fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2843124, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics
IEEE
IEEE Transactions
TRANSACTIONS ON on IndustrialINFORMATICS,
INDUSTRIAL Informatics (VOL.
YearXX,
: 2018 ) XXXX 201X
NO. XX, 1
Abstract—Stimulated by the recent development of fog com a process model is essential for the design of the monitoring
puting technology, in this paper, a fog computing aided process and control systems, see e.g. [8]–[10] and the references
monitoring and control architecture is proposed for largescale therein. Boosted by the development of communication tech
industrial processes, which enables reliable and efficient online
performance optimization in each fog computing node without nology, data networking systems as well as computer sci
modifying predesigned control subsystems. Moreover, a closed ence, in the past 30 years, the datadriven techniques have
loop datadriven method is developed for the process monitor drawn considerable attention in both theoretical and practical
ing system design and an adaptive configuration approach is domains. The major advantages brought by the datadriven
proposed to deal with the problems caused by the changes of techniques are that the timeconsuming and highengineer
process parameters and operating points. The feasibility and
effectiveness of the proposed design approaches are verified and effortsrequired modeling procedure could be saved on the one
demonstrated through the case study on the Tennessee Eastman hand, on the other hand, the difficulttobeacquired process
(TE) benchmark system. information on the anomalies or faults can be efficiently
Index Terms—Fog computing, datadriven methods, process abstracted from available process data. In literature, numerous
monitoring, adaptive methods, largescale process, distributed academic researches and industrial applications of datadriven
control. fault diagnosis techniques can be found, see e.g. [11]–[18] and
the references therein.
However, most of the existing datadriven designs result in
I. I NTRODUCTION
a central computing procedure where the global information
OWADAYS, driven by the rapid development of in
N formation and communication technologies as well as
computer science, the great changes of the industrial envi
is needed. For a largescale industrial process, the whole
design thus involves huge computational and communica
tional burden, especially when an online configuration of the
ronment has been witnessed nowadays [1], [2]. Especially, designed monitoring and control systems is demanded. In
stimulated by the wide application of the Internet of Things order to release the central computational burden and reduce
(IoT), the sharing and crossfertilization of the information for the communication efforts among isolated subsystems, the
a better coordination and global decision have gained lots of decentralized monitoring and control technologies, see e.g.
attention in these years. Among the developed communica [19]–[25] and the references therein, could be utilized. In this
tion/computation technologies, fog is a feasible and reliable paper, motivated by the advantages brought by fog computing
architecture which distributes computation, communication, technique, a fog computing aided process monitoring and
control closer to the end users along the cloudtothings control architecture is firstly proposed for largescale industrial
continuum [3]. A burst of the successful applications of fog processes. Differing from the existing decentralized monitor
computing technique can be observed in recent years, see e.g. ing and control strategies, the proposed one avoids the mod
[2], [4]–[6]. However, lots of challenges still remain during ification of predesigned control systems and enables online
the real application of fog computing technique [3], [7]. performance optimization in each fog computing node with
In modern industry, with the increasing demands on product stability guarantee. In addition, a datadriven design method
quality and economic benefits, the modern industrial processes is developed for the process monitoring system in which
have been designed more and more complicated with high the effects of the local feedback system on the process data
autonomous degrees and sophisticated control strategies. In are considered. Moreover, an adaptive configuration approach
order to enhance the overall system safety and reliability, is proposed for the designed datadriven process monitoring
during the last a few decades, modelbased fault diagnosis and system in each fog computing node to deal with the problems
faulttolerant control technologies have been widely studied caused by the changes of process parameters and operating
and verified both from academic and industrial fields, in which points.
To harmoniously address the work, the rest of this paper is
Manuscript received February 07, 2018; revised April 11, 2018; accepted
May 17, 2018. This work has been in part supported by National Natural organized as follows. In Section II, the preliminaries on the
Science Foundation of China under Grant 61703121 and China Postdoctoral system descriptions are given and the proposed fog computing
Science Foundation under Grant 2017M611368. aided process monitoring and control architecture is intro
Hao Luo, Hao Zhao and Shen Yin (Corresponding Author) are with the
School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001, Harbin, China duced. Section III is dedicated to the datadriven design of the
(emails: {hao.luo, zhaohao316, shen.yin}@hit.edu.cn). process monitoring system in each fog computing node using
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closedloop process data, where an adaptive configuration where ei (z) and ω i (z) are the tracking error and reference
method is proposed. Case studies on the Tennessee Eastman signal of subsystem i, respectively. Then the overall feedback
(TE) benchmark system are demonstrated in Section IV and control law satisfies:
Section V concludes this paper.
u(z) = K(z)e(z) = K(z) (ω(z) − y(z)) ,
K1 (z) · · · 0 e1 (z)
II. F OG COMPUTING AIDED PROCESS MONITORING AND .. .. .. ..
= . . . . , (10)
CONTROL ARCHITECTURE
0 · · · Kns (z) ens (z)
A. Process descriptions
where the I/O signals uk , yk , ek , ξk and vk in the overall
Consider a largescale industrial process which is assumed system have the similar structure as xk . Furthermore, the
to be observable and is assembled by many subsystems of system matrix A consists of subsystem matrices Aii in diag
number ns . In order to consider the interconnections between onal positions and Aij (i ̸= j) describes the interconnections
different subsystems, the each subsystem is assumed to have in nondiagonal positions, while matrices B, C, D are block
following discretetime statespace realization [20]: diagonal matrices that constructed by matrices Bi , Ci , Di ,
respectively. For an interconnected largescale process with
xi,k+1 = Ai xi,k + Bi ui,k + Ei ti,k + ξi,k , (1) the hierarchical structure, the matrix A is of lowertriangular.
yi,k = Ci xi,k + Di ui,k + Fi ti,k + vi,k , (2) The following lemma [20] reveals the relationship between the
si,k = Cs,i xi,k + Ds,i ui,k + Fs,i ti,k , (3) stability of the overall closedloop and the ones of isolated
subsystems.
where xi , ui and yi denote the state, input and output variables Lemma 1: The overall closedloop system (7)(10) with the
of ith subsystem (i = 1, · · · , ns ), respectively. ξ i and vi hierarchical structure is stable if and only if the isolated closed
respectively represent the state and measurement noise vectors loop subsystems (5)(9) are stable.
that are assumed to be zeromean and white. Signals ti For a proper realrational transfer function matrix G(z) of
and si describe the interconnections between each subsystem. the overall system as defined in equations (7)(8), which is
Furthermore, if the interconnections of all subsystems can be further assumed to be observable, the left and right coprime
described by: factorizations (LCF and RCF) of G(z) are respectively given
by:
tk = Msk , (4)
G(z) = M̂−1 (z)N̂(z) = N(z)M−1 (z), (11)
[ ]T
where sk = sT1,k · · · sTsn ,k
is the sent information
[ ]T where M̂(z)
( ∈ RH∞ , N̂(z)
) ∈ (RH∞ , M(z) ∈ RH ) ∞ , N(z) ∈
vector and tk = tT1,k · · · tTsn ,k
is the received infor RH∞ , M̂(z), N̂(z) and M(z), N(z) are left and
mation vector, then an inputoutput decentralized form [20] right coprime pairs over RH∞ , i.e. there exists X̂(z) ∈ RH∞ ,
can be obtained: Ŷ(z) ∈ RH∞ , X(z) ∈ RH∞ , Y(z) ∈ RH∞ such that
∑
ns [ ]
[ ] Ŷ(z)
xi,k+1 = Aii xi,k + Aij xj,k + Bi ui,k + ξi,k , (5) N̂(z) M̂(z) = I,
X̂(z)
j=1
[ ] (12)
j̸=i [ ] M(z)
yi,k = Ci xi,k + Di ui,k + vi,k , (6) X(z) Y(z) = I.
N(z)
where Aii = Ai . Then for the overall system G(z), the state Then all stabilizing feedback controllers can be parameterized
space representation (1)(3) can be reformulated into: by using a Youla parameterization matrix Q̄(z) ∈ RH∞ as:
( )( )−1
xk+1 = Axk + Buk + ξk , (7) K(z) = Ŷ(z) + M(z)Q̄(z) X̂(z) − N(z)Q̄(z)
yk = Cxk + Duk + vk . (8) ( )−1 ( ) (13)
= X(z) − Q̄(z)N̂(z) Y(z) + Q̄(z)M̂(z)
where
and the socalled Bezout identity holds:
x1,k A11 ··· A1i ··· A1ns [ ][ ] [ ]
.. .. .. .. X(z) Y(z) M(z) −Ŷ(z) I 0
. . .. .. = . (14)
. . . . −N̂(z) M̂(z) N(z) X̂(z) 0 I
xk = xi,k , A =
Ai1 ··· Aii ··· Ains ,
. . .. .. Define
.. .. .. ..
.
. . . [ ] A + BF B L
··· ··· M(z) −Ŷ(z)
xns ,k Ans 1 Ans 1 Ans ns = F I 0
N(z) X̂(z)
C + DF D I
Denote Ki (z) for i = 1, · · · , ns is the stabilizing feedback (15)
controller of subsystem i, that is [ ] A − LC −(B − LD) −L
X(z) Y(z)
= F I 0
−N̂(z) M̂(z)
ui (z) = Ki (z)ei (z) = Ki (z) (ω i (z) − yi (z)) , (9) C −D I
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LUO et al.: DATADRIVEN DESIGN OF FOG COMPUTING AIDED PROCESS MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LARGESCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 3
B. The process monitoring and control architecture C. Fog computing aided process monitoring and control ar
Consider the overall process G(z) in equations (7)(8) and chitecture
its LCF realized in a form of an observerbased residual Consider the overall process G(z) in equations (7)(8)
generator, based on the Youla parameterization, Theorem 1 which is assembled by the subsystems (5)(6) with local sta
forms the foundation of the subsequent studies. bilizing control system (9). Based on the observable canonical
form, the fog computing aided process monitoring system
G(z ) can be developed, and each residual generator in the ith fog
ω e u y computing node (for i = 1, · · · , ns ) has following statespace
K(z ) Actuators Process Sensors
realization:

xio,k+1 = Ao xio,k + Bo,i ui,k + Lo,i yi,k + Lr,i rall,i,k (19)
Fig. 1. The standard feedback control loop risub,k = Go,i yi,k − Co xio,k − Do,i ui,k , (20)
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INFORMATICS, Informatics
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t1 s1 ti si tn
s
Sn
s
Interconnections
A. Datadriven process monitoring system design in fog com while the extended observability matrix Γis and the lower
puting node triangular blockToeplitz matrix Hiu,s be respectively denoted
Before presenting the proposed approach, the following as:
definition [15] is given to the stable kernel representation of Ci Di ··· 0
each subsystem (5)(6): Ci A C i Bi ··· 0
Definition 1 (SKR): Given an MIMO discretetime LTI sys Γis = .. , H i
= .. .. .. ,
. u,s
. . .
tem G(z) in equations (5)(6), a stable linear system Ki is
Ci As−1 Ci As−2 Bi · · · Di
called a stable kernel representation (SKR) of Gi (z) if for
any control input u(z) it satisfies then as commonly used in subspace identification techniques
[ ] that the extended state space model can be formulated as:
ui (z)
Ki = 0. (24) i
Yk,s,N = Γis Xik,1,N + Hiu,s Uik,s,N + Hiα,s Ψik,s,N , (28)
yi (z)
According to above definition, define the following stacked where Hiα,s Ψik,s,N represents the noise term in Gi (z), and
data vectors of length s using overall system input and output Hiα,s has the similar structure as Hiu,s .
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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
IEEE
LUO Transactions
et al.: onDESIGN
DATADRIVEN Industrial Informatics
OF FOG ( Year
COMPUTING : 2018
AIDED ) MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LARGESCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES
PROCESS 5
Consider the feedback control system for each subsystem then the thin LQ factorization:
and suppose the closedloop is wellposed and i i
[ ] internally Zc,p,N Lc,11 0 0 Qic,1
stabilized by Ki (z) = Aic , Bic , Cic , Dic : Mif ,N = Lic,21 Lic,22 Qic,2 (35)
0
xic,k+1 = Aic xic,k + Bic (ω i,k − yi,k ), (29) Yfi ,N Lic,31 Lic,32 Lic,33 Qic,3
 {z }  {z }
ui,k = Cic xic,k + Dic (ω i,k − yi,k ), (30) Lic Qic
similar to the extended formulation in equation (28), the is unique and a datadriven SKR of Gi (z) can be determined
control input sequence ui can be formed as: as:
[ ]
Uik,s,N = Γi,c i,c
s Xk,1,N + Hu,s Wk,s,N − Hu,s Yk,s,N , (31)
i,c i i,c i Kid,sf = Kic,m,sf Kic,y,sf + Kic,m,sf Hi,c
u,sf , (36)
[ i ]  {z }  {z }
where Xi,ck,1,N = xc,k · · · xic,k+N −1 , and matrices Kid,u,s
f
Kid,y,s
f
Γi,c i,c
s and Hu,s are composite of system matrices of the Ki (z), where
i.e. Ac , Bc , Cic , Dic , which have the similar structure as Γis
i i [ ]
[ ] Lic,21 Lic,22
and Hiu,s . The Hankel matrix Wk,s,N i
is constructed by the Kic,m,sf Kic,y,sf = 0.
Lic,31 Lic,32
tracking reference ω i . Substitute equation (31) into equation
(28), the following equation holds, Moreover, Kid,y,sf is the parity subspace of length sf
i
Ti,s Yk,s,N =Γis Xik,1,N + Hiu,s Γi,c i,c of system Gi (z), i.e. Kid,y,sf Γisf = 0, and Kid,u,sf =
s Xk,1,N
i −Kid,y,sf Hiu,sf .
+ Hiu,s Hi,c i i
u,s Wk,s,N + Hα,s Ψk,s,N . (32) Proof: The proof is given in Appendix A.
( ) Based on the identified datadriven SKR, a datadriven
where Ti,s = I + Hiu,s Hi,c i
u,s . The invertibility of Ts is
guaranteed by the wellposedness of the closedloop [27]. design approach can be developed for the construction of an
Considering (32) and supposing the closedloop is wellposed observerbased residual generator. To achieve our goal, the
and internally stabilized, let Mik,s,N be denoted as: following lemma [10] is essential:
Lemma 2: Given an MIMO discretetime LTI system
Mik,s,N := Uik,s,N + Hi,c i
u,s Yk,s,N G(z)
[ ] and a parity vector υ s =
in equations (7)(8)
= Γi,c i,c i,c i υ s,1 υ s,2 · · · υ s,s such that υ s Γs = 0, then matrices
s Xk,1,N + Hu,s Wk,s,N , (33)
G, T, L, H, q, v, w from following diagnostic observer:
then equation (32) becomes
x̂k+1 = Gx̂k + Huk + Lyk ,
i
Yk,s,N =T−1 i i −1 i i
i,s Γs Xk,1,N + Ti,s Hu,s Mk,s,N rk = vyk − wx̂k − quk .
+ T−1 i i
i,s Hα,s Ψk,s,N . (34)
which are defined by
Defining the following Hankel matrices:
0 0 ··· 0
[ i ] [ i ] [ i ] 1 0 ··· 0
Up,N Uk−sp ,sp ,N Mp,N [ ]
i
Zp,N = = i
, Zc,p,N = , .. ,
i
Yp,N i
Yk−s i
Yp,N G= G0 g , G0 = ... ..
.
..
. .
[ i ] [ i
p ,sp ,N
] [ i ]
Uf ,N Uk,sf ,N Mf ,N 0 ··· 1 0
Zif ,N = i = i , Zi
= , 0 ··· 0 1
Yf ,N Yk,sf ,N c,f ,N
Yfi ,N
Mip,N = Uip,N + Hi,c i i i i,c i g1 υs,1
u,sp Yp,N , Mf ,N = Uf ,N + Hu,sf Yf ,N ,
g= ... , L = − ..
. − gυ s,s ,
where the subscripts sp and sf denote the past and future
horizon, respectively. Since Mif ,N is uncorrelated with the gs−1 υs,s−1
past noise sequences, the closedloop identification of the data υ s,2 υ s,3 · · · υ s,s−1 υ s,s C
driven SKR can be achieved by orthogonally projecting Yfi ,N υ s,3 · · · · · · υ s,s 0
CA
onto the row space of Zic,p,N and Mif ,N which is summarized T= . . . . ,
.. ··· ··· .. .. ..
into the following theorem: υ s,s 0 ··· ··· 0 CA s−1
Theorem 2: Given a standard feedback control loop which
consists of an MIMO discretetime LTI system Gi (z) in υ s,1 + g1 υ s,s υ s,2 · · · · · · υ s,s D
υ s,2 + g2 υ s,s υ s,3 · · · υ s,s 0
equations (5)(6) and a feedback controller Ki (z) in equations CB
H= .. .. . . .. .. ,
(29)(30), under the closedloop assumptions that: . . .. .. . .
1) the closedloop is wellposed and internally stabilized υ s,s−1 + gs−1 υ s,s υ s,s 0 · · · 0 CAs−1 B
by Ki (z), [ ]
q = υ s,s D, v = υ s,s , w = 0 · · · 0 1 ,
2) the reference signal ω i is uncorrelated with the state
vector xi and the unknown noise sequence ξi and vi , in which g ensures the stability of G, satisfy the Luenberger
3) sf , sp and N is sufficiently large such that Zic,d,N = equations:
[ T ]T
TA − GT = LC, H = TB − LD, vC = wT, q = vD.
T T
Zic,p,N Mif ,N Yfi ,N has fullrow rank,
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Lemma 1 provides the relationship of a given parity vector known, a multidimensional residual generator can be directly
υ s and the design parameters of the diagnostic observer. Based constructed for a given datadriven SKR Kid,s .
on Theorem 2, a multidimensional residual generator can thus
be constructed which is summaries into the following theorem: B. An adaptive configuration approach
Theorem 3: Given a datadriven realization of the SKR of
Gi (z): In order to cope with the process changes, i.e. changes in the
[ ] process parameters, operation points etc., an adaptive configu
Kid,s = Kid,u,s Kid,y,s , (37) ration approach is proposed for the constructed observerbased
residual generator in each fog computing node. The adaptive
that has nK linearly independent rows and note
[ ] technique developed in this subsection is based on the adaptive
Kid,u,s = hiυ,1 · · · hiυ,i · · · hiυ,s , observer technique, see e.g. [28], [29].
[ ] Since (A + B) ⊗ C = A ⊗ C + B ⊗ C, denote
Kid,y,s = υ iυ,1 · · · υ iυ,i · · · υ iυ,s .
[ ]T
a multidimensional residual generator can be constructed as: ūi,k = 0T · · · uTi,k · · · 0T ,
[ T ] T
xio,k+1 = Ao xio,k + Bo,i ui,k + Lo,i yi,k + Lr,i rall,i,k , (38) ȳi,k = 0 · · · yi,k
T
· · · 0T ,
[ T
risub,k = Go,i yi,k − Co xio,k − Do,i ui,k . (39) Quy,i = ūi,k ⊗ In −ūi,k ⊗ Lr T
( ) ]
where
T
ȳi,k ⊗ In T
ȳi,k ⊗ Lr Dm ,
i [
gi,1 T1 U i,k = ūTi,k ⊗ 0m×n −ūTi,k ⊗ Im
[ ] ( ) ]
Gi = G0 gi , gi = ... , To,i = Tt ... , T
ȳi,k ⊗ 0m×n T
ȳi,k ⊗ Im Dm ,
gi,s−1 TinK
then the adaptive residual generator can be constructed with
g1 ··· 0
..
Gg = . .. .. , w = [0 · · · 1] , consists of following parts:
. . i • In ith fog computing node:
0 gnK ··· – Residual generator:
G1 · · · 0
.. TT , G = υ i , x̂io,k+1 = Aor x̂io,k + Lr,i yi,k + Quy,i θ̂ k + Vi,k+1 eθ̂,k+1 ,
Ao = Tt ... ..
. . t o,i υ,s
risub,k = yi,k − Co x̂io,k + U i,k θ̂ k . (40)
0 · · · GnK
i – Auxiliary filter:
hυ,1 w1 · · · 0
.. TT ,
Bo,i = ... +Tt Gg hiυ,s , Co = ... ..
. . t Vi,k+1 = Aor Vi,k + Quy,i , (41)
hiυ,s−1 0 · · · wn K φisub,k = Co Vi,k − U i,k . (42)
i
υ υ,1 • In the fog fusion center:
Lo,i = − ... − Tt Gg υ iυ,s , Do,i = hiυ,s , – Data fusion:
υ iυ,s−1 ∑
ns ∑
ns
in which gi is the design parameter that ensures the stability φall,k = φisub,k , rall,k = risub,k . (43)
i=1 i=1
of Gi while Tt is a permutation matrix such that:
[ ]T – Parameter estimator:
T T
Tt υ i1,1 · · · υ i1,s−1 · · · υ n iT iT
· · · υ
K ,1 nK ,s−1 θ̂ k+1 = θ̂ k + eθ̂,k+1 , eθ̂,k+1 = γk φTall,k rall,k , (44)
[ ]T
γk = µ(σ + φTall,k φall,k )−1 , σ > 0, 0 < µ < 2,
T T T T
= υ i1,1 · · · υ inK ,1 · · · υ i1,s−1 · · · υ inK ,s−1 (45)
[ T ]T
T T The proof of the stability and convergence is referred to
= υ iυ,1 · · · υ iυ,i · · · υ iυ,s−1 .
[28], [29] and thus omitted here. Fig. 4 generally demonstrates
Moreover, Ao , Bo,i , Co , Do,i , Lo,i , Go,i satisfy following Lu the information exchange between the fog computing node and
enberger conditions: the fog fusion center.
To,i A − Ao To,i = Lo,i C, Go,i C = Co To,i ,
IV. C ASE STUDY ON THE TE BENCHMARK SYSTEM
Bo,i = To,i B − Lo,i D, Do,i = Go,i D.
In this section, the proposed fog computing aided data
Proof: The proof is straightforward computation accord driven design methods are applied to the TE benchmark
ing to Lemma 1 and thus omitted. The audience is referred to process. The process allows total 52 measurements out of
[10] for more details. which 41 are process variables and 11 are manipulated
Remark 1: Theorem 3 is a direct extension of Lemma variables listed in Table I and Table II. Since TE process
1 which provides a simple solution to the construction of is well studied in the literature, a brief description of the
multidimensional residual generator using process data. Note TE process is referred to [30], [31] and omitted here. For
that the permutation matrix Tt is fixed once its dimensions are our purpose, fog computing aided process monitoring system
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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
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et al.: Transactions on Industrial
DATADRIVEN DESIGN OF FOGInformatics
COMPUTING( AIDED
Year :PROCESS
2018 ) MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LARGESCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 7
TABLE I
P ROCESS VARIABLES
Central Fusion Node
Block name Variable name Number
ˆ
θ,e A feed (stream 1) XMEAS(1)
φsub
i
θˆ i
rsub rall,i D feed (stream 2) XMEAS(2)
Input feed
Fog Computing Node i E feed (stream 3) XMEAS(3)
A and C feed XMEAS(4)
Adaptive Residual Monitoring Reactor feed rate XMEAS(6)
Configuration Generator and Control Reactor pressure XMEAS(7)
Reactor
Reactor level XMEAS(8)
Reactor temperature XMEAS(9)
Separator temperature XMEAS(11)
yi Control Subsys. i ui Separator level XMEAS(12)
Separator
Separator pressure XMEAS(13)
Separator underflow XMEAS(14)
Stripper level XMEAS(15)
Stripper pressure XMEAS(16)
Stripper Stripper underflow XMEAS(17)
Stripper temperature XMEAS(18)
Stripper steam flow XMEAS(19)
Recycle flow XMEAS(5)
Purge rate XMEAS(10)
Miscellaneous Compressor work XMEAS(20)
Reactor water temperature XMEAS(21)
Separator water temperature XMEAS(22)
Component A XMEAS(23)
ti si Component B XMEAS(24)
Component C XMEAS(25)
Reactor feed analysis
Component D XMEAS(26)
Interconnections Component E XMEAS(27)
Component F XMEAS(28)
Component A XMEAS(29)
Fig. 4. The information exchange between fog computing nodes Component B XMEAS(30)
Component C XMEAS(31)
Purge gas analysis Component D XMEAS(32)
Component E XMEAS(33)
is designed for each subsystem, namely reactor, condenser, Component F XMEAS(34)
Component G XMEAS(35)
compressor, separator and stripper. In this section, a fault of the Component H XMEAS(36)
reaction kinetics change, i.e. IDV(13), is considered. In each Component D XMEAS(37)
Component E XMEAS(38)
subsystem, the local controller Ki (z) has following structure: Product analysis Component F XMEAS(39)
( ) Component G XMEAS(40)
Ti,s Component H XMEAS(41)
ui,k = Ki,c ei,k + ei,k − ei,k−1 ,
Ti,i
TABLE II
where Ki,c , Ti,s and Ti,i are the controller parameters of P ROCESS MANIPULATED VARIABLES
subsystem i, and ei,k = ωi,k − yi,k denotes the tracking
error of subsystem i. Based on the proposed datadriven Variable name Base value(%) Units Number
process monitoring approaches for each fog computing node D feed flow 63.053 kgh−1 XMV(1)
A feed flow 24.644 kscmh XMV(3)
in Theorems 2 and 3, the following test statistic can be adopted E feed flow 53.980 kgh−1 XMV(2)
for the fault detection purpose: A and C feed flow 61.302 kscmh XMV(4)
Compressor recycle valve 22.210 % XMV(5)
Ji,k = rall,i,k Σ−1
i,c rall,i,k ,
Purge valve
Separator pot liquid flow
40.064
38.100
%
3 −1
m h
XMV(6)
XMV(7)
Stripper liquid product flow 46.534 m3 h−1 XMV(8)
where Stripper steam valve 47.446 % XMV(9)
m3 h−1
Kid,y,sf Lic,33 (Kid,y,sf Lic,33 )⊤ Reactor cooling water flow
Condenser cooling water flow
41.106
18.114 m3 h−1
XMV(10)
XMV(11)
Σi,c = .
N −1
And the threshold is given by:
( ) where the controller parameters are given as Krt,c = −8,
Ji,th = χ2εi niK ,
Trt,s = 0.0005 and Trt,i = 0.1250. The monitoring results
where εi is the significance level for ith fog monitoring node on fog computing node for the separator temperature are
and niK is the dimension of the rall,i,k . given in Fig. 7, where the controller parameters are set to be
The monitoring results of the proposed approach are com Kst,c = −4, Tst,s = 0.0005 and Tst,i = 0.25. All monitoring
pared to the ones according to [32], in which the effects of results are compared to the ones according to [32]. Using
the controller on the process data are ignored. Fig. 57 show the faultfree I/O data of each subsystem and the controller
the monitoring results on fog computing nodes of reactor and information, the datadriven SKR Kid,s in each fog computing
separator. More precisely, Fig. 5 shows the monitoring results node can be identified, and the monitoring system can be
on fog computing node for the reactor pressure, where the constructed. It is clear from the comparisons that the developed
controller parameters are given as Krp,c = −0.0001, Trp,s = methods provide more reliable and efficient monitoring results
0.0005 and Trp,i = 0.3333. Fig. 6 shows the monitoring in each fog computing node, in which the fault IDV(13) is
results on fog computing node for the reactor temperature, assumed to be appeared around 1000 sampling instant.
15513203 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2843124, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics
8 IEEE Transactions
IEEE TRANSACTIONS on INFORMATICS,
ON INDUSTRIAL Industrial Informatics
VOL. XX, (NO.
Year
XX,: XXXX
2018 201X
)
10
122.9
5
122.8
fault adaptation
0 122.7
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
30
r rt
0
20
10 0.05
0 0.1
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Samples Samples
Fig. 5. Monitoring results on fog computing node for the reactor pressure. Fig. 8. Reactor temperature and its estimation before and after adaption.
10 94
0 91
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
fault adaptation
90
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Monitoring results of the proposed method
120
100
2
T test statistic Residual signals
Threshold 0.2
fault adaptation
80
0.1
JRT
60
40
r st
0
20
0.1
0
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
Samples 0.2
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Samples
Fig. 6. Monitoring results on fog computing node for the reactor temperature.
Fig. 9. Separator temperature and its estimation before and after adaption.
Monitoring results according to [28]
20
T 2 test statistic
15 Threshold
10
ration approach should be activated to capture the changed
5
process dynamics. In order to show the efficiency of the
0 adaptive configuration approach, the adaptation is activated
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
around 2000 sampling instant. Fig. 8 shows the measured re
120
Monitoring results of the proposed method actor temperature and its estimation before and after adaption
100 T 2 test statistic
Threshold
in reactor fog computing node, where the ones of separator
80 temperature are given in Fig. 9.
JST
60
Since the fault under consideration is IDV(13) which is
40
20
the change of reaction kinetics, it can be observed from
0
Fig. 8 and 9 that this fault mainly changes the dynamics
800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
Samples of the reactor (greatly affects the estimation of the reactor
temperature) and has less effects on the estimation of the
Fig. 7. Monitoring results on fog computing node for the separator
separator temperature (the fault does not affect the dynamics of
temperature. separator). After the adaptation, the change of reaction kinetics
has been captured/identified and the estimation starts to follow
the measurement (residual becomes around zeros) again in Fig.
8.
15513203 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2843124, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics
LUO
IEEEet Transactions
al.: DATADRIVEN
on DESIGN OF Informatics
Industrial FOG COMPUTING AIDED
( Year PROCESS
: 2018 ) MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LARGESCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 9
V. C ONCLUSION that is identified from the given closedloop I/O data Zic,d,N .
In this paper, a fog computing aided process monitoring Furthermore, Yfi ,N can be expressed as:
and control architecture is proposed for largescale industrial Yfi ,N = Lic,zp Zic,p,N + Lic,m Mif ,N + Lic,33 Qic,3 ,
processes. To cope with the problems caused by the changes of
process parameters and operating points, a closedloop data where Lic,m = Lic,32 (Lic,22 )−1 and Lic,zp =
driven method is developed for the process monitoring system Lc,31 (Lc,11 ) − Lc,32 (Lic,22 )−1 Lic,21 (Lic,11 )−1 . Compare
i i −1 i
design and an adaptive configuration approach is proposed. the above datadriven formulation with the modelbased one
The proposed fog computing aided process monitoring and in equation (48), it is straightforward that:
control architecture effectively saves online computational
Lic,zp = T−1 i i i −1
i,sf Γsf Lsp Tsp Tmu,i ,
load and reduces communicational efforts, where the feasi
bility and effectiveness are verified and demonstrated through Lic,m = T−1 i
i,sf Hu,sf , (49)
( )
the case study on the TE benchmark. Lic,33 Qic,3 = T−1 H i i
i,sf α,s k,s,N .
Ψ
15513203 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2843124, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics
10 IEEE Transactions
IEEE TRANSACTIONS onINFORMATICS,
ON INDUSTRIAL Industrial Informatics ( Year
VOL. XX, NO. : 2018201X
XX, XXXX )
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