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In the past, the buildings of commerce were situated in the heart of the city, the
market place. For commerce to flourish, personal contacts were necessary and
were made with the people in the market place. With the development of rails
and roads, city centres became more accessible places as they were near the
great termini and well served by public transport Since the Industrial
Revolution, administrative activities expanded and production planning moved
out of the factory and into the office. In the industrialised countries, people have
to work at desks. Since 1900, industrial production increased by 60% per capita
and administration productivity by just 40%. The number of office employees
has risen steadily and the activities of administrators have expanded It has been
always seen that, "a man's identity is reflected in the work he does." So for the
good of an individual and community, conscious efforts have been made since
the past to improve the working conditions and environment, so as to increase
the working ability. For years we have been schooled to live for work rather
than to work to live The idea that working environment can be enjoyed, rather
than suffered is new. This idea has provoked the designers to think and pay
attention to office design.
A few decades ago, offices were treated like machines, catering only to
organisational needs with little consideration for the "people factor which
played almost no role in office design. Today the keyword is productivity and
the employees working environment directly shows his status and performance
on the job Lately in our country Office Building design in being given special
considerations with effect there has been a change in their complexities,
structure, furniture and their ideologies. No more the office are a monotonous in
attractive spaces with the various spaces squazed in an unplanned manner With
specilizations in different fields office spaces have acquired distinct characters
of their own in function and quality. In every office the macro & micro
functions demands a different approach in designing those spaces. Special case
should be taken in considerating the fines design aspects to save time, energy as
well as to have an effective environment in interior and exterior spaces.
Services like the vertical and horizontal communications, lighting, air
conditioning etc. have vital roles in deciding the final design product.
Aesthetics, colours, landscaping (Both outdoors, play an equally important role
in creating an effective environment Office furniture have changed remarkably
in their material and design to cope up with the modem systems of working and
with the development technologies.
The digital age:
We live in a wired village that is increasingly promising to be a weird one too.
Running underneath huge buildings where we work, sleep. Stand and walk are
millions of telephone lines and giant cables transporting information across
countries and continents. And what sed to be star-studded sky until now is not
just star-studded it is also satellite studded placed in orbit to move around the
globe. We live between these telephone lines and satellites and they make up
the new earth and the sky of the digital world the phenomenon called internet is
changing our: lives so much that today you can shop for gifts garments,
groceries liquor, computers airline tickets. Books, automobiles and a lot more
things via the net that were not possible till now. You can look for information
on local transport timings participate in an intercontinental virtual conference or
discussion, chat with someone from the otherside of the globe register fro an
online us university degree, find out the scenic spots and exotic locations. Put
up your home page create a digital identity for yourself all this and much more,
without all the hassle about spending too much time and money
As we enter the 21st century, we are entering a period of changes as far as any
we have seen Since the industrial revolution people have had to locate
themselves in large centers where They could work with others. But now new
technologies are rendering distances unimportant The skills that are needed in
tomorrow's society (referred to as information age will be those Associated with
information and knowledge rather than the industrial skills of the 11119 And
20" centuries. Information technology is already affecting and will further affect
almost Every aspect of our lives how we do our jobs, how we educate our
children, how we are Entertained the new concept has strong influence of
teleworking and information
To build an Intelligent Building that is easily accessible to the employees for a
healthy living and to reduce the electricity loads, which corporate office
consumes and bring out the awareness on the climate change.

all the above factors governing the aspects of the design have resulted in office
Buildings to take a new shape and to secure a distinct position, in Architectural
Design field For any sizeable organisation, the main compulsion in any building
venture nowadays is the creation of structures ensuring high productivity and
project a top-quality image. To command due respect in the eyes of the
consumer.it must depend as much on its image as on the inherent quality of its
products and practices

1 The more a workplace was comfortable, convenient and easy on the eye and
ear, the more the workers were productive

2 The provision of amenities and artistic surroundings not only stepped up

productivity but also added lustre to the corporate image.
The image is also affected by the companies ideas to present to the world. Some
companies like a straight-forward,
clean-cut image with no unnecessary frills. Some like a traditional old-world
ethnic look, yet others prefer a prosperous
well-fed air


The most important trend in office location has shifted to suburban areas. The
factors for shifting, growing congestion in cities resulting in delay
inconvenience, dint and noise, pressures of tends, limited availability of space,
automation etc as well as those of political nature such as office development
permits and relatively cheap suburban land, with
tranquillity and view adding to its charm.

"The reality of a building consists not only in the roof and the walls, but in
the space within";
so the interior designing and landscaping have to be worked out simultaneously
so as to give desired environment Integration of the building and landscape
softens the appearance of hard architectural facades and controls the
micro-climate i.e. heat, light, humidity and air movement to some extent and
creates a better environment for the people working inside.
High technology has refined the overall appearance and building planning.
Highly developed countries use steel and
glass and the developing once use RCC framed construction and cladding.
In modem structures, services may occur @ 30% of volume of building and
take 50% of the budget Generally, the architectural expression of the service
element is to group them in the centre of the building for better
insulation and maintenance and to keep the outside for rooms that need
Architects and planners must provide for the rational flow of work within the
spaces as well as the best environmental conditions for increasing the
production capacity of the office workers. The office should be moved away
from airless boxlike rooms to better lit and ventilated spaces.
While a successful style is an appropriate blend of the familiar and the unusual,
most offices might do worse than abide by the standard norms of design and not
venture into the bizarre or idiosyncratic. Whatever the approach, it
should be consistent in terms of layout, lighting colour and furniture-within it's
firm's budget and in keeping with the image.


Until the 19th Century, the world office conjured up images, more of the duties
and functions of a private organisation
on a government one, In a dictionary "office" is defined as a place where the
business is carried on."
The desire to improve the public image of the organisation and also to attract
staff has led to fairly high standards of
space, comfort and appearance in new office buildings. An important factor in
office planning is the outward
the manifestation of status- the status not only of the company staff but of
different levels of workers within it. Space
standards for managerial staff often approach luxury
There can be no one standard solution to the wide range of problems which
must be considered in the design
of offices. It is up to the office designer to strike an open balance between the
different requirements of different organization

Office standards and aesthetics are the roles by which space, equipment and
amenities are allotted to the title.
Like location, office standards can easily become an emotional issue in
corporate facility planning.


It is the most, important factor in modern office Buildings. The human factor
must be predominant in offices. Factories
are built around the humans they house, hence the office building should be
built around the functions, the functions which are being carried out by human
beings The office must be planned that its space is broken down in separate
units, which should act as a cohesive whole It also must be planned so that its
space is flexible so that the size and the grouping of the units can be changed
rapidly to meet varying needs
The office building most allow for extreme fluidity within its walls for the
possible future expansion of the building
itself. The human being, not the machine is the most important unit in the office
even though exactly the reverse is
often in the factory
The office environment must be at once efficient & satisfactory to employees.
The office interiors change the course
of human events. Employee satisfaction will be so only when the office has
been planned with the worker's needs and activities in mind


It is difficult to separate the elements of design and planning because they are
an iterative process, with much interaction and interdependence.
A crude distinction might describe:
Design as the creative process of devising and describing possible solutions and
implementing whichever is
chosen; Planning as the logical process of identifying and expressing
requirements and analyzing solutions to meet them
This module provides guidance on the application of design and planning to
office accommodation. The module describes how a variety of factors ( eg
ergonomics, space, services) need to be combined to provide a property
supportive working environment It deals with the characteristics of effective
office design, analysis of requirements
and preparation of a design brief to specify those requirements. The module
does not re-state the procedures for
producing and operational requirement. Nor does it deal with the design and
organization of work practices in the office.


Any organisation is dynamic and changes from time to time. It must have the
flexibility to respond to the changing
needs and demands in today's jet age. For this, it should have a very good and
efficient organisation committee
(management group). This forms the heart of the productive organisation and it
is necessary to provide suitable
space requirement for its function. This space allotted for the management along
with its assistants is a corporate

Thus the corporate office can be defined as:

a) Head office controlling the functioning of the organisation of the group.
b) Physically, it has to incorporate the higher & the middle-level management
c) Functionally it activates the company's policies and business planning.


The efficiency of the office building is usually measured in terms of the ratio of
the usable office area to a gross area of the building
Workspace - Possible spaces of work at desks
Primary Circulation Provision of access and means of escape to workplace areas
( 10 - 15 % of N.U.A.).
Special areas - Allotted for particular function Not to be used for office areas
e.g. archives, restaurants
Core - Space required for support of building e.g. lifts, stairs, ducts, lavatories
Gross Outside area-Sum of all constituent office areas, including core, structure,
perimeter walls ( 20 % of G.OA)
Net Usable Area Gross outside area - an area of core, structure, perimeter walls.


1) The office building should provide the best relationship between parts of the

2) Travel distance (horizontal & vertical ) must be reduced.


Grids may be used as a dimensional discipline. Types of grids:

1. Regarding layout planning

a) Structural It defines zones for major elements of building and services. These
zones are located in
the horizontal and vertical plane. It depends on types and sizes of spaces
required in the building, spans of structural system, floor loadings etc.

b) Constructional - It locates and coordinates subsidiary building elements (

partitions and windows ) within
the overall discipline of the structural grid

c) Services It allows the distribution of service points throughout the building.

d) Planning - It defines the location of workplaces and workgroups

2. Regarding elements of which the building is constructed

a)Shell - Structure, core and skin must last long enough to meet a wide variety

 Waiting and transit area.
 Conference room
 Canteen
 Shops and Restaurants
 Recreational areas
 Office cubicles
 Banks