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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
IEEE
IEEE Transactions
TRANSACTIONS ON on IndustrialINFORMATICS,
INDUSTRIAL Informatics (VOL.
YearXX,
: 2018 ) XXXX 201X
NO. XX, 1

Data-Driven Design of Fog Computing aided


Process Monitoring System for Large-Scale
Industrial Processes
Hao Luo, Member, IEEE, Hao Zhao, and Shen Yin, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—Stimulated by the recent development of fog com- a process model is essential for the design of the monitoring
puting technology, in this paper, a fog computing aided process and control systems, see e.g. [8]–[10] and the references
monitoring and control architecture is proposed for large-scale therein. Boosted by the development of communication tech-
industrial processes, which enables reliable and efficient online
performance optimization in each fog computing node without nology, data networking systems as well as computer sci-
modifying pre-designed control subsystems. Moreover, a closed- ence, in the past 30 years, the data-driven techniques have
loop data-driven method is developed for the process monitor- drawn considerable attention in both theoretical and practical
ing system design and an adaptive configuration approach is domains. The major advantages brought by the data-driven
proposed to deal with the problems caused by the changes of techniques are that the time-consuming and high-engineer-
process parameters and operating points. The feasibility and
effectiveness of the proposed design approaches are verified and efforts-required modeling procedure could be saved on the one
demonstrated through the case study on the Tennessee Eastman hand, on the other hand, the difficult-to-be-acquired process
(TE) benchmark system. information on the anomalies or faults can be efficiently
Index Terms—Fog computing, data-driven methods, process abstracted from available process data. In literature, numerous
monitoring, adaptive methods, large-scale process, distributed academic researches and industrial applications of data-driven
control. fault diagnosis techniques can be found, see e.g. [11]–[18] and
the references therein.
However, most of the existing data-driven designs result in
I. I NTRODUCTION
a central computing procedure where the global information
OWADAYS, driven by the rapid development of in-
N formation and communication technologies as well as
computer science, the great changes of the industrial envi-
is needed. For a large-scale industrial process, the whole
design thus involves huge computational and communica-
tional burden, especially when an online configuration of the
ronment has been witnessed nowadays [1], [2]. Especially, designed monitoring and control systems is demanded. In
stimulated by the wide application of the Internet of Things order to release the central computational burden and reduce
(IoT), the sharing and cross-fertilization of the information for the communication efforts among isolated subsystems, the
a better coordination and global decision have gained lots of decentralized monitoring and control technologies, see e.g.
attention in these years. Among the developed communica- [19]–[25] and the references therein, could be utilized. In this
tion/computation technologies, fog is a feasible and reliable paper, motivated by the advantages brought by fog computing
architecture which distributes computation, communication, technique, a fog computing aided process monitoring and
control closer to the end users along the cloud-to-things control architecture is firstly proposed for large-scale industrial
continuum [3]. A burst of the successful applications of fog processes. Differing from the existing decentralized monitor-
computing technique can be observed in recent years, see e.g. ing and control strategies, the proposed one avoids the mod-
[2], [4]–[6]. However, lots of challenges still remain during ification of pre-designed control systems and enables online
the real application of fog computing technique [3], [7]. performance optimization in each fog computing node with
In modern industry, with the increasing demands on product stability guarantee. In addition, a data-driven design method
quality and economic benefits, the modern industrial processes is developed for the process monitoring system in which
have been designed more and more complicated with high the effects of the local feedback system on the process data
autonomous degrees and sophisticated control strategies. In are considered. Moreover, an adaptive configuration approach
order to enhance the overall system safety and reliability, is proposed for the designed data-driven process monitoring
during the last a few decades, model-based fault diagnosis and system in each fog computing node to deal with the problems
fault-tolerant control technologies have been widely studied caused by the changes of process parameters and operating
and verified both from academic and industrial fields, in which points.
To harmoniously address the work, the rest of this paper is
Manuscript received February 07, 2018; revised April 11, 2018; accepted
May 17, 2018. This work has been in part supported by National Natural organized as follows. In Section II, the preliminaries on the
Science Foundation of China under Grant 61703121 and China Postdoctoral system descriptions are given and the proposed fog computing
Science Foundation under Grant 2017M611368. aided process monitoring and control architecture is intro-
Hao Luo, Hao Zhao and Shen Yin (Corresponding Author) are with the
School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001, Harbin, China duced. Section III is dedicated to the data-driven design of the
(e-mails: {hao.luo, zhaohao316, shen.yin}@hit.edu.cn). process monitoring system in each fog computing node using

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics ( Year : 2018 )
2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. XX, NO. XX, XXXX 201X

closed-loop process data, where an adaptive configuration where ei (z) and ω i (z) are the tracking error and reference
method is proposed. Case studies on the Tennessee Eastman signal of subsystem i, respectively. Then the overall feedback
(TE) benchmark system are demonstrated in Section IV and control law satisfies:
Section V concludes this paper.
u(z) = K(z)e(z) = K(z) (ω(z) − y(z)) ,
  
K1 (z) · · · 0 e1 (z)
II. F OG COMPUTING AIDED PROCESS MONITORING AND  .. .. ..  .. 
= . . .  . , (10)
CONTROL ARCHITECTURE
0 · · · Kns (z) ens (z)
A. Process descriptions
where the I/O signals uk , yk , ek , ξk and vk in the overall
Consider a large-scale industrial process which is assumed system have the similar structure as xk . Furthermore, the
to be observable and is assembled by many subsystems of system matrix A consists of subsystem matrices Aii in diag-
number ns . In order to consider the interconnections between onal positions and Aij (i ̸= j) describes the interconnections
different subsystems, the each subsystem is assumed to have in non-diagonal positions, while matrices B, C, D are block
following discrete-time state-space realization [20]: diagonal matrices that constructed by matrices Bi , Ci , Di ,
respectively. For an interconnected large-scale process with
xi,k+1 = Ai xi,k + Bi ui,k + Ei ti,k + ξi,k , (1) the hierarchical structure, the matrix A is of lower-triangular.
yi,k = Ci xi,k + Di ui,k + Fi ti,k + vi,k , (2) The following lemma [20] reveals the relationship between the
si,k = Cs,i xi,k + Ds,i ui,k + Fs,i ti,k , (3) stability of the overall closed-loop and the ones of isolated
subsystems.
where xi , ui and yi denote the state, input and output variables Lemma 1: The overall closed-loop system (7)-(10) with the
of i-th subsystem (i = 1, · · · , ns ), respectively. ξ i and vi hierarchical structure is stable if and only if the isolated closed-
respectively represent the state and measurement noise vectors loop subsystems (5)-(9) are stable.
that are assumed to be zero-mean and white. Signals ti For a proper real-rational transfer function matrix G(z) of
and si describe the interconnections between each subsystem. the overall system as defined in equations (7)-(8), which is
Furthermore, if the interconnections of all subsystems can be further assumed to be observable, the left and right coprime
described by: factorizations (LCF and RCF) of G(z) are respectively given
by:
tk = Msk , (4)
G(z) = M̂−1 (z)N̂(z) = N(z)M−1 (z), (11)
[ ]T
where sk = sT1,k · · · sTsn ,k
is the sent information
[ ]T where M̂(z)
( ∈ RH∞ , N̂(z)
) ∈ (RH∞ , M(z) ∈ RH ) ∞ , N(z) ∈
vector and tk = tT1,k · · · tTsn ,k
is the received infor- RH∞ , M̂(z), N̂(z) and M(z), N(z) are left and
mation vector, then an input-output decentralized form [20] right coprime pairs over RH∞ , i.e. there exists X̂(z) ∈ RH∞ ,
can be obtained: Ŷ(z) ∈ RH∞ , X(z) ∈ RH∞ , Y(z) ∈ RH∞ such that

ns [ ]
[ ] Ŷ(z)
xi,k+1 = Aii xi,k + Aij xj,k + Bi ui,k + ξi,k , (5) N̂(z) M̂(z) = I,
X̂(z)
j=1
[ ] (12)
j̸=i [ ] M(z)
yi,k = Ci xi,k + Di ui,k + vi,k , (6) X(z) Y(z) = I.
N(z)
where Aii = Ai . Then for the overall system G(z), the state- Then all stabilizing feedback controllers can be parameterized
space representation (1)-(3) can be reformulated into: by using a Youla parameterization matrix Q̄(z) ∈ RH∞ as:
( )( )−1
xk+1 = Axk + Buk + ξk , (7) K(z) = Ŷ(z) + M(z)Q̄(z) X̂(z) − N(z)Q̄(z)
yk = Cxk + Duk + vk . (8) ( )−1 ( ) (13)
= X(z) − Q̄(z)N̂(z) Y(z) + Q̄(z)M̂(z)
where
    and the so-called Bezout identity holds:
x1,k A11 ··· A1i ··· A1ns [ ][ ] [ ]
 ..   .. .. ..  X(z) Y(z) M(z) −Ŷ(z) I 0
 .   . .. .. = . (14)
   . . . .   −N̂(z) M̂(z) N(z) X̂(z) 0 I

xk =  xi,k  , A = 

 Ai1 ··· Aii ··· Ains  ,
 .   . .. ..  Define
 ..   .. .. ..
.   
. . . [ ] A + BF B L
··· ··· M(z) −Ŷ(z) 
xns ,k Ans 1 Ans 1 Ans ns = F I 0 
N(z) X̂(z)
C + DF D I
Denote Ki (z) for i = 1, · · · , ns is the stabilizing feedback   (15)
controller of subsystem i, that is [ ] A − LC −(B − LD) −L
X(z) Y(z) 
= F I 0 
−N̂(z) M̂(z)
ui (z) = Ki (z)ei (z) = Ki (z) (ω i (z) − yi (z)) , (9) C −D I

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics ( Year : 2018 )
LUO et al.: DATA-DRIVEN DESIGN OF FOG COMPUTING AIDED PROCESS MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LARGE-SCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 3

where A + BF and A − LC are Schur matrices, then the - G(z )


LCF of G(z), i.e. G(z) = M̂−1 (z)N̂(z), can be interpreted ω e u0 u y
K(z ) Actuators Process Sensors
as an observer-based residual generator:

x̂k+1 = (A − LC)x̂k + (B − LD)uk + Lyk , (16) V(z )


uv
rk = yk − Cx̂k − Duk , (17) ur Observer-based
Q(z )
Residual Generator
where r is the so-called residual signal. M̂(z) and N̂(z) are
the transfer matrices from y and u to r, respectively. Fig. 2. The process monitoring and control architecture

B. The process monitoring and control architecture C. Fog computing aided process monitoring and control ar-
Consider the overall process G(z) in equations (7)-(8) and chitecture
its LCF realized in a form of an observer-based residual Consider the overall process G(z) in equations (7)-(8)
generator, based on the Youla parameterization, Theorem 1 which is assembled by the subsystems (5)-(6) with local sta-
forms the foundation of the subsequent studies. bilizing control system (9). Based on the observable canonical
form, the fog computing aided process monitoring system
G(z ) can be developed, and each residual generator in the i-th fog
ω e u y computing node (for i = 1, · · · , ns ) has following state-space
K(z ) Actuators Process Sensors
realization:
-
xio,k+1 = Ao xio,k + Bo,i ui,k + Lo,i yi,k + Lr,i rall,i,k (19)
Fig. 1. The standard feedback control loop risub,k = Go,i yi,k − Co xio,k − Do,i ui,k , (20)

where Ao = A − LCo and Co do not contain process pa-


Theorem 1: Considering the standard feedback control sys-
rameters [26]. The additional observer gain Lr is designed to
tem shown in Fig. 1, assume the closed-loop is internally
have following structure
stabilized by the existing controller K(z) with control input  
u0 , then all possible feedback controllers achieving internal L1 · · · 0
 ..  ,
stability can be parameterized by: Lr =  ... ..
. .  (21)
u(z) = u0 (z) + Q(z)r(z), (18) 0 ··· Lns
and ensures the stability of Ao − Lr Co . The residual rall,i,k
where Q(z) ∈ RH∞ is the parameterization matrix and r(z)
is the overall residual signal, which is provided by the fog
is the residual vector.
fusion center for i-th fog computing node and satisfies
Proof: According to the Bezout identity (14), the follow-  
ing equation holds: rall,1,k
∑ns
 .. 
( )−1 ( ) rk = rall,k = risub,k =  . . (22)
u = − X − Q̄N̂ Y + Q̄M̂ e, i=1 rall,ns ,k
= −X−1 Ye − X−1 Q̄(M̂e − N̂u), ∑
ns
= −X−1 Ye − X−1 Q̄(e − ê). In addition, xo,k = xio,k provides an estimate to the state
i=1
variable of the overall process. For control purpose, following
Recall e(z)−ê(z) = ŷ(z)−y(z) = −r(z), and define Q̄(z) = the Youla parameterization, define the Youla parameterization
X(z)Q(z) where Q(z) ∈ RH∞ , then it follows matrix Q(z) ∈ RH∞ and the feedforward controller V(z) ∈
RH∞ of the overall process as:
u(z) = K(z)e(z) + Q(z)r(z),  
Q1 (z) · · · 0
where K(z) is the existing stabilizing feedback controller.  .. .. .. 
Q(z) =  . . . ,
In the standard feedback control structure, according to The-
0 · · · Qns (z)
orem 1, once the pre-designed control system K(z) ensures  
the internal stability of the closed-loop, then all stabilizing V1 (z) · · · 0
 .. .. .. 
controllers can be represented by “embedding” a Youla pa- V(z) =  . . . ,
rameterization matrix Q(z) ∈ RH∞ which is driven by the 0 · · · Vns (z)
residual signal, into the existing control system. Furthermore, a
feed-forward controller V(z) ∈ RH∞ can also be “embedded” with Qi (z) ∈ RH∞ and Vi (z) ∈ RH∞ for i = 1, · · · , ns .
for additional d.o.f. (degree of freedom) for tracking perfor- The control law for each subsystem thus becomes:
mance. The resulting process monitoring and control structure
is sketched in Fig. 2. ui (z) = Ki (z)ei (z) + Qi (z)rall,i,k + Vi (z)ω i (z), (23)

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics

4 IEEE
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON Transactions
INDUSTRIAL on Industrial
INFORMATICS, Informatics
VOL. XX, ( Year201X
NO. XX, XXXX : 2018 )

Central Fusion Node

Fog Computing Node 1 Fog Computing Node i Fog Computing Node ns

y1 Control Subsys. 1 u1 yi Control Subsys. i ui y ns Control Subsys. ns u ns

t1 s1 ti si tn
s
Sn
s

Interconnections

Fig. 3. Fog computing aided process monitoring and control architecture

In other words, the overall residual generator (16)-(17) can measurements:


be realized into ns subsystems with the realization (19)-    
ui,k yi,k
(20) where the local information risub,k is fused in the fog  ..   .. 
fusion center for global decision and coordination. For our uis,k =  . ,
i
ys,k = . , (25)
purpose, the residual of the overall process rall,k can be ui,k+s−1 yi,k+s−1
used for process monitoring while the control performance then the following definition can be made for the data-driven
optimization can be achieved by feeding rall,i,k back to i- realization of the SKR:
th control subsystem. It should be noticed that, between the Definition 2 (Data-driven SKR): Given an MIMO discrete-
fog computing node and the fog fusion center, only necessary time LTI system Gi (z) in equations (5)-(6), a full-row rank
information (i.e. the residual signals, etc.) is exchanged. A matrix Kid,s is called a data-driven realization of the SKR of
general structure of the proposed fog computing aided process Gi (z), if for all k ≥ 0 it holds that: ∀xi,0 , ui,k ,
monitoring and control architecture is illustrated in Fig. 3. [ i ] [ ]
us,k [ i ] uis,k
Kid,s i = K d,u,s K i
d,y,s i = 0. (26)
ys,k ys,k
III. DATA - DRIVEN DESIGN OF THE FOG COMPUTING AIDED
PROCESS MONITORING SYSTEM Considering the system Gi (z) in equations (5)-(6), let the
In this section, a data-driven scheme is proposed to design input and output Hankel matrices and the extended state vector
the fog computing aided process monitoring system. In addi- Xik,1,N be respectively defined as::
tion, in order to cope with the changes of the process param- [ ]
Uik,s,N = uis,k · · · uis,k+N−1 ,
eters or operating points, an adaptive configuration approach [ i ]
is developed.
i
Yk,s,N = ys,k · · · ys,k+N−1
i
, (27)
[ ]
Xk,1,N = xi,k · · · xi,k+N −1 ,
i

A. Data-driven process monitoring system design in fog com- while the extended observability matrix Γis and the lower
puting node triangular block-Toeplitz matrix Hiu,s be respectively denoted
Before presenting the proposed approach, the following as:
   
definition [15] is given to the stable kernel representation of Ci Di ··· 0
each subsystem (5)-(6):  Ci A   C i Bi ··· 0 
   
Definition 1 (SKR): Given an MIMO discrete-time LTI sys- Γis =  ..  , H i
=  .. .. ..  ,
 .  u,s
 . . . 
tem G(z) in equations (5)-(6), a stable linear system Ki is
Ci As−1 Ci As−2 Bi · · · Di
called a stable kernel representation (SKR) of Gi (z) if for
any control input u(z) it satisfies then as commonly used in subspace identification techniques
[ ] that the extended state space model can be formulated as:
ui (z)
Ki = 0. (24) i
Yk,s,N = Γis Xik,1,N + Hiu,s Uik,s,N + Hiα,s Ψik,s,N , (28)
yi (z)

According to above definition, define the following stacked where Hiα,s Ψik,s,N represents the noise term in Gi (z), and
data vectors of length s using overall system input and output Hiα,s has the similar structure as Hiu,s .

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics

IEEE
LUO Transactions
et al.: onDESIGN
DATA-DRIVEN Industrial Informatics
OF FOG ( Year
COMPUTING : 2018
AIDED ) MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LARGE-SCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES
PROCESS 5

Consider the feedback control system for each subsystem then the thin LQ factorization:
and suppose the closed-loop is well-posed and  i   i  
[ ] internally Zc,p,N Lc,11 0 0 Qic,1
stabilized by Ki (z) = Aic , Bic , Cic , Dic :  Mif ,N  =  Lic,21 Lic,22   Qic,2  (35)
0
xic,k+1 = Aic xic,k + Bic (ω i,k − yi,k ), (29) Yfi ,N Lic,31 Lic,32 Lic,33 Qic,3
| {z } | {z }
ui,k = Cic xic,k + Dic (ω i,k − yi,k ), (30) Lic Qic

similar to the extended formulation in equation (28), the is unique and a data-driven SKR of Gi (z) can be determined
control input sequence ui can be formed as: as:
[ ]
Uik,s,N = Γi,c i,c
s Xk,1,N + Hu,s Wk,s,N − Hu,s Yk,s,N , (31)
i,c i i,c i Kid,sf = Kic,m,sf Kic,y,sf + Kic,m,sf Hi,c
u,sf , (36)
[ i ] | {z } | {z }
where Xi,ck,1,N = xc,k · · · xic,k+N −1 , and matrices Kid,u,s
f
Kid,y,s
f

Γi,c i,c
s and Hu,s are composite of system matrices of the Ki (z), where
i.e. Ac , Bc , Cic , Dic , which have the similar structure as Γis
i i [ ]
[ ] Lic,21 Lic,22
and Hiu,s . The Hankel matrix Wk,s,N i
is constructed by the Kic,m,sf Kic,y,sf = 0.
Lic,31 Lic,32
tracking reference ω i . Substitute equation (31) into equation
(28), the following equation holds, Moreover, Kid,y,sf is the parity subspace of length sf
i
Ti,s Yk,s,N =Γis Xik,1,N + Hiu,s Γi,c i,c of system Gi (z), i.e. Kid,y,sf Γisf = 0, and Kid,u,sf =
s Xk,1,N
i −Kid,y,sf Hiu,sf .
+ Hiu,s Hi,c i i
u,s Wk,s,N + Hα,s Ψk,s,N . (32) Proof: The proof is given in Appendix A.
( ) Based on the identified data-driven SKR, a data-driven
where Ti,s = I + Hiu,s Hi,c i
u,s . The invertibility of Ts is
guaranteed by the well-posedness of the closed-loop [27]. design approach can be developed for the construction of an
Considering (32) and supposing the closed-loop is well-posed observer-based residual generator. To achieve our goal, the
and internally stabilized, let Mik,s,N be denoted as: following lemma [10] is essential:
Lemma 2: Given an MIMO discrete-time LTI system
Mik,s,N := Uik,s,N + Hi,c i
u,s Yk,s,N G(z)
[ ] and a parity vector υ s =
in equations (7)-(8)
= Γi,c i,c i,c i υ s,1 υ s,2 · · · υ s,s such that υ s Γs = 0, then matrices
s Xk,1,N + Hu,s Wk,s,N , (33)
G, T, L, H, q, v, w from following diagnostic observer:
then equation (32) becomes
x̂k+1 = Gx̂k + Huk + Lyk ,
i
Yk,s,N =T−1 i i −1 i i
i,s Γs Xk,1,N + Ti,s Hu,s Mk,s,N rk = vyk − wx̂k − quk .
+ T−1 i i
i,s Hα,s Ψk,s,N . (34)
which are defined by
Defining the following Hankel matrices:  
0 0 ··· 0
[ i ] [ i ] [ i ] 1 0 ··· 0
Up,N Uk−sp ,sp ,N Mp,N [ ]  
i
Zp,N = = i
, Zc,p,N = ,  ..  ,
i
Yp,N i
Yk−s i
Yp,N G= G0 g , G0 =  ... ..
.
..
. .
[ i ] [ i
p ,sp ,N
] [ i ]  
Uf ,N Uk,sf ,N Mf ,N 0 ··· 1 0
Zif ,N = i = i , Zi
= , 0 ··· 0 1
Yf ,N Yk,sf ,N c,f ,N
Yfi ,N
   
Mip,N = Uip,N + Hi,c i i i i,c i g1 υs,1
u,sp Yp,N , Mf ,N = Uf ,N + Hu,sf Yf ,N ,
   
g=  ...  , L = −  ..
.  − gυ s,s ,
where the subscripts sp and sf denote the past and future
horizon, respectively. Since Mif ,N is uncorrelated with the gs−1 υs,s−1
  
past noise sequences, the closed-loop identification of the data- υ s,2 υ s,3 · · · υ s,s−1 υ s,s C
driven SKR can be achieved by orthogonally projecting Yfi ,N  υ s,3 · · · · · · υ s,s 0   
   CA 
onto the row space of Zic,p,N and Mif ,N which is summarized T= . . .   . ,
 .. ··· ··· .. ..   .. 
into the following theorem: υ s,s 0 ··· ··· 0 CA s−1
Theorem 2: Given a standard feedback control loop which   
consists of an MIMO discrete-time LTI system Gi (z) in υ s,1 + g1 υ s,s υ s,2 · · · · · · υ s,s D
 υ s,2 + g2 υ s,s υ s,3 · · · υ s,s 0   
equations (5)-(6) and a feedback controller Ki (z) in equations   CB 
H= .. .. . . ..  .. ,
(29)-(30), under the closed-loop assumptions that:  . . .. .. .  . 
1) the closed-loop is well-posed and internally stabilized υ s,s−1 + gs−1 υ s,s υ s,s 0 · · · 0 CAs−1 B
by Ki (z), [ ]
q = υ s,s D, v = υ s,s , w = 0 · · · 0 1 ,
2) the reference signal ω i is uncorrelated with the state
vector xi and the unknown noise sequence ξi and vi , in which g ensures the stability of G, satisfy the Luenberger
3) sf , sp and N is sufficiently large such that Zic,d,N = equations:
[ T ]T
TA − GT = LC, H = TB − LD, vC = wT, q = vD.
T T
Zic,p,N Mif ,N Yfi ,N has full-row rank,

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics ( Year : 2018 )
6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. XX, NO. XX, XXXX 201X

Lemma 1 provides the relationship of a given parity vector known, a multidimensional residual generator can be directly
υ s and the design parameters of the diagnostic observer. Based constructed for a given data-driven SKR Kid,s .
on Theorem 2, a multidimensional residual generator can thus
be constructed which is summaries into the following theorem: B. An adaptive configuration approach
Theorem 3: Given a data-driven realization of the SKR of
Gi (z): In order to cope with the process changes, i.e. changes in the
[ ] process parameters, operation points etc., an adaptive configu-
Kid,s = Kid,u,s Kid,y,s , (37) ration approach is proposed for the constructed observer-based
residual generator in each fog computing node. The adaptive
that has nK linearly independent rows and note
[ ] technique developed in this subsection is based on the adaptive
Kid,u,s = hiυ,1 · · · hiυ,i · · · hiυ,s , observer technique, see e.g. [28], [29].
[ ] Since (A + B) ⊗ C = A ⊗ C + B ⊗ C, denote
Kid,y,s = υ iυ,1 · · · υ iυ,i · · · υ iυ,s .
[ ]T
a multidimensional residual generator can be constructed as: ūi,k = 0T · · · uTi,k · · · 0T ,
[ T ] T
xio,k+1 = Ao xio,k + Bo,i ui,k + Lo,i yi,k + Lr,i rall,i,k , (38) ȳi,k = 0 · · · yi,k
T
· · · 0T ,
[ T
risub,k = Go,i yi,k − Co xio,k − Do,i ui,k . (39) Quy,i = ūi,k ⊗ In −ūi,k ⊗ Lr T
( ) ]
where
T
ȳi,k ⊗ In T
ȳi,k ⊗ Lr Dm ,
   i  [
gi,1 T1 U i,k = ūTi,k ⊗ 0m×n −ūTi,k ⊗ Im
[ ]     ( ) ]
Gi = G0 gi , gi =  ...  , To,i = Tt  ...  , T
ȳi,k ⊗ 0m×n T
ȳi,k ⊗ Im Dm ,
gi,s−1 TinK
  then the adaptive residual generator can be constructed with
g1 ··· 0
 ..
Gg =  . .. ..  , w = [0 · · · 1] , consists of following parts:
. .  i • In i-th fog computing node:
0 gnK ··· – Residual generator:
 
G1 · · · 0
 ..  TT , G = υ i , x̂io,k+1 = Aor x̂io,k + Lr,i yi,k + Quy,i θ̂ k + Vi,k+1 eθ̂,k+1 ,
Ao = Tt  ... ..
. .  t o,i υ,s
risub,k = yi,k − Co x̂io,k + U i,k θ̂ k . (40)
0 · · · GnK
 i    – Auxiliary filter:
hυ,1 w1 · · · 0
   ..  TT ,
Bo,i = ... +Tt Gg hiυ,s , Co = ... ..
. .  t Vi,k+1 = Aor Vi,k + Quy,i , (41)
hiυ,s−1 0 · · · wn K φisub,k = Co Vi,k − U i,k . (42)
 i 
υ υ,1 • In the fog fusion center:
 
Lo,i = −  ...  − Tt Gg υ iυ,s , Do,i = hiυ,s , – Data fusion:
υ iυ,s−1 ∑
ns ∑
ns

in which gi is the design parameter that ensures the stability φall,k = φisub,k , rall,k = risub,k . (43)
i=1 i=1
of Gi while Tt is a permutation matrix such that:
[ ]T – Parameter estimator:
T T
Tt υ i1,1 · · · υ i1,s−1 · · · υ n iT iT
· · · υ
K ,1 nK ,s−1 θ̂ k+1 = θ̂ k + eθ̂,k+1 , eθ̂,k+1 = γk φTall,k rall,k , (44)
[ ]T
γk = µ(σ + φTall,k φall,k )−1 , σ > 0, 0 < µ < 2,
T T T T
= υ i1,1 · · · υ inK ,1 · · · υ i1,s−1 · · · υ inK ,s−1 (45)
[ T ]T
T T The proof of the stability and convergence is referred to
= υ iυ,1 · · · υ iυ,i · · · υ iυ,s−1 .
[28], [29] and thus omitted here. Fig. 4 generally demonstrates
Moreover, Ao , Bo,i , Co , Do,i , Lo,i , Go,i satisfy following Lu- the information exchange between the fog computing node and
enberger conditions: the fog fusion center.
To,i A − Ao To,i = Lo,i C, Go,i C = Co To,i ,
IV. C ASE STUDY ON THE TE BENCHMARK SYSTEM
Bo,i = To,i B − Lo,i D, Do,i = Go,i D.
In this section, the proposed fog computing aided data-
Proof: The proof is straightforward computation accord- driven design methods are applied to the TE benchmark
ing to Lemma 1 and thus omitted. The audience is referred to process. The process allows total 52 measurements out of
[10] for more details. which 41 are process variables and 11 are manipulated
Remark 1: Theorem 3 is a direct extension of Lemma variables listed in Table I and Table II. Since TE process
1 which provides a simple solution to the construction of is well studied in the literature, a brief description of the
multidimensional residual generator using process data. Note TE process is referred to [30], [31] and omitted here. For
that the permutation matrix Tt is fixed once its dimensions are our purpose, fog computing aided process monitoring system

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics

LUOIEEE
et al.: Transactions on Industrial
DATA-DRIVEN DESIGN OF FOGInformatics
COMPUTING( AIDED
Year :PROCESS
2018 ) MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LARGE-SCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 7

TABLE I
P ROCESS VARIABLES
Central Fusion Node
Block name Variable name Number
ˆ
θ,e A feed (stream 1) XMEAS(1)
φsub
i
θˆ i
rsub rall,i D feed (stream 2) XMEAS(2)
Input feed
Fog Computing Node i E feed (stream 3) XMEAS(3)
A and C feed XMEAS(4)
Adaptive Residual Monitoring Reactor feed rate XMEAS(6)
Configuration Generator and Control Reactor pressure XMEAS(7)
Reactor
Reactor level XMEAS(8)
Reactor temperature XMEAS(9)
Separator temperature XMEAS(11)
yi Control Subsys. i ui Separator level XMEAS(12)
Separator
Separator pressure XMEAS(13)
Separator underflow XMEAS(14)
Stripper level XMEAS(15)
Stripper pressure XMEAS(16)
Stripper Stripper underflow XMEAS(17)
Stripper temperature XMEAS(18)
Stripper steam flow XMEAS(19)
Recycle flow XMEAS(5)
Purge rate XMEAS(10)
Miscellaneous Compressor work XMEAS(20)
Reactor water temperature XMEAS(21)
Separator water temperature XMEAS(22)
Component A XMEAS(23)
ti si Component B XMEAS(24)
Component C XMEAS(25)
Reactor feed analysis
Component D XMEAS(26)
Interconnections Component E XMEAS(27)
Component F XMEAS(28)
Component A XMEAS(29)
Fig. 4. The information exchange between fog computing nodes Component B XMEAS(30)
Component C XMEAS(31)
Purge gas analysis Component D XMEAS(32)
Component E XMEAS(33)
is designed for each subsystem, namely reactor, condenser, Component F XMEAS(34)
Component G XMEAS(35)
compressor, separator and stripper. In this section, a fault of the Component H XMEAS(36)
reaction kinetics change, i.e. IDV(13), is considered. In each Component D XMEAS(37)
Component E XMEAS(38)
subsystem, the local controller Ki (z) has following structure: Product analysis Component F XMEAS(39)
( ) Component G XMEAS(40)
Ti,s Component H XMEAS(41)
ui,k = Ki,c ei,k + ei,k − ei,k−1 ,
Ti,i
TABLE II
where Ki,c , Ti,s and Ti,i are the controller parameters of P ROCESS MANIPULATED VARIABLES
subsystem i, and ei,k = ωi,k − yi,k denotes the tracking
error of subsystem i. Based on the proposed data-driven Variable name Base value(%) Units Number
process monitoring approaches for each fog computing node D feed flow 63.053 kgh−1 XMV(1)
A feed flow 24.644 kscmh XMV(3)
in Theorems 2 and 3, the following test statistic can be adopted E feed flow 53.980 kgh−1 XMV(2)
for the fault detection purpose: A and C feed flow 61.302 kscmh XMV(4)
Compressor recycle valve 22.210 % XMV(5)
Ji,k = rall,i,k Σ−1
i,c rall,i,k ,
Purge valve
Separator pot liquid flow
40.064
38.100
%
3 −1
m h
XMV(6)
XMV(7)
Stripper liquid product flow 46.534 m3 h−1 XMV(8)
where Stripper steam valve 47.446 % XMV(9)
m3 h−1
Kid,y,sf Lic,33 (Kid,y,sf Lic,33 )⊤ Reactor cooling water flow
Condenser cooling water flow
41.106
18.114 m3 h−1
XMV(10)
XMV(11)
Σi,c = .
N −1
And the threshold is given by:
( ) where the controller parameters are given as Krt,c = −8,
Ji,th = χ2εi niK ,
Trt,s = 0.0005 and Trt,i = 0.1250. The monitoring results
where εi is the significance level for i-th fog monitoring node on fog computing node for the separator temperature are
and niK is the dimension of the rall,i,k . given in Fig. 7, where the controller parameters are set to be
The monitoring results of the proposed approach are com- Kst,c = −4, Tst,s = 0.0005 and Tst,i = 0.25. All monitoring
pared to the ones according to [32], in which the effects of results are compared to the ones according to [32]. Using
the controller on the process data are ignored. Fig. 5-7 show the fault-free I/O data of each subsystem and the controller
the monitoring results on fog computing nodes of reactor and information, the data-driven SKR Kid,s in each fog computing
separator. More precisely, Fig. 5 shows the monitoring results node can be identified, and the monitoring system can be
on fog computing node for the reactor pressure, where the constructed. It is clear from the comparisons that the developed
controller parameters are given as Krp,c = −0.0001, Trp,s = methods provide more reliable and efficient monitoring results
0.0005 and Trp,i = 0.3333. Fig. 6 shows the monitoring in each fog computing node, in which the fault IDV(13) is
results on fog computing node for the reactor temperature, assumed to be appeared around 1000 sampling instant.

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics

8 IEEE Transactions
IEEE TRANSACTIONS on INFORMATICS,
ON INDUSTRIAL Industrial Informatics
VOL. XX, (NO.
Year
XX,: XXXX
2018 201X
)

Monitoring results according to [28] Reactor temperature and its estimation


20 123.2
T 2 test statistic Measurement
Threshold 123.1 Estimation
15

yrt and y^rt


123
JRP

10
122.9
5
122.8
fault adaptation
0 122.7
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

Monitoring results of the proposed method Residual signals


60 0.15
fault adaptation
50 T 2 test statistic
Threshold 0.1
40
0.05
JRP

30

r rt
0
20

10 -0.05

0 -0.1
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Samples Samples

Fig. 5. Monitoring results on fog computing node for the reactor pressure. Fig. 8. Reactor temperature and its estimation before and after adaption.

Monitoring results according to [28]


20

T 2 test statistic Separator temperature and its estimation


Threshold
96
15
Measurement
95
Estimation
JRT

10 94

yst and y^st 93


5
92

0 91
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
fault adaptation
90
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Monitoring results of the proposed method
120

100
2
T test statistic Residual signals
Threshold 0.2
fault adaptation
80
0.1
JRT

60

40
r st

0
20
-0.1
0
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
Samples -0.2
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Samples

Fig. 6. Monitoring results on fog computing node for the reactor temperature.
Fig. 9. Separator temperature and its estimation before and after adaption.
Monitoring results according to [28]
20

T 2 test statistic
15 Threshold

After the process change is detected, the adaptive configu-


JST

10
ration approach should be activated to capture the changed
5
process dynamics. In order to show the efficiency of the
0 adaptive configuration approach, the adaptation is activated
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
around 2000 sampling instant. Fig. 8 shows the measured re-
120
Monitoring results of the proposed method actor temperature and its estimation before and after adaption
100 T 2 test statistic
Threshold
in reactor fog computing node, where the ones of separator
80 temperature are given in Fig. 9.
JST

60
Since the fault under consideration is IDV(13) which is
40

20
the change of reaction kinetics, it can be observed from
0
Fig. 8 and 9 that this fault mainly changes the dynamics
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
Samples of the reactor (greatly affects the estimation of the reactor
temperature) and has less effects on the estimation of the
Fig. 7. Monitoring results on fog computing node for the separator
separator temperature (the fault does not affect the dynamics of
temperature. separator). After the adaptation, the change of reaction kinetics
has been captured/identified and the estimation starts to follow
the measurement (residual becomes around zeros) again in Fig.
8.

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LUO
IEEEet Transactions
al.: DATA-DRIVEN
on DESIGN OF Informatics
Industrial FOG COMPUTING AIDED
( Year PROCESS
: 2018 ) MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LARGE-SCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 9

V. C ONCLUSION that is identified from the given closed-loop I/O data Zic,d,N .
In this paper, a fog computing aided process monitoring Furthermore, Yfi ,N can be expressed as:
and control architecture is proposed for large-scale industrial Yfi ,N = Lic,zp Zic,p,N + Lic,m Mif ,N + Lic,33 Qic,3 ,
processes. To cope with the problems caused by the changes of
process parameters and operating points, a closed-loop data- where Lic,m = Lic,32 (Lic,22 )−1 and Lic,zp =
driven method is developed for the process monitoring system Lc,31 (Lc,11 ) − Lc,32 (Lic,22 )−1 Lic,21 (Lic,11 )−1 . Compare
i i −1 i

design and an adaptive configuration approach is proposed. the above data-driven formulation with the model-based one
The proposed fog computing aided process monitoring and in equation (48), it is straightforward that:
control architecture effectively saves online computational
Lic,zp = T−1 i i i −1
i,sf Γsf Lsp Tsp Tmu,i ,
load and reduces communicational efforts, where the feasi-
bility and effectiveness are verified and demonstrated through Lic,m = T−1 i
i,sf Hu,sf , (49)
( )
the case study on the TE benchmark. Lic,33 Qic,3 = T−1 H i i
i,sf α,s k,s,N .
Ψ

A PPENDIX A Moreover, it can be easily shown that Kic,y,sf Lic,zp = 0, and


P ROOF OF T HEOREM 2 note that Tisp and Tmu,i are invertible, and Lisp is of full-row
rank, it follows that
Recall the extended model-based formulation in equation
(32), the following equation holds according to the innovation Kic,y,sf Lic,zp = 0 ⇐⇒ Kic,y,sf T−1 i
i,sf Γsf = 0. (50)
model [33]: ( )
s As a result, Kid,y,sf Γisf = Kic,y,sf + Kic,m,sf Hi,c i
u,sf Γsf =
Xik,1,N = Lisp Tisp Zip,N + AK,i p
Xik−sp ,1,N , (46)
0, Kid,y,sf Hiu,sf = −Kid,u,sf . According to the definition
[ ] ⊥ ⊥
where Lisp =
sp −1
AK,i BK,i · · · AK,i BK,i BK,i of the parity subspace Γis , i.e. Γis Γis = 0, it is evident
is the extended predictor controllability matrix with from above that Kid,y,sf is the parity subspace of Gi (z), the
[ ] theorem is thus proved.
AK,i = A − LK,i Ci and BK,i = Bi − LK,i Di LK,i .
In addition, LK,i is the Kalman filter gain in the innovation
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1551-3203 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
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10 IEEE Transactions
IEEE TRANSACTIONS onINFORMATICS,
ON INDUSTRIAL Industrial Informatics ( Year
VOL. XX, NO. : 2018201X
XX, XXXX )

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7th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Shen Yin (M’12-SM’15) received the B.E. degree
Technical Processes, pp. 941–946, June 2009. in automation from Harbin Institute of Technology,
[30] J. Downs and E. Vogel, “A plant-wide industrial process control prob- Harbin, China, in 2004, the M.Sc. degree in control
lem,” Computers & Chemical Engineering, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 245–255, and information system an d the Ph.D. degree in
1993. electrical engineering and information technology
[31] B. A, N. Ricker, and M. Jelali, “Revision of the tennessee eastman from University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Ger-
process model,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 309–314, 2015. many.
9th IFAC Symposium on Advanced Control of Chemical Processes He is currently a Professor with the Research
ADCHEM 2015. Center of Intelligent Control and Systems, Harbin
[32] S. Yin, H. Luo, and S. Ding, “Real-time implementation of fault-tolerant Institute of Technology. His research interests are
control systems with performance optimization,” IEEE Transactions on model-based and data-driven fault diagnosis and
Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, pp. 2402–2411, May 2014. prognosis in process control and their applications, fault-tolerant control, and
[33] S. Qin, “An overview of subspace identification,” Computers & Chem- big data focused on industrial electronics applications.
ical Engineering, vol. 30, pp. 1502–1513, Sept. 2006.
[34] G. Golub and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations. Johns Hopkins
University Press, 2012.

Hao Luo (M’15) received his B.E. degree in elec-


trical engineering from Xi an Jiaotong University,
China, in 2007, M.Sc. degree in electrical engi-
neering and information technology from Univer-
sity of Duisburg-Essen, Germany, in 2012, and the
Ph.D. degree at the Institute for Automatic Control
and Complex Systems (AKS) at the University of
Duisburg-Essen, Germany, in 2016.
He is currently an associate professor in School of
Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology. His re-
search interests include model-based and data-driven
fault diagnosis, fault-tolerant systems and their plug-and-play application on
industrial systems.

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