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Bea Grossman

In the words of Fritz Schulz, "by the fourth century things had changed in the eastern
Empire: advocates now were really lawyers." For example, by the fourth century,
advocates had to be enrolled on the bar of a court to argue before it, they could only be
attached to one court at a time, and there were restrictions (which came and went
depending upon who was emperor) on how many advocates could be enrolled at a
particular court. By the 380s, advocates were studying law in addition to rhetoric (thus
reducing the need for a separate class of jurisconsults); in 460, Emperor Leo imposed a
requirement that new advocates seeking admission had to produce testimonials from their
teachers; and by the sixth century, a regular course of legal study lasting about four years
was required for admission. Claudius's fee ceiling lasted all the way into the Byzantine
period, though by then it was measured at 100 solidi. Of course, it was widely evaded,
either through demands for maintenance and expenses or a sub rosa barter transaction.
The latter was cause for disbarment.

Bea Grossman Net :In virtually all countries, patents, trademarks, industrial designs and
other forms of intellectual property must be formally registered with a government
agency in order to receive maximum protection under the law. The division of such work
among lawyers, licensed non-lawyer jurists/agents, and ordinary clerks or scriveners
varies greatly from one country to the next

Bea Grossman Net

In others, the use of a lawyer is optional and banks, title companies, or realtors may be
used instead. In some civil law jurisdictions, real estate transactions are handled by civil
law notaries. In England and Wales a special class of legal professional–the licensed
conveyancer–is also allowed to carry out conveyancing services for reward.

Lawyers are always free to form voluntary associations of their own, apart from any
licensing or mandatory membership that may be required by the laws of their jurisdiction.
Like their mandatory counterparts, such organizations may exist at all geographic levels.
In American English, such associations are known as voluntary bar associations. The
largest voluntary professional association of lawyers in the English-speaking world is the
American Bar Association.

In some countries, like France and Italy, lawyers have also formed trade unions.

Bea Grossman Website : Public distrust of lawyers reached record heights in the United
States after the Watergate scandal. In the aftermath of Watergate, legal self-help books
became popular among those who wished to solve their legal problems without having to
deal with lawyers. Lawyer jokes (already a perennial favorite) also soared in popularity in
English-speaking North America as a result of Watergate. In 1989, American legal self-
help publisher Nolo Press published a 171-page compilation of negative anecdotes about
lawyers from throughout human history
In some countries, there are legal aid lawyers who specialize in providing legal services
to the indigent. France and Spain even have formal fee structures by which lawyers are
compensated by the government for legal aid cases on a per-case basis. A similar system,
though not as extensive or generous, operates in Australia, Canada, as well as South
Africa.

In other countries, legal aid specialists are practically nonexistent. This may be because
non-lawyers are allowed to provide such services; in both Italy and Belgium, trade unions
and political parties provide what can be characterized as legal aid services. Some legal
aid in Belgium is also provided by young lawyer apprentices subsidized by local bar
associations (known as the pro deo system), as well as consumer protection nonprofit
organizations and Public Assistance Agencies subsidized by local governments. In
Germany, mandatory fee structures have enabled widespread implementation of
affordable legal expense insurance

Grossman Bea In contrast, common law lawyers have traditionally regulated themselves
through institutions where the influence of non-lawyers, if any, was weak and indirect
(despite nominal state control). Such institutions have been traditionally dominated by
private practitioners who opposed strong state control of the profession on the grounds
that it would endanger the ability of lawyers to zealously and competently advocate their
clients' causes in the adversarial system of justice.

However, the concept of the self-regulating profession has been criticized as a sham
which serves to legitimize the professional monopoly while protecting the profession
from public scrutiny. Disciplinary mechanisms have been astonishingly ineffective, and
penalties have been light or nonexistent

Bea Grossman Lawyers are paid for their work in a variety of ways. In private practice,
they may work for an hourly fee according to a billable hour structure, a contingency fee
(usually in cases involving personal injury), or a lump sum payment if the matter is
straightforward. Normally, most lawyers negotiate a written fee agreement up front and
may require a non-refundable retainer in advance. In many countries there are fee-
shifting arrangements by which the loser must pay the winner's fees and costs; the United
States is the major exception, although in turn, its legislators have carved out many
exceptions to the so-called "American Rule" of no fee shifting.

In others, the use of a lawyer is optional and banks, title companies, or realtors may be
used instead. In some civil law jurisdictions, real estate transactions are handled by civil
law notaries. In England and Wales a special class of legal professional–the licensed
conveyancer–is also allowed to carry out conveyancing services for reward.

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