gave him an … to relieve the pain.
8. He developed … to Novocain.
9. The injured man was taken away in an … .
10.This painkiller has no harmful … .
11.The parents gave their … for their son’s liver to be used in the transplant
operation.
12.The patient was given a … to a specialist.
13.There has been a … in his condition.
14.There is a tendency to … in his family.
15.There is no … for this disease.
16.There was a … in the patient’s condition two hours ago, but he is getting
better now.
17.There was an …of sugar in the blood sample.
18.This is the time for the … of the drugs treatment.
19.We found an infection in the … .
20.Yesterday two people were injured in the … on the motorway.

VERBS

2. Заполните пропуски подходящими глаголами в форме Past Indefinite


или Past Participle (V+ed):

consult консультироваться
cure излечивать, исцелять
diagnose ставить диагноз
disinfect дезинфицировать
improve улучшать(ся)
increase увеличивать(ся)
mix смешивать
notice замечать
operate оперировать
precede предшествовать
prescribe выписывать (рецепт и т.п.)
prevent предотвращать
probe зондировать, исследовать, опробовать
recover выздоравливать
replace заменять, замещать
sneeze чихать
sterilize стерилизовать
suffer страдать, переносить (заболевание)
treat лечить
vaccinat делать прививку
e

1. He … a specialist, who recommended surgery.


2. He was completely … .
3. Her condition …, so we reduced the dose.
4. His pulse rate … by 10%.
5. Nobody … that the patient's blood pressure had dropped.
6. She was … against smallpox as a child.
7. She was … by a heart specialist.
8. The attack was … by a rise in body temperature.
9. The doctor … a course of antibiotics.
10.The doctor … him as having hepatitis B.
11. The doctor's speedy action … further complications.
12.The nurse … and dressed the wound.
13.The patient coughed and … all through the consultation.
14.The pharmacist … the chemicals in this bottle.
15.The surgeon … the wound with a scalpel.
16.The surgeons … her hip with a metal one.
17.The surgeons … immediately on the child.
18.The surgical instruments were … before use.
19.This patient … pneumonia last year.
20.He … fully after the course of antibiotics.

3. Заполните пропуски подходящими глаголами в форме Present


Indefinite (V+(e)s):

analyze анализировать
beat бить(ся)
catch заражаться
control сдерживать (боль)
cough кашлять
counteract препятствовать, противодействовать
lack нахватать, недоставать ч.-л.
recommend рекомендовать
reduce сокращать(ся), уменьшать(ся)
regulate регулировать
release выделять, выпускать
relieve облегчать (боль)
sleep спать
suppress подавлять

1. A person whose resistance is low … diseases more easily.


2. He then … a course of treatment and prescribes any necessary drugs.
3. If the patient … well, he wakes feeling refreshed.
4. Their diet … essential proteins.
5. She suffers constant pain and … it by using morphine.
6. The drug … he body's natural instinct to reject the transplanted tissue.
7. The gland … hormones into the bloodstream, causing an immediate reaction.
8. The laboratory … the blood samples and then the doctor examines the results
and diagnoses the condition.
9. The patient breathes with difficulty and … and sneezes constantly.
10.The sinoatrial node … the heart beat.
11.This drug helps to alleviate the symptoms and … the risk of reinfection.
12.This drug relaxes the muscles and … pain.
13.This treatment … he effects of the infection.
14.When someone panics his heart … more rapidly and his temperature rises.

ADJECTIVES

4. Заполните пропуски подходящими прилагательными.

deaf глухой
delicate тонкий
exhausted истощенный, изнуренный
infirm немощный, больной, слабый
inoperable неоперабельный
invisible невидимый
lame хромой, увечный
lethal смертельный
poisonous ядовитый
predisposed предрасположенный

1. All the members of his family are … to vascular diseases.


2. He has been …since damaging his leg in the accident.
3. My grandfather is quite … now.
4. Some mushrooms are good to eat and some are … .
5. The bones of a baby's skull are very … .
6. The microbes are … to the naked eye, but can clearly be seen under a
microscope.
7. The patient was … after the second operation.
8. The surgeon decided that the cancer was … .
9. These fumes are … if inhaled.
10.You have to speak slowly and clearly when you speak to Mr. Jones because
he’s quite … .

5. В каждом из данных предложений пропущено прилагательное,


указанное в скобках. Найдите место в предложении, на котором оно
должно стоять.

1. A outbreak of whooping cough occurred during the winter. (severe – зд.


масштабный)
2. Cholera spread rapidly because of the conditions in the town. (unsanitary -
антисанитарный)
3. He has an desire to steal small objects. (obsessive - навязчивый)
4. He was advised to make visits to the dentist. (regular - регулярный)
5. She suffered from a cough. (persistent - стойкий)
6. The body has an tendency to reject transplanted organs. (inborn -
врожденный)
7. The psychiatrist gave a opinion on the patient’s problem. (subjective -
субъективный)
8. The surgeons are trying to find a donor with a blood group. (compatible –
совместимый)
9. The tumour is in an position for surgery. (awkward - неудобный)
10.This is a painkiller, with no harmful side-effects. (safe - безопасный)

ADVERBS

6. Заполните пропуски подходящими наречиями:

awkwardly неудобно (о расположении)


efficiently рационально, квалифицированно, эффективно
excessively избыточно, чрезмерно
fairly довольно, четко, ясно, отчетливо
immediately сразу, непосредственно, тотчас же
loosely свободно, нежестко, без сцепления
medicinally в лечебных целях
mentally интеллектуально
mildly мягко, умеренно
physically физически, телесно
severely очень, сильно, весьма
urgently крайне, срочно, неотложно

1. He became ill … after he came back from holiday.


2. …, she is very advanced for her age.
3. He has been working as a doctor only for a … short time.
4. Her breathing was … affected.
5. … he is very weak, but his mind is still alert.
6. If the patient sweats …, it may be necessary to cool his body with cold
compresses.
7. She manages all her patients very ….
8. The bandage was … tied around her wrist.
9. The herb can be used ….
10.The relief team … requires more medical supplies.
11.The tumour is … placed and not easy to reach.
12.This is a … antiseptic solution.
СИНОНИМЫ
(SYNONYMS)

1. Выберите правильный вариант из пар синонимов.

1. The patient’s general condition has been (improving/recovering) gradually since he


was administered streptomycin injections.
2. The most characteristic symptoms of primary tuberculosis such as loss of appetite
and weight, short periods of fever and slow growth have been (developing/producing) in a
child since the age of two.
3. As the patient’s temperature had been (enlarging/elevating) constantly since he was
admitted to the hospital he had to follow a bed regimen.
4. When does the physician (expect, wait for) to discharge this patient from the
hospital?
5. Please (wait for, expect) the doctor a little. He will be back soon.
6. The scientist (expected, waited for) that his investigations would enable him to
determine the origin of the infectious process.

2. Замените выделенные слова близкими по смыслу словами и


словосочетаниями:

1. Fever is one of the permanent symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis.


a) changeable
b) constant
2. In the presence of inflammation the discharge from the wound is usually
purulent.
a) clear
b) contains pus
3. Permanent fever is often accompanied by loss of appetite and fatigue.
a) temperature
b) malaise
4. Within the thoracic cavity the pressure is lower than the atmospheric one.
a) higher
b) less
5. In our country prophylactic vaccination is carried out against a number of
infectious diseases.
a) preventive
b) supportive
6. Before making a blood transfusion the blood group is to be determined.
a) to be obtained
b) to be established
7. Jaundice may result from the impairment of the common bile duct.
a) to be due to
b) to result in
8. The pain was stated to radiate to the left arm and shoulder.
a) to spread to
b) to lead to
9. The temperature was known to have risen suddenly at the onset of the attack.
a) to have decreased
b) to have elevated
10. The incidence of this disease varies in different age groups.
a) changes
b) exchanges
АНТОНИМЫ
(ANTONYMS)

1. Выберите правильный вариант из пар антонимов (обратите


внимание на образование слов с противоположным значением при
помощи префиксов):

acute острый chronic хронический


alive живой dead мертвый
back задняя сторона front передняя сторона
consсious находящийся в unсonsсious без сознания,
сознании, в обмороке
сознательный
curable излечимый incurable неизлечимый
deteriorate ухудшаться improve улучшаться
fit находящийся в unfit находящийся в плохой
хорошей форме
форме (о физическом
состоянии)
ill больной healthy здоровый
increase увеличиваться decrease уменьшаться
malignant злокачественный benign доброкачественный
open открытый closed закрытый
pasteurized пастеризованный unpasteurized непастеризованный
regular регулярный, irregular нерегулярный,
равномерный неравномерный
rough грубый smooth гладкий
sanitary санитарный, unsanitary негигиеничный,
гигиенический антисанитарный
stable стабильный unstable нестабильный
well хорошо unwell плохо

1. Cholera spread rapidly because of the sanitary/unsanitary conditions in the


town.
2. He became excited, causing his pulse rate to increase/decrease.
3. He felt well/unwell and had to go home.
4. He is suffering from an curable/ incurable disease of the blood.
5. He was found сonsсious/unсonsсious in the street.
6. He was very ill, but now his condition has begun to deteriorate/improve.
7. Pasteurized/Unpasteurized milk can carry bacilli.
8. She had an acute/chronic attack of shingles.
9. She put cream on her hands, which were rough/smooth from heavy work.
10.She used to play a lot of football, but she became fit/unfit in the winter.
11.The calf muscles are at the back/front of the lower leg.
12.The doctor arrived too late: the patient was already alive/dead.
13.The hospital is open/closed to visitors from three to five o’clock only.
14.The nurse noted that the patient had developed an regular/irregular pulse.
15.The patient was showing signs of an stable/unstable mental condition.
16.The tumour is malignant/benign and so may reappear even if removed
surgically.
17.There’s nothing wrong with you: you're completely ill/healthy.

2. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. In the presence of anaemia the red blood cell count is considerably … .


a) increased
b) reduced
2. The shadow at the base of the left lung was particularly marked due to the … of the
lymphatic glands.
a) enlargement
b) decrease
3. … forms of lobular pneumonia are difficult to differentiate from pulmonary
tuberculosis and pleurisy.
a) Mild
b) Severe
4. Luminal and bromide were prescribed to the patient … his sleep.
a) to improve
b) to impair
5. As the condition of the patient had been gradually improving his temperature …
considerably.
a) reduced
b) rose
6. Severe attacks of angina pectoris are accompanied by … pain radiating down the
arm.
a) sharp
b) moderate
7. If the patient is suffering from rheumatic endocarditis his pulse becomes … on
physical exertion.
a) accelerated
b) slow
8. Partial arrest of blood circulation often results in … to brain cells.
a) the recovery
b) the damage
9. … tumours are known to cause numerous metastases involving various internal
organs.
a) Malignant
b) Benign
МЕДИЦИНСКИЕ ИНСТРУМЕНТЫ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ
(MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT)

Заполните пропуски в предложениях названиями медицинских


инструментов и оборудования.

bandage повязка scalpel скальпель


catheter катетер sling поддерживающая повязка
curette кюретажная splint лонгета, шина
ложка
drain дренаж stethoscope стетоскоп
forceps зажим, пинцет stretcher носилки
gag роторасширитель syringe шприц
hook крючок thermometer термометр
pipette пипетка tourniquet кровоостанавл. жгут
probe зонд, буж wheelchair кресло-каляска

1. A small, sharp, pointed knife used in surgery is called …


2. A device used to constrict an artery and reduce the flow of blood is called …
3. A device with two earpieces connected to a tube and a metal disc, used to
listen to sounds made inside the body is called …
4. A folding bed with handles, on which an injured person can be carried by two
people, is called …
5. A piece of cloth which is wrapped around a wound or an injured limb is
called …
6. A chair with wheels in which an invalid can sit and move around is called …
7. A stiff support attached to a limb to prevent a broken bone from moving is
called …
8. A thin glass tube used for taking and measuring samples of liquid is called …
9. A triangular bandage attached around the neck, used to support an injured arm
and prevent it from moving is called …
10.A tube used to remove liquid from the body or the site of an operation is
called …
11.A tube which is passed into the body along one of the passages is called …
12.A tube with a plunger which slides down inside it, forcing the contents out
through a needle, or slides up the tube, allowing a liquid to be sucked into it is
called …
13.An instrument for measuring temperature is called …
14.An instrument like a long thin spoon, used for scraping the inside of an organ
is called …
15.An instrument similar to a pair of scissors, used for holding and pulling is
called …
16.An instrument used to explore inside a cavity or wound is called …
17. An instrument which is placed between a patient’s teeth to stop him
closing his mouth is called …
18.An instrument with a bent end, used for holding structures apart in operations
is called …
МЕДИЦИНСКИЕ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ
(MEDICAL SPECIALITIES)

Подберите определения к названиям медицинских специальностей.

dentist a physician who treats the diseases of the nervous system


therapeutist a specialist who treats the diseases of the inner organs
infectiologist a medical adviser who makes X-ray examinations and
describes X-ray films
neurologist a doctor who treats our teeth
cardiologist a doctor who treats mental disturbances
roentgenologist a medical specialist who works in the field of infectious
diseases
psychiatrist a physician who treats cardiac diseases
physiologist a doctor who operates on patients
general practitioner a scientist who works in the field of physiology
(GP)
surgeon a doctor who treats different diseases and performs
operations
ПОВСЕДНЕВНАЯ РАБОТА ВРАЧА
(A DOCTOR’S DAILY ROUTINE)

Заполните пропуски в следующем тексте подходящими словами.


patients depressed
treatment blood pressure disease
prescribes chemist
examines surgery nurse
chest prescription

When people have some problems like being (1) or having lost appetite, they
go to see the doctor in his (2). Every doctor has a (3) to help him. When the doctor
sees (4) in his surgery, first he listens to their problems, then he (5) them. He takes
the patient’s temperature, listens to his (6), looks in his ears, eyes, takes his (7). Then,
if the (8) isn’t so serious, he (9) some medicine. Later the patient will take the (10)
to the (11). If something is seriously wrong with the patient, the doctor sends him
to hospital for (12).
ЗАБОЛЕВАНИЯ
(DISEASES)

1. Прочтите английские названия заболеваний и их русские


эквиваленты.

Acquired immunodeficiency синдром приобретенного


syndrome (AIDS) иммунного дефицита
(СПИД)
Acute bronchitis острый бронхит
Acute pyelonephritis острый пиелонефрит
Allergic rhinitis аллергический ринит
Angina pectoris стенокардия
Atherosclerosis атеросклероз
Bronchial asthma бронхиальная астма
Cataract катаракта
Cerebral palsy церебральный паралич
Cholera холера
Chronic cholecystitis хронический холецистит
Cirrhosis цирроз
Congestive heart failure застойная сердечная недостаточность
Contact dermatitis контактный дерматит
Coryza насморк
Cystic fibrosis кистозный фиброз
Diphtheria дифтерия
Epilepsy эпилепсия
Gangrene гангрена
Gastric ulcer язва желудка
Gastroenteritis гастроэнтерит
Glaucoma глаукома
Hypertension гипертензия
Infectious parotitis инфекционный паротит
Influenza грипп
Laryngitis ларингит
Malaria малярия
Otitis отит
Parkinson's disease болезнь Паркинсона
Pertussis коклюш
Pharyngitis фарингит
Pneumonia пневмония
Proctitis проктит
Rubella краснуха
Rubeola корь
Tonsilitis тонзиллит
Tuberculosis туберкулез
Varicella оспа

2. Объясните значения следующих терминов.

bronchitis, pyelonephritis, rhinitis, atherosclerosis, cholecystitis, dermatitis, fibrosis,


gastroenteritis, hypertension, parotitis, laryngitis, otitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia,
proctitis, tonsillitis

3. Распределите названия патологических явлений в приведенной


таблице.

DISEASES INFLAMMATIONS
(Заболевания) (Воспаления)

4. Подберите дефиницию к каждому патологическому явлению.

a tropical, recurrent disease caused by a parasite


Plasmodium which enters the body after a bite from
1 Acute bronchitis a the female anopheles mosquito. The disease produces
shivering, vomiting, sweating, headaches and
anemia.
a condition where tissues die and decay as a result of
Acute
2 b bacterial action because the blood supply has been
pyelonephritis
lost through injury or disease of the artery.
Acquired an acute inflammatory condition of the lung caused
3 immunodeficiency c by bacteria and marked by formation of an exudate
syndrome (AIDS) in the lung tissue.
elevation of systolic and/or diastolic pressure, either
4 Atherosclerosis d
primary or secondary.
5 Cholera e a chronic inflammatory reaction of the gallbladder.
the disorganization of liver architecture by
Chronic
6 f widespread fibrosis and nodule formation,
cholecystitis
characterized by impaired liver function.
an acute, diffuse, often bilateral, pyrogenic infection
7 Cirrhosis g
of kidney.
Pulmonary an arterial lesion characterized by initial thickening
8 h
tuberculosis due to localized accumulation of lipids.
9 Gangrene i an acute inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree.
an infectious viral disease of the upper respiratory
10 Gastroenteritis j tract occurring in epidemics and characterized by
fever, malaise and muscular aches.
an infectious disease, caught by breathing in germs,
in which infected lumps form in the lung tissue.
11 Hypertension k
Patients, suffering this disease, lose weight, cough
blood and have a fever.
a viral disease spread mostly by sexual intercourse
and also transmitted through infected blood
transfusions and through using unsterilized needles
12 Influenza l
for injections. It causes a breakdown of the body’s
immune system, making the patient susceptible to
any infection.
a condition where the lens of the eye gradually
13 Malaria m
becomes hard and opaque.
an inflammation of the membrane lining the
14 Pneumonia n intestines and the stomach, caused by a viral
infection, and resulting in vomiting and diarrhea.
a bacterial disease spread through infected water or
Cataract food. The infected person suffers from diarrhea and
15 o
dehydration. The disease occurs in epidemics and is
often fatal.
СИМПТОМЫ
(SYMPTOMS)

1. Ознакомьтесь с названиями симптомов и распределите их в


следующей таблице:

SYMPTOMS
Cardiovascula Respirator Gastrointestina Central Nervous
Allergic Others
r y l System

abnormal faeces аномальный кал


ache боль
allergic reaction аллергическая реакция
arterial insufficiency артериальная недостаточность
burning жжение
constipation запор
cough кашель
cramp судорога
decreased appetite снижение аппетита
dehydration обезвоживание
diarrhea диарея, понос
difficulty in speaking затрудненность речи
discomfort дискомфорт, неудобство
distress боль, недомогание
dizziness головокружение
dyspnea одышка
edema отек
fast/irregular heartbeat учащенное/аритмичное сердцебиение
fatigue утомление, усталость
fever жар, лихорадка
foul-smelling discharge неприятно пахнущие выделения
headache головная боль
heart failure сердечная недостаточность
heartburn изжога
heaviness of legs тяжесть в ногах
impaired speech, нарушение зрения, речи и слуха
hearing and sight
indigestion нарушение пищеварения, несварение желудка
inflammation воспаление
insomnia бессонница
irritation раздражение
itching зуд
loss of weight потеря веса
loss of consciousness потеря сознания
loss of taste sense потеря вкусовых ощущений
malaise недомогание
memory loss потеря памяти
nausea тошнота
nervousness нервозность
pain боль
palpitation учащенное сердцебиение
paroxysm приступ
pressure давление
pulselessness отсутствие пульса
pus гной
rash сыпь
resistance устойчивость, сопротивляемость
runny nose насморк
shortness of breath нарушение дыхания (недостаточность)
shuffling walk шаркающая походка
sneeze чихать
sore throat фарингит, ангина
soreness болезненность
spot пятно
swelling опухание, припухлость
tachycardia тахикардия, учащенное сердцебиение
tachypnea учащенное дыхание
tightness напряженность, скованность
tiredness усталость
trembling of the limbs дрожание конечностей
vesiculation образование пузырьков
vomiting рвота
weakness слабость
wheeze одышка

2. Прочтите характеристики заболеваний и заполните таблицу:

DISEASE
SYMPTOMS INFECTIOUS
(ILLNESS)
Influenza fever, malaise, muscular aches 
Allergic an inflammation in the nasal passage and
rhinitis eyes,
allergic reaction to flowers or dust
Influenza. An infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract, with fever, malaise
and muscular aches. It is transmitted by a virus and occurs in epidemics.
Rubella. A common infectious viral disease of children, with mild fever, swollen
lymph nodes and a rash. It can cause stillbirth or malformation of an unborn baby if
the mother catches the disease while pregnant.
Coryza. An illness, with inflammation of the nasal passages, in which the patient
sneezes and coughs and has a blocked and running nose.
Varicella. An infectious disease of children, caused by a herpes virus, and
characterized by fever and red spots which turn to itchy blisters.
Rubeola. An infectious disease of children where the body is covered with a red
rash. It can weaken the body's resistance to other disease, especially bronchitis and
ear infections. If caught by an adult it can be very serious.
Infectious parotitis. An infectious disease of children, with fever and swellings in
the salivary glands, caused by a paramyxovirus.
Pertussis. An infectious disease affecting the bronchial tubes. It is common in
children and sometimes very serious. The patient coughs very badly and makes a
characteristic 'whoop' when inhaling after a coughing fit.
Allergic rhinitis. An inflammation in the nasal passage and eyes. It is caused by an
allergic reaction to flowers, their pollen and scent, as well as to dust.
Epilepsy. A disorder of the nervous system in which there are convulsions and loss
of consciousness due to disordered discharge of cerebral neurons.
Parkinson's disease. A slow, progressive disorder of elderly people, it affects the
parts of the brain which control movement. The symptoms include trembling of
the limbs, a shuffling walk and difficulty in speaking.
Tuberculosis. An infectious disease in which infected lumps form in the tissue. Its
commonest form is infection of the lungs, causing patients to lose weight, cough
blood and have a fever. It is caught by breathing in germs or by eating
contaminated food, especially unpasteurized milk.
Cystic fibrosis. A hereditary disease of the pancreas or mucoviscidosis, in which
there is a malfunction of the exocrine glands. Symptoms include loss of weight,
abnormal faeces and bronchitis. If diagnosed early, it can be controlled with
vitamins, physiotherapy and pancreatic enzymes.
Cholera. Serious bacterial disease spread through food or water. The infected person
suffers from diarrhoea, cramp in the intestines and dehydration. The disease is often
fatal.
Diphtheria. A serious, infectious disease of children. Its first symptoms are a sore
throat, followed by a slight fever, rapid pulse and swelling of the glands in the neck.
A fibrous growth like a membrane forms in the throat and can close the air passages.
The disease is often fatal, either because the patient is asphyxiated or because the
heart becomes fatally weakened.
Cerebral palsy. A disorder of the brain, mainly due to brain damage occurring
before birth or due to lack of oxygen during birth. The patient may have bad
coordination of muscular movements, impaired speech, hearing and sight, and
sometimes mental retardation.
Gastroenteritis. Inflammation of the membrane lining the intestines and the
stomach, caused by a viral infection, and resulting in diarrhea and vomiting.

3. Подберите к каждому патологическому явлению описание


соответствующих симптомов из правой колонки.

Rectal discomfort, repeated urges to defecate, painful diarrhea


Gastric ulcer a
with passages of blood, mucus, and pus.
Vague, barely troublesome ache; it may rapidly become a severe,
intense precordial erasing sensation. The pain may radiate to the
Proctitis left shoulder and down the inside of the left arm, even to the
b
fingers. It may radiate straight through to the back, into the
throat, the jaws, the teeth, and occasionally even down the right
arm.
Angina Eating causes pain.
pectoris c

The symptoms range from transient redness to severe swelling


Congestive
with bulla formation; itching and vesiculation are common. Any
heart failure d
part of the skin that comes in contact with a sensitizing or
(CHF)
irritating substance may be involved.
Itching, pain, a foul-smelling discharge, loss of hearing (if the
Bronchial
auditory canal becomes swollen or filled with purulent debris).
asthma e
The skin of the external auditory canal appears red, and littered
with moist purulent debris.
Heart failure may be predominantly left- or right-sided, may
develop gradually, or may appear suddenly with acute
pulmonary edema. Early manifestations of left ventricular
Contact
f failure include undue tachycardia, fatigue with exertion,
dermatitis
dyspnea with mild exercise, and intolerance to cold. These
symptoms may be important early clues. In advanced failure
severe cough is a prominent symptom.
An attack may begin acutely with paroxysms of wheezing,
coughing, and soreness of breath, or insidiously with slowly
External otitis increasing symptoms and signs of respiratory distress. In either
g
case, the patient usually first notices the onset of dyspnea,
tachypnea, cough, and tightness or pressure in the chest, and
may even notice wheeze.

4. Выберите симптомы, наиболее характерные для указанных


заболеваний.
1. In acute cholecystitis the patient suffers from ...
a) atrial fibrillation;
b) intense pains in the right hypochondrium and in the umbilical area;
c) slight pain and general epigastric discomfort.

2. In attacks of acute appendicitis the patient usually develops ...


a) profuse external bleeding;
b) vomiting of blood;
c) sharp pains in the epigastrium, which soon become generalized in the abdomen.

3. Perforating ulcers are characterized by ...


a) pain which is usually dull in character;
b) acute pain in the stomach;
c) sharp pain in the substernal area radiating down the arm.

4. The development of chronic gastritis is characterized by the appearance of ...


a) the loss of appetite, pain and epigastric discomfort after meals;
b) nausea, vomiting accompanied by haemorrhage;
c) cold perspiration at night and intermittent fever.

5. О каких заболеваниях говорится в следующих предложениях?

1. This disease is treated surgically. The operation is performed not under general but
under local anaesthesia. The operation must be performed immediately to prevent the
development of peritonitis.
2. This disease is most commonly observed in nervous persons. Such factors as mental
and emotional overstrain contribute considerably to its development. The incidence of this
disease is higher in men than in women. This disease is characterized by a chronic cyclic
course.
2. When the physician examines the patient with this disease he reveals severe
tenderness in the right upper part of the abdomen and in the umbilical area. The
physician also notes slight jaundice of sclerae. The patient complains of dryness in the
mouth, vomiting, nausea and constipation.
ОФИЦИАЛНЫЕ И НЕОФИЦИАЛЬНЫЕ НАЗВАНИЯ
(FORMAL AND INFORMAL NAMES)

FORMAL INFORMAL
(официальное (неофициальное
название) название)
Varicella ветряная оспа Chickenpox
Parotitis паротит (свинка) Mumps
Coryza насморк, простуда Cold
Influenza грипп Flu
Rubella краснуха German measles
аллергический
Allergic rhinitis ринит Hay fever
(сенная лихорадка)
Rubeola корь Measles
Pertussis коклюш Whooping cough
Представьте, что Вы практикующий врач. Постарайтесь поставить
правильный диагноз в каждой ситуации. Используйте
неофициальные названия.

PATIENT: My eyes and my nose are running all the time. I feel terrible. It began
at the end of June.
YOU: It’s probably just …

VISITOR: It's my son. He’s got a rash and swelling in his armpits. He also has
a fever.
YOU: He may have …

PATIENT: It’s my daughter. She’s got a fever and this swelling in her throat.
YOU: It could be …

PATIENT: I’ve got this terrible cough. And after I cough I make a noise when I
try to breathe.

YOU: It sounds like …

PATIENT: I’m not very well. I’ve got a cough and a terrible cold. And I also
have a fever.
YOU: It’s probably a touch of …
VISITOR: It’s the twins. They are covered in these dreadful red spots. And they are
experiencing some itching.
YOU: It may be …

МЕТОДЫ ДИАГНОСТИКИ ИЛЕЧЕНИЯ


(DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT TECHNIQUES)

1. Прочтите список методов диагностики и лечения и подберите к каждой


группе соответствующее название из приведенных в таблице.

ROUTINE EXAMINARION LABORATORY ANALYSES


обследование в общепринятом порядке лабораторные анализы
TREATMENT TECHNIQUES COMPUTER EXAMINATION
методы лечения компьютерное исследование
X-RAY AND RADIOLOGIC EXAMINATIOIN INSTRUMENTAL
рентгенологическое и радиологическое EXAMINATION
исследование инструментальное обследование

I.
questioning — опрос
visual examination — осмотр
auscultation — выслушивание
palpation — пальпация
percussion — выстукивание
manual examination — исследование руками
speculum examination — исследование при помощи зеркала
blood pressure measurement – измерение артериального давления

II.
blood analysis count — анализ крови
general blood analysis — общий анализ крови
protein test — проба на белок
bilirubin test — проба на билирубин
viscosity test — проба на вязкость
blood clotting test — проба на свертываемость крови
hemoglobin test — проба на гемоглобин
lipid test — проба на липиды
blood uric acid test — проба на мочевую кислоту крови
blood urea test — проба на мочевину крови
lymphocyte test — проба на лимфоциты
erythrocyte sedimentation test — СОЭ — скорость оседания эритроцитов
cholesterol test — проба на холестерин
prothrombin test — проба на протромбин
enzyme test — проба на ферменты
colour index — цветной показатель
electrolyte test — проба на электролиты
sugar test — проба на сахар
occult blood test — анализ на скрытую кровь
urine analysis — анализ мочи
faeces analysis — анализ кала
sputum examination — исследование мокроты
smear test — исследование мазка
bacteriologic test — бактериологические исследования
biochemical examination — биохимические исследования
blood/faecal/nasal culture — посев крови/испражнений/выделений из носа
gastric juice analysis — анализ желудочного сока
gastric juice acidity — кислотность желудочного сока
duodenal/gastric intubation — зондирование двенадцатиперстной кишки,
желудка examination of vomit — исследования рвотной массы
biopsy — биопсия
histological examination — гистологические исследования
allergic test — аллергическая проба

III.
roentgenography — рентгенография
roentgenophotography — флюорография
radioisotopic investigation — радиоизотопное исследование
angiography — ангиография
venography — венография
coronary arteriography — коронарная артериография
duodenography — дуоденография
cholecystography — холецистография
pyelography — пиелография
urethrography — уретрография
urography — урография

IV.
colonoscopy — колоноскопия
gastroscopy — гастроскопия
dermoscopy — дермоскопия
bronchoscopy — бронхоскопия
rhinoscopy — риноскопия
laryngoscopy — ларингоскопия
pharyngoscopy — фарингоскопия

V.
ultrasound examination — ультразвуковое исследование
tomography — томография
electrocardiography — электрокардиография
scanning —сканирование

VI.
medication — лечение лекарственными препаратами
operation — операция
surgery — хирургия
massage — массаж
diet — диета
therapy —терапия (нехирургическое лечение)
physiotherapy — физиотерапия
hydrotherapy — водолечение
thermotherapy — термолечение
light therapy — светолечение
electrotherapy — электротерапия
chemotherapy - химиотерапия
transfusion – переливание (крови)
laser treatment — лечение лазером
bed regime — постельный режим

2. Объясните значения терминов латинского происхождения.

3. Выберите возможные методы диагностики для каждого из следующих


патологических явлений.

DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
Acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS)
Acute bronchitis
Acute pyelonephritis
Allergic rhinitis
Angina pectoris
Bronchial asthma
Cholera
Chronic cholecystitis
Contact dermatitis
Coryza
Diphtheria
Gastric ulcer
Gastroenteritis
Hypertension
Influenza
Laryngitis
Pharyngitis
Pneumonia
4. Распределите приведенные ниже слова и словосочетания по графам:

Название Патологические Лечебные


заболевания симптомы процедуры
1. 1. 1.
2. 2. 2.
3. 3. 3.
4. 4. 4.
5. 5.

gastric ulcer; serum transfusion; continuous haemorrhage; carcinoma; anaemia;


intermittent fever; prophylactic vaccination; profuse external bleeding; chemotherapy;
chronic gastritis; dryness in the mouth; acute cholecystitis; parenteral injections; severe
nausea

5. Выберите соответствующее описание лечения для каждого из


следующих заболеваний.

Acute pyelonephritis
Bronchial asthma
Chronic cholecystitis
Cirrhosis
Congestive heart failure
Gastric ulcer
Hypertension

1. Treatment of this disease is designed to neutralize or decrease gastric acidity. A


diet with hourly feeding of milk may help to relieve symptoms and is therefore
desirable during the first week of treatment of an active ulcer.
2. Removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) is the treatment of choice unless
other serious illness contraindicates surgery. However, complete relief of the
dyspeptic symptoms should not be expected in all patients with chronic
cholecystitis.
3. Treatment of this disease is based upon the etiology; e.g., total abstinence from
alcohol, a nutritious diet containing protein as tolerated by the patient,
reasonable rest, and supplementation with therapeutic multivitamins. In the
patient with severe complications of alcoholism, supplementation with
thiamine may be important initially.
4. Antimicrobal therapy should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis has been
established and urine has been sent to the laboratory for culture and sensitivity
tests. Treatment should be continued for 10 to 14 days and urine cultures
repeated after completion of therapy. If obstruction is present, surgery may be
required.
5. Sedation, extra rest, prolonged vacation, admonitions not to worry, and attempts
at weight reduction and dietary sodium restriction are poor substitutes for
effective antihypertensive drug therapy. Patients with uncomplicated
hypertension should live normal lives as long as their blood pressure is
controlled with medication. Dietary restrictions should be imposed only to
control obesity or blood lipid abnormalities. With diuretics, a low sodium
diet is usually unnecessary. Prudent exercise should be encouraged and
cigarette smoking discouraged to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic heart
disease.
6. The clinical approach to a patient with this disease should first exclude other
pathologies that can present cough and wheezing, and then identify and control
environmental or other factors. Drug therapy is an important therapeutic modality
and enables most patients to lead relatively normal lives with few adverse drug
effects.
7. Management of this disease is based on the physiologic concept. Therapy includes
rest, oxygenation, measures to improve myocardial contractivity, correction of
arrhythmias, diuresis, sodium restriction.
ИНСТРУКЦИЯ К МЕДИЦИНСКОМУ ПРЕПАРАТУ
(INSTRUCTION FOR MEDICAL PREPARATION)

Прочите инструкцию по применению медицинского препарата


«Cafergot». Подберите соответствующее название к каждой части.

Action действие
Adverse Reactions побочное действие
Contraindications противопоказания
Description описание
Dosage and Administration дозировка и применение
Indications показания
Precautions меры предосторожности

Cafergot

(1)ХХХХХХХ.
Ergotamine tartrate1 mg
Caffeine......... 100 mg
(2)XXXXXXX. Ergotamine is an alpha adrenergic blocking agent with a direct
stimulating effect on the smooth muscle of peripheral and cranial blood vessels
and produces depression of central vasomotor canters.
Caffeine, also a cranial vasoconstrictor, is added to further enhance the
vasoconstrictive effect.
Many migraine patients experience nausea and vomiting during attacks making it
impossible for them to retain any oral medication. In such cases, therefore, the
only practical means of medications is through the rectal route, where medication
may reach the cranial vessels directly.
(3)XXXXXXX. Indicated as therapy to prevent vascular headache.
(4)XXXXXXX. Peripheral vascular disease, coronary heart disease, hypertension,
impaired renal function, sepsis and pregnancy. Hypersensitivity to any of the
components.
(5)XXXXXXX. Although signs and symptoms of ergotism rarely develop even
after long term intermittent use of the orally or rectally administered drug, care
should be exercised to remain within the limits of the recommended dosage.
(6)XXXXXXX. Vasoconstrictive complications, at time of a serious nature,
may occur. These include pulselessness, weakness, muscle pain and precordial
distress and pain. Other adverse effects include transient tachycardia or
bradycardia, nausea, vomiting, localized edema and itching.
(7)XXXXXXX. Procedure: for the best results, dosage should start at the first
sign of an attack; 2 tablets at start of attack, 1 additional tablet every 1/2 hour
(maximum 6 tablets per attack).

CHECK YOURSELF

Прочтите текст и выберите правильный вариант ответа на каждый


вопрос.

DISEASE: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Disease may be acute, chronic, malignant, or benign. Of these terms, chronic


and acute have to do with the duration of a disease, malignant, and benign with its
potentiality for causing death.
An acute disease process usually begins abruptly and is over soon. Acute
appendicitis, for example, is characterized by vomiting, and pain usually localized
in the lower right side. It usually requires immediate surgical treatment. The term
chronic refers to a process that often begins very gradually and then persists over a
long period. For example, ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease. Its peak incidence
is early in the second decade of life. The disease is characterized by relapsing attacks
of bloody diarrhea that persist for weeks to months. These attacks alternate with
asymptomatic periods that can last from weeks to years.
The terms benign and malignant, most often used to describe tumours, can be
used in a more general sense. Benign diseases are generally without
complications, and a good prognosis is usual. A wart on the skin is a benign tumour
caused by a virus; it produces no illness and usually disappears spontaneously if
given enough time (often many years). Malignancy implies a process that, if left
alone, will result in fatal illness. Cancer is the general term for all malignant
tumours.
Diseases usually are indicated by signs and symptoms. A sign is defined as an
objective manifestation of disease that can be determined by a physician; a symptom
is subjective evidence of disease reported by the patient. Each disease entity has a
constellation of signs and symptoms; individual signs such as fever, however, may
be found in a great number of diseases.
Fever is an abnormal rise in body temperature. It is most often a sign of
infection but can be present whenever there is tissue destruction, as, for
example, from a severe burn or when large amounts of tissue have died because of
lack of blood supply. Fever is a highly significant indicator of disease.
The pulse rate is another easily obtainable and important piece of information.
The heart rate varies with the level of physical activity: the heart beats faster dur-
ing exercise and more slowly during rest. An inappropriate heart rate (or pulse)
may be indicative of disease. The heart rate increases in the feverish patient. A
weak, rapid pulse rate may be a sign of severe blood loss or of disease within
the heart itself. Irregularity of the pulse is an important indicator of heart
malfunction.
The respiratory rate (rate of breathing) is modified by disease. Persons with
fever have an increased respiratory rate, which serves to lower body temperature
(this rapid breathing is analogous to the panting of a dog).
Temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate — called the vital signs — may be
important manifestations of disease, fourth vital sign, blood pressure, is equally
significant. Among other things, it indicates the amount of blood circulation.

1. Which of the following is not characteristic for chronic diseases?


A The process is developing little by little.
B Chronic diseases require immediate surgical treatment.
C The process lasts a long period of time.
D The acute condition may alter with periods when a patient feels well.
2. According to the passage, _________.
________.
A benign diseases result in severe complications
B a wart if left alone may result in cancer
C some benign tumours may be caused by a virus
D benign tumours produce illnesses that may be fatal
3. Which of the following is not true?
A Fever is one of the most important signs of the disease
B Symptoms are subjected to doctors.
C Fever is an unusual increase in body temperature
D There is a great number of signs and symptoms every illness.
4. Irregularity of the pulse shows everything except, _________.
A bleeding
B the rise in temperature
C a heart disease
D the cause of disease
5. Which of the following is not true?
A The higher the temperature is, the quicker one breathes.
B Temperature, pulse, blood pressure and rate breathing are significant
manifestations of disease.
C Fever shows the lack of blood supply.
D Blood pressure shows the amount of blood in circulation.
НЕПРАВИЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ
(IRREGULAR VERBS)

Неправильные глаголы — это такие глаголы, у которых форма прошедшего


времени (Past Indefinite), а также форма причастия прошедшего времени (Past
Participle) образуется не так, как у правильных глаголов.

Infinitive Past Indefinite Past Participle Перевод


be was/were been быть
beat beat beaten бить
become became become становиться
begin began begun начинать(ся)
blow blew blown дуть
break broke broken ломать
bring brought brought приносить
build built built строить
burn burnt burnt гореть, жечь
buy bought bought покупать
catch caught caught ловить, поймать
choose chose chosen выбирать
come came come приходить
cost cost cost стоить
cut cut cut резать
do did done делать
draw drew drawn тащить; рисовать
drink drank drunk пить
drive drove driven везти
eat ate eaten есть, кушать
fall fell fallen падать
feed fed fed кормить
feel felt felt чувствовать (себя)
fight fought fought бороться
find found found находить
fly flew flown летать
forget forgot forgotten забывать
get got got получать; становиться
give gave given давать
go went gone идти, ехать
grow grew grown расти; выращивать
have had had иметь
hear heard heard слышать
hold held held держать
keep kept kept держать, хранить
know knew known знать
lead led led вести
learn learnt learnt учиться; узнавать
leave left left покидать, оставлять
lend lent lent давать взаймы
let let let позволять
light lit lit зажигать
lose lost lost терять; проигрывать
make made made делать, создавать
mean meant meant значить, иметь ввиду
АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ
(ENGLISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY)
ambulance - машина скорой
A помощи
able - способный amount - количество
abnormality – аномалия, amplify - усиливать
отклонение от нормы annual - ежегодный
abrasion – ссадина, царапина apart - врозь, порознь, в
absence - отсутствие отдельности
abstinence - воздержание appear – появляться
accident - происшествие apply – применять, обращаться с
accompany - сопровождать просьбой, подавать заявление
according to – согласно (ч.-л.) appoint – назначать (встречу)
accumulation - накопление appointment - встреча
ache - боль approach – подход(ить)
achieve – достигать approximately - примерно
acidity – повышенная кислотность area - область
acquaint – знакомить armpit - подмышка
act - действовать arrange – договариваться,
add - добавлять расставлять
addiction - физическая arrest - останавливать
зависимость arrive - приезжать
additional - добавочный artificial - искусственный
adhere - присоединяться as long as - пока
adjust - регулировать as well (as) – также (как)
administer - назначать asphyxiate - удушать
admission – прием (куда-л.) assemble – вызывать, созывать,
admit –принимать (куда-л.) собирать(ся)
admonition - предостережение assessment - определение, оценка
advance – продвижение assist - помогать
advanced – развитый associated - сопутствующий
adverse - неблагоприятный association - соединение,
advise - советовать объединение, корреляция
affect – поражать, влиять assure – заверять, уверять
ageing - старение attach - прикреплять
aggressive - инвазивный attack – приступ: heart ~
aid – помощь сердечный приступ
AIDS - СПИД attempt – попытка; пытаться
aim – цель; иметь целью attend – посещать (лекции)
alert - бдительный, attention - внимание
внимательный, настороженный, attentive - внимательный
живой attract - привлекать
alleviate - облегчать authority - крупный специалист
available – доступный
alter – (из)менять(ся) (имеющийся в наличии)
avoid – избегать
carry - нести
carry on – вести ч.-л., проводить
B carry out – следовать
(рекомендации)
bandage – бинт, повязка case – случай, больной; ~ history
beam - луч история болезни
behaviour - поведение catch (caught) – заражаться: ~ a
belong -принадлежать cold (chill) простудиться
beneficial – благотворный, catheter - катетер
целебный, полезный cause – причина; вызывать
benign - доброкачественный (что-либо)
bite – кусать, укус cell - клетка
bleed - кровоточить certain – уверенный
blister - волдырь change – (из)менять
block–блок(ада), блокировать chapter - глава (книги)
blood - кровь charge: doctor in ~ дежурный
bloodstream – кровяное русло врач
bombardment – облучать check – проверка; проверять
частицами, бомбардировать chicken-pox - ветряная оспа
border – граница, край choke - удушье, приступ удушья;
bottle - бутылка задыхаться от удушья
bowels - кишечник chill - простуда, озноб
brain – (головной) мозг circulation - кровообращение
breakdown - спад, кризис, развал, clamp - зажим
распад clarify – очищать, прояснять
breast – грудь, молочная железа cleanse - дезинфицировать,
breathe - дышать очищать
breathlessness - нарушение clear – чистый, ясный, четкий,
дыхания откашливаться
bring together - сводить вместе clinician - клиницист
bruise - синяк, кровоподтек close - близкий
bulla – пузырек cloth - ткань
burn - ожог clue – ключ (к разгадке)
clump - слипшаяся масса, глыба,
ком
C coagulate – сворачиваться (о
крови)
calf – икра (ноги) cod-liver oil рыбий жир
call – вызов (врача) cold (тж. common cold) - простуда
calm (down) – успокаивать(ся) collaborative - совместный
care – уход за больным, combine - соединяться,
обслуживание, помощь объединять(ся)
careful – аккуратный, common – общий, частый,
осторожный, внимательный обычный, распространенный
compare - сравнивать cure - лечить
comparison - сравнение current – текущий, данный,
complain - жаловаться современный
complaint – жалоба curriculum – учебный план
complete – полный; завершать cut (cut) - порез, резаная рана;
completely - полностью порезаться
complication - осложнение
compound - сложный (перелом);
смесь D
comprise - составлять ( о
количестве чего-л., кого-л. ) dairy products - молочные
concern – касаться, затрагивать, продукты
проявлять озабоченность damage – повреждение, вред;
conclude - заключать повреждать
conclusion – заключение: data – мн.ч. данные
draw/make a ~ сделать вывод date – дата, свидание, встреча
condition – состояние, условие dead - мертвый
confirm - подтверждать deal (dealt) – иметь дело (с)
connect - соединять dealt см. deal
consciousness – сознание; recover death – смерть
one’s ~ прийти в сознание debris – отходы, мусор, выделения
consider – считать, рассматривать decade - десятилетие
consideration - взгляд, мнение, decay - разложение, упадок,
рассмотрение распад, гниение
constant - постоянный decision - решение
constrict - сжимать decisive – решающий, твердый,
consumption – потребление, убедительный
расход; туберкулез; общее decrease - уменьшаться
истощение (от туберкулеза) deep - глубокий
content – содержание (книги), defecate - испражняться
мн.ч. содержимое defecation - дефекация, отхождение
contraindication - кала
противопоказание defensive - защитный
contribute - способствовать deficient - недостающий,
convalescent - выздоравливающий недостаточный, дефектный,
convert - превращать неполный
convince - убеждать define - определять
convulsion - припадок definition - определение
cope (with) –справляться (с) delay – задержка; задерживать
cough – кашель: whooping ~ deliberately - сознательно,
коклюш осознанно, тщательно
count: blood cell ~ количество deliver – читать (лекцию)
кровяных клеток deny - отрицать
cover – покрывать, охватывать depend (on) – зависеть (от)
dependent - зависимый division – (раз)деление, отделение,
deposition - осаждение, рассечение, отдел
отложение, осадок, отстой DNA - ДНК
depth - глубина double - удваивать
derive – получать, извлекать, draught - лекарство
выводить dress – перевязывать (рану)
describe - описывать dressing - перевязочный
deserve - заслуживать материал, повязка
design - разрабатывать drop – капля, капать
desire - желание dropper - капельница
destroy - разрушать drug – лекарственный препарат,
detect - определять наркотическое средство
determine - определять dry – сухой; сушить
develop – развивать(ся), dryness - сухость
проявлять (пленку) due to – вследствие
device - прибор dull – тупой, приглушенный
devote - посвящать dust - пыль
digest – переваривать (пищу) duty: doctor on ~ дежурный
dimension – объем, измерение, врач
мн.ч. размеры dyspnea – одышка
direct – направлять(ся)
disadvantage - недостаток
disappearance - исчезновение E
discharge – выделение (секреция),
выписка (больного); выделять(ся), eager – страстно желающий
выписывать early – ранний, предыдущий
discontinue - прекращать earpiece - наушник
discourage - лишать мужества, edge – край, кромка, остриё
силы духа, уверенности в себе, edition - выпуск, издание,
препятствовать, отговаривать публикация
discovery - открытие effect - воздействие, эффект; side
discussion: problem under ~ ~: побочный эффект
обсуждаемая проблема efficient - действенный,
disorder - нарушение результативный, эффективный
display - демонстрировать effort – усилие, попытка
dissect - анатомировать, вскрывать, elect - избирать
препарировать elevate -поднимать, повышать
distress - дистресс ( полное elicit – извлекать, делать вывод
истощение от сильного eliminate - устранять
физического напряжения ) emergency - крайняя
distribute - распространять необходимость, критическое
district – район, участок, область положение, неотложная помощь
diuretic – мочегонное средство emergent - появляющийся,
divide (into) – делить(ся) (на) возникающий (неожиданно)
employment - использование, exposure - контакт с источником
работа, занятие, занятость заражения, подвергание
enable - давать возможность или (воздействию)
право что-л. сделать extend – расширять(ся),
circle - круг распространять(ся)
enclose - окружать, огораживать, extensive – экстенсивный,
заключать всесторонний, пространственный,
encourage - ободрять; поощрять, распространённый (об опухоли; о
поддерживать (в чем-л.) болезни )
enhance - увеличивать, усиливать exudate – выпот, мн.ч. выделения
enormously - весьма, очень eye – глаз: the naked ~
enrage - приводить в ярость «невооруженный» взгляд
environment – окружающая среда eyesight – зрение
equipment - оборудование
eradicate - искоренять
erase - стирать, соскабливать, F
подчищать
eruption - сыпь faint – терять сознание
escalate - обострять(ся) fashion - способ действия,
essential – основной, необходимый организации процесса; форма,
establish - устанавливать очертания
esteem fat – жир(ный)
event–событие, происшествие fatigue - усталость
evidence - выраженность, признак, fear – страх; вызывать опасения
симптом feed (fed) - кормить
exacerbate - обостряться fetus - плод
examine - обследовать fever – жар, лихорадка
exceed – превышать, превосходить field – поле, область, сфера
excellent - отличный, прекрасный fight (fought) - бороться
excessive - избыточный figure
excited - взволнованный fill – заполнять, наполнять
exclude - исключать film - пленка
exertion - напряжение findings – данные, находки
exist - существовать flame - пламя
expand - расширять(ся), flow – поток; течь
увеличивать(ся) flu - грипп
expectancy: life ~ - fluorescence - флюоресценция
продолжительность жизни fold – складываться, сгибаться
experience - опыт follow – следовать (за ч.-л.)
explain (to) – объяснять (к.-л.) follow-up - последующее
explore - исследовать наблюдение (пациента)
expose – подвергать, выделять foodstuff - пищевой продукт
(орган), обнажать, раскрывать force out - выгонять, вытеснять,
(место перелома) замещать
former – первый из двух heal - вылечивать, исцелять
упомянутых health - здоровье
foul-smelling – неприятно heart – сердце
пахнущий heartbeat - сердцебиение
free - свободный heat – тепло, жар(а), теплота
frequent - частый heavy – тяжелый, сильный
full - полный hip - бедро
further – дальнейший hold (held) - держать
hungry – голодный

G
I
gallstone - камень жёлчного
пузыря immediate - незамедлительный
gargle - полоскать immediately - немедленно,
general - общий непосредственно
general practitioner – врач общей impair - ухудшать
практики impose
generalize - обобщать incidence – распространенность
germ – микроб, микроорганизм include - включать
goat – козел, коза increase – увеличивать(ся)
government - правительство indeed - действительно
gown - халат indicate - указывать
gradually - постепенно indication-признак, симптом
graft - пересадка, лоскут, indigestion - несварение
трансплантат induce - заставлять, побуждать,
gram-positive - склонять, убеждать
грамположительный inflammation - воспаление
growth – новообразование, inflow - приток
опухоль influence – влияние; влиять
guide – руководство, гид ingestion - акт глотания, приём
внутрь
insight - способность
H проникновения в суть (чего-л.)
inhale - вдыхать
haemorrhage - кровотечение inhibition - угнетение, торможение
hair - волос injure - ранить, травмировать
hand in - вручать, подавать, inner - внутренний
передавать in-patient - стационарный
handle - ручка insertion - введение, включение
hard – тяжелый, трудный insidious - хитрый, коварный
harm - вред действующий тайно
harmful – вредный, губительный insist - настаивать
headache – головная боль
instant - настоящий, текущий, latest - недавний, последний
немедленный latter – последний из двух
intake – прием (лекарства) перечисленных
intend - намереваться lay (laid) - класть
intention - намерение layer - слой
interact - взаимодействовать lead (led) - вести
intercourse – половые отношения lead - свинец
interfere – вмешиваться, мешать least: at ~ – по крайней мере
intermittent - прерывистый, length - длина
периодический lens - хрусталик глаза
intolerance - непереносимость lesion - телесное повреждение
introduce – вводить, знакомить, less - меньше
представлять level - уровень
invade - вторгаться light – свет; легкий
invent - изобретать likelihood - вероятность
investigate - исследовать limb - конечность
invisible - невидимый limitation - ограничение
involve - вовлекать line - выстилать
irregular - неровный, link - связывать
несимметричный lining – внутреннее покрытие
irritation – раздражение liquid - жидкий
itch – зуд(еть) litter - сорить, мусорить
load - нагрузка
long – длинный, долгий
J loss – потеря, снижение
lump - комок, образование ( то,
jaundice - желтуха что образовано ), припухлость
jog – бегать трусцой
join – присоединять(ся),
соединять(ся), объединять(ся) M
joint – сустав
main - главный
maintain – поддерживать,
K продолжать
major - главный
kill off – избавиться, уничтожить majority - большинство
kind – сорт, вид, класс malaise - недомогание
knee – колено male - мужчина
malignant - злокачественный
manage – лечить, вести
L (пациента)
manifestation - проявление
label - ярлык mark – отмечать, помечать
larva - личинка marker – маркёр, ген-маркёр
matter – дело, вещество
mean – иметь ввиду; средний O
measurement - измерение
media – мн.ч. средства obesity - ожирение
medication - медикаментозное observation - наблюдение
лечение, лекарственное средство, observe -наблюдать
лекарственная терапия obstruct - затруднять
medicine – лекарство, проходимость
медицина obtain–приобретать, получать
medium - среда occupy – занимать, захватывать,
mental - интеллектуальный, завоевывать, завладевать
умственный occur - происходить
mention - упоминать occurrence - распространенность
mercury – ртуть ointment – мазь
mild - мягкий, спокойный onset - появление (симптомов)
mind – ум; возражать opaque – непрозрачный,
minute - мельчайший непроницаемый, темный
miss – пропускать, упускать opinion - мнение
moan – стон(ать) order – порядок; in order to – для
moist – влажный того, чтобы
morbidity - заболеваемость ordinary - обычный
mortality - смертность otherwise – иначе, в противном
mouth-wash - раствор для случае
полоскания полости рта outbreak - вспышка
movable - подвижный outcome - исход
mucus - слизь outer - наружный
murmur - шум outlook - точка зрения,
мировоззрение, кругозор,
перспектива, наблюдение
N out-patient - амбулаторный
overstrain - перенапряжение
narrow – узкий overweight – избыточный вес
nausea - тошнота owing to – вследствие
neck - шея own – собственный, владеть
needle - игла oxygenation - насыщение
note – признак, знак, запись; кислородом
замечать
notice – внимание, наблюдение,
рецензия, замечать P
notify - извещать, уведомлять
number: a number of – ряд pacemaker - кардиостимулятор
nurse – медсестра pain - боль
nutritious – питательный paper – бумага, статья
paroxysm - приступ
partially - частично probability - возможность
participant - участник probe – проба, образец
particle - частица proceedings - труды, записки
particular – особенный; in ~ в (научного общества), протоколы
особенности profit – выгода; приносить пользу
pass - проходить profuse - обильный
passage - проход progress - развитие
percentage - процентное proper – присущий, собственный
соотношение properly - должным образом, как
perform - выполнять следует, правильно
performed property - свойство
permission - разрешение propose - предлагать
permit - разрешать pros and contras – за и против
persistent - стойкий (достоинства и недостатки)
perspiration - перспирация, prove - доказывать
потоотделение provide - обеспечивать
persuade - убеждать pull – тянуть, тащить
pharmacy - аптека pump – насос, накачивать
pincers - пинцет pupil - зрачок
pioneer - первооткрыватель pure - чистый
plant – растение purpose – цель
plaster of Paris - гипс purulent - гнойный
platelet - пластинка pus – гной
plenty (of) - много
plunger – поршень
pointed - заостренный Q
poison – яд; отравлять
pollen - пыльца quality - качество
possible - возможный quantity - количество
postulate - принимать без quinsy - паратонзиллярный
доказательства, теоретически абсцесс
допустить quite - довольно, достаточно
precise - точный
predict - прогнозировать
prescribe - прописывать R
prescription - рецепт
present - присутствующий radiate – распространяться,
preserve – консервировать, излучать(ся)
предохранять raise - поднимать(ся)
pressure - давление rale – хрип (в легких)
prevent - предотвращать rapid - быстрый
previous - предыдущий rash - сыпь
previously - предварительно rate – частота, скорость, степень
private - частный reach - достигать
readings – результаты, данные result – результат; ~ from
(показания приборов) происходить из; ~ in приводить к
reappear - снова показываться, retain – держать, удерживать
появляться retardation – задержка,
reason - причина отсталость
reasonable – разумный, retention - задержка
рациональный return – возвращать(ся)
recent - недавний reveal – открывать, обнаруживать
recognition - распознавание review - обзор
recover - выздоравливать revise – проверять, повторять,
recurrent - возвратный, исправлять
рецидивирующий, рецидивный ring (rang; rung) - звонить; звон,
reduce – сокращать(ся) кольцо, круг
reflect – отражать (ся) rise (rose; risen) – повышаться,
refresh - освежать подниматься; подъем
refrigerate - замораживать rotten – отвратительный (о
register – регистрационный самочувствии)
журнал, список round – обход (больных)
regulation - регулирование, rout - путь
регуляция, правило, инструкция rub in – втирать
reject - отторгать rub-down - обтирание
relate - быть связанным (с) run over - переехать, задавить
relation - связь rupture – разрыв
relaxation - расслабление
relevant – относящийся к ч.-л.
relief - облегчение S
rely - полагаться
remain – сохраняться (оставаться safe - безопасный
прежним) saliva - слюна
remarkable - замечательный same – тот же самый
remedy - лекарство sample - образец, проба
remove - удалять satiety - насыщение
repeat - повторять save – спасать, сберегать
report – сообщение, сообщать scent - запах
represent - представлять scissors - ножницы
require - требовать scrape - выскабливать
reside – проживать, принадлежать, scrub-up - тщательно мыть и
быть присущим дезинфицировать руки перед
resistance – сопротивление, операцией
устойчивость secure – защищать, оберегать (от
responsible - ответственный чего-л.); безопасный
rest - отдых sedative - седативный,
restore – восстанавливать(ся) успокаивающий; успокоительное
restrict - ограничивать средство
selection - отбор, селекция splint - лонгета, шина
senior – старш(ий/екурсник) sponge – стирать, вытирать
sensitivity – чувствительность, spot – точка, пятно; капать,
восприимчивость покрывать(ся) пятнами,
sensitization –сенсибилизация определять
(активизация ощущений) spread - распространяться
serum - сыворотка staff – персонал
serve - служить stage - стадия
service - обслуживание state – состояние; заявлять
several - несколько statement - заявление,
severe - тяжёлый (о заболевании) утверждение
sharp – острый, ровный, резкий stick (stuck) приклеивать
shatter – дробить (камни) stiff - жесткий
shingles - опоясывающий лишай stillbirth - мертворождённость
shiver - дрожать stitch - боль в боку, шов
shortly – кратко, вскоре stomach - желудок
sick – больной stool – стул, испражнения
sick-leave – больничный лист straight - прямой
sign – знак, признак straighten out - выпрямлять(ся),
significance – значимость разгибать(ся)
similar – сходный strain – напряжение, нагрузка,
since – с (время); так как переутомление
site - место stratum – слой, пласт
skillfully - квалифицированно strength - сила
skin - кожа stress – подчеркивать, делать
sleepy - сонный акцент
slide - скользить stretcher – носилки; ~ cart
slight – легкий, небольшой каталка
smallpox - оспа strict - строгий
smooth - гладкий strip (to the waist) – раздеваться
sneeze – чихать (до пояса)
sociable - общительный stuck см. stick
sodium - натрий subside – утихать (о боли)
solid – твердый, плотный substance - вещество
solubility - растворимость substantial - важный,
soreness - болезненность существенный, питательный
sound – здоровый, крепкий, success - успех, прогресс,
прочный достижение
sour - прокисший successfully - благополучно
source - источник suck - сосать
spare – сберегать, свободный suffer (from) - страдать (от);
specimen – образец, препарат (для переносить (заболевание)
исследования) sufficient - достаточный
spite: in spite of – несмотря на suggest – предлагать, внушать
suitable – подходящий tissue - ткань
supplementation tolerance - выносливость,
supply – снабжать, добавлять; переносимость
ресурсы, припасы tourniquet – жгут
support – поддерж(ка/ивать) (кровоостанавливающий)
suppurative - гнойный trace - фиксировать, записывать,
surface - поверхность прослеживать
surround - окружать training - физическая закалка
survive - переносить, важивать transfer - перемещать
susceptible - восприимчивый transfuse – переливать (кровь)
swallow - глотать transient - преходящий
sweat – пот, потеть transmit - передавать
swell – опухать treat - лечить
swollen - опухший, припухлый trend – направление, тенденция
trial - исследование
trouble – проблема; беспокоить
T troublesome - причиняющий
беспокойство
tachypnea – учащенное дыхание true - истинный
take (notes) - записывать tumour - опухоль
take out - вынимать turbid - мутный (о жидкости)
task - задание turn out – оказываться
taut – тугой, упругий
tend – иметь склонность
(тенденцию) к ч.-л. U
tenderness - болезненность
tenesmus - боль при дефекации, ulcer - язва
позыв ulceration - изъязвление
term – срок, семестр, термин ultimate - последний, конечный,
test-tube - пробирка завершающий, окончательный
thesis - диссертация umbilical - пупочный
thick - толстый unable - неспособный
thicken – утолщать(ся) unbearable - невыносимый
thin - тонкий unconscious – без сознания
thorough – тщательный undergo - подвергаться (чему-л.)
throat – горло; a sore ~ фарингит, underlie - лежать под чем-л.
ангина undoubtedly - бесспорно,
throughout - через; по всему несомненно, очевидно
(о физическом пространстве, undue - непомерный,
объеме и т.п. ) чрезвычайный, чрезмерный,
throw: ~ light проливать свет (на несвоевременный, неуместный
ч.-л.) uneventful - неосложненный
tightness - напряженность, unique - уникальный
скованность
unit - единица ( измерения ), view – вид, взгляд, обзор
аппарат, палата, отдел, отделение, vigorous - энергичный
установка vomit – рвота, рвать
up-to-date - современный
urge – побуждение, позыв
urgent - срочный, неотложный, W
необходимый
use - польза, использование ward - палата
useful - полезный warm - теплый
utilize – использовать watch - наблюдать
weak - слабый
weigh - весить
V weight - вес
wheel – колесо; катить
vacation - отдых whole - целый
vague - неопределенный, неясный, wide - широкий
смутный, неуловимый without - без
value - величина, значение, wool - шерсть
ценность worth – стоить (чего-либо)
valve - клапан wound – рана; ранить
variety - разнообразие wrap - окутывать, обертывать
varix - варикоз (неравномерное wrist - запястье
расширение вен) wrong – ошибочный,
vary – изменять(ся), неправильный
разнообразить
vesiculation – образование
пузырьков X
vessel - сосуд
victim - жертва X-ray – рентген