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The Effects of being a Student-Athlete to the Academic Performance of Students in

Institute of Physical Education Sports and Recreation

A Research Proposal
Presented to the College Of Social Science and Philosophy
Bicol University

In Partial Fulfillment of
The requirement in Contermporary World

BACALTOS, Xymer Daryl T.

COLOQUIT, Eddie Ann C.
CORIAS, Kirstin Joyce
DAWAL, Marielle

December 2019
Chapter 1



It’s no secret that in today’s competitive landscape, student-athletes struggle to

keep themselves in a steady path – a path that will eventually lead them to the dream-

come-true of a student-athlete: the dream of going professional. As a student athlete,

you’re required to find balance in your life. Undoubtedly, some may say that student-

athletes are privileged to be in their position in the first place, but this does not make their

life any easier or their route any less complicated.

The effect of participating in athletics as a youth on academic performance is

theoretically ambiguous. Participation may reduce the time available for studying and

learning. Conversely, it has been argued that sports participation increases students’

motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline, resulting in positive academic

spillovers. Studies have, in fact, shown that college athletes receive better grades, have

higher educational and occupational, spend more time doing homework, and have a more

positive attitude towards school than non-athletes..

For nearly a century many students in middle school and college have ended their

school day, not with a bus ride home, but with a short walk to the gymnasium or practice

field for a two hour practice session in the sport of the season. Interscholastic athletics are

as popular as ever and are becoming more prominent on a national level. As the popularity

and emphasis on sport grows, the relationship of athletics and academics is often

questioned. Does athletic participation have any effect on individual student performance

in the classroom or on student development? Does a school district’s emphasis on athletic

prowess weaken the curriculum of its schools? Does athletic participation have any affect
on student decisions concerning health, drug and alcohol use and behavior? For years

parents, teachers, administrators and coaches have formed opinions and argued about

the answers to these questions.

There is mounting evidence that athletic participation has a positive effect on the

lives of participating students, especially in an academic arena. Extracurricular activity

participation has been shown to be a positive factor in the development of students and

has been associated with several positive student outcomes Athletics and Academics

including higher career aspirations, better school attendance, improved social standing

among peers and reduced delinquency.

One reason that student athletes exceed in academics opposed to some students

who are not involved in athletics is that many high schools force student athletes to

maintain grades at a certain minimum level in order to get playing time on the field, or to

be part of a sports team or other extracurricular activity. Some coaches will punish athletes

whose grades are low with additional rigorous exercise requirements such as running or

pushups. In fact, some teachers also use the threat of contacting a disruptive student’s

coach about discipline problems, with the implication being that the coach will in turn either

enforce additional exercise requirements or prohibit the student from participating in a

sports activity, as a way to control classroom discipline; this often works, and the

threatened student usually promptly stops the disrupting conduct. Another reason that

student athletes do well in school is that they have taught themselves time management

skills. Juggling schoolwork, sports, and a social life is no easy task. To become a top

athlete requires time, commitment and carefully planned training. Optimum adaptation to

training requires the careful balancing of stress and recovery. The student athlete has to

balance all these demands with the additional requirements of an academic programme.

This can bring unique stresses and challenges. This research aims to investigate the
challenges of combining high-level sport with academic demands. Nine elite student

athletes (three females, six males) took part in semi-structured interviews around how the

student athletes balanced their training and sporting demands with the academic demands

of their course of study. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using

grounded theory. The results suggested that the athletes had each developed their own

distinct approach towards training management. Most of the subjects had experienced

setback in their study and athletic performance due to overtraining or burnout. The findings

highlight the need to empower and educate not only the athlete but also the coach on the

impact of overtraining. Key findings from this study were the need for open coach–athlete

communication, in-depth planning and the need for adequate recovery.

Significance of the Study

Ultimately the goal of the education system is for every student to graduate from

college. If the education community can discover what motivates the students, significant

gains can be made toward accomplishing that goal.

This study is being conducted to try to determine whether there is a relationship

between participation in athletics and the academic performance of a college student. This

study is being conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between

participation in athletics and the academic performance of a college student. The result of

this study will benefits the following.

Students. The result of this study will helps to find out the evidences if a student athletic

participation directly affects their academic performance.

Teachers. The educators will able to know the how they can manage and give effective

alternatives style of teaching to their student who is participating in athletics.

Trainors and Mentors. With this, they will now able to train the athletes and discipline

them to manage their responsibilities both in their athletic and academic performance.

Parents. Parents will able to understand the factors that affect the academic performance

of the students and teach them how to become responsible.

College of Institute of Physical Education Sports and Recreation. The result of this study

is benificial for the athletics and sports enthusiast in this college in order them to become

effective enough to manage the participation of the students both in athletics and

academic performances

University. The result of this study will serve as basis for the University on how to help the

student to balance their school works and be a competent student in athletic and academic


Community. Through this study , it will help the student to become an effective individual

by actively participating in physical activities in the community.

Statement of the Problem

1. What is the role of time management in the students-athlete of IPESR?

2. In which field student-athletes provide exertion? It is in Athletics or Academic field?

3. What potentiality will a student-athletes acquire to be able to comply in academic

Scope and Delimitation

This study only focuses on the effects of being a student-athlete to the academic

performance of Students in Institute of Physical Education Sports and Recreation (IPESR)

of Bicol University SY 2019-2020 . The researchers will provide questionnaires that will

serve as a survey. It is composed of ten questions that will be answer by the said

respondents. The selected respondents has a total number of 50 students.


Academic performance - this is the activities that focus in educational purposes that is

taken in school.

Ambiguous - things or ideas that could be understood in more than one way that have

more than possible meaning

Athletic -it is related and used during sports , games and exercises

Delinquency - the condition of making wrong behavior or acts especially by young people

Gymnasium - a place that has equipment for sports activities or exercise

Interscholastic- existing or done between school

Interscholastic athletics - sports , games and exercise s existing or done between school

Student-athlete - a student who is trained in or good at sports that require physical skills

and strength

https://www.jstor.org/stable/2295580 The Effect of Athletic Participation on the Academic
Aspirations and Achievement of African American Males in a New York City High School
Bonfiglio, R. A. (2011). Bottom line: Intercollegiate athletic programs deepening their

educational impact. About Campus, 16(3), 29-32. doi:10.1002/abc.20066

Burns, G. N., Jasinski, D., Dunn, S., & Fletcher, D. (2013). Academic Support Services

and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Student Athletes. Career Development

Quarterly, 61(2), 161-167. doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2013.00044.x

Byrd, C. E., & Ross, S. M. (1991). The Influence of Participation in Junior High Athletics

on Students' Attitudes and Grades. Physical Educator, 48(4), 170-176

Feezell, R. M. (2001). The game of life: College sports and educational values / beer and

circus / intercollegiate athletics and the American university

Chapter 2

This chapter contains the review of related literature and studies, the synthesis of

the state-of-the-art, gap bridge by the study, theoritical and conceptual framework, and

their paradigms and the definition of terms.

Related Literature

Every athlete dreams of moving onto the professional level and getting paid to play

the game that they love, but in reality a majority of the 450,000 NCAA student athletes will

not continue onto the professional level. This is causing people to ponder if the sacrifice

to the academic progress of athletes is worth the energy to continue playing sports for four

more years in college. Many people argue that the academic performance of athletes is

troubling considering that after sports they only have their education to fall back on and

make a life out of that knowledge. In a study conducted by Pascarella et al. (1995), the

results found compelling results about the cognitive developments of first year athletes.

The study was conducted to determine the effects of college athletics on reading

comprehension, math and critical thinking skills.

There were 2,416 first year students who took part in the National Study of Student

Learning survey, which is a longitudinal evaluation of the factors that affect learning and

cognitive developments in college. They discovered that male athletes, in revenue sports

such as football and basketball, suffered in reading comprehension and math. They found

that these revenue sport athletes struggled compared to non- athletes, and male athletes

in other sports tested the same as non-athletes in reading comprehension and math. On

the contrary, female athletes lagged behind their peers in reading comprehension. Both
male and female athletes fell behind non-student athletes in critical thinking skills such as

open mindedness, maturity and inquisitiveness (Pascarella et al, 1995). These statistics

confirm that some athletes are lagging behind their peers, but have led researchers to

believe that revenue sports may be the real source of the low academic progress of

athletes. The hours of practice and preparation for game day undoubtedly take athletes

away from their studies.

Maloney and McCormick (1993) conducted a study at Clemson University of 595

student athletes in determination of finding the effect of athletics on academic success.

They found that academically, athletes do three-tenths of a grade point worse than regular

students in three out of 10 classes. They also discovered athletes in revenue sports are

lagging behind their peers. Athletes in football and basketball do one-tenth of a grade point

worse than their fellow student athletes (Maloney & McCormick, 1993). Concerns for

revenue sports are extreme with suggestions that these major sports do not allow time for

their athletes to be students. Some people are even voicing their opinion that these

athletes are employees of the athletic department (Feezell, 2001). The concern over

student athlete success has culminated into millions of dollars being spent at universities

for academic support of their athletes along with new NCAA regulations over academic

affairs, hours spent practicing, and days off. Burns, Jasinski, Dunn and Fletcher (2013)

conducted a survey focused on determining the effects of academic support services on

career decision-making skills for athletes. They conducted a study of 158 Division 1

student athletes from 11 different universities.

All student athletes in this study were required to attend academic support

programs at their universities during their freshman and sophomore years. All programs

were based on the NCAA Challenging Athlete’s Minds for Personal Success (CHAMPS)

program and contained an online vocational assessment, access to career counselors,

and workshops on career planning, resume writing and internships. The results were

calculated by surveys that were distributed by coaches to the specific athletes. Satisfaction

with academic support services was measured with the Reimer and Chelladurai’s Athlete

Satisfaction Questionnaire whereas the Betz, Klein and Taylor’s career decision-making

self-efficacy scale was used to measure confidence in making career decisions. The

results showed a positive correlation between people who believed academic support

services were helpful with confidence in career direction. These CHAMP programs

make people feel more confident about their life skills, and certain of their career decisions

through resume development and experience in that specific field through internships

(Burns et al, 2013). Although these academic support services are an expensive

commodity for universities, it is necessary to provide designated people to work with

athletes. This will balance both athletics and academics to create a situation that helps

athletes succeed in both fields. On the other hand, many people are firm believers that

the positives of athletic participation outweigh the negatives. Studies have shown that

participation has a positive impact on learning and development (Bonfiglio, 2011).

A study conducted by Byrd and Ross (1991) focused on the influence of athletic

participation at the junior high level and showed that, even at a young age, athletics is

motivating student athletes in the classroom. Their study was conducted in a rural county

in Tennessee and is based off the responses of 379 students with an intermixed number

of athletes and non-athletes. These students attended one of two schools in this area and

the study consisted of 284 non-athletes and 95 athletes. The study’s results showed that

70% of people agreed that being an athlete motivated them to attend school regularly.

The study also found that 71% said participation led to better time management.

Competing at the collegiate level results in substantial missed class time, but when they

are not traveling, athletes are attending classes to ultimately stay eligible to continue
playing the sport that they love. Athletic involvement promotes more efficient use of time

and higher motivation to excel at different school endeavors (Byrd & Ross, 1991). Time

management skills are important for future jobs and endeavors. Competing at the NCAA

level for four years and still managing to graduate prepares athletes with the skills to help

them be successful in life.

Although some athletes stumble academically, parents still continue to see

athletics as a positive involvement for their children. Byrd and Ross (1991) conducted a

second survey of the parents, principals, teachers and coaches of the 379 athletes of the

Tennessee students and what they believe are the influences of participation in sports.

The study found that the top five factors as to why parents chose to enroll their children in

sports are: enhancing school identity, attracting community support, decreasing racial

prejudice, promoting physical fitness and wholesome participation, and increasing

revenue. Through sports involvement these athletes get to meet new people from differing

backgrounds, become involved with their community, create a sense of pride for their

school, and lead physically acceptable lifestyles (Byrd & Ross, 1991).

Studies by Pascarella, Truckenmiller, Nora and Terenzini (1999) and Pascarella,

Bohr, Nora, and Terenzini (1995) focus on what the positive impacts of athletics have on

non cognitive development. Using the national sample from the Cooperative Institutional

Research Program to help with the study, Pascarella et al (1999) found positive

correlations with the satisfaction and the overall college experience, motivation to

complete degree, bachelor’s degree completion, and persistence in college.

Being a part of athletics kept these student athletes motivated to continue their

pursuit to attain their degree, receive good grades to stay eligible and meet graduation

requirements. These statistics shed light on the success of upper level college students,

but what is the impact for first year college students on getting acquainted with the
university? Pascarella’s 1995 study focused on the study of 23 two-year and four-year

colleges in sixteen states around the country. The study was conducted to look at the

positive outcomes for first year students from participation in collegiate athletics.

The study found that participation in intercollegiate sports positively influenced

gains in success during their first year of college in regards to feeling at home at the

university and success in classes (Pascarella et al, 1995). The results from these studies

showed the varying research depicts both the positives and negatives to involvement in

collegiate athletics. The negatives to involvement in athletics are centered on the

academic and cognitive losses of collegiate athletes. Pascarella et al (1995) found that

first year student-athletes lagged behind their peers in the cognitive development

categories of reading comprehension, math, and critical thinking skills (Pascarella et al,


Maloney and McCormick’s study discovered that athletes do threetenths of a grade

point worse than regular students in three out of ten classes (Maloney & McCormick,

1993). Student athletes struggle with life outside of the competition field in terms of

defining their life skills and careers without their athletic capabilities. Burns et al (2013)

revealed that student-athletes who believed academic support systems were helpful and

attended CHAMPS events felt more confident in their career direction and life skills. On

the contrary, many people believe that involvement in sports is irreplaceable. Byrd and

Ross found that being a part of athletics motivated students to attend class regularly and

participation also led to better time management. Another study by these two examined

why parents enroll their children in athletic programs.

The results showed that parents believe that athletics enhances school identity,

decreases racial prejudice, increases revenue, and promotes physical fitness and

wholesome participation. Many of the negatives about collegiate athletic involvement

center on academics, but Pascarella, Truckenmiller, Nora and Terenzini fire back by

finding that athletes have great satisfaction with their college experience, motivation to

complete their degree, bachelor’s degree completion, and persistence in college

(Pascarella et al, 1999).

Those four conducted another study that revealed positive correlations between

athletic involvement and feeling at home with the university and success overall in classes.

Ultimately there will never be an answer that satisfies every person’s opinions and

attitudes, but these researchers are providing the public with more information to make an

informed decision on collegiate athletic involvement and if it is a good choice in their lives.

Related Studies

As described by the NCAA (2013), under their Principle of Amateurism, a student-

athlete is an individual who is an amateur competing in an intercollegiate sport primarily

due to their educational motivations as well as their expected physical, mental, and social

benefits from participation. As stated above, a student-athlete is primarily attending a

university or college for the purpose of furthering their education and ultimately obtaining

a degree. However, there exists a stigma that most student-athletes are only in school to

participate in their respective sports. While this may be true for some student-athletes,

evidence suggests that most of them are just as good if not better students than their

counterparts. Gaston-Gayles (2005) acknowledged that in 2002, the NCAA was

graduating student-athletes at an all-time high of 60% while the non-student-athletes were

graduating at a rate of 58%.

The study was conducted in order to find factors that impact grade point average

(GPA). Indicators such as ACT scores, ethnicity, and motivation were tested to explain
differences in GPA among student-athletes. In addition to the factors like ACT scores,

ethnicity, and motivation, there are other indicators of a good GPA for all students. These

indicators can be non-cognitive factors such as self-confidence. Self-confidence has been

demonstrated as a significant factor in academic differences among students. Stankov,

Morony, and Lee (2014) studied the impact of self-confidence on performance using the

constructs of self-efficacy, self-concept, and anxiety.

They discovered that confidence represented 46.3%, of the total variance in

academic achievement among the subjects they studied. As a result, they considered the

confidence level of their subjects to be the greatest indicator of academic success. Self-

confidence has also been previously studied as a mechanism for good grades among high

school students. Tavini and Losh (2003) examined various indicators among academic

success including self-confidence. They also discovered that confidence is a key indicator

of academic success among their subjects. While compared to other characteristic

indicators such as motivation or expectations, confidence was still considered to be a

significant factor among the subjects.

Based on previous research, it is reasonable to believe that the construct of self-

confidence also influences academic performance of students at UIC. As a result, this

study was conducted in order to examine academic performance differences, represented

by GPA, among UIC student-athletes and students outside of the athletic department. The

construct of confidence was examined as a possible explanation for any academic

performance differences that existed. Based on the expectation that UIC student-athletes

would be more confident than non-athlete students at the university, it was hypothesized

that the student-athletes would perform significantly better academically than the non-

athlete students for both genders and overall.

Larry Stephens and Laura Schaben performed a study of eighth graders in an

Omaha, Nebraska middle school in 1998/1999. 136 students were involved in the study

consisting of 73 athletes and 63 non-athletes and mean grade point average and Athletics

and Academics 10 California Achievement Test (CAT) scores were observed. An athlete

was defined as any student who participated in at least one of the five interscholastic

sports offered (Stephens, Schaben, 2002). Athletes had significantly higher GPAs than

non-athletes which can be seen in the full group comparisons and in the same sex

comparisons. Athletes had significantly higher math CAT scores than non-athletes as well.

From this study it seems that involvement in interscholastic sports seems to enhance the

academic performance of students. Stephens and Schaben feel that “participation in

athletics can help students build discipline, set goals, organize time, and develop self-


Roger Whitley performed a study of North Carolina high school students. From

1993 to 1996 he collected data from 285,805 students and 306 high schools. Data was

put together at the end of each year and students were categorized as an athlete or a

nonathlete. Race and gender were used to categorize students as well. Eight subgroups

were formed: white males, black males, white females and black females with an athlete

and non-athlete subgroup of each (Whitley, 1999).Grade point average, attendance,

discipline referrals and dropout rates were all examined. Paired t-tests were also used to

compare the percentages of discipline referrals and dropout rates. Because all the

dependent measures within each school were correlated, paired t-tests were used rather

than independent t-tests. The pairing of data eliminated the problem of school

comparisons where dependent measures may have differed. Whitley used a Bonferroni

Correction to derive a more conservative significance level. He divided the standard alpha
of .05 by the number of paired t comparisons, 21, which produced .0024 as the alpha


Synthesis of the State of the Art

Socialization is another factor which may or may not alter the way in which sports

translates into academics. Socialization refers to “the perceptions, attitudes and behaviors

which are acquired as a result of participation in organized sports”. Formerly, the sport

socialization process impacted girls negatively, because being a girl and being an athlete

were not associated with each other. However, changes in the “patterns of sport

socialization” among girls have resulted in more positive outcomes for female student-

athletes. As a result, more girls are reporting that participation in sports made them feel

“more positive about their bodies and perceived themselves as being more popular and

easy to like”. While these results refer primarily to non-cognitive benefits, concludes that

how sports is conducted at a college student can have a major impact on whether or not

sports contributes to academic achievement. If the “psychosocial climate” of sport at a

school serves to improve athletes’ “task motivation, athletic identity and personal

autonomy” then this will lead to a positive relationship between sports and academics.

Thus, coaches must take care to focus on task mastery, to give athletes some personal

control over their training, and “encourage the development of self-identity among student-

athletes based on a balanced set of information sources”.

The researchers continued to argue that participation in sports can help some

students achieve more academically. Most of these arguments have been based on what

are termed the non- cognitive benefits of sports, not only that it builds character, but more

importantly that sports, if not demoralized by win-only pressure, can build self-esteem,
confidence and motivation which can and do transfer over into academic affairs. Many

studies have found that sports participation is correlated with higher academic

achievement. Reports that seek to determine if participation in sports actually makes

participants smarter and thus better able to achieve academically are few however.

Gap Bridge by the Study

The researchers review of Related Literature and Study has been made, it was

observed that the current studies focused on the positive and negative effects of being an

student athlete in their academic performance. Some study stated that revenue sports

maybe the real source of the low academic progress of athletes. In this study the

researchers will going to find other possible effects of being a student-athletes in the

academic performance of Institute of Physical Education Sports and Recreation (IPESR)

athletic students that can help to expand the understanding of the readers about the

positive and negative effects of being an active in sports activities . Aside from presenting

the effects of being an student athletes in the academic performance of a college student

, the researcher will also find effective ways to reduce the negative effects of being an

athlete. This study is to therefore address this gap and also this will contribute as a new

reference for another related study.

Theoritical Framework

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) started as the Theory of Reasoned Action

in 1980 to predict an individual's intention to engage in a behavior at a specific time and

place. The theory was intended to explain all behaviors over which people have the ability

to exert self-control. The key component to this model is behavioral intent; behavioral

intentions are influenced by the attitude about the likelihood that the behavior will have the

expected outcome and the subjective evaluation of the risks and benefits of that outcome.

The TPB has been used successfully to predict and explain a wide range of health

behaviors and intentions including smoking, drinking, health services utilization,

breastfeeding, and substance use, among others. The TPB states that behavioral

achievement depends on both motivation (intention) and ability (behavioral control). It

distinguishes between three types of beliefs - behavioral, normative, and control. The TPB

is comprised of six constructs that collectively represent a person's actual control over the



This refers to the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable

evaluation of the behavior of interest. It entails a consideration of the outcomes of

performing the behavior.

Behavioral intention

This refers to the motivational factors that influence a given behavior where the

stronger the intention to perform the behavior, the more likely the behavior will be

Subjective norms

This refers to the belief about whether most people approve or disapprove of the

behavior. It relates to a person's beliefs about whether peers and people of importance to

the person think he or she should engage in the behavior.

Social norms

This refers to the customary codes of behavior in a group or people or larger

cultural context. Social norms are considered normative, or standard, in a group of people.

Perceived power

This refers to the perceived presence of factors that may facilitate or impede

performance of a behavior. Perceived power contributes to a person's perceived

behavioral control over each of those factors.

Perceived behavioral control

This refers to a person's perception of the ease or difficulty of performing the

behavior of interest. Perceived behavioral control varies across situations and actions,

which results in a person having varying perceptions of behavioral control depending on

the situation. This construct of the theory was added later, and created the shift from the

Theory of Reasoned Action to the Theory of Planned Behavior.

Theoritical Paradigm
Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework for this study is that the overall effects that students acquire

from sports participation.The conceptual framework guiding this study was formulated on two

theoretical frameworks, the attribution theory and the promoting achievement in school through

sports. When thinking about the downsides of athletics as it pertains to education, time constraint

is the dominant thought that comes to mind. Travis Vogan, a professor at the University of Iowa,

recognized that “an athlete’s education options are limited.” Due to daily practices, meetings,

workouts, and games, which last year round, even in the summer, athletes are often unable to

take afternoon classes and are discouraged from pursuing specific majors. So do college athletics

only have a negative impact on academic achievement? Well, according to researchers at the

Brown Center on Education Policy, it doesn’t. In their words, “a commitment to school sports does

not have to translate into compromised academic performance” while “the benefits of academic

endeavors seem to the counterbalance the challenges they present.” One major benefit is time

management. Most college athletes have played multiple sports throughout their high school

careers, and have learned to handle the workload before even entering college. Concepts starts

with the subject of this study which is the IPESR students- athlete. As the result of this, the data

that will gather will provide an outcome for this study.

Conceptual Paradigm

Students Athlete of


Academic Field Athletic Field

Requirements Performance



A Study of the Student-Athlete’s Academic Achievements ... (n.d.). Retrieved November

18, 2019, from Kohs, T. (n.d.). The Effect of Being a Student-Athlete on Academic

Performance. Retrieved November 18, 2019, from


Effects of Student Athletics on Academic Performance. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18,

2019, from https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=jur.

. Sports participation and academic performance..



The impact of sports participation on the academic achievement of african american girls

by Sarita Singleton Liberty


Chapter III


Research Method

This study falls under case study because this type of Qualitative Research

focuses or involves a study about a person group organization and situation. It uses

variety data collection method such as interviews, questionnaire, observations and

documentary analysis to find answers and reasons behind such things that occurs in the


So this type of Qualitative research suits or applicable to the study about effects

of being a student-athlete to the academic performance of Students in Institute of

Physical Education Sports and Recreation. Researchers conducted survey in a form of

the given questionnaires to get and know the personal findings and thoughts of the

students to the topic.

Sources of Data

The primary source of the data are the students of Institute of Physical Education

Sports and Recreation and also the searched information from the internet and the

personal observations of the researchers to the study as a secondary source.


The respondents of this study are the students-athlete of Institute of Physical

Education Sports and Recreation.

Data Gathering Procedure

This researcher thinks for a problem/ topic to be studied. All the information and

data that are needed in this study are all gathered. This study is done step by step and

followed the correct procedure. After collecting all data, the researchers solve the

problem and analyze the variables for this study

Research Instrument

In this study, researchers used the typical paper and ballpen for drafting of

information. And also we used technology inventions such as computer, mobile phones

and printer to gathered information from internet, for encoding/ typing and printing

purposes. This research instrument helped us to finish this study a successful one.