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Halaman 218

7.

A random sample is drawn from a population with mean μ = 66 and standard deviation σ = 5.5.

a. Comment on the distribution of the sample mean with n = 16 and n = 36.

b. Can you use the standard normal distribution to calculate the probability that the sample mean falls
between 66 and 68 for both sample sizes?

c. Report the probability if you answered yes to the previous question for either sample size.

12.

average American eating just 16 pounds o f seafood per year. Janice and Nina both work in the seafood
industry and they decide to create their own random samples and document the average seafood diet in
their sample. Let the standard deviation of the American seafood diet be 7 pounds.

a. Janice samples 42 Americans and finds an average seafood consumption of 18 pounds. How likely is it
to get an average of 18 pounds or more if she had a representative sample?

b. Nina samples 90 Americans and finds an average seafood consumption of 17.5 pounds. How likely is it
to get an average o f 17.5 pounds or more if she had a representative sample?

c. Which of the two women is likely to have used a more representative sample? Explain

17.

Consider a population proportion p = 0.12.

a. Discuss the sampling distribution of the sample proportion with n = 20 and n = 50.

b. Can you use the normal approximation to calculate the probability that the sample proportion is
between 0.10 and 0.12 for both sample sizes?

c. Report the probabilities if you answered yes to the previous question.

21.

A car manufacturer is concerned about poor customersatisfaction at one of its dealerships. The
management decides to evaluate the satisfaction surveys of its next 40 customers. The dealer will be fined
if fewer than 26 customers report favorably and the dealership will be dissolved if fewer than 22 report
favorably. It is known that 70% of the dealer's customers report favorably on satisfaction surveys.

a. What is the probability that the dealer will be fined?

b. What is the probability that the dealership will be dissolved?

23.

At a new exhibit in the Museum of Science, people are asked to choose between 50 or 100 random draws
from a machine. The machine is known to have 60 green balls and 40 red balls. After each draw, the color
of the ball is noted and the ball is put back for the next draw. You win a prize if more than 70% of the
draws result in a green ball. Would you choose 50 or 100 draws for the game? Explain.

49. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers'Summer 2010 Salary Survey,
accounting graduates commanded the second highest salary at $50,402, followed by finance graduates at
$49,703. Let the standard deviation for accounting and finance graduates be $6,000 and $10,000,
respectively.

a. What is the probability that 100 randomly selected accounting graduates will average more than
$52,000 in salary?

b. What is the probability that 100 randomly selected finance graduates will average more than $52,000
in salary?

c. Comment on the above probabilities.

Halaman 236

53.

Annual expenditures for cellular phone services per consumer unit increased from $210 in 2001 to $608
in 2007. Let the standard deviation of annual cellular expenditure be $48 in 2001 and $132 in 2007.

a. What is the probability that the average expenditure of 100 cellular customers in 2001 exceeded
$200?

X =200 in 2001 and 608 in 2007

n = 100 sd 2001 = 48 sd 2007 = 132 miau 2001 =210 miau 2007 = 600

A. Compute in 2001

(200-210)/(47/√100) = -10/4,8 = -0,208

b. What is the probability that the average expenditure of 100 cellular customers in 2007 exceeded
$600?

. Compute in 2007

(600-608)/(132/√100) = -8/13,2 = -0,60


59.

Suppose that 10% of produced items are known to be nonconforming. Every week a batch of items is
evaluated and the production machines are adjusted if the proportion of nonconforming items exceeds
15%.

a. What is the probability that the production machines will be adjusted if the batch consists o f 50
items?

A. With items excededd 15%, 10%are known. Compute with n=50 and n=100

n=50

P(1  P)
CI  P  Z / 2
n
= 0,15-0,10/(√0,10(1-0,10))/50

= 0,119

b. What is the probability that the production machines will be adjusted if the batch consists of 100
items?

n=100

P(1  P)
CI  P  Z / 2
n
= 0,15-0,10/(√0,10(1-0,10))/100

= 0,166

11.

A simple random sample of 25 observations is derived from a normally distributed population with a
known standard deviation of 8.2.

a. Is the condition that is normally distributed satisfied?

Yes, because the observation is under 25 and the standart deviation is know

b. Compute the margin of error with 80% confidence.


s
CI  X  Z / 2
n

Maka with 80% we can conclude that 1,28 x 8,2/√25 =  2,0992

c. Compute the margin of error with 90% confidence.


s
CI  X  Z / 2
n

Maka 1,645x8,2/5 = +-2,6978

d. Which of the two margins of error will lead to a wider interval?

with 90% confidence interval is wider

15.

In order to estimate the mean 30-year fixed mortgage rate for a home loan in the United States, a random
sample of 28 recent loans is taken. The average calculated from this sample is 5.25%. It can be assumed
that 30-year fixed mortgage rates are normally distributed with a standard deviation of 0.50%. Compute
a 90% and a 99% confidence interval for the population mean 30-year fixed mortgage rate.

Confidence Interval for Population

Sample (n) = 28

X = 5,25 , Sd = 0,50

Normal distribution

A. Structure confidence Interval if 90%

Rumus

s
CI  X  Z / 2
n

5,25  1,645 X (0,50/√28) =

5,22 batas bawah dan 5,27 batas atas

B. Structure confidence Interval if 99%

s
CI  X  Z / 2
n

5,25 +- 2,57 X (0,50:28) =

batas bawah 5,29 batas atas 5,207

17. that the last 26 houses that sold in their neighborhood took an average time of 218 days to sell.
The realtor also tells them that based on her prior experience, the population standard deviation is 72
days.

a. What assumption regarding the population is necessary for making an interval estimate of the
population mean?

n = 26
X = 218 , sd = 72

A. The asummption is they have a sd and x and n so its make it normally distribution

We can conclude the lower is 194,74 and the upper is 241,269

b. Construct a 90% confidence interval of the mean sale time for all homes in the neighborhood.

Construct a 90% confidence Interval

s
CI  X  Z / 2
n

= 218  1,645 x 72/√26

We can conclude the lower is 194,74 and the upper is 241,269

21.

A random sample of 24 observations is used to estimate the population mean. The sample mean and the
sample standard deviation are calculated as 104.6 and 28.8, respectively.Assume that the population is
normally distributed.

a. Construct a 90% confidence interval of the population mean.

N= 24

X = 104,6 , S= 28,8

Population Normaly Distribution

A. Construct 90% confidence Interval


𝑆
𝑥̅ ± 𝑡𝛼⁄ × , Df = 23
2.𝑑𝑓 √𝑛

104,6  1,319 x 28,8/√24 =

Batas bawah 96,8 batas atas 112,34

b. Construct a 99% confidence interval of the population mean.


𝑆
𝑥̅ ± 𝑡𝛼⁄2.𝑑𝑓 × , Df = 23
√𝑛

104,6 +- 2,492 x 28,8/√24 =

Batas bawah 90 batas atas 119,22

c. Use your answers to discuss the impact of the confidence level on the width of the interval.

More hight of confidence Interval Level, the width of Interval More wider
Halaman 256

27.

takes a random sample of 36 recent charterholders and computes a mean salary of $158,000 with a
standard deviation of $36,000. Use this sample information to determine the 95% confidence interval
of the average salary of a CFAR charterholder.

N=36 CI = 95% (1.96)

X = 158.000  = 36.000


CI  X  Z / 2 X
n

= 158.000  1,96 x 36.000/√36

= 158.000  11.760

CI = 158.000-11760 = 146.240 (lower bound)

158.000+11760= 169.760 (upper bound)

CI= ( 146.240;169.760)

31.

The monthly closing stock prices (rounded to the nearest dollar) for Panera Bread Co. for the first six
months of 2010 are reported in the following table.

a. Calculate the sample mean and the sample standard deviation.

31. Sample mean and standard deviation

 Xi  71  73  75  76  78  81  454  75,67
n 6 6

S
 ( Xi  X )
n 1
 (71  75.67)  (73  75,67)  (75  75,67)  (76  75,67)  (78  75,67)  (81  75,67) / 5
 (0,02)
2
 0,00894
5
b. Compute the 90% confidence interval of the mean stock price of Panera Bread Co., assuming that the
stock price is normally distributed.

CI = 90%  =10%=0,1

s
CI  X  Z / 2
n

=75,67  1,645 x 0,00894/√36

=75,67  0,00245

CI = 75,67- 0,00245 =75,66755 (lower bound)

= 75,67+ 0,00245=75,67245 (upper bound)

CI = (75,66;75,67)

c. What happens to the margin of error if a higher confidence level is used for the interval estimate?

Margin Error --> CI increase, N (sample size) increase, impact to error decrease.

Margin Error will be reduce because confidence interval increase effect from bigger sample size to reduce
error.

Halaman 259.

41.

An economist reports that 560 out of a sample of 1,200 middle-income American households actively
participate in the stock market.

a. Construct a 90% confidence interval of the proportion of middle-income Americans who actively
participate in the stock market.

N= 560 from 1200

CI= 90%  =10% = 0,1

A. P = 560/1200 = 0,467
P(1  P)
P  P  Z / 2
n
0,467(1  0,467)
 0,467  1,645
560
 0,467  0,0346

CI = 0,467-0,0346 = 0,4324 --> 43,24% (lower bound)

= 0,4670+,0346= 0,5016 -->50,16 (upper bound)

b. Can we conclude that the proportion of middle-income Americans that actively participate in the
stock market is not 50%?

No, since the confidence interval is contain the value of 0,50 or 50%

43,24 46,7 50 50,16

There is a limit of interval (43,24; 50,16) and show 50 are still in interval.

43.

In a recent poll of 760 homeowners in the United States, one in five homeowners report having a home
equity loan that they are currently paying off. Using a confidence coefficient of 0.90, derive an interval
estimate of the proportion of all homeownersin the United States that hold a home equity loan.

n=760 --> 1 from 5

P = x/n =1/5 = 0,20, is point estimate of the population proportion of successes ( P , known as point
estimate)

P(1  P)
CI  P  Z / 2
n

= 0,20  1,645 x 0,0145

= 0,20  0,0238

CI = 0,20- 0,0238 = 0,17614 =17,16% --> lowerbound

= 0,20+0,0238 = 0,2238= 22,38% --> upperbound

47.

One in five 18-year-old Americans has not graduated from high school (The Wall Street Journal, April
19, 2007). A mayor of a northeastern city comments that its residents do not have the same graduation
rate as the rest of the country. An analyst from the Department of Education decides to test the mayor's
claim. In particular, she draws a random sample of 80 18-year-olds in the city and finds that 20 of them
have not graduated from high school.

a. Compute the point estimate of the proportion of 18-year-olds who have not graduated from high
school in this city.

n= 80 , 20 not graduated --> 1 from 5 = 1/5 = 0,20

A. Proportion not graduate

P = x/n = 20/80 =0,25

b. Use this point estimate to derive a 95% confidence interval of the population proportion.

P(1  P)
CI  P  Z / 2
n

0,25(1  0,25)
 0,25  1,96
80
 0,25  0,0948

CI = 0,25 - 0,0948 = 0,1552 =15,52% --> lower bound

= 0,25 + 0,0948 = 0,3448 = 34,48% --> upper bound

c. Can the mayor's comment be justified at 95% confidence?

B. Yes, since confidence interval contains the value of 1/5= 0,20

0,15 0,20 0,25 0,34

Halaman 262

49.

The lowest and highest observations in a population are 20 and 80, respectively. What is the minimum
sample size n required to estimate μ with 80% confidence if the desired margin of error is D = 2.6? What
happens to n if you decide to estimate μ with 95% confidence?

Case 1:

Upper and lower bound: (20;80) CI=80%= 1,28

Margin Error = 2,6


P = up+low/2 = 20+80/2 =50

P (1  P )
E  Z / 2
n
50(49)
2,6  1,28
n
1,28 2
n( ) x 2450
2,6
N= 0,243 x 2450

N=593,63 = 590 (round to zero)

Case 2

Upper and lower bound: (20;80) CI=95%= 1,96

Margin Error = 2,6

If C increase, N will be increase ( to make sure the calculation is right)

P (1  P )
E  Z / 2
n
50(49)
2,6  1,96
n
1,49 2
n( ) x 2450
2,6
n= 0,5682 x 2450

n=1392

The higher confidence interval need a higher sample size. ( from 590 wtith 80% CI to 1392 with 95% CI)

Halaman 263

59

A survey by the AARP (Money, June 2007) reported that approximately 70% of people in the 50 to 64 age
bracket have tried some type of alternative therapy (for instance, acupuncture or the use of nutrition
supplements). Assume this survey was based on a sample of 400 people

a. Identify the relevant parameter of interest for these qualitative data and compute its point
estimate as well as the margin of error with 90% confidence.
𝑝̅ = 0.7
n = 400
margin error = 90%
𝑝(𝑝−1) 0.7×0.3
𝑝̅ ± 𝑍𝛼⁄2 × √ 𝑛
= 0.7 ±1.645 × √ 400
Upper = 0.7377
Lower = 0.6623
b. You decide to redo the analysis with the margin of error reduced to 2%. How large a sample do
you need to draw? State your assumptions in computing the required sample size.
n if E = 2%
2
𝑍𝛼⁄
2 1.645 2
n= ( 𝐸
) × 𝑝 × (1 − 𝑝) = ( 0.02 ) × 0.7 × 0.3 = 1420.66 ≈ 1421
Semakin banyak sample yang digunakan maka akan semakin kecil kemungkinan errornya

61.

A student of business is interested in estimating a 99% confidence interval of the proportion of students
who bring laptops to campus. He wishes a precise estimate and is willing to draw a large sample that will
keep the sample proportion within five percentage points of the population proportion. What is the
minimum sample size required by this student, given that no prior estimate of the population
proportion is available?

𝑍𝛼⁄2 = 2.57

𝑝̅ = 0.5 (𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 that no prior estimate of the population proportion is available)


E = 0.05
2
𝑍𝛼⁄
2 2.57 2
n= ( 𝐸
) × 𝑝 × (1 − 𝑝) = (0.05) × 0.5 × 0.5 = 660.49 ≈ 661

65.

Recently, six single-family homes in San Luis Obispo County in California sold at the following prices (in
$1,000s): $549, $449, $705, $529, $639, $609.

a. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the mean sale price in San Luis Obispo County.
n=6
549+449+705+529+639+609
𝜇= 6
= 580
∑(𝑥− 𝑥̅ ) 40607
S=√ 𝑛−1
=√ 5
= 90.11
𝑡𝛼⁄2 = 2.571
𝑆 90.11
𝑥̅ ± 𝑡𝛼⁄2.𝑑𝑓 × = 580 ±2.571 ×
√𝑛 √6
Upper = 674.580
Lower = 485.410
b. What assumption have you made when constructing this confidence interval
With 95% confidence interval that the average sale price in San Luis Obispo County is between
$485,410,000 and $674,580,000.

67.
A machine that is programmed to package 1.20 pounds of cereal is being tested for its accuracy. In a
sample of 36 cereal boxes, the sample mean filling weight is calculated as 1.22 pounds. The population
standard deviation is known to be 0.06 pound.

a. Identify the relevant parameter of interest for these quantitative data and compute its point
estimate as well as the margin of error with 95% confidence.
𝜇 = 1.22
𝜎 = 0.06
𝑍𝛼⁄2 = 1.96
n = 26
𝜎 0.06
𝜇 ± 𝑍𝛼⁄2. × = 1.22 ±1.96 ×
√𝑛 √36
Upper = 1.2396
Lower = 1.2004
b. Can we conclude that the packaging machine is operating properly?
Yes, because 1.20 is the value between 1.2004 and 1.2396
c. How large a sample must we take if we wish to contain the margin of error below 0.01 pound
with 95% confidence?
E = 0.01
𝑍𝛼⁄ = 1.96
2
𝑍𝛼⁄ 2
n= ( 2
) × 𝜎 2 = 138.298 ≈ 139
𝐸

69.

A recent study by Allstate Insurance Co. finds that 82% of teenagers have used cell phones while driving
(The Wall Street Journal, May 5,2010). Suppose this study was based on a random sample of 50 teen
drivers.

a. Construct a 99% confidence interval for the proportion of all teenagers that have used cell phones
while driving.
𝑝̅ = 0.82
n = 50
𝑍𝛼⁄2 = 2.57
𝑝(𝑝−1) 0.82×0.18
𝑝̅ ± 𝑍𝛼⁄2 × √ 𝑛
= 0.82 ±2.57 × √ 50
= 0.82 ± 0.1396
Lower = 0.6804
Upper = 0.9596
b. What is the margin of error with 99% confidence?
E if margin of error with 99% confidence
𝑝(𝑝−1) 0.82×0.18
E = 𝑍𝛼⁄ × √ = 2.57 × √ = 0.1396
2 𝑛 50

75.

According to a recent report by the PEW Research Center, 85% of adults under 30 feel optimistic about
the economy, but the optimism is shared by only 45% of those who are over 50 (Newsweek, September
13, 2010). A research analyst would like to construct 95% confidence intervals for the proportion patterns
in various regions of the country. She uses the reported rates by the PEW Research Center to determine
the sample size that would restrict the margin of error to within 0.05.

a. How large a sample is required to estimate the proportion of adults under 30 who feel optimistic
about the economy?
𝑝̅ = 0.85
E = 0.05
𝑍𝛼⁄2 = 1.96
2
𝑍𝛼⁄
2 1.96 2
n= ( ) × 𝑝 × (1 − 𝑝) = ( ) × 0.85 × 0.15 = 195.92 ≈ 196
𝐸 0.05
b. How large a sample is required to estimate the proportion of adults over 50 who feel optimistic
about the economy?
𝑝̅ = 0.45
E=5
𝑍𝛼⁄2 = 1.96
2
𝑍𝛼⁄
2 1.96 2
n= ( 𝐸
) × 𝑝 × (1 − 𝑝) = (0.05) × 0.45 × 0.55 = 380.31 ≈ 381

Halaman 277

7.

Construct the null and alternative hypotheses for the following claims:

a. "I am going to get the majority of the votes to win this election."

I am going to get the majority of the votes to win this election -> there is claim -> to win, so this is Null
Hypothesis,
Ho = K
Ha ≠K

b. "I suspect that your 10-inch pizzas are, on average, less than 10 inches in size."

I suspect that your 10 – inch pizzas are, on average, less than 10 inches in size -> there is claim -> less
then, so this is Null Hypothesis,
Ho ≤ K
Ha > K

c. "I will have to fine the company since its tablets do not contain an average of 250 mg of ibuprofen as
advertised."

I will have to fine company since its tablets do not contain an average of 250 mg of ibuprofon as
advertised -> there is claim alternative hypothesis,
Ha ≠ K
Ho = K

9.
tests are considered to be 95% reliable. In other words, if an individual lies, there is a 0.95 probability that
the test will detect a lie. Let there also be a 0.005 probability that the test erroneously detects a lie even
when the individual is actually telling the truth. Consider the null hypothesis, "the individual is telling the
truth," to answer the following questions.

a. What is the probability of Type I error?

The probability is, we reject Ho and Ho is true, so the probability of type I error is 0.05

b. What is the probability of Type II error?

From the conclusion of the test, we do not reject Ho and from the test there is Ho false, so the
probability is 0.005

c. Discuss the consequences of Type I and Type II errors.

the individual will reject Ho, or if we pot in notation the individual will Ho false and reject Ho
because the value from both of them more than other.

d. What is wrong with the statement,"! can prove that the individual is telling the truth on the basis of
the polygraph result."

A wrong one is the individuals didn’t want to say the truth, he is actually want to lie appealed say
the truth.

11.

Consider the following hypotheses:

H0: μ ≤ 12.6

HA: μ > 12.6

A sample of 25 observations yields a sample mean of 13.4. Assume that the sample is drawn from a
normal population with a known population standard deviation of 3.2.

a. Calculate the p -value.

P value -> P(x̄ ≥ 13.4 | H = 12.6)


=P[13.4 – 12.6]
3.2/√25
= P(Z ≥ 1.25) -> 0.5 -0.3944 = 0.1056

b. What is the conclusion if α = 0.10?

If a 0.1, so the p value of α = 0.1 is 0.108


Do not reject Ho since p values = 0.1056 > α = 0.1

c. Calculate the p -value if the above sample mean was based on a sample of 100 observations.

So the p value of P = P(x̄ ≥ 13.4 | H = 12.6)


= P[13.4 – 12.6]
3.2/√100
= P -> (z ≥ 2.5) -> 0.5 -0.4938 = 0.0062

d.What is the conclusion if α = 0.10?

So, the p value of a = 0.1 is 0.1003


Reject Ho because p values < α=0.1 (0.1003)

13.

Consider the following hypotheses:

H0: μ ≥150

μH A<15:0

A sample of 80 observations results in a sample mean of 144. The population standard deviation is
known to be 28.

a. What is the critical value for the test with α = 0.01 and with α = 0.05?

There is two ways to find it -> you can search log to find value of Z or x̄, because both of them is
critical value
For a=0.01,
- the z method

This is one tailed with a=0.01 so the test statistic -> Z = x̄ - H

Ɵ/√n
= 144 – 150
28/√80
= -1.9
- the x̄ method
x̄ = H – Za x Ɵ/√n
= 150 – 1.645 x 28/√80
= 144.852

b. Does the above sample evidence enable us to reject the null hypothesis at α = 0.01 ?

the answer is can not because since Z = -1.9 > -2.323, we cannot reject Ho or in simple word the
value of critical value z > zx

c. Does the above sample evidence enable us to reject the null hypothesis at α = 0.05?

yes, because since 144(x̄) < 144.852 (x̄a), this condition will reject Ho

19.

A researcher wants to determine if Americans are sleeping less than the recommended 7 hours of sleep
on weekdays. He takes a random sample of 150 Americans and computes the average sleep time of 6.7
hours on weekdays. Assume that the population is normally distributed with a known standard deviation
of 2.1 hours.

a. Use the p -value approach to test the researcher's claim at α = 0.01.

a.) P value = (x̄ < 6.7 | μ = 7)


p= [z<6.7 – 7]
21/√150
= P(z < -1.973) = 0.024

So, if p value ≥ a, do not reject Ho

b. Use the critical value approach to test the researcher's claim at α = 0.01.

b.) x̄a = H – za x Ɵ/√n


= 7 - 2.323 x 2.1/√150
= 6.602
Since x̄ = 6.7 > x̄ 6.602 so do not reject Ho
Halaman 292

35.

A machine that is programmed to package 1.20 pounds of cereal is being tested for its accuracy. In a
sample of 36 cereal boxes, the sample weight and standard deviation are calculated as 1.22 pounds and
0.06 pound, respectively.

a. Set up the null and the alternative hypotheses to determine if the machine is working improperly, that
is, it is either underfilling or overfilling the cereal boxes.

Ho = H = 1.2pounds

Ha = H ≠ 1.2pounds

The highlight is being tested for its accuracy

b. Calculate the value of the test statistic.

Z = x̄ - H
Ɵ/√n
= 1.22 – 1.2
0.06/√36
=2

c. Approximate the p-value. At a 5% level of significance, can you conclude that the machine is working
improperly? Explain.

P value -> P (Z ≤ 2) + P (Z ≥ 2) = 2 x 0.0228


= 0.0456

With a = 0.05 so a/2 = 2.5%

So reject Ho since p value = 0.0028 < α = 0.25 or in the other words, machine is working
improperly

d. Repeat the exercise using the critical value approach.


x̄ = H ± Za x Ɵ/√n
= 1.2 ± α 0.1
= 1.2 + 0.2 = 1.4.....1
= 1.2 – 0.2 = 1.......2
So, (1 ≤ H ≤ 1.4)

42.

the prices in San Diego dropped by an average of 9.6% from a year earlier. Assume that the survey was
based on recent sales of 34 houses in San Diego that also resulted in a standard deviation of 5.2%. Can we
conclude that the mean drop of all home prices in San Diego is greater than the 7% drop in Los Angeles?
Use a 1% level of significance for the analysis.

X = 9,6 , N=34% , Sd = 5,2%

H0 = 𝜇 ≤ 7

H1 = 𝜇 > 7
9,6% − 7%
t33 = 5,2%
= 2, 92
√34

0,001 < p-value < 0.005. reject H0

Halaman 297.

55.

Massachusetts enacted a law that forbids cell phone use by drivers under the age o f 18. A policy analyst
w ould like to determine whether the law has decreased the proportion o f drivers under the age o f 18
who use a cell phone.

a. State the null and the alternative hypotheses to test the policy analyst's objective.

a. H0 = 𝜇 ≤ 0,82

H1 = 𝜇 > 0,82

b. At α = 0.05 has the law been effective?

-1,822 < 0,05. P-value < 0,05. Reject H0


c. Suppose a sample of 200 drivers under the age of 18 results in 150 who still use a cell phone while
driving. What is the value of the test statistic? What is the p-value?
0,75 − 0,82
z= = -1,822
0,82(1−0,82)

100

p value = 0,1401

d. Repeat this exercise using the critical value approach with α = 0.05.

61.

many banks are unwittingly training their online customers to take risks with their passwords and other
sensitive account information, leaving them more vulnerable to fraud (Yahoo.com, July 23, 2008). Even
web surfers could find themselves the victims of identity theft because they have been conditioned to
ignore potential signs about whether the banking site they are visiting is real or abogus site served up by
hackers. Researchers at the University of Michigan found design flaws in 78% of the 214 U.S. financial
institution websites they studied. Is the above sample evidence sufficient to conclude that more than
three out of four financial institutions that offer online banking facilities are prone to fraud? Use a 5%
significance level for the test.

a. H0 = 𝜇 ≤ 0,78

H1 = 𝜇 > 0,78

b.

0,75 − 0,78
z= = -0,145
0,78(1−0,78)

4

p value = 0,4443
5% = 0,05 . 0,4443 > 0,05
P value > 0,05, do not reject H0

Halaman 301

63.

A phone manufacturer wants to compete in the touch screen phone market. He understands that the lead
product has a battery life o f just 5 hours. The manufacturer claims that while the new touch phone is
more expensive, its battery life is more than twice as long as that o f the leading product. In order to test
the claim, a researcher samples 45 units of the new phone and finds that the sample battery life averages
10.5 hours with a sample standard deviation of 1.8 hours.

a. Set up the relevant null and the alternative hypotheses.

H0 = 𝜇 ≥ 10

H1 = 𝜇 < 10
b. Compute the value of the appropriate test statistic.
df = 45-1 = 44
10,5 − 10
t= 1,8
= 1,86
√45

c. Use the critical value approach to test the phone manufacturer's claim at α = 0.05.

t crit = t 44, 0.05 = 1.68


so since t stat = 1,863
t crit = 1,68
t stat > t crit , we reject H0
d.Repeat the analysis with the p-value approach.
t 44 ; x = 1,863
x = p value < signifikan level
we reject H0

Halaman 301

65.

A city council is deciding whether or not to spend additional money to reduce the amount of traffic. The
council decides that it will increase the transportation budget if the amount of waiting time for drivers
exceeds 20 minutes. A sample of 32 main roads results in a mean waiting time of 22.08 minutes with a
standard deviation of 5.42 minutes. Conduct a hypothesis test at a 1% level of significance to determine
whether or not the city should increase its transportation budget.

Step 1

H0 = 𝜇 ≥ 20

H1 = 𝜇 < 20

N = 32

X bar = 22,08

S = 5,42

Alfa = 0,01

df = n-1 = 32-1 = 31

Step 3
22,8 − 20
t stat = t= 5,42
= 2,17
√32
t crit = t 31 ; 0,01 = 2,453

Conclusion
so, t stat < t crit , we do not reject H0, city should not increase the transportation budget

71.

A television network is deciding whether or not to give its newest television show a spot during prime
viewing time atnight. For this to happen, it will have to move one of its most viewed shows to another
slot. The network conducts a survey asking its viewers which show they would rather watch. The network
will keep its current lineup of shows unless the majority of the customers want to watch the new show.
The network receives 827 responses, of which 428 indicate that they would like to see the new show in
the lineup.

a. Set up the hypotheses to test if the television network

should give its newest television show a spot during

prime viewing time at night.

b. Compute the value of the test statistic.

c. Define the rejection region(s) at α = 0.01.

d. What should the television network do?