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TECHNICAL DATA

3-1 Retightening Torque Methods


Retightening torque methods 46

3-2
Inspecting Tightening Torque

Proposal of New Retightening Method


Advanced retightening T-point method 47

Inspecting Tightening
Torque

44 TOHNICHI TORQUE HANDBOOK Vol.9


TECHNICAL DATA
Inspection Method of Applied Torque
Inspecting Tightened Torque Value
Estimate how much torque was applied in the screw tightening,
and carry out an inspection of the tightening operation with the
following methods.

   ■ Loosening Torque  ■ Retightening Torque

   ■ Marking    ■ T-point 3


Table 3-1. Methods of inspecting the tightening torque

Inspecting Tightening Torque


Method Loosening Torque Retightening Torque Marking T-Point
Loosen the bolt Tighten the Mark the position When continuing
using a torque bolt further to of the tightened to tighten a bolt
wrench and read determine the bolt, loosen it that has already
the torque when applied torque. and read the been tightened with
the bolt starts Read the torque torque when a torque wrench
Measuring
moving. when the bolt retightening it up until the bolt begins
method
starts moving to the marked to turn again, this
again. position. torque value can be
calculated by using
the θ - t wave
formula.
Measured torque/ 0.6 ~ 0.9 0.9 ~ 1.2 0.9 ~ 1.1 0.9 ~ 1.1
Tightening torque = α ※(0.8) ※(1.05) ※(1.0) ※(1.0)
Relatively easy Accuracy is Takes time and Measurement will
to measure. It obtained if the labor. After the be most accurate
is necessary to point at which inspection, the when the test piece
retighten the rotation begins bolt is maintained is secured. The bolt
Advantages/
bolt. Often used is distinct. No at its original can be left "as it is"
Disadvantages
for sizes of M4 or further work is torque. after the inspection
less. necessary after is complete and no
the inspection. individual variations
will result.
α : Ratio between measuring torque and tightening torque
※ : Approximate value obtained by experiment

Figure 3-1. Variation of tightening torque and


loosening torque
Tightening torque
Tm : Measuring torque
Tt : Estimated tightening torque
α : Coefficient

Loosening torque

Tm= α・Tt

Technical Data 45
3-1
TECHNICAL DATA

Inspecting Tightening Torque

Retightening Torque Methods


■ Retightening torque methods

The retightening method requires that (1) A-point method

3
additional torque is applied to a bolt or screw Measurment of the torque when a tightened
which has already been tightened, and then bolt just begins to move again is relativery
measures the torque value when the bolt just easy and there is no much the individual
Inspecting Tightening Torque

begins to move again. In standard screws: differences. But because this method
measures the static friction torque, the value
Point A: Torque when the static friction of will be higher than the actually applied
the screw is exceeded. torque (Tt) and the varience is large and
Point B: Torque when screw starts to rotate relation is low.
continuously. Sometimes the maximum value by static
Point C: Maximum torque detected by friction (A point) may not exist (Figure 3-3).
inspection.
(2) B-point method
Figure 3-2. Typical torque change on retightening
Technical experience is required to read the
T C point lowest peak on the retightening inspection
A point
and the reading accuracy is not very high, but
Tt the measuring value is close to the tightening
B point torque (Tt). Sometimes a clear minimum
torque may not exist.
T: torque
θ: angle
θ (3) C-point method
Measurement is easy by checking the
These measuring methods are used according maximum torque using a memory pointer.
to the accuracy required. But the measurement value may change
Figure 3-3. considerably depending on the operator’s
T: torque sensation and where they stop when the
T θ: angle screw starts turning, so individual
interpretation and performance can be a
Tt
large factor. Generally, tightening torque
means the C point method. The C point may
sometimes show the A point.

θ
46 TOHNICHI TORQUE HANDBOOK Vol.9
3-2

TECHNICAL DATA
Inspecting Tightening Torque

Proposal of New Retightening Method


■ Advanced retightening T-point method

The retightening torque first starts with the Compared with the conventional A, B, and C
rotation of the head only, and then causes
the rotation of the screw, shifting from static
point methods, the new retightening method
(T-point method) will have less dispersion in the 3
friction to dynamic friction, before friction measurements, and in addition its central value

Inspecting Tightening Torque


whip subsides to become a stable straight will almost match the tightening torque. Unlike
line. (Figure 3-4) Basically this straight line is the A, B, and C point methods, compensation
an extension of the torque angle line figure using offsets will not be required. The general
obtained during the tightening. offsets and dispersions of the tightening torque
for each method in situations where there is no
loosening or galling are shown in Figure 3-5.

Figure 3-4. New retightening method Figure 3-5. Distribution of retightening torque
T
Tt ≈ TT Retightening torque inspected
Tightening torque by CTB model
Tightening process Retightening inspection
process Retightening torque by bottom
method (B point)

Retightening by
TT
Tt peak method
(A, C point)

θ
Unstable Stable

Strong Points
Easy measurement operation.
Less individual differences on result.
Shorter operation time.
Less dispersion on result.

Technical Data 47