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МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ

ИНСТИТУТ МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ


(УНИВЕРСИТЕТ) МИД РОССИИ

Кафедра английского языка № 3

Измайлова Н.С.
Сборник упражнений по
английскому языку: уровень В2

Издательство «МГИМО- Университет» 2017


«Сборник упражнений по английскому языку: уровень В2»
предназначен для студентов, изучающих английский язык как
первый и второй иностранный в группах продолжающего уровня.
Сборник нацелен на подготовку бакалавров в рамках единого
европейского пространства высшего образования и включает
комплекс упражнений, направленных на активизацию лексики,
развитие навыков перевода и закрепление знаний и умений в
области английской грамматики, содержит необходимые лексико-
грамматические разъяснения, а также отрывки из аутентичных
текстов для расширения кругозора и тренировки навыков
пересказа. – 240 с.

2
Содержание
Предисловие……………………………………………………4
Методическая записка…………………………………………6
U
n
Unit 2…………………………………………………………...18
i
Unit
t 3……………………………………………………….…..31
Stop and Check 1…………...…………………………………..48
……………………………………………………...…….9
Unit 4…….………………………...…………………………...54
Unit 5…………………………………………………………...67
Unit 6…………………………………………………………...88
Stop and Check 2……...………………………………………..99
Unit 7…………………………………………………………..106
Unit 8…………………………………………………………..120
Unit 9………………………………………………..................140
Stop and Check 3………………………………………………149
Unit 10…………………………………………………………156
Unit 11…………………………………………………………169
Unit 12…………………………………………………………179
Stop and Check 4……………………………...……………….191
Writing Practice………………………………………………..198
Retelling Practice………………………………………………201
Литература…………………………………………………….213
Принципы измерения навыков экзаменуемых……………...214
Образцы экзаменационных материалов……………………..220

3
Предисловие

Настоящий сборник упражнений, дополняющий учебник Cot-


ton D., Falvey D., Kent S. «New Language Leader Upper Intermediate
Coursebook» (Pearson Education Limited, 2014), составлен в рамках
программы обучения практике иностранного языка (модули
«Речевая практика»).
Сборник предназначен для студентов младших курсов,
изучающих английский язык как первый и второй иностранный на
факультете международной журналистики МГИМО (У)
(продвинутые и средние группы), а также для сборных групп
третьего курса (начинающие группы). Он рекомендован для
обучения в первом и втором семестрах для групп продолжающего
потока (продвинутый уровень), в третьем и четвертом семестрах
для групп продолжающего потока (средний уровень), в пятом и
шестом семестрах групп начинающего потока в рамках модулей
«Речевая практика 1, 2», «Речевая практика 3, 4» и «Речевая
практика 5, 6» соответственно. Сборник нацелен на подготовку
бакалавров в рамках единого европейского пространства высшего
образования.
Предметно-лексические темы сборника охватывают
следующие области: коммуникация, экология, спорт, медицина,
транспорт, литература, архитектура, экономика, искусство,
психология, культура, технологии. Грамматический материал
включает основные грамматические явления: система времен
глагола, употребление артиклей, модальные глаголы,
страдательный залог, герундий и инфинитив, виды
прилагательных и их порядок в предложении, придаточные
предложения и правила пунктуации при их использовании,
косвенная речь, сослагательное наклонение.
В настоящее время «New Language Leader Upper Intermediate
Coursebook» является одним из самых популярных учебников и
4
широко используется для обучения английскому языку студентов
уровня «независимого владения» (В2 / upper intermediate) не только
в России, но и в Европе и других частях земного шара. По этой
причине он удовлетворяет требованию обеспечения
академической мобильности студентов, предусмотренному
рамками Болонского процесса. Данный сборник включает
лексические и грамматические упражнения ко всем главам
вышеупомянутого учебника.
В конце сборника приводится программу экзамена уровня В2,
экзаменационные требования и критерии оценки ответа
испытуемого, также предлагаются образцы экзаменационных
заданий.
Прохождение всех упражнений сборника рассчитано на 116
аудиторных часа (58 занятий). Работа над одним дидактическим
блоком требует 8-10 академических часов (4-5 аудиторных
занятий).
В соответствии со ст. 1274 Гражданского кодекса Российской
Федерации автор данного пособия использовала в своей работе с
указанием имени автора, произведение которого используется, и
источника заимствования правомерно обнародованные
произведения и отрывки из них в качестве иллюстраций в объёме,
оправданном поставленной целью.

5
Методическая записка

Задания данного сборника упражнений направлены на


развитие иноязычных коммуникативных навыков студентов,
изучающих английский как основной иностранный язык, а именно
лексическую, грамматическую и социокультурную.
Языковой уровень студентов, для которых предназначен
настоящий сборник упражнений, характеризуется в рамках
Европейского языкового портфеля (Common European Framework
of Reference for Languages) как уровень независимого владения
(B2). Этот уровень включает следующие навыки: обучаемые
понимают основное содержание сложных текстов на абстрактные
и конкретные темы, способны без напряжения общаться с
носителями языка, ясно и подробно высказываться по широкому
кругу вопросов и излагать свой взгляд на различные проблемы.
Для достижения поставленных учебных целей, которые
включают освоение студентами лексических и грамматических
структур, а также навыков перевода, автор сборника разработал
методический аппарат, состоящий из двух блоков упражнений, а
также блока, содержащего дополнительные к уроку сведения
лингвострановедческого характера.
Первый блок упражнений каждого урока (2-3 упражнения) с
формулировкой задания «Translate the following sentences, using ac-
tive vocabulary» направлено на изучение и закрепление активной
лексики и проходимых грамматических структур методом
перевода с русского языка на английский. Упражнения
предваряются списком активных лексических единиц с отсылкой к
конкретной странице и заданию учебника «New Language Leader»,
где данные лексические единицы впервые упоминаются.
Лексические единицы необходимо перевести с учетом их
контекстуального значения. Для удобства работы с упражнениями
активные лексические единицы в них выделены курсивом, что
6
позволяет правильно соотносить значения английского выражения
и его русского эквивалента.
В ряде случаев перед упражнением приводятся пояснения,
касающиеся правильного употребления изучаемых языковых
конструкций, и их перевода. Например: Pay your attention to the fol-
lowing emphatic structure and its translation: It was not until 1897 that
Felix Hoffman, a German chemist, synthesized the ingredient acetyl-
salicylic acid (Aspirin, text on p. 37). – Только в 1897 Феликс
Хоффман, немецкий химик, синтезировал вещество
ацетилсалициловая кислота (Unit 4, упр. 6).
Второй блок заданий направлен на закрепление изучаемых
грамматических структур. Он включает 6-12 грамматических
упражнений различного характера (раскрытие скобок, выбор
правильного вариантов из ряда предложенных, творческие задания
и др.), подобранных из аутентичных англоязычных материалов. В
ряде случаев грамматические задания предваряются подробными
разъяснениями изучаемой грамматической темы, которые
дополняют и углубляют грамматические знания, полученные
студентами из учебника «New Language Leader».
Упражнения из обоих блоков задаются на дом и
отрабатываются в классе фронтально. После каждых трех уроков
предлагаются дополнительные упражнения для контроля
усвоенного материала.
Лингвострановедческий блок «Broaden Your Horizons»
содержит информацию, дополняющую лингвострановедческие
сведения в соответствующем уроке учебника «New Language
Leader». Эта информация позволяет студентам лучше
ориентироваться в изучаемой тематике и задается на дом для
пересказа.
После поурочных упражнений приводятся дополнительные
материалы, позволяющие более эффективно готовиться к зачету
или экзамену, – материалы для тренировки навыков письма
7
(writing skills practice) и навыков пересказа (retelling practice),
которые соответствуют темам уроков.

8
Unit 1. Communication
1.1
Basic Vocabulary – see V1, V2, p. 126
Exercise 1. Translate the sentences, using active vocabulary.
1. В последнее время многие люди стали использовать социальные
сети, чтобы следить за жизнью своих друзей и родственников по
всему миру. 2. - Как мне связаться с Анной? Её телефон отключён.
- Попробуй отправить ей письмо по электронной почте. 3. Друг, с
которым я потерял связь много лет назад, сегодня нашёл меня в
Facebook! 4. Вчера я столкнулся в лаборатории с Беном. Он сказал,
что испытывает новую научную теорию. 5. Иностранные
студенты общаются со своими родными по скайпу и таким образом
получают все последние новости из дома. Это очень удобно! 6.
Последние результаты исследований подтверждают, что
социальные сети значительно облегчили возможность оставаться
на связи со своими друзьями и родственниками. 7. В ходе
эксперимента были случайно выбраны несколько сотен студентов,
чтобы проанализировать, как молодые люди предпочитают
общаться друг с другом. 8. Выборка людей часто используется,
чтобы провести эксперимент, испытать новый метод или
доказать теорию. 9. Многие научные понятия появились за
последние десять лет благодаря исследованиям, которые
проводятся в разных странах.

1.2
Basic Vocabulary – see V3, p. 126
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 2: to remain in control of smth., to maintain good posture, as-
sertive.
Ex. 3: to invade one's space, to look confident and capable, to
smarten one's appearance, to give away one's emotions.
Exercise 2. Translate the sentences, using active vocabulary.
9
1. На курсах по коммуникации люди учатся казаться более
уверенными и способными, сохранять контроль над своими
страхами, хорошо держаться. 2. Выступая на публике, важно
выглядеть уверенно, но не агрессивно. 3. Если хочешь произвести
приятное впечатление на аудиторию, нужно привести себя в
порядок, думать, прежде чем говорить, и не позволять эмоциям
выдавать тебя. 4. Можно тебя на пару слов? - Что случилось? -
До меня дошли слухи, что ты переезжаешь. - Это не слухи. Я пока
живу с родителями, но мы не понимаем друг друга (не на одной
волне), поэтому на следующей неделе уезжаю в другой город. 5.
Когда моя подруга начинает говорить, невозможно слово
вставить. - Попроси ее сразу переходить к делу. 6. Мой друг
говорит, что он становится все более заинтересован в новой работе.
- Судят по делам, а не по словам. Он должен это доказать. 7. Когда
едешь за границу, следует всегда учитывать культурные различия.
Например, англичане терпеть не могут, когда нарушают их личное
пространство.
1.3
Basic Vocabulary – see V4, p. 126
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 7 (text): to make an observation, to agree heartily, to burst into
laughter, to look puzzled, to have nothing to say, the life of the party, to
place emphasis on smth., to match experiences, to stand out, to preserve
independence, to hold centre stage.
Exercise 3. Translate the sentences, using active vocabulary.
1. Вчера я столкнулась с Еленой в магазине и сделала
интересное наблюдение: она покупала только ту одежду, в которой
будет выделяться. Она считает себя душой компании. 2. Почему ты
выглядишь озадаченным? - Эта книга очень популярна, а по
слухам, она полная ерунда. - Ничего удивительного. Я давно сделал
наблюдение, что книги о том, как устанавливать
взаимоотношения, занимают лидирующее положение на рынке. 3.
10
Сейчас мой друг - душа компании, он научился демонстрировать
свои знания и умения в обществе, а до этого ничем не выделялся. 4.
Все мужчины охотно соглашаются с тем, что женщины гораздо
лучше них устанавливают взаимоотношения. 5. Когда женщины
обсуждают отношения, они делают акцент на выявлении общего
(сходства) и сравнивании своего опыта (своих впечатлений). 6. В
обществе я легко делюсь информацией, а вот дома мне просто
нечего сказать. 7. Для мужчин общение всегда было способом
сохранить независимость и поддержать свой социальный
статус. 8. Душа компании - это человек, который выделяется,
всегда в центре внимания, и может заставить рассмеяться любую
аудиторию.

Grammar Exercises (Mixed Tenses)


1.Dear Abby,
My daughter (1) (to meet) a smooth-talking fellow nine months
ago and really (2) (to fall) for him. She is 22 and he is 21. He (3) (not to
work) at the moment and he even (4) (not to look) for a job. He (5) (to
keep) saying that the jobs he wants (6) (not to pay) enough. In the mean-
time he (7) (to borrow) money from my daughter, (8) (to drive) her car,
and (9) (to eat) every meal at my table, and his clothes (10) (to wash) in
my machine! He never (11) (to mention) marriage, but my daughter (12)
(to look) at him like he is a god, and she (13) (to call) him “love”.
What shall I do?
2. Once upon a time, according to a much-told story, a computer
(1) (to set) the task of translating ‘traffic jam’ into French and back into
English. The machine (2) (to buzz), (3) (to blink) its lights, (4) (to click)
and eventually (5) (to come up with) ‘car-flavored marmalade’. Ma-
chine translation (6) (to come) a long way since then. Computer trans-
lation systems (7) (to be) now in use in many parts of the world. Not
surprisingly, the EU very (8) (to involve). With so many official lan-
guages, translating and interpreting (9) (to take up) more than 50 per
11
cent of the Union’s administrative budget. But although the efficiency
of the machine translation (10) (to improve) rapidly, there is no question
of human translators being made redundant. On the contrary, people and
machines (11) (to work) in harmony. Today’s computers (12) (to be) of
little value in translating literary works, where subtlety is vital, or the
spoken word, which tends to be ungrammatical, or important texts,
where absolute accuracy is essential. But for routine technical reports,
working papers and the like, which (13) (to take up) so much of the
translation workload of international organizations, computers are likely
to play an increasing part. The method of operation will probably be for
the machine to make a rough version, which the translator then (14) (to
edit), correcting obvious errors, and where necessary referring back to
the original.
3. Accident prone Allen Davies is only five, but already his par-
ents (1) (to convince) he’s a walking disaster.
The youngster (2) (to crack) his head falling into an empty
swimming pool, (3) (to chop) the end of his finger off with a penknife
and (4) (to make) himself ill by drinking half a bottle of an antiseptic.
Each time another disaster (5) (to strike) Allen, he (6) (to take)
to the children’s hospital in Sydenham, where he (7) (to be) such a reg-
ular visitor that he (8) (to believe) that the nursing sister (9) (to be) a
member of the family.
Now Allen’s grateful father (10) (to raise) $6,500 for the hos-
pital to buy a monitor to measure babies’ breathing and temperature.
His wife Margaret said: “It all (11) (to start) when little Allen
(12) (to be) a year old. He (13) (to fall over) and (14) (to cut) himself
and he had to have stitches in his forehead. Since then he (15) (not to
stop). He (16) (to take) to hospital at least ten times.
‘The latest accident (17) (to happen) when he (18) (to climb)
on to a shelf and (19) (to manage) to open his father’s penknife.
‘He (20) (to chop) the end of his finger off and had to have it
sewn back on.’
12
Doctors at the hospital also had to stitch Allen’s head when he
(21) (to plunge) headlong into a pool.
Mr. Davies (22) (to raise) the cash with the help of celebrities
including Richard Harris, who (23) (to donate) possessions to be auc-
tioned at a charity disco.
A sister at the hospital said: ‘Everyone in the hospital (24) (to
know) him for years. Whenever we (25) (to see) Allen coming in again,
we all (26) (to shout) “What … you (27) (to do) this time?”
Allen’s brothers also (28) (to have) their share of accidents and
had to be taken to the Children’s Hospital.
Robert,15, (29) (to tear) some ligaments on a skiing holiday
and (30) (to slip) off his crutches, breaking his ankle a few days later.
Lee,13, (31) (to injure) his neck doing a motorbike stunt.
4. Figures released today show that average earnings (1) (to go
up) by 60% over the last twelve months. Official sources say that this is
due to the government’s successful economic policies, which (2) (to
lead) to more efficient management and greater productivity. Industrial
output (3) (to rise) by 43% during the last year, and exports (4) (to go
up) by 52%. Inflation is down to approximately 3%.
According to police figures, about 5,000 people (5) (to take
part) in yesterday’s anti-government demonstration. In spite of police
efforts to maintain order there (6) (to be) violence throughout the march.
Stones (7) (to throw) at government buildings, and at least 200 people
(8) (to hurt) in fighting which (9) (to break out) after speeches by oppo-
sition leaders.
News just (10) (to come out) of a plane crash at East Monk Air-
port. First reports say that two aircraft (11) (to involve) and that several
people (12) (to kill), but no further details (13) (to be) available for the
moment.
Unemployment figures (14) (to release) today. Last month there
(15) (to be) about 3 mln. registered unemployed. That’s 15% of the work
force. This year the number (16) (to increase) by 200,000.
13
Broaden Your Horizons
Get ready to retell and discuss the text.
Deborah Tannen “You Just Don’t Understand” (pp. 11-12)
When Dr. Deborah Tannen sat down to write "You Just Don't Un-
derstand: Women and Men in Conversation," she had no inkling it
would end up on the best-seller lists for months and be hailed by scores
of couples as having "saved our marriage."
Dr. Tannen, a Brooklyn native who teaches in the School of Lan-
guages and Linguistics at Georgetown University in Washington, has
written a number of books about the problems of communication across
cultural, class and ethnic divides. But it is the subject of conversational
differences between the sexes that has stimulated the most sparks.
"There seems to be an instant flash of recognition," she said. "Peo-
ple say to me, 'You must have been hiding out in my living room or
eavesdropping in the back seat of my car.' "
In the book she argues that boys and girls grow up speaking dif-
ferent languages and continue to do so as adults. She suggests that con-
versation between men and women can be likened to cross-cultural
communication, with women speaking and hearing a language of con-
nection and intimacy, and men a language of status and independence.
Dr. Tannen maintains that it is only by understanding each other's
style that men and women can accept the differences between them and
stop placing blame.
The underlying thesis of her book, which is studded with anec-
dotes as well as studies and statistics, is that boys and girls grow up in
different worlds, even under the same roof.
"I am oversimplifying enormously," she said, "but for girls, talk is
a way in which intimacy is maintained. A little girl typically has a best
friend, and they sit inside and tell each other secrets. And when girls
play in groups they tend to make suggestions, rather than give orders,
and the suggestions tend to be taken up and tend to be for the good of
the group."
14
For boys, who are likely to play in larger groups, it is the activity
that is central. There are winners and losers, and the groups have a hier-
archy. "The high-status boys give orders and push the low-status boys
around," she said. "Talk is a way of negotiating status."
Boys' play illuminates why men watch for signs that they are being
put down or told what to do, she said, adding: "Men use language to get
one-up on each other. But that is only half the story, because as boys
they have learned that others are trying to push them around, so it is
actually defensive as much as aggressive."
Even body language is different, she argues in her book. Women
tend to align themselves face to face and maintain eye contact, but men
and boys at every age tend to sit at an angle, or even parallel, and look
about, only glancing at each other. In adulthood, she says, men often
find a woman's direct gaze flirtatious and a man's direct gaze challeng-
ing.
On the lecture and book-tour circuit, two questions come most fre-
quently.
From men: "Why do women nag?"
From women: "Why won't men ask directions?"
Communication, she said, is a two-way phenomenon and women
seem to be nags because men's early-warning systems are geared to de-
tect signs that they are being told what to do.
"A woman thinks all she has to do is let him know what she wants
and he will do it, as she would for him," Dr. Tannen said. "But that
doesn't work. To maintain his sense of independence, he puts off doing
it and she is genuinely puzzled, thinking she didn't make herself clear.
In a sense she turns into a nag because of a style difference."
Many men resist asking for directions and other information,
she said, because finding one's own way is essential to the independence
they consider necessary for self-respect.
Her book addresses a complaint about men who arrive at home
and retreat to the newspaper or television set and won't talk.
15
For a man, home is comfortable because it is a place where he is
free to remain silent, she said; for a woman, it is a place where she feels
free to talk without being judged.
"A male-female relationship is a constant balancing act between
intimacy and independence," she went on. "For a woman, talk is the glue
that holds a relationship together. But it is much more common for men
to feel that activities are what holds a relationship together: doing things
together. Talk doesn't have the central role in intimacy for most men."
Another disparity in men's and women's conversational styles is
"rapport talk" and "report talk". Even in casual chat over cocktails,
men often give information while women seek to establish rapport.
"Many men feel the person who has more information has the
higher status," she said. "One frustration for many women is to discover
that a conversation has mysteriously turned into a lecture and the woman
has become an appreciative audience. Since women seek to build rap-
port, they are inclined to play down their expertise rather than display
it."
That can work to a woman's disadvantage, she said, since a man
may interpret this playing down of expertise as insecurity.
Men and women also differ, she said, when it comes to "troubles
talk". A woman will arrive at home and want to discuss problems about
her work, her boss, her mother. The husband will offer advice. Wrong,
wrong, wrong.
"She wants a certain kind of ritual conversation," Dr. Tannen said.
"She wants to get a kind of conversation going that to her denotes inti-
macy, the kind of talk you have with your best friend. By giving advice
he is putting a wrench in the works. His reaction is you shouldn't com-
plain if you don't want to do anything about it."
So is there no hope? Are men and women hopelessly trapped in
conversational confusion?
People can change their conversational styles, Dr. Tannen said,
but few want to; it is their partners they want to send in for repairs.
16
http://www.nytimes.com/1991/06/19/garden/men-women-talk-
talk-talk-talk-talk-hear-no.html?pagewanted=2

17
Unit 2. Environment
1.1
Basic Vocabulary - see V1, V2, p. 128
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 1 b) (tr.2.1): a hamlet, peace and quiet, magnificent scenery,
constant buzz of activity.
Ex. 4 (text): a finding, a poll, a resident, the survey estab-
lished/found that..., one in two (people), to place smth. first (second etc.)
on a list, a problem of similar scale (to smth.), to rank (much) more
highly, a high-rise (medium-rise) flat, to carry out a study, to attract
complaints, to develop immunity to smth., to be synonymous with
smth., to tackle (a problem), a (government) priority.
Exercise 1. Translate the sentences, using active vocabulary.
1. Привет, Джил! Я слышал (по слухам), ты переезжаешь из
многоквартирного дома в собственный отдельный домик в тихой
деревушке. - Да, это правда. Много лет я прожила в квартире в
высотном доме и устала от городской среды - бездумного
вандализма, огромного скопления транспорта, высокого уровня
шума и других городских проблем. - Я бы с тобой охотно
согласился, но как же космополитическая атмосфера большого
города? Разве ты не будешь скучать по постоянной кипучей
активности, которая окружает тебя здесь? - Да, но пробки в час
пик, высокий уровень преступности, мусор на улицах заставили
меня принять решение переехать в сельскую местность. - Ты уже
видела свое новое место жительства? - Да. Это дружелюбный
район с потрясающие видами. Там много пространства, как в
любой естественной среде. Я поговорила с местными жителями
- они замечательные люди, и с ними легко установить хорошие
взаимоотношения. Единственная связанная с окружающей средой
проблема, которая вызывает жалобы - это заброшенные машины,
которые портят пейзаж. - А что по поводу инфраструктуры? -
Транспортная доступность позволит мне легко добираться до
18
инфраструктуры города и принимать участие в его культурных
мероприятиях. Так что я собираюсь наслаждаться тишиной и
покоем, не жертвуя своим комфортом. - Мне просто нечего
сказать. Ты приняла мудрое решение. Это как раз то, что
называют «район мечты».
2. Трое из пяти городских жителей не довольны качеством
своей жизни. Таковы результаты опроса, проведенного среди
жителей многоквартирных домов как в старых, так и в недавно
построенных районах нескольких крупных городов. В ходе
исследования было установлено, что такие проблемы, как
транспортная загруженность, пробки в час пик, высокий уровень
преступности, бездумный вандализм, шум и мусор на улицах
вызывают больше всего жалоб. Первой в списке проблем жители
называли транспортную загруженность, особенно в центральных
районах. Она значительно обгоняет высокий уровень шума,
ставший в списке проблем вторым. Проблемой практически того
же масштаба был назван уровень преступности, беспокоящий 8
из 10 жителей. Всего 4 из 10 жителей заявляют, что выработали
иммунитет к городским проблемам и наслаждаются его
космополитической атмосферой, особенно в стремительно
развивающихся фешенебельных районах. Для них городская жизнь
стала синонимом комфорта, хорошей транспортной
доступности и постоянно кипящей деловой активности. Такие
результаты показывают, что решение проблем качества городской
жизни должно стать первоочередной задачей правительства.
2.2
Basic Vocabulary - see V2, p. 128
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 1-4 (text): to shrink, to be/put at (an increasingly high) risk,
at a (worrying, increasing) rate, impossible to reverse, to be highly sen-
sitive to smith.
Exercise 2. Translate the sentences, using active vocabulary.
19
1. С середины прошлого века многие виды животных
находятся под угрозой вымирания из-за вырубки лесов и выбросов
CO2. 2. Результаты исследований подтверждают, что за
последние годы полярные льды сокращаются с пугающей
скоростью. 3. Воздействие, которое засуха и голод оказывают на
редкие виды животных, скоро будет необратимым. 4. Полярные
исследователи сделали наблюдение, что в последнее время среда
обитания белых медведей сокращается из-за таяния ледников. 5.
Данные исследований доказывают, что многие виды животных
подвергаются всё большему риску, потому что они стали крайне
чувствительны к изменяющейся экосистеме. 6. Использование
ископаемого топлива вместо возобновляемой энергии подвергли
риску экосистемы всех континентов. 7. Таяние ледников и
сокращение арктических льдов поставило под угрозу вымирания
важный вид арктических животных – белых медведей.
2.3
Basic Vocabulary - see V3, p. 128
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 8: to be pretty well beyond imagining, to blow (= to erupt),
an earthquake, a precursor, to preserve an air of picturesqueness (adj.
picturesque).
Exercise 3. Translate the sentences, using active vocabulary.
1. Профессор, скажите, что случится, если все вулканы в этом
регионе начнут извергаться? - Катастрофа будет невообразимая.
Все местное население этого региона, а также все виды животных
окажутся под угрозой гибели. 2. Обычно вопросы защиты
окружающей среды не занимают таких высоких мест в списке
проблем, как, например, уровень преступности. Люди в основном
вспоминают о них, когда сталкиваются с землетрясением,
извержением вулкана или другим стихийным бедствием. 3.
Скажите, почему этот парк закрыт ночью? - Это сделано
намеренно, чтобы защитить его от бездумного вандализма
20
скучающих молодых людей, которым нечего делать. Благодаря
нашей заботе парк сохранил свой живописный вид, и вы можете
уже многие годы наслаждаться его тишиной и покоем и
великолепным пейзажем. 4. Скажите, есть ли какие-то
предвестники экологической катастрофы? - Вероятно, есть
некоторые. Землетрясения, извержения вулканов, вымирание
редких видов животных, сокращение полярных льдов могут быть
такими предвестниками. Первоочередная задача правительства -
предотвратить такую катастрофу, поскольку ее эффект будет
необратимым, а последствия просто невообразимыми. 5. Среди
жителей городских, пригородных районов и сельской местности
проводился опрос, посвященный проблемам экологии. На вопрос об
экологических проблемах, с которыми они сталкиваются, многие
респонденты лишь задумчиво качали головой. Экологические
проблемы волнуют людей относительно мало, значительно
уступая пробкам в часы пик, уровню преступности и бездумному
вандализму. Такие результаты создают впечатление, что наша
окружающая среда не в опасности. Однако, на самом деле
экологические проблемы нарастают с пугающей скоростью.

Grammar
Exercise 1 (Present Perfect Simple and Continuous).
A. Complete the sentences with these verbs, using the same one
for each sentence in the pair. Use the present perfect in one sentence
and the present perfect continuous in the other.
claim disappear give move stop
1 a An important file __________from my office.
b Plants and vegetables _______________from my garden since
we had new neighbours.
2 a Dr Fletcher _________________the same lecture to students
for the last ten years.

21
b Mr Goldman_______________ nearly a million pounds to the
charity this year.
3 a With their win yesterday, Italy _____________into second
place in the table.
b As house prices in the cities have risen, peo-
ple________________ into the countryside.
4 a For years he_________________ that he is related to the royal
family.
b The earthquake ______________over 5000 lives.
5 a All day, the police _________________ motorists to question
them about the accident.
b Good, the noise_________________ I can start concentrating on
my work again.
B.Choose the most appropriate sentence ending.
1 I've swum...
I've been swimming...
2 They have asked me...
They have been asking me...
3 I have visited Vienna...
I've been visiting Vienna...
4 We've stayed...
We've been staying...
a and I feel exhausted.
b thirty lengths of the pool.
a to visit them for ages, but I've never had the time.
b to join the company on a number of occasions.
a three or four times before.
b since 1990 and I've always felt very safe here.
a at this hotel a couple of times before.
b at a small hotel near the sea.
C. Complete these sentences using the verb given. If possible,
use the present perfect continuous; if not, use the present perfect.
22
1 Since they were very young, the children (enjoy) travelling by
plane.
2 It (snow) heavily since this morning.
3 I'm pleased to say that the team (play) well all season.
4 I never (understand) why we have to pay so much tax.
5 I (not read) any of Dickens' novels.
6 In recent years, Brazilian companies (put) a lot of money into
developing advanced technology.
Exercise 2 (Mixed tenses).
A. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence.
a) I can't believe it, Inspector. You mean that Smith stole/has sto-
len/has been stealing money from the till all this time!
b) You three boys look very guilty! What did you do/have you
done/have you been doing since I left/have left the room?
c) Why on earth didn't you tell/haven't you told me about that loose
floorboard? I tripped/have tripped over it just now and hurt myself.
d) It's a long time since I saw/have seen/have been seeing your
brother Paul. What did he do/has he done/has he been doing lately?
e) I can't believe that you ate/have eaten/have been eating three
pizzas already! I only brought/have only brought them in fifteen minutes
ago!
f) Don't forget that you didn't see/haven't seen Mrs Dawson. She
has waited/has been waiting outside since 10.30.
g) What did you think/have you thought of Brighton? Did you
stay/Have you stayed there long?
h) I feel really tired. I weeded/have weeded/have been weeding the
garden for the last three hours and I didn't rest/haven't rested for a single
moment.
i) I'm having problems with David. He has called/has been calling
me up in the middle of the night and told/telling me his troubles.

23
j) How long did you have/have you had/have you been having
driving lessons? And did you take/have you taken/have you been taking
your test yet?
B Decide how many different endings (1-10) you can find for
sentences (a-j).
The sentences you make must be appropriate and meaningful.
a) I haven't been feeling very well
b) I went to the dentist's
c) I've lived here
d) Don't worry. I haven't been waiting
e) I've written two pages
f) I waited outside your house
g) I've warned you about this
h) I haven't made a decision
i) The repair worked
j) I've decided to believe you
1 time and time again.
2 all my life.
3 so far.
4 for the time being.
5 for the past hour or two.
6 yet.
7 till half past eight.
8 for a while.
9 the other day.
10 long.
C. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate verb form.
I (1) (move) to London three weeks ago to take up a new post at
my company's London office. Ever since then, I (2) (wonder) if I (3)
(make) the right decision. I (4) (see) a lot of negative things about living
in the capital, and I can't say London (5) (make) a very favourable im-
pression on me. It's so polluted and expensive, and the people are so
24
distant. You see, I (6) (grow up) in a fairly small town called Devizes
and I (7) (spend) all of my life there. I (8) (always/want) to live in a big
city and so when my company (9) (offer) me a job in London, I (10)
(jump) at the chance. I think I'm not alone in my aversion to the big city.
According to a programme I (11) (just/hear) on the radio, more and more
people (12) (stop) working in London recently, and a lot of large com-
panies (13) (choose) to move away from the centre. Oh well, it's too late
to change my mind now, because the job is up and running, and I (14)
(already/sell) my house in Devizes. But I must admit, over the past few
days, I (15) (secretly/hope) that the company would relocate me back to
my old town.
D. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate verb form.
Reporter Philip Taggart visits a farm where the sheep are super
fit!
Farmers, as you may (1) (know), (2) (have) a hard time of it in
Britain lately, and (3) (turn) to new ways of earning income from their
land. This (4) (involve) not only planting new kinds of crops, but also
some strange ways of making money, the most unusual of which has got
to be sheep racing. Yes, you (5) (hear) me correctly! A farmer in the
west of England now (6) (hold) sheep races on a regular basis, and dur-
ing the past year over 100,000 people (7) (turn up) to watch the proceed-
ings. 'I (8) (pass) the farm on my way to the sea for a holiday,' one punter
told me, 'and I (9) (think) I'd have a look. I (10) (not/believe) it was
serious, to tell you the truth.' According to a regular visitor, betting on
sheep is more interesting than betting on horses. 'At proper horse races
everyone (11) (already/study) the form of the horses in advance, and
there are clear favourites. But nobody (12) (hear) anything about these
sheep! Most people (13) (find) it difficult to tell one from another in any
case.' I (14) (stay) to watch the races, and I must admit that I (15) (find)
it quite exciting. In a typical race, half a dozen sheep (16) (race) down-
hill over a course of about half a mile. Food (17) (wait) for them at the
other end of the track, I ought to add! The sheep (18) (run) surprisingly
25
fast, although presumably they (19) (not/eat) for a while just to give
them some motivation. At any rate, the crowd around me (20) (obvi-
ously/enjoy) their day out at the races, judging by their happy faces and
the sense of excitement.
E. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate verb form.
Ask hundreds of people what they (1) (plan) to do on a certain day
in August next year, or the year after, and there (2) (be) only one reply.
Provided of course that the people you (3) (ask) (4) (belong) to the Elvis
Presley Fan Club. Although the King of Rock and Roll (5) (die) nearly
two decades ago, his fans (6) (meet) every year since then outside his
home in Memphis, Tennessee, to show respect for the singer they (7)
(love) so much. Fans like Jean Thomas, from Catford in South East Lon-
don. Jean (8) (visit) Gracelands, the house where Elvis (9) (suffer) his
fatal heart attack, twice in the past five years. «The first time I (10) (bor-
row) the money from my Mum, as I (11) (not/work) then. But two years
ago I (12) (get) married and since then I (13) (work) in my husband
Chris's garage. Chris and I (14) (go) together last year, and we (15)
(think) of spending two or three months in the USA next year. I (16)
(always/want) to visit some of the places where Elvis (17) (perform).
Like Las Vegas for example». Jean says that Elvis (18) (be) her obses-
sion ever since she (19) (be) ten years old, and she (20) (own) every
single one of his records, good and bad.

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the text.
What is Global Warming? (pp. 18-20)
Global warming is the gradual heating of Earth's surface, oceans
and atmosphere. Scientists have documented the rise in average temper-
atures worldwide since the late 1800s. Earth's average temperature has
risen by 0.8 degrees Celsius over the past century, according to the En-
vironmental Protection Agency (EPA). Temperatures are projected to
rise another 1.133 to 6.42 degrees C over the next 100 years.
26
Most of the leading scientific organizations in the world
acknowledge the existence of global warming as fact, according to a
NASA report. Furthermore, 97 percent of climate scientists agree that
the rate of global warming trends the planet is now experiencing is
not a natural occurrence, but is primarily the result of human ac-
tivity.
The greenhouse effect
Global warming begins with the greenhouse effect, which is
caused by the interaction between Earth's atmosphere and incoming ra-
diation from the sun.
Solar radiation passes through the atmosphere to the surface of
Earth, where it is absorbed and then radiated upward as heat. Gases in
Earth's atmosphere absorb about 90 percent of this heat and radiate it
back to the surface, which is warmed to a life-supporting average of
15C. This process is called the greenhouse effect.
Greenhouse gases
Human-caused global warming occurs when human activity intro-
duces too much of certain types of gas into the atmosphere. More of this
gas equals more warming. The atmospheric gases primarily responsible
for the greenhouse effect are known as "greenhouse gases" and include
water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide
(N2O). The most prevalent greenhouse gas is CO2.
Some atmospheric CO2 is natural. Since the Industrial Revolution,
though, the amount of CO2 has dramatically increased. Currently, the
increase is 100 times faster than that when the last ice age ended.
CO2 makes its way into the atmosphere through a variety of
routes. Burning fossil fuels, for example, releases CO2. Deforestation
is also a large contributor to excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. In fact,
deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic (human-made) source
of carbon dioxide. When trees are killed, they release the carbon they
have stored for photosynthesis. Deforestation releases nearly a billion
tons of carbon into the atmosphere per year.
27
But fossil fuel combustion is the number one anthropogenic source
of carbon dioxide.
Methane is the second most common greenhouse gas, but it is
much more destructive. There may be less methane in the atmosphere,
but this gas is much more efficient at trapping radiation.
Methane can come from many natural sources, but humans cause
a large portion of methane emissions through mining, the use of natural
gas, the mass raising of livestock and the use of landfills. Humans are
responsible for more than 60 percent of methane emissions.
Effects of global warming
The effects of global warming are already visible in many areas of
the world. One of the first to mention is melting glaciers. For example,
in Montana's Glacier National Park, where about 150 glaciers were once
located, only 25 glaciers larger than 25 acres remain.
Scientists have expressed confidence that climate change will
make hurricanes more intense, as well; the unusually strong hurricanes
that have formed over the past few years give evidence for this. "We are
confident not just because models predict hurricane intensification, but
because we understand the reasons why they do and can explain those
reasons in terms of what we know about how hurricanes work today,"
said atmospheric scientist Adam Sobel.
Hurricanes get their energy from the temperature difference be-
tween the warm tropical ocean and the cold upper atmosphere. Global
warming increases that temperature difference.
Temperatures are getting more intense, as well. In recent years,
record-breaking cold weather has made some wonder if global warming
is actually happening. "First, we need to understand the difference be-
tween 'weather' and 'climate,'" scientists say. "Weather is atmospheric
activity over a short time period, like a cold winter snap or a hot spell.
Climate is the "average weather," meaning the sum of weather events
averaged over decades, centuries or even thousands of years".

28
Global warming is related to climate and is a global phenomenon.
Even though there are regional cold snaps (weather), the average global
temperature (climate) continues to increase even during different re-
gions' winter months, the two scientists went on to explain.
Surprisingly, global warming can actually cause unusually cold
weather. One of the key atmospheric features of climate is that it is af-
fected by warming in air circulation patterns, including the jet stream,
which is like a river of wind high above in the atmosphere. If you per-
turb the jet stream in the right way, it migrates south, bringing with it
cold, Arctic air. This is precisely why you can get a cold snap in the
short term, and also why a given winter might be colder than average,
even during a long-term trend of global warming.
How to address global warming
A growing number of business leaders, government officials and
private citizens are concerned about global warming and its implica-
tions, and are proposing steps to reverse the trend.
Many scientists say that reversal is not possible and that certain
types of destruction, such as the melting of the polar ice caps, have al-
ready gone past the point of no return. Others say that the planet Earth
has the ability to heal itself. This takes time, though.
"While some argue that 'the Earth will heal itself,' the natural pro-
cesses for removing this human-caused CO2 from the atmosphere work
on the timescale of hundreds of thousands to millions of years," scien-
tists say. "So, yes, the Earth will heal itself, but not in time for our cul-
tural institutions to be preserved as they are. Therefore, in our own self-
interests, we must act in one way or another to deal with the changes in
climate we are causing."
There are many steps humans can take to lessen the effects of
global warming. Two steps are essential:
- Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and stabilizing the levels of
these gases in the atmosphere
- Adapting to the climate change already happening
29
Decreasing the rate at which fossil fuels are burned is critical to
that effort. Development of clean energy, including solar, wind and ge-
othermal energy, has immense potential to reduce the amount of coal
and oil burned in powering electrical generating plants.
More-sustainable transportation options, such as mass transit,
will also reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Even individual efforts, such as lowering thermostats in winter and
using energy-efficient light bulbs, can help to address global warming.
But most climate researchers also stress the immediate need for large-
scale, international policies to address the complex causes and effects
of global warming.

http://www.livescience.com/37003-global-warming.html

30
Unit 3. Sport
3.1
Basic vocabulary - see V1, p. 130
Additional vocabulary
Quotation: fair play
Ex.3 (text): spectacular, arguably (adj. arguable), to be keen on
smth., a contribution to smth. (to contribute to smth.), to be/become
skilled in smth., to take up (a sport), to be instrumental in (doing) smth.,
a coach/to coach, a referee, an amateur, skilful, to owe smth. to smb.
(owing to).
Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-
cabulary.
1. Господин А., что вы можете сказать об этом матче как
судья? - Начнем с того, что французская команда была, вероятно,
лучше итальянской и продемонстрировала мастерскую
индивидуальную игру. Игроки были сегодня на высоте, и это
благодаря их новому тренеру. Его тренерские методы внесли
большой вклад в развитие команды за последнее время. 2. Футбол
– вероятно, самый популярный вид спорта в мире. Миллионы
зрителей по всему миру обожают смотреть футбольные матчи и
обмениваются последними футбольными новостями. Биографии
игроков, тренеров и судей регулярно выпускаются, и фанаты
следят за их жизнью по Интернету. Мальчики начинают играть в
футбол, чтобы выглядеть уверенными и умелыми среди
ровесников, а мужчины - чтобы поддержать свой социальный
статус. Такая популярность способствует инвестированию
больших денег в футбол. Благодаря этому, футбол с пугающей
скоростью теряет свой прежний характер «честной игры». 3.
Приоритетная задача правительства в области спорта - создать
равные условия для спортсменов-любителей и профессионалов по
всей стране. Спортивные реформы могут стать новым поворотом
событий для национального спортивного развития. Эти реформы
31
важно проводить последовательно, а не случайным образом, не
менять правил по ходу игры. 4. В спорте очень важно уметь
сконцентрироваться. Если хочешь научиться какому-нибудь виду
спорта, надо найти хорошего тренера и быть с ним «на одной
волне». В противном случае ты, как говорят футболисты, забьешь
гол в собственные ворота, бросив спорт навсегда.
3.2
Basic Vocabulary - see V2, V3, p. 130
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 2 (tr. 3.1): to have an impact on smth., to measure pro-
gress/achievement, to take joy in smth., to take satisfaction from smth.
Ex. 4 (tr. 3.2): to be restricted in terms of smith., to sort smb. out,
to instil(l) discipline/control.
Ex. 3 (text): martial arts, an assault/to assault, stamina, supple/sup-
pleness, ongoing commitment.
Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-
cabulary.
1. Какой вид спорта оказал на тебя наибольшее влияние? -
Вероятно, это боевые искусства. Они требуют от тебя много
самодисциплины, развивают выносливость, гибкость, помогают
сохранять спокойствие духа. 2. В нашем пригородном районе за
последнее время произошло несколько нападений на местных
жителей. Все, кто столкнулся с насилием, могут опять обрести
спокойствие духа и уверенность в себе, начав заниматься боевыми
искусствами. Искусные тренеры научат самообороне и помогут
вам стать ловкими и гибкими. 3. Почему сокращается число
спортсменов-любителей? - Некоторые люди начинают
заниматься спортом, не осознавая, что спорт требует
непрекращающихся тренировок. 4. Все знают, что спорт развивает
координацию, выносливость, гибкость и ловкость. Но мало кто
осознает, что спорт также оказывает значительное
психологическое воздействие. Он учит нас вежливости и
32
терпению, дисциплинирует и развивает самоконтроль. 5. Как
измеряется прогресс в спорте? - Тренеры оценивают достижения
своих учеников, посылая их на соревнования. Те ученики, которые
демонстрируют мастерское выступление, получают различные
почетные титулы. Такая практика способствует тому, чтобы
заметить талантливых спортсменов. 6. Спортивные фанаты очень
любят смотреть международные соревнования. Они испытывают
огромную радость от посещения матча или турнира, особенно
если их любимая команда на высоте. 7. Едва ли кто-нибудь
испытывает удовлетворение от занятий спортом, если тренер
не может установить в группе дисциплину и контроль.
Современные родители ограничены в своём влиянии на детей, и
главная задача тренера – «привести детей в чувства».
3.3
Basic Vocabulary - see V4, p. 130
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 2 (text): on a day-to-day basis, it boils down to smth.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-
cabulary.
1. Боевые искусства часто требуют решительности и
готовности пойти на жертвы. 2. Что выделяет первоклассного
спортсмена среди его конкурентов? – Это не только
самодисциплина, выдержка и ловкость. Настоящий спортсмен
должен быть одержим своим видом спорта. 3. Тренировки на
ежедневной основе могут иметь огромную интенсивность, и
многие спортсмены доводят себя до крайностей, которые
практически невозможно представить. 4. В спорте всё сводится
к тому, что ты добился как в сфере физической выносливости и
ловкости, так и в сфере развития самоконтроля и душевного
спокойствия. 5. Если ты не готов пойти на жертвы ради спорта,
не стоит начинать заниматься профессиональным спортом.
Лучше остаться искусным спортсменом-любителем. 6. Равные
33
условия для занятий спортом в городских и сельских районах давно
являются приоритетной государственной задачей. Но всё
сводится к недостатку денег для этих проектов. 7. Решительность
этого игрока, его стремление к саморазвитию, и то, как он
одержим тренировками, сделали его символом «честной игры» в
футболе. 8. Ловкость, выносливость, гибкость, отличная
координация и решимость отличают спортсменов от обычных
людей. 9. Непрекращающиеся занятия способствуют
мастерскому изучению любого спорта, от боевых искусств до
футбола, но тренировки должны проводиться на ежедневной
основе.

Grammar
Quantifiers.
Exercise 1.
a. Complete the following sentences with ‘some’ or ‘any’.
1. … people say that it is difficult to learn a foreign language. But
I’ve never had … problems.
2. Good morning. I’d like … new potatoes, please. Are there …
peas yet, or is it too early?
3. Why don’t you ask the bank to lend you … money?
4. Would you like … more wine? - I don’t want … more.
5. He never gives me … encouragement. I wish he would.
6. I made this dress myself without … help at all.
7. Were you having … trouble with your car today? I saw you
trying to fix it.
8. Don’t worry. If I find … of your books, I’ll send them to you.
9. These aren’t my books. Did I take … of yours by mistake?
10. Buying shoes is so difficult. I can’t find …that I like.
11. Could you give me … information about trains and times?
12. If you have … trouble, just give me a ring.
13. Do you mind if I put … music on?
34
14. Did you meet … interesting people on holiday?
15. I’ve got too many strawberries. Would you like …?
16. Have you got tickets for … concert next month?
17. I bought this video here yesterday. Shouldn’t there be … in-
structions with it?
18. There is little point in doing … more work now.
19. Sorry, we haven’t got … razor blades.
20. … cars parked on this road will be towed away.
b. Choose the right word.
1. We have imported fewer/less videos this year than last year.
2. There has been fewer/less demand for videos this year than
last year.
3. A number of/a small amount of vehicles has just been re-
called because of a design fault.
4. Many/much effort has been put into this project.
5. There isn’t many/much hope of finding the fault.
6. There aren’t many/much dictionaries that can compare with
this one.
7. A big amount/a number of businesses have gone bankrupt
this year.
8. Sell this car. We’ve had enough/hardly any trouble with it
already.
9. There have been a huge amount of/hardly any accidents on
this corner this year.
10. There have been much/many changes in the new edition.
11. There has been few/little change in the new edition.
12. There have been little/hardly any changes to our plans.
13. You only need a few/a small amount of salt in a dish like
this.
14. We need a bit of/a couple of people to work in our new ware-
house.
15. There were lots of/much complaints about the service.
35
16. Your café is excellent. Hardly any/no people have com-
plained either about the food or the service.
17. How much did we make yesterday? $200? – No, much less/a
few less than that.
18. You’ve had enough food already and you can’t have any
more/some more.
19. There are much more/many more people who give up smok-
ing these days.
20. Newspapers have many less/much less freedom than you
think.
21. Lots more/much more young people are passing their driving
test the first time.
22. I’ll help myself to some more/any more of these vegetables.
23. There’s been a lot less/many less interest in this idea than we
expected.
24. There’ve been no less/no fewer than forty applicants for this
job.
25. We need many more/much more of this material but it is hard
to get.
26. I’ve got much more/many more experience in business than
you think.
***
How (27) many/much lists is your name on? There must be (28)
a great deal of/plenty of lists of names in every part of the world and
they must be used to send information to (29) million/millions of people.
The (30) number/amount of letters ordinary people receive these days
has greatly increased.
(31) Most/Most of the people I know object to receiving un-
wanted letters. (32) Much/many of the mail we receive goes straight into
the waste-paper basket. That’s why (33) most/most of the people refer
to it as ‘junk mail’. It would be better for all of us if we received (34)
much/many less junk mail and, as a result, saved (35) many/much more
36
trees from destruction. (36) A huge amount/a great number of trees must
be wasted each year to produce mountains of junk mail.
Recently I received a very welcome (37) number/bit of junk
mail. It was a leaflet urging me not to waste paper and to return junk
mail to the sender. ‘If we do this’, the leaflet said, ‘we will reduce (38)
the number/the amount of trees being destroyed. I agree with every word
they said, but why did they have to send four copies of the leaflet?
c. Choose the right word.
1. I had little/a little time to spare, so I browsed round a
bookshop.
2. Help yourself to a biscuit. There are few/a few left in the tin.
3. My days are so busy that I have little/a little time for relaxa-
tion.
4. She is exceptionally generous. Few/a few people give more
money to charity than she does.
5. There is little/a little butter left, but not much.
6. He keeps trying though he has little/a little chance of success.
7. ‘I’m afraid, you need few/ a few fillings’, said the dentist.
8. He must have made a hundred clocks in his life, but few/a
few of them ever worked properly.
9. She wasn’t hungry. She just had few/a few spoonfuls of
soup.
10.I can’t play tennis today. I have few/a few jobs to do around
the house.
11.Help yourself to a whisky. There is still little/a little left.
12.Nowadays few/a few people have servants in their house.
13.I had little/a little time to catch the train, but I just made it.
14.I have few/a few friends that I can trust, but not many.
15.Don’t bother, little/a little depends on the outcome of the in-
quiry.
16.There are few/a few scholarships for students in this university.

37
17.If you don’t hurry, we’ll miss the train. There is little/a little
time to spare.
18.It’s a difficult text. I’ve had to look up quite few/a few words
in the dictionary.
19.I can’t spare any of these catalogues. There are only few/a few
left.
20.I can’t let you use much of this perfume. There’s only little/a
little in the bottle.
21.There are few/a few people who know about this, so keep it to
yourself.
22.If what you say is true, there is little/a little we can do about it.
We’d better give it up.
23.His ideas are difficult and few/a few people understand them.
24.His ideas are difficult but few/a few people understand them.
25.The average MP has little/a little real power.
26.We go to parties every weekend. We’ve got quite few/a few
friends here.
27.She earns little/a little more than you because she does extra
jobs at the office.

Article.
Explanations.
Basic uses of articles –see G2 p.138
Definite Article
• Classes
This is one way to refer to classes, and is perhaps more formal than
using a plural:
The tiger is threatened with extinction.
Note: Nouns man, woman, child used in a generic sense (as a class)
take no article!
We can’t be sure about the history of the human race, but man
developed earlier than we think.
38
• National groups
Groups as a whole:
The French eat in restaurants more than the English.
Single examples are not formed in the same way:
A Frenchman/woman, an Englishman/woman.
• Other groups
If these are clearly plural:
the Social Democrats, The Rolling Stones
Note the difference:
Pink Floyd, Queen (no article)
• Unique objects
the moon, the sun
Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe.
This planet has a small moon.
• Titles
These tend to be 'unique'.
The director of studies
If the title is post-modified (has a description coming after the
noun), the is more likely, but not essential. Compare:
She became President in 1998.
She became (the) President of the United States in 1998.
• Newspapers
The may be part of the title, and so is capitalised.
The Independent, The Sunday Times
Note that titles of magazines normally take no article: Punch, Time
However, there are many exceptions: The Economist, The New
Yorker, so they must be learned.
• Musical instruments
Jane plays the flute.
The guitar is my favourite instrument.
It is, of course, still possible to use a where it would naturally be
used.
39
There was a small brown flute in the window of the shop.
• Emphatic use
This is heavily stressed and emphasises the following noun.
This hotel is the place to stay.
• Geographical names
The following use the:
Rivers: the Thames
Mountain ranges: the Alps
Oceans: the Mediterranean
Unique features: the Channel, the Arctic
Compass points/areas: the East, the Middle East
Countries: collective or plural: The United Kingdom, The Nether-
lands
This does not apply to:
Mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn)
Continents: Asia
Countries: France
The definite article is sometimes used before Lebanon and Gam-
bia:
The Lebanon The Gambia
• Place names
Post-modification, especially with ...of... plays a role in place
names.
Compare:
Leeds University/The University of Leeds
London Bridge/The Tower of London
If the first part of a place-name is another name, then normal rules
about zero article apply.
Brown's Restaurant
The Garden House Hotel
The same applies in geographical names:
Canvey Island
40
The Isle of Man
• Most and the most
Most hotels in England are very expensive, (making a generalisa-
tion)
This is the most expensive hotel in town, (talking about a specific
hotel)
• Importance of context
The definite article refers to already mentioned items, and so its
use depends on context.
The Smiths had a son and a daughter. The son was in the Army
and the daughter was training to be a doctor.
On the Saturday, there was a terrible storm.
Here, the Saturday refers to a day in an area of time already men-
tioned.
On the Saturday of that week ...
Indefinite Article
• Jobs
Compare: Tony is a builder. Tony was the builder of that house.
• In measuring
Three times a week. Fifty kilometres an hour.
£3.50 a kilo. £15,000 a year.
Formally, per can replace a/an.
• Unknown people
Use of a/an emphasises that a person is unknown.
A Mr Jones called while you were out.
Zero Article
• Names
Compare:
Matthew Smith is one of my favourite artists, (a person)
A Matthew Smith hangs in their bedroom, (a painting)
• Some unique organisations do not use the.
Parliament, but The (House of) Commons
41
• Streets
Most streets do not use an article.
Green Road Godwin Street
Exceptions are:
The High Street The Strand
and street names without preceding adjectives. Compare:
Holly Drive The Drive

Exercise 1. In each space put a/an or the, or leave the space


blank.
It has been announced that for (1) third consecutive month there
has been (2) rise in (3) number of (4) people unemployed, rather than
(5) fall that had been predicted. (6) rise was blamed on (7) continuing
uncertainty over (8) government economic policy, and couldn't come at
(9) worse time for (10) Prime Minister, who is facing (11) growing crit-
icism over (12) way (13) present crisis is being handled.
(14) MPs are increasingly voicing (15) fears that despite (16) re-
cent devaluation of (17) pound and cuts in (18) interest rates, (19) gov-
ernment still expects (20) recovery of the economy to take three or even
four years. To make (21) matters worse, (22) number of small busi-
nesses going into (23) liquidation is still at (24) record level, and (25)
housing market is showing no signs of recovery. Some backbenchers
expect (26) general election before (27) end of (28) winter unless there
is (29) rapid change of (30) fortune.
Exercise 2. Underline the most suitable option. A dash (-)
means that no article is included.
a) Helen doesn't like the/- cream cakes sold in a/the local bakery.
b) The/- handball is fast becoming a/the popular sport worldwide.
c) We could see that the/— Alps were covered in the/- snow.
d) It's a/- long time since I met a/- lovely person like you!
e) Diana has a/- degree in the/- engineering from the/- University
of London.
42
f) At the/- present moment, the/- man seems to have the/an uncer-
tain future.
g) The/- problem for the/- today's students is how to survive finan-
cially.
h) The/- French enjoy spending holidays in the/- countryside.
i) Please do not turn on a/the water-heater in a/the bathroom.
j) Sue bought a/the Picasso I was telling you about the/- last week.
Exercise 3. Correct the errors in these sentences.
a) It's not a first-class accommodation unless it has a private bath-
room.
b) On this record twins play piano duet.
c) The halfway through meal we realised what waiter had said.
d) If the Mrs Hillier phones, say I'm away on trip.
e) There is a wonderful scenery in eastern part of Turkey.
f) Cocker spaniel is one of most popular pet dogs.
g) There is going to be fog and a cold weather all the next week.
h) I spent very interesting holiday at the Lake Coniston in England.
i) We are against war in general, so of course we are against war
like this between superpower and developing country.
j) The burglaries are definitely on increase.
Exercise 4. In each sentence, put a/an or the where appropri-
ate.
a) I'm going to stand for Parliament at next election.
b) When I left station, I had to stand in queue for taxi for long time.
c) We took trip around London and saw Tower Bridge.
d) Happiness of the majority depends on hard work for everyone.
e) Most main roads in this part of country follow line of roads built
by Romans.
f) Have you got latest record by Gipsy Kings?
g) If I had time, I would like to take up archery.
h) We spent pleasant evening having drinks at Robin Hood.
i) Nile flows right through city.
43
j) Summer I spent in USA was one of best in my life.
Exercise 5. In each sentence, put a/an or the where appropri-
ate.
a) She was first woman to cross Atlantic in canoe.
b) Go down High Street and turn right into Mill Road.
c) Please let me carry shopping. It's least I can do.
d) I don't like milk in coffee.
e) At end of busy day, sleep is best tonic.
f) James Joyce I knew wasn't novelist and wasn’t Irish either.
g) We'll go for walk if sun comes out.
h) This is last time I do you favour for a while.
i) I'm staying in Hilton so you can leave me message.
Exercise 6. There are ten extra appearances of the in the fol-
lowing text. Underline them.
The word processor and the calculator are without a shadow of
doubt here to stay, and in the many respects our lives are the much richer
for them. But the teachers and other academics are claiming that we are
now starting to feel the first significant wave of their effects on a gener-
ation of the users. It seems nobody under the age of 20 can spell or add
up any more. Even several professors at leading universities have com-
mented on the detrimental effect the digital revolution has had on the
most intelligent young minds in the country. The problem, evidently,
lies with the automatic spellcheck now widely available on the word
processing software. Professor John Silver of the Sydney University,
Australia, said: 'Why should we bother to learn how to spell correctly,
or for that matter to learn even the most basic of the mathematical sums,
when at the press of a button we have our problem answered for us. The
implications are enormous. Will the adults of the future look to the com-
puter to make the decisions for them, to tell them who to marry or what
the house to buy? Are we heading for a future individual incapable of
the independent human thought?'

44
Broaden Your Horizons
Get ready to retell and discuss the text.
Sports Obsession (p. 30)
Sports obsession is becoming an increasingly common problem in
today's society, partly because sports and athletics occupy such a prom-
inent position in our lives. It is common for children to begin sports as
early as age three and continue all the way through high school or be-
yond. Many times, children do not only play one sport, either. Typically,
devoted athletes play at least one sport every season, never having a
break or a moment to relax. Sports obsession is an issue among non-
athletes, as well. Many sports fans are so committed to their favorite
players and teams that they will go to great lengths to do whatever it
takes to support them and be there. Although all this participation and
fan support sounds harmless, the reality is that it can grow into a sports
obsession that is not only problematic but also sometimes danger-
ous.
When young children are the athletes in question, generally the
sports obsession is not theirs but their parents. Many parents feel a
strong urge to help their children succeed athletically, reaching the lev-
els of performance that they were never able to themselves. In a way,
they want to see their own sports dreams fulfilled in their children. If
the parent is just supporting what the child wants and maintains a
healthy balance between sports and other aspects of the child's life,
chances are that there will not be any problems. However, many times
the parents' sports obsession can get out of hand and they can push
their children too hard, wanting them to succeed at all costs. Every-
one has heard the stories of parents attacking umpires or other parents,
berating other child athletes, or just causing general disturbances. These
are clearly instances of a problematic and dangerous sports obsession.
From the fan perspective, it is often not as violent if a sports ob-
session arises, although there are always exceptions. Some people sac-
rifice many other aspects of their lives in order to be at those special
45
games or support their teams in other ways. Sports betting sometimes
results from this sport obsession, which can get a person into serious
financial difficulties. The overwhelming importance that some fans
place on their favorite sports can cause problems with relationships,
poor work performance, or anger issues. Although this is not always the
case, it is important to be aware of your relationship to sports and to
guard against becoming someone with a serious sports obsession.
Is Greatness Possible Without Obsession? Sportsman's Opin-
ion
This is not going to be pretty. If there is a common thread that
tends to run through world-class athletes and elite individuals, espe-
cially the “stars of stars” and the greatest of the great, it is extreme ob-
session with their field of endeavor. In fact, obsession might be the
most critical variable required to achieve greatness. Even the most
gifted individuals who achieve greatness, guys like Tiger Woods, Mi-
chael Jordan, Eddie Coan, and Bill Gates, tend to exhibit passionate ca-
reer behavior that hinges on total fixation.
Not surprising, at least to me, is the fact that the majority of psy-
chologists believe that for most people to reach an elite level in any
field of endeavor some degree of obsession is required. In fact, in
sports, one of the most competitive fields of endeavor, obsession, total
obsession, may be the most important aspect of achieving world -class
status.
To be perfectly honest, I have never met a great athlete or an elite
entrepreneur for that matter, who wasn’t somewhat obsessive. The re-
ally great athletes, the one-percenters, are generally totally obsessed
with what they are doing. They place a higher priority on their sport than
they do on work, family, interpersonal relationships, and even on their
own health. In actual fact, many athletes seem quite willing to sacri-
fice the very essence of life to achieve athletic greatness. Nothing
matters—just the game.

46
Now, I am sure there are elite athletes who have achieved great-
ness without total obsession, but I would venture to say they are the
extreme exception rather than the rule. The majority of individuals who
have reached an elite level in sports and many times in life were obses-
sively obsessed with what they were trying to achieve, almost to the
point of being psychotic.
Is greatness possible without obsession? In general—no. So, the
question now becomes: do you really want to achieve greatest at
such a high price? And why? And exactly for whom? Even if you are
willing to dedicate your entire life to a single purpose, there is no guar-
antee you will achieve greatness. Many athletes, businessman, enter-
tainers, and entrepreneurs have found no treasure at the end of their rain-
bow.
Still, it goes without saying that we live longer, healthier, and bet-
ter lives if we have passion in our life. A lifetime spent pursuing our
passion, even if the outcome is fruitless, is better than a lifetime spent
without a reason for living. True greatness in any field of endeavor
requires obsession, dedication, and sacrifice. Still, in order to win,
you have to play the game, and if it is a game you want to win, obsession
is a powerful weapon in your arsenal. However, obsession might best
be treated as a powerful but addictive drug that can lead you to greatness
but at the same time lead the way to ruin and destruction.

http://www.strongfirst.com/greatness-an-obsession/
http://sports.factexpert.com/657-sports-obsession.php

47
Stop and Check 1

1. Complete the text by putting the verbs in brackets into the


most appropriate form.
Currently Eleanor 1______(research) trends in communication in
the workplace. She 2 (focus) on how technology and emotions 3
(affect)communication networks. Methods of communication 4
(change) rapidly in our society today and should improve commu-
nication in general, but the results seem to indicate otherwise. Last year
Eleanor 5 (work) in a hospital when she had the idea for her re-
search. One day, while she 6_______(observe) a doctor talking to one
of his patients, she 7 (realise) that his lack of communication
skills 8 (have) a detrimental effect on the patient.

2. Complete the dialogue by putting the verbs in brackets into


the most appropriate form.
A: 1__________(you/ever/interrupt) someone during a meeting?
B: Yes.
A: When 2 (that/happen)?
B: Last month, actually. I 3 (listen) to a colleague say-
ing she was the only one who 4 (do) any work in the team.
A: What 5 (you/say) to her?
B: That she should try listening to what the team had to say and
not complain all the time instead of working.
A: 6________(she/stop) talking?
B: No. She 7_________(never/learn) how to stop talking. That’s
half her problem.

3. Complete the idioms.


1. It’s what you do that counts, not what you say. As they say:
‘Actions_________________.

48
2. James is always saying the wrong thing. He never thinks
_____________.
3. I wish you’d get ____________instead of talking about every-
thing else first.
4. We all get on really well as we seem to be
on__________________.
5. Excuse me, can I have _____________with you?
6. Is it official that Fred is going to leave the company or did you
just hear______________?
7. She never stops talking and no one else can get a
______________ .

4. Choose the correct word.


1. These days it’s much easier to get ________with old friends,
thanks to the internet.
2. Yesterday I__________into an old friend I hadn’t seen for
years.
3. When the old man died, it was difficult to________ down the
relatives who should inherit his house.
4. It’s vital to ________a rapport with the people you work with.
5. I enjoy________up with my friends at the weekends. I love
hearing what they’ve been doing during the week.
6. His behaviour_________similarities to that of other young peo-
ple starting work.
7. The people who were questioned were chosen at__________.
8. The point of the presentation is to _________general infor-
mation about the company.

5. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into


the most appropriate present perfect form. Sometimes more than
one answer is possible.

49
1. We (live) here for three years, but are moving to another
area next week.
2. The ice (melt) rapidly for the past decade and is still doing so.
3. Over the last five years, many people (put) solar panels on
their houses to reduce energy bills.
4. Wind farms (appear) all over the countryside.
5. The forest (completely/ disappear) in this area.
6. The river (flood) every year since 2005.
7. We (try) growing our own vegetables, but we aren’t going
to do it any more as it wasn’t very successful.
8. They’re doing a charity walk next week. They (help) raise
money for a conservation charity for years and aim to continue for many
years to come.

6.Complete the indirect questions.


1. How much have sea levels risen this year?
Could you this year?
2. Where does the information come from?
Can I from?
3. Are there any conservation projects I can work on?
I’d like conservation projects I can work on.
4. Have the volunteers arrived?
Do you ?
5. Who do I have to contact about working in the forest?
I was contact about working in the forest.
6. When does the presentation start?
Do you ?
7. Why aren’t governments doing more to protect endangered spe-
cies?
Can you to protect endangered species?

7. Complete the text with the appropriate words.


50
Susannah lives with her parents in a large 1 house in a 2 area
of the city. There is 3________little noise 4________or 5 _______con-
gestion where she lives. However, she has never really enjoyed living
in an 6 environment and she spends her time campaigning for envi-
ronmental 7 ______such as conservation of the natural world.
When she was only eight years old, she made sure that all her neigh-
bours were participating in 8 activities. What was once a 9
neighbourhood became rather hostile towards the little outspoken
girl who kept checking their rubbish bins to see if they were separating
cardboard and glass for waste collection. Although she wasn’t brought
up in the country, she 10 spends as much time as she can camping out
there and loves hearing only the sounds of wildlife instead of people and
traffic. On Tuesdays, she 11___spends her time talking to schoolchil-
dren about the deforestation, the rapidly dwindling 12 fuel supplies
and explains why 13 vehicles on country roads are dangerous to our
lives and environment: because they can cause accidents when passing
drivers look at them or contaminate the land as they rust away. She is
convinced that the 14 ______vandalism she sees in inner-city areas is
the result of boredom and a lack of education. Most of the young people
she talks to live in 15 blocks and have never been into the country, nor
do they know where their food comes from.

8. Complete the text with articles, where necessary.


Back in 1 1950s nobody believed that it was possible to run 2__
mile in under four minutes. But in 1954, 3___British athlete, Roger Ban-
nister, proved them all wrong at Iffley Road running track in 4___Ox-
ford. At a time when all 5___athletes were amateurs, his triumph was
even more amazing, considering that he’d been working all day as 6__
medical student before running his race. Until Bannister broke 7
four-minute barrier, 8 record of 4:01.4 was held by Gunder
Hagg, in 1945. After 9 race, 10____stadium announcer began to

51
announce 11___time and as soon as he said ‘Three…’, everyone
cheered because they knew that 12 history had been made.

9. Complete the sentences with the appropriate quantifiers.


1. Not___athletes have beaten Usain Bolt.
2. There are a sports training programmes children can join.
3. any of the swimmers in the team have won medals this year.
4. ____none of the people surveyed said they did sport on a
regular basis.
5. He has chance of making it into the Olympic team if he
doesn’t train harder.

10. Complete the text with the appropriate words.


Johann’s self-1_____was clear for all to see. He never appeared to
be nervous at the start of the race and he had a great ability to inspire
those around him to do better than they thought they could. His self-
2______when getting up at 4 o’clock every morning to train was unbe-
lievable. There were times when he became tired and this, for most peo-
ple, is a dangerous time when self- 3 can easily disappear and
anger take over. But Johann was never rude to anyone; he always man-
aged to maintain his usual 4________and if people tried to upset him,
he would respond with a gentle 5_______which tended to diffuse the
situation. He is a remarkable athlete with terrific 6 , capable
of running long distances without looking tired. He also has a mental 7
which is phenomenal, allowing him to give 100 percent focus and
commitment to achieving his goals. All this has set him apart from other
athletes, but also left him very much alone. However, if he wins an
Olympic Gold medal in the next games, then all the 8_______he has
made will be worth it.

11. Complete the idioms.

52
1. It’s important to be on the ______at the meeting or we will
lose the sponsorship deal.
2. It’s very difficult to finish the project as the client keeps
moving the_________.
3. We need to make sure that it’s a________ playing field be-
fore we start negotiations or we will have no chance of succeeding.
4. No one wanted to start __________until my boss stood up
and highlighted the problems we are facing.
5. You can’t take your ___________for even if a second if you
want to succeed.
6. We didn’t win the match because one of our players
scored___________.
7. Designing a new product has made it a whole
___________________.

53
Unit 4. Medicine
1.1
Basic Vocabulary - see V1, V2, p.132
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 2: to prescribe (n. prescription), medication.
Ex. 6: (medical) advance, a (medical) breakthrough.
Ex. 7 a) (texts): to take over, a side effect, to profit from smth. (n.
a profit);
(texts on p. 165) to diagnose (n. diagnosis), to pave the way for
smth., to work out.
Pay your attention to the following emphatic structure and its
translation:
It was not until 1897 that Felix Hoffman, a German chemist, syn-
thesized the ingredient acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, text on p. 37). –
Только в 1897 Феликс Хоффман, немецкий химик, синтезировал
вещество ацетилсалициловая кислота.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Несмотря на достижения в сфере медицины за последние
годы, многие болезни до сих пор трудно диагностировать. 2.
Нельзя полагаться только на медикаментозное лечение, потому что
многие лекарства, особенно антибиотики, обладают
значительными побочными эффектами и могут оказать
необратимое негативное влияние на здоровье. 3. В последние
время люди стали более чувствительны к вирусам, и
производители лекарств извлекают из этой ситуации большую
выгоду. 4. Окрытие пенициллина стало настоящим прорывом в
сфере медицины и проложило путь для дальнейших достижений.
5. Современные ученые открыты новому в том, что касается
лечения, и разрабатывают новые методы лечения таких опасных
заболеваний, как рак, болезнь Альцгеймера, диабет, артрит и
54
другие. 6. Медикаментозное лечение и альтернативная медицина
используются комбинированно, но в зависимости от диагноза
преобладает первое или второе. 7. Врачи многих специальностей
– анестезиологи, физиотерапевты, психиатры, рентгенологи,
хирурги, акушеры - требуют повышения заработной платы,
поскольку сейчас их заработная плата вызывает много жалоб.
Трудно оставаться спокойным, знающим, объективным
специалистом, если ты ограничен в деньгах. 8. Только во второй
половине ХХ века хирурги научились успешно выполнять операции
по пересадке органов. 9. Морфий был давно распространен в Азии,
однако только в начале прошлого века он стал широко
использоваться в европейской медицине как обезболивающее
средство. 10. В случае инфекции дыхательных путей или
сердечной недостаточности фармацевты рекомендуют давать
пациентам лекарства в виде инъекций, но для их покупки
необходим рецепт. 11. В последнее время ведётся много
дискуссий о том, каким должен идеальный врач: властным и
объективным или терпеливым, сочувствующим и ободряющим. Я
думаю, что важно, чтобы врач был знающим и объективным.
4.2
Basic Vocabulary – see V3, p. 132
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 2 (tr. 4.3): to be desperately needed, to become resistant to
smth., profitable.
Ex. 10 a) (tr. 4.4): to raise funds/money.
Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-
cabulary.
1. Завтра я встречаюсь с одним фармацевтом, чтобы
обсудить с ним новую вакцину против вирусных инфекций
дыхательных путей. 2. ВОЗ объявила, что она будет собирать
средства для медицинских исследований, которые остро
необходимы для развивающихся стран. 3. Мне кажется, я
55
заразился какой-то инфекционной болезнью, потому что у меня
высокая температура. Я собираюсь остаться дома на несколько
дней. 4. Как правительство собирается устанавливать контроль за
фармацевтическими компаниями? – Оно будет делать это
посредством создания равных условий для государственных и
частных предприятий. 5. Поскольку многие паразиты перестали
быть чувствительны к существующим вакцинам, многие
фармацевтические компании планируют разработать новое
эффективное медикаментозное лечение. 6. Врачи больше всего
чувствительны к вирусам, поэтому они часто заражаются
инфекциями. 7. На этой неделе состоится местный день спорта, и
все здешние жители будут отмечать его любительскими
соревнованиями и спортивным фестивалем. 8. Через два дня я беру
интервью у всемирно известного хирурга, основателя современной
трансплантационной медицины. Успех интервью позволит мне
быть на высоте в сфере медицинской журналистики. 9. Насколько
прибыльна фармацевтическая промышленность? – Ее прибыли
зависят от степени контроля, который устанавливает государство.
10. Ты не будешь проходить сегодня мимо аптеки? Мне очень
нужно эффективное болеутоляющее. – Болеутоляющее
уничтожает только симптомы заболевания, но не лечит его.
4.3
Basic Vocabulary – see V4, p. 132
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 2 (tr. 4.5): to fix (an illness), to account for smth., vigorous
activities, in the (not too) distant future, to be exposed to smth. (n. ex-
posure).
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-
cabulary.
1. Как ты себя чувствуешь после инфекции дыхательных
путей? – Я быстро поправляюсь после неё, к счастью, у меня нет
осложнений. Я надеюсь, к следующей неделе я полностью
56
поправлюсь. 2. Джил и Питер беспокоятся за своего сына. Он
страдает от артрита и в недалеком будущем будет
прооперирован. – Его врач очень знающий и эффективный, на него
можно положиться. Через год он совершенно выздоровеет. 3.
Никто не может предсказать возможных осложнений операций по
пересадке органов. Хирурги, специализирующиеся на этих
операциях, возможно, когда-нибудь разработают более
безопасные способы проведения таких операций. 4. Недавно ты
устраивался на работу в больницу. Как теперь тебе нравится
работа в отделении физиотерапии? – Я полагаю, к концу месяца я
уже преуспею в этой сфере. 5. Многие люди жалуются на
городскую среду, в которой живут, поскольку она источник многих
заболеваний. Некоторые из них врачи научатся лечить только к
концу текущего десятилетия, а в недалёком будущем им будет
подвержено всё большее число людей. 6. Несомненно, всегда
будут существовать медицинские достижения, которые вначале не
считаются эффективными. Однако в недалеком будущем эти
достижения открывают дорогу для новых важных прорывов. 7.
Когда мне удалось найти работу хирургом, я начал проводить
операции по трансплантологии. Я прекрасно с ними справляюсь.
8. Чтобы ухаживать за больными людьми, необходимо быть
чувствительным, сочувствующим и ободряющим. – Я согласен с
тобой. 9. В далеком будущем люди, вероятно, будут защищены от
многих тяжёлых болезней, которые существуют сейчас: рак,
болезнь Альцгеймера, диабет и другие. Сейчас они составляют
большой процент смертельных заболеваний. 10. Люди,
предпочитающие активный род занятий, часто подвергаются
опасным повреждениям. Ученым необходимо
сконцентрироваться на разработке новых методов, которые
смогут защитить таких людей от этих рисков.

Grammar
57
Future Tenses
Exercise 1. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable verb form.
a) In twenty-four hours' time (I/relax) on my yacht.
b) There's someone at the door. That (be) the postman.'
c) By the time you get back Harry (leave).
d) It's only a short trip. I (be) back in an hour.
e) What (you/do) this Saturday evening? Would you like to go
out?
f) By the end of the week we (decide) what to do.
g) It (not/be) long before Doctor Smith is here.
h) We'll go to the park when you (finish) your tea.
i) It's very hot in here. I think I (faint).
j) What (you/give) Ann for her birthday? Have you decided yet?

Exercise 2. Choose the most appropriate continuation for each


sentence.
a) According to the latest forecast, the tunnel
A will be finished next year. B will have been finished next year.
C is finishing next year.
b) Paula's flight is bound to be late although
A it arrives at 6.00. B it's due at 6.00. C it's arriving at six.
c) It's no use phoning Bob at the office, he
A will be leaving. B is leaving. C will have left.
d) Everyone says that this year City
A are going to win the Cup. B are winning the Cup. C win the Cup.
e) I don't feel like visiting my relatives this year so
A I won't go. B I'm not going. C I don't go.
f) You can borrow this calculator, I
A am not going to need it. B won't have been needing it.
C am not needing it.
g) I'm sorry dinner isn't ready yet, but it

58
A is going to be ready in a minute. B will have been ready in a
minute.
C will be ready in a minute,
h) Can you send me the results as soon as you
A hear anything? B are hearing anything? C will have heard any-
thing?
i) You can try asking Martin for help but
A it won't do you any good. B it's not doing you any good.
C it won't be doing you any good,
j) Don't worry about the mistake you made, nobody
A is noticing. B will notice. C will be noticing.

Exercise 3. Complete the second sentence so that it has a simi-


lar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not
change the word given.
a) I don't suppose you have heard the news.
won’t
You … have heard the news.
b) The Prime Minister expects an easy victory for his party in the
election.
believes
The Prime Minister … the election easily.
c) I've been in this company for almost three years.
will
By the end of the month … in this company for
three years.
d) This book will take me two years to write.
have
In two years' … this book.
e) Scientists are on the point of making a vital breakthrough.
about
Scientists are … a vital breakthrough.
59
f) Maria is pregnant again.
have
Maria is … baby.
g) I'll be home late.
until
I … late.
h) No one knows what the result of the match is going to be.
who
No one knows … the match.
i) Don't worry; David won't be late.
here
Don't worry; David… time.
j) Mary and Alan's wedding is next weekend.
getting
Mary and Alan … next weekend.

Exercise 4. Look at the three options A, B and C for each ques-


tion. Decide which two are correct.
a) We've run out of fuel.
A What will we do now? B What do we do now?
C What are we going to do now?
b) You can't leave early,
A we're having a meeting. B we're going to have a meeting.
C we will have a meeting.
c) Oh dear, I've broken the vase
A What will your mother say? B What is your mother going to say?
C What is your mother saying?
d) According to the weather forecast,
A it'll rain tomorrow. B it's raining tomorrow.
C it's going to rain tomorrow.
e) I'd like to call round and see you

60
A What will you have done by the morning? B What'll you be doing
in the morning? C What are you doing in the morning?
f) I've got nothing to do tomorrow so
A I'll get up late. B I am to get up late. C I'm going to get up late.
g) It's my eighteenth birthday next month so
A I'm on the point of having a party. B I'm having a party.
C I'll be having a party.
h) Why don't you come with us?
A It'll be a great trip. B It's going to be a great trip. C It's a great
trip.
i) When you get to the airport
A someone is going to be waiting for you.
B someone is due to wait for you. C someone will be waiting for
you.
j) Shut up, will you!
A I'm getting really angry. B I'm going to get really angry in a
minute.
C I'm getting really angry in a minute.

Tenses Revision
Exercise 5. Complete the second sentence so that it has a simi-
lar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not
change the word given.
a) This matter is none of your business.
concern
This matter …
b) This bridge will take us three years to complete.
completed
In three years' time… this bridge.
c) When is the train due to arrive?
supposed
What… get here?
61
d) Today is Liz and John's thirtieth wedding anniversary.
ago
On this… married.
e) To get to work on time, I have to get up at 6.00.
means
Getting to work on time … at 6.00.
f) Whose watch is this?
belong
Who …to?
g) Cathy hasn't been on holiday with her sister before.
first
This… on holiday with her sister.
h) My dental appointment is for next Wednesday.
see
I have an …Wednesday.
i) This will be the team's first match in the Premier League.
time
This will be the first …in the Premier League.
j) The number of people who attended the fair exceeded our ex-
pectations.
had
More people …expected.
k) I didn't receive the results of my test for a month.
before
It was …the results of my test.
l) Quite a few books are missing from the class library.
returned
Several members of the class …library books.

Exercise 6. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate verb


form.
a) This is my new car. What .................(you/think) of it?
62
b) A: Who are you?
B: What do you mean? I .........................(live) here.
c) I can't find the car keys. What ................. (you/do) with them?
d) Sorry I haven't fixed the plug. I ........................(mean) to get
round to it, but I just haven't found the time.
e) What .......................... (you/do) on Saturdays?
f) I don't know what time we'll eat. It .................... (depend) when
Helen gets here.
g) I supported you at the time because I .................. (feel) that you
were right.
h) Peter couldn't understand what had been decided because too
many people................. (talk) at once.
i) Jean, I'm so glad you've got here at last. I........................(expect)
you all day.

Exercise 7. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate verb


form.
a) Sam......... (not/receive) the parcel the last time I
........................................ (speak) to him.
b) I .............................................. (consider) buying a house but
now I .............................................. (change) my mind.
c) When you .............................................. (feel) hungry, room
service ....................................... (bring) you whatever you want.
d) I .............................................. (find) it difficult to convince the
ticket inspector that I .............................................. (lose) my ticket, but
he believed me in the end.
e) Ever since I .............................................. (be) a young child, I
.............................................. (die) to meet you.
f) As soon as I .............................................. (have) a look at the
designs, I .............................................. (send) them to you. You'll get
them by Friday.

63
g) Whatever .............................................. (happen), I
.............................................. (meet) you here in a week's time.
h) By the time you .............................................. (finish) getting
ready, we .............................................. (miss) the train!
i) Sally! I .............................................. (not/expect) to see you
here! What .............................................. (you/do) in New York?

Exercise 8. Decide whether each underlined phrase is correct


or not. If it's incorrect rewrite the phrase.
a) Will you be seeing Rob Jones tomorrow? I wonder if you could
give him a message from Sally Gordon?
b) I had a great time in the Greek Islands. We would rent a small
boat and go fishing every day.
c) Julie, hi! I've been hoping I'd see you. I've got some good news!
d) We had a terrible time looking after your dog. It was constantly
chasing the cats next door.
e) We had a lovely time in Madrid. Every day we were exploring
the city, and in the evening we were going to exciting bars.
f) The steam engine is usually thought of as a relatively modern
invention, but the Greeks had built a kind of steam engine in ancient
times.
g) I felt rather worried. It was growing darker and colder, and there
was still no sign of the rescue helicopter.
h) Don't worry! All we have to do is wait here until someone will
find us.
i) This meat is really tasting awful! Are you quite sure it was fresh?

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the text.
Medical Breakthroughs That Sound Like Science Fiction (p.
40)

64
The news that comes out of research universities and hospitals of-
ten sounds too hopeful: Here's a gene that maybe, could potentially end
obesity. This newly discovered protein pathway might sort-of, some day
cure cancer.
Do any of the thousands of studies published each year really re-
sult in a meaningful change in someone's life?
Here's your answer: technologies and discoveries that are already
making an impact. Check out the technology of the future that's already
on our doorstep.
THE BIONIC EYE
The “Argus II” takes a video signal from a camera built into sun-
glasses and wirelessly transmits that image to implants in the retinas of
people who have lost their vision. “This really is like Star Trek technol-
ogy,” doctors say.
The system isn't perfect. It lets a blind person regain basic func-
tions like walking on a sidewalk without stepping off a curb, and distin-
guishing black from white socks, but only lets you read one giant-sized
word at a time on a Kindle.
Plus, as the retina itself heals over the implant, the quality of vision
decreases. But the technology could soon help the more than 1.75 mil-
lion people who suffer from blindness.
THE ANESTHESIOLOGIST'S IPAD
Surgeons may get more glory, but anesthesiologists probably play
the most vital role in keeping you alive during surgery. They're the last
face you see before you're put into a medicated sleep so deep you don't
even notice that your body is being peeled open.
Between keeping track of your heart rate, breathing, and brain
functions, an anesthesiologist also needs to be familiar with the ins and
outs of the procedure so they can adjust sedatives and painkillers—with-
out causing complications.
The new “information management systems” include software on
touchscreen-enabled computers that can warn doctors if things are going
65
south, keep track of the surgeon's workflows, and document every step
of the procedure. All are essential when surgeries last up to 16 hours
and docs need to pass the reins to a fresh pair of eyes.
THE SEIZURE STOPPER
For the 840,000 epileptics suffering from sudden, uncontrollable
seizures, the NeuroPace is like “a defibrillator for your brain,” doctors
say.
The system includes sensors implanted in the brain that can spot
the first tremors of an oncoming seizure. Then it sends electrical pulses
that counteract the brain's own signals, stopping the seizure in its tracks.
Even more impressive: The NeuroPace can be fine-tuned by doc-
tors based on its performance. In the first year it was available, seizure
episodes were reduced by an average of 40 percent—but 2 years later,
they dropped by 53 percent.
THE CANCER GENE FINGERPRINT
Not all cancers are equally lethal—cancer in one part of the body
means a longer survival rate than a malignancy in another.
But each cancer comes in multiple flavors ranging from manage-
able to very bad. By analyzing the mutated genome of a tumor, doctors
can now pinpoint whether a cancer is sensitive to a certain chemother-
apy, or one that doesn’t respond at all to current treatments.
Knowing the subtype might mean jumping directly to a clinical
trial that could save a person's life.

http://www.menshealth.com/health/medical-break-
throughs/slide/8

66
Unit 5. Transport
5.1
Basic Vocabulary – see V1, V2, p. 134
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 3 (tr. 5.1): a nightmare, a stopover, a missed connection (a
connection flight), a budget carrier, priority boarding, an aisle seat,
transit lounge, a security alert, to arrive at one’s destination, a fare, to
put smb. off, given the choice, it depends, a (multi-vehicle) pile up, a
bottleneck, to have a breakdown, to block the carriageway, a junction,
to get an upgrade to first-class, to dock.
Ex. 8 (text): to eradicate (fatalities), compulsory, luxurious/luxury.
Ex. 11 a) (text A): to introduce (restrictions), to believe firmly;
(text B): a pedestrian, an option;
(text C): to fine / a fine, tough (a tough penalty), to speed , to drive
carelessly.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
A. 1. С какими проблемами сталкиваются водители машин? –
Многочасовое стояние в хвосте пробки из-за огромного скопления
транспорта в час пик возглавляет список проблем. Проблемы
такого же масштаба – внезапный прокол шины или перекрытие
дорожной полосы. – Может ли помочь введение платы за поездки
по перегруженным магистралям? – Это могло бы решить
проблему. Однако, раз на раз не приходится. Если какая-то машина
ломается и блокирует одну полосу или всю трассу, особенно на
развязке, образуется «бутылочное горлышко», огромное скопление
транспорта, и поездка становится кошмаром. 2. Почему
задержали самолет? – Взлетная полоса в тумане. Кроме того, в
такую погоду определенно будет большая турбулентность. К
счастью, я лечу не на бюджетном перевозчике, к тому же, у меня
приоритетная посадка и место у прохода. – У тебя рейс с
67
пересадками? – Да. – Разве ты не боишься пропустить пересадку?
– Нет, мне предстоит промежуточная посадка во Франкфурте, и я
проведу её в комфортном транзитном зале. Я должен прибыть в
место назначения сегодня вечером. – Надеюсь, таких вещей, как
потерянный багаж и задержки из-за предупреждений системы
безопасности, ты тоже не боишься? – Конечно, нет! Такие
проблемы меня не отталкивают. Если есть выбор, я всегда
путешествую самолётом! 3. В ненастную погоду и при отливе у
многих судов задержка отправления, или они не могут причалить.
В случае такой задержки пассажиров переводят в каюты первого
класса. 4. Некоторые люди жалуются на путешествия поездом. Их
отталкивают задержки, связанные с инженерными работами и
проблемами с железнодорожными сигналами. Смена платформы
в последнюю минуту также вызывает много жалоб. Но так как
тарифы очень разумные, многие обожают ездить на поезде.
В. 1. Согласно результатам опроса, проведенного среди
автовладельцев, идеальная машина должна иметь восемь подушек
безопасности, антиблокировочные тормоза, противобуксовочную
систему, удобные ремни безопасности. 2. Раньше путешествия на
самолёте были роскошью. Только в 2000х годах, когда появилось
много бюджетных перевозчиков, они стали популярны у среднего
класса. 3. Ограничения скорости, дорожные камеры, улицы с
односторонним движением, дорожные сигнальные знаки – это
меры, которые должны положить конец несчастным случаям на
дорогах. Однако введение этих ограничений вызывает много
жалоб у водителей. 4. И водители, и пешеходы страдают от
скопления различных средств транспорта на дорогах. Чтобы
решить эту проблему, вводят плату за проезд по загруженным
магистралям. 5. Многие люди твердо убеждены, что наилучший
выбор решения проблемы дорожной безопасности – это введение
ограничений и суровые наказания за нарушение закона. В
частности, за превышение скорости и невнимательное управление
68
автомобилем должны быть уплачены огромные штрафы. Ты с
этим согласен? – Когда как.
5.2
Basic Vocabulary – see V3, p. 134
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 4: a means of transport (pl. means), to respond to the (ever-
faster) pace of smth., to aim to do smth./at doing smth.
Ex. 5 (text A): in the event of smth., to be a thing of the past;
(text B): distractions, to overtake, commuting time, to reduce
smth. dramatically (by … percent).

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Не может быть, чтобы эта строительная компания
стремилась только к прибыли. Должно быть, она также вносит
значительный вклад в благотворительные проекты. 2. Наверняка
новые технологические достижения и прорывы произойдут в
недалеком будущем. 3. Согласно предварительным оценкам,
причиной катастрофы возможно был человеческий фактор
(ошибки людей). 4. Тебе не следует жаловаться на всё, что с тобой
случается. Только тогда ты сможешь преуспеть в жизни. 5.
Изобретение нового, более безопасного средства транспорта
сможет значительно сократить или даже положить конец
несчастным случаям на дорогах. 6. Тебе не следовало водить так
невнимательно. Теперь придется заплатить штраф. – К
сожалению, на дороге было очень много отвлекающих факторов.
7. Современные технологические достижения должны
соответствовать все ускоряющемуся темпу жизни. Некоторые
из них, например, космический лифт, должно быть, станут
настоящим прорывом в далеком будущем. 8. В недалёком будущем
в случае аварии пассажирам, возможно, придётся использовать
необычные технические приспособления, например,
69
надувающийся спуск. 9. Как ты думаешь, смогут ли машины с
автопилотом взять вверх над водителями-людьми? – Да, в далёком
будущем обычные машины уйдут в прошлое. Предварительные
данные свидетельствуют о том, что машины с автопилотом
смогут сократить скопление транспорта на 90 процентов, и в
этом случае люди смогут экономить время в пути на работу. 10.
Господин мэр, Вы согласны с тем, что многие городские средства
транспорта не отвечает современному темпу жизни? – Да, мы
должны взяться за это проблему и сделать ее первоочередной. 11.
Не нужно было вызывать такси до аэропорта в час пик, была
огромная пробка, и одна полоса была перекрыта на развязке.
Должно быть, ты зря потратил много времени.
5.3
Basic Vocabulary – see V4, p. 134
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 3 (text): to counter, (absolutely) breathtaking, stylish, a high-
light, scenic, unmatched, (extravagantly) elegant, a (train) car, a house-
hold name/word.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Этот отель раньше был знаменит своим безупречным
сервисом и непревзойденной роскошью. Кто-то, возможно, еще
помнит его былое богатство. 2. Должно быть, твое путешествие
было изнуряющим. Ты провел много часов на борту корабля в
ненастную погоду. 3. Чтобы противостоять большой высоте и
турбулентности, многие пассажиры должны были принять
медикаменты на борту самолета. 4. Мы опоздали на свой поезд,
поэтому нам остается лишь наслаждаться живописными видами в
ожидании следующего. 5. Путешествующие поездом через Сибирь
могут наблюдать из окна вагона великолепный, захватывающий
дух пейзаж. 6. Некоторые пожилые люди никак не привыкнут к
70
все ускоряющемуся темпу жизни. Возможно, причина этому -
ностальгия. 7. Не нужно быть миллионером, чтобы выглядеть
стильно и иметь безупречные манеры. 8. Многие расхожие
выражения, должно быть, появились благодаря популярным
авторам, чьи книги стали иконами своего жанра. 9. Моя бабушка
никак не одобряла современную эпоху. Она все время называла ее
эпохой бизнеса и технологических достижений, с ностальгией
вспоминая прошедшую эпоху джентльменов с безупречными
манерами и крайне элегантных дам. 10. Кульминацией
путешествия через пустыню, безусловно, стала встреча с
кочевниками. Нам даже не пришлось специально искать их.

Grammar
Modal Verbs
1. Modal Verbs Expressing Probability

71
3 May can be used to express although clauses:
72
She may be the boss, but that is no excuse for shouting like that.
4 May/might as well
This describes the only thing left to do, something which the
speaker is not
enthusiastic about.
Nobody else is going to turn up now for the lesson, so you may
as well go home.

2. Modal Verbs Expressing Ability

73
3. Modal Verbs Expressing Advice/Mild Obligation

Note
We use should / ought to + have + past participle to talk about
an obligation in the past. We often indicate some criticism or regret:
• He should / ought to have asked me before he took my bike.
(I'm annoyed)
• We should / ought to have taken a taxi when it rained. (I'm
sorry we didn't)

74
4. Modal Verbs Expressing Obligation

4. We use mustn't to say that something is NOT ALLOWED


and needn't (or don't need to) or don't have to to say that something
is NOT NECESSARY:
• You mustn't walk on the grass here.
• You mustn't put anything on the shelves until the glue has set
hard.
• They proved that watching a chess match needn't be boring.
• We needn't go into details now, but we seem to agree on the
general principles.
To give permission not to do something we can use either need-
n't or don't need to: You needn't/ don’t need to cut the grass, I'll do it
later.
75
To talk about a general necessity, we prefer don't need to: You
don't need to be over 18 to get into a disco.
5. When we say that it was not necessary to do something in the
past, and it wasn't done, we use didn't need to or didn't have to. To
show that we think something that was done was not, in fact, necessary
we use need not have:
• Chris and June phoned to say that they couldn't come to eat, so
I didn't need/have to cook dinner. (= I didn't cook the dinner)
• I needn't have cooked dinner. Just as it was ready, Chris and
June phoned to say that they couldn't come to eat. (= I did cook the
dinner)

5. Modal Verbs Expressing Permission

76
6. Modal Verbs Expressing Willingness and Refusal

7. Modal Verbs Expressing Habit


1. We can use will (for the present) and would (for the past) to
talk about characteristic behaviour or habits, or about things that are
or were always true:
• Every day Dan will come home from work and turn on the TV.
• During the war, people would eat all kinds of things that we
don't eat now.
• A baby will recognise its mother's voice soon after it is born.
• Early passenger planes wouldn't hold more than 30 passengers.
2. We don't use would in this way to talk about a particular oc-
casion in the past. Compare:
• Each time I gave him a problem he would solve it for me. and
• Last night I gave him a problem and he solved it for me. {not
...he would solve it...)

77
3. In speech, we can stress will or would to criticise people's
characteristic behaviour or habits:
• She will leave all the lights on in the house when she goes out.
• I was happy when Sam left. He would talk about people behind
their backs.
When we use stressed would in this way, we can also use it to
talk about a particular occasion in the past. We suggest that what hap-
pened was predictable because it was typical of a person's behaviour:
• 'Jackie says she can't help because she's got a lot of work on.'
'Well she would say that – she always uses that excuse.'
4. If we want to talk about things that happened repeatedly in the
past, but don't happen now, we can use would or used to + infinitive.
Used to is more common in informal English:
• We would / used to lend him money when he was unemployed.
• Tim would / used to visit his parents every other weekend.
We use used to but not would when we talk about past states that
have changed:
• The factory used to be in the city centre.
• I used to smoke heavily when I was at university.
When we use would we need to mention a specific time or set of
occasions. Compare:
• We used to play in the garden, {not We would play...)
• Whenever we went to my Uncle Frank's house, we would / used
to play in the garden.
5. We don't use either used to or would when we say exactly how
many times something happened, how long something took, or that
something happened at a particular time:
• We visited Switzerland four times during the 1970s.
• She went on holiday to the Bahamas last week.

8. Modal Verbs Expressing Request

78
Exercise 1. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sen-
tence.
a) I don't think you could/should tell anyone yet.
b) I couldn't/shouldn't possibly leave without paying.
c) That mustn't/can't be the hotel Jane told us about.
d) There are times when the traffic here can/could be really heavy.
e) We are enjoying our holiday, though the weather could/must be
better.
f) You couldn't/shouldn't really be sitting here.
g) You could/may be older than me, but that doesn't mean you're
cleverer.
h) You might/should like to look over these papers if you have
time.
i) I'm afraid that nobody should/would help me in that kind of sit-
uation,

Exercise 2. Put one suitable word in each space. Contractions


(can't) count as one word.
Bill: This (1) be the house, I suppose, number 16 Elland Way.
Jane: I pictured it as being much bigger, from the estate agent's
description.
Bill: Well, we'd (2) go inside.
Jane: We (3) as well. Wait a minute. I (4) to just find my glasses.
I (5) see a thing without them.
Bill: I don't think much of it from the outside, to be honest.
Jane: Yes, it (6) certainly do with a coat of paint or two.
Bill: Rather you than me! I (7) like to have to paint it all! And the
gutters (8) replacing.
79
Jane: I (9) think they haven't been replaced since the house was
built.
Bill: They (10) really be replaced every four years ideally.
Jane: And I don't like that big ivy plant growing up the side. Ivy
(11) get in the brickwork and cause all sorts of damage.
Bill: I wonder if there's a lock on that big downstairs window? It
looks very easy to break in to.
Jane: There's (12) to be one, surely.
Bill: Well, (13) we go inside?
Jane: Do we (14) to? I think I've seen enough already. I (15) pos-
sibly live here.

Exercise 3. Choose the sentence A or B that is closest in mean-


ing to the sentence given.
a) It's possible that we'll know the answers tomorrow.
A We may know the answers tomorrow.
B We should know the answers tomorrow.
b) I don't think you should ring him now. It's rather late
A You might not ring him now. It's rather late.
B You'd better not ring him now. It's rather late.
c) You needn't come if you don't want to
A You won't come if you don't want to.
B You don't have to come if you don't want to.
d) I think it's wrong for you to work so hard
A You don't have to work so hard.
B You shouldn't work so hard.
e) Perhaps these are the keys
A These might be the keys.
B These must be the keys.
f) It would be wrong for us to lock the cat in the house for a week
A We'd better not lock the cat in the house for a week.
B We can't lock the cat in the house for a week.
80
g) It's possible that the decision will be announced next week
A The decision might be announced next week.
B The decision will be announced next week.
h) Although I try hard, I can never solve The Times' crossword
A Try as I may, I can never solve 'The Times' crossword.
B Try as I can, I may never solve 'The Times' crossword.
i) I know. Why don't we go out to eat instead?
A I know. We must go out to eat instead.
B I know. We could go out to eat instead.

Exercise 4. Complete each sentence with one of the phrases


from the box.

a) The heating comes on automatically. You don’t have to turn it


on.
b) Of course I'll help! I… let you do it on your own.
c) It's a lovely hotel. And the staff… more helpful.
d) George… it there if he has stayed there for so long.
e) You… right, but I'm still not convinced.
f) We… go in this museum. There's nothing else to do.
g) I love these trees. Without them the garden… the same.
h) There's the phone call I was expecting. It …George.
i) Thanks. And now you just …sign on the dotted line.
j) Try as …, I simply couldn't open the lid.

Exercise 5. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sen-


tence.
a) That can't have been/shouldn't have been Nick that you saw.
b) You must have given/might have given me a hand!
c) I caught a later train because I had to see/must have seen a cli-
ent.
81
d) I suppose Bill should have lost/might have lost his way.
e) I didn't refuse the cake, as it should have been/would have been
rude.
f) I don't know who rang, but it could have been/must have been
Jim.
g) It was odd that you should have bought/would have bought the
same car.
h) I asked them to leave but they might not/wouldn't go.
i) It's a pity you didn't ask because I can't help/could have helped
you.
j) It's your own fault, you can't have/shouldn't have gone to bed so
late.

Exercise 6. Complete each sentence using one of the phrases


from the box.

a) You and your big mouth! It was supposed to be a secret. You


shouldn’t have told her!
b) The plane is late. It… landed by now.
c) You… met my brother. I haven't got one!
d) There is only one explanation. You …left your keys on the bus.
e) You… heard me right. I definitely said 204525.
f) The meat is a bit burnt. You… cooked it for so long.
g) I'm sorry. I accept I … been a little bit rude.
h) You really… taken so much trouble over me.
i) Was it really necessary? You … tell the police, you know.
j) Keep your fingers crossed! The traffic warden… noticed the
car's parking ticket has run out!

82
Exercise 7. Complete each sentence by writing one word in
each space. Contractions (can't) count as one word.
a) I … have become a millionaire, but I decided not to.
b) You… have been here when Helen told the boss not to be so
lazy! It was great!
c) Peter wasn't here then, so he … have broken your vase.
d) I … have bought that car, but I decided to look at a few others.
e) If you felt lonely, you … have given me a ring.
f) Don't take a risk like that again! We …have lost because of you.
g) It's been more than a week! You … have had some news by
now!
h) We were glad to help. We… have just stood by and done noth-
ing.
i) You really … have gone to so much trouble!
j) I … have thought that it was rather difficult.

Exercise 8. Correct any errors in these sentences. Some sen-


tences are correct.
a) Surely you mustn't have forgotten already!......................
b) Even Paul couldn't have foreseen what was coming next
..................
c) Frances might not have understood what you said ..................
d) It was funny that she should have remembered me ..................
e) Harry may have won the match with a bit more effort
..................
f) You must have told me you had already eaten ..................
g) Look, there's 300 USD in my wallet. I shouldn't have gone to
the bank after all………………….
h) You mustn't have been so unkind!....................
i) I couldn't have managed without you…………….
j) I have no idea who it was, but I suppose it would have been
Ann………….
83
Exercise 9. Complete each space in the text with an appropri-
ate modal verb. Some are negative.
Dear Toshie,
Thanks for sending back the book I lent you. You (1) read it al-
ready! You must be the world's fastest reader! Hope you enjoyed it.
Well, the big news is, I decided not to go to Italy to take up my job
offer.
Basically, moving there (2) meant a lot of upheaval and frankly I
couldn't face the hassle. Maybe I (3) just gone, and been a bit more ad-
venturous, and for sure, I've got mixed feelings about it, as if part of me
wanted to go. Who knows, I (4) met the man of my dreams! But I didn't
take the decision lightly. I (5) spent several weeks thinking about noth-
ing else. Anyway, what's done is done.
My other news concerns my Dad. You remember I was getting
very worried because he'd been having dizzy spells and feeling all light-
headed. Well, I (6) worried - he's been diagnosed as suffering from low
blood pressure, so he's on medication for that. The doctor said it's pos-
sible that his vegetarian diet (7) set it off. It's a pity you weren't here!
You (8) been able to help Dad, with your interest in holistic medicine.
You (9) given him some of your aromatherapy treatments.
Anyway, hope to see you again before too long. By the way, guess
who's getting married in June? Brenda! I (10) known it would be her!
It's typical; that girl has all the luck!
Bye!
Love from, Sue.

Exercise 10. Which one of the verbs given can complete all
three sentences in each set?
1 used to / will / would
a Most days my father …get up first and make breakfast.

84
b When I was training for the marathon, I …run over 100 kilome-
tres a week.
c We went back to Dublin to see the house where we… live in the
1960s.
2 needn't / mustn't / don't have to
a I'll be quite late getting to London, but you…change your plans
for me.
b I'm afraid I owe quite a lot of money to the bank - but you…
worry about it.
c Next time, read the small print in the document before you sign
it. You … make the same mistake again.
3 can / could / is (or was) able to
a Val had always wanted to go scuba diving and …do so last sum-
mer.
b I hope Jim … help you tomorrow.
c She played the piano quite well even before she …read music.

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the texts.
Road Safety (p. 47)
Wednesday, 21 September 2016 was designated the first ‘Euro-
pean Day Without a Road Death, or EDWARD for short. The initiative
was launched by the European Traffic Police Network (TISPOL) and
widely supported by the European Commission with a huge range of
events and initiatives taking place across Europe.
EDWARD is part of a wider Commission programme aimed at
halving road deaths and serious injuries in Europe by 2020. At the heart
of the campaign is the truth that road safety concerns every single one
of us. On average, some 70 people die and a further 370 are seriously
injured every day on Europe’s roads. This has to stop.
EDWARD is an excellent opportunity to encourage all road users
to reduce risks and improve safety while they are driving, walking or
85
cycling. If individuals commit to small changes, we can all achieve a
great deal in making our roads safer.
Target ‘zero’
With a target of no road fatalities and serious road traffic injuries,
EDWARD is taking a zero-tolerance stance on daily road safety. Lead-
ing up to 21 September, road users were asked to think about the dangers
they face, the risks they may pose to others and how they can go about
reducing those risks.
As part of the campaign, private and public entities as well as civil
society organisations across the EU were mobilised to contribute by
sharing the EDWARD message on social media. Road safety were an-
other key feature of the EDWARD campaign.
Responsible personal behaviour by all road users – drivers, cy-
clists, pedestrians and passengers – is key to making a change and en-
suring that road deaths and injuries in Europe start to decrease again.
“For example, using a mobile phone when driving is a personal
choice that means the driver is less focused on the road. We know phone
use causes death on our roads,” General Secretary of TISPOL (European
Traffic Police Network) asserts. “And not just drivers; pedestrians are
also placing themselves at risk by focusing too much on their
smartphones rather than the real world around them.”
“If I had a magic wand to alter driver behaviour, my first target
would be such distractions, followed by fatigue – far too many people
are driving when tired – and then speeding, and drink and drug abuse.
These are all areas of personal choice, where we can make a difference.”
And the future holds more challenges. Autonomous cars are rac-
ing ahead in terms of technology, but legislation has to catch up, and it
will take time for road users to become proficient and understand this
technological change. Other developments like fast electric bikes are
also appearing on the streets. New technology is here to challenge us,
but we must engage with it and ensure public safety policy adapts.

86
Another essential element is how we design our urban spaces.
Many cities around the world are growing fast, but their main transport
infrastructure has not kept up. City authorities need to think about this
and consider how we make our urban areas and transport links smarter.
Ten Facts about Road Safety
1. More than 1.2 million people die in road traffic crashes every
year.
2. As many as 50 million people are injured or disabled by road
traffic crashes every year.
3. Half of all crash victims are vulnerable road users such as pe-
destrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists.
4. Road traffic crashes cost countries up to 4% of their Gross Na-
tional Product.
5. Correctly used seat-belts reduce the risk of death in a crash by
61%.
6. Mandatory use of child restraints can reduce child deaths by
35%.
7. Helmets reduce fatal and serious head injuries by up to 45%.
8. Enforcing a drinking and driving law around the world could
reduce alcohol-related crashes by 20%.
9. For every 1km/h reduction in average speed, there is a 2% re-
duction in the number of crashes.
10. Simple low-cost engineering measures are saving thousands of
lives.

http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/roadsafety/10_en.html
http://roadsafetydays.eu/about-project-edward-and-road-safety-
days

87
Unit 6. Literature
6.1
Basic Vocabulary - see V1, V2, V3, p. 136
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 4: believable, a (screen) adaptation.
Ex. 3 (text): high expectations, a highly regarded book, to spring
to mind, to fail with smb. (audiences and critics), to leave smth. out, a
perception, to introduce a new audience to smth.
Mind: CGI technology – computer-generated imagery
(изображения, сгенерированные при помощи трёхмерной
компьютерной графики).
Ex. 8 a) (tr. 6.1): twists and turns (of the plot), the subject matter.
Ex. 9: all expressions.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Что приходит в голову, когда говорят «выдающаяся
книга»? – Для меня это «Поющие в терновнике» Колин Маккалоу.
Название книги давно стало расхожим выражением, а её
киноверсия и захватывающая, и трогательная. 2. Я обожаю пьесы
этого драматурга, так как в них сюжеты, которые заставляют
задуматься, а персонажи очень реалистичны. 3. Этот новый роман
хочется сразу прочитать целиком! Он легко читается, и не зря о
нем повсюду говорят. 4. Этого автора считают иконой
современного научно-популярного жанра. Поэтому ожидания
очень высоки, когда выпускается киноверсия его романа. 5.
Несерьезные фильмы, особенно романтические комедии, редко
проваливаются в глазах киноаудитории благодаря
захватывающим поворотам сюжета, но критики считают их
переоценёнными, а иногда просто ужасными. 6. Едва я начал
читать этот триллер, как не мог от него оторваться. Он не только
захватывающий, но и очень реалистичный. Уверен, что его
88
киноверсия тоже оправдает высокие ожидания зрителей и
привлечёт к его автору новую аудиторию. 7. Никогда еще я не
читал такой занудной биографии! Вначале я не мог в неё
вчитаться, а конец совершенно разочаровал. Определенно,
биографии - это не моё. Хотя некоторые фильмы-биографии
великолепны. 8. По слухам, автобиография этого политика
написана другим автором. – Какая шокирующая новость! 9. Когда
я прочитал последний бестселлер этого романиста, моё
представление о книгах о путешествиях совершенно поменялось.
10. Должно быть, это самая занудная и скучная психодрама,
которую я когда-либо смотрел. Концовка меня совершенно
разочаровала. Я буду теперь смотреть только фильмы ужасов. – А
я предпочитаю костюмированные представления о прошлом.
Героини в них необычайно элегантны. 11. Классическая
литература – это выдающиеся книги, чьи герои реалистичны, а
сюжет заставляет задуматься. Надо иметь безупречный вкус,
чтобы понять и оценить такие произведения, потому что часто их
предмет очень сложный.

6.2
Basic Vocabulary - see V4, p. 136
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 2 (tr. 6.2): amazing, to get/ give an insight into smth., brilliant,
to gasp with horror, fascinating, the lead actor, incredible/ incredibly,
outstanding, voiceover, supremely talented, human failings, character
flaws, arrogant, knowledgeable, talented musically.
Ex. 4 (tr. 6.3): a narrator, magnificent, to be skilful at smth., to get
the feel of smth., declining values, to pursue smth., at all costs, to hold
a mirror up to smth., as the story unfolds, undoubtedly charismatic,
richly drawn characters, to pose a question, to depict brilliantly and ac-
curately.

89
Please pay your attention to the following structure:
Rarely can a film make you laugh and gasp with horror and shock
at the same time. Rarely can a film leave you so entertained yet thinking
about its disturbing scenes (Recording 6.2). These are examples of in-
version after negative adverbials. This only occurs when the adverbial
occurs at the beginning of a clause.
Negative adverbials include:
• Time expressions: never, rarely, seldom
These are most commonly used with present perfect or past per-
fect, or with modals such as can and could. Sentences of this type often
contain comparatives.
Seldom has the team given a worse performance.
• Time expressions: hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner
These refer to an event which quickly follows another in the past.
They are usually used with past perfect, although no sooner can be fol-
lowed by past simple. Note the words used in the contrasting clause.
Hardly had the train left the station, when there was an explosion.
Scarcely had I entered the room when the phone rang.
No sooner had I reached the door than I realised it was locked.
• After only
Here only combines with other time expressions and is usually
used with past simple.
Only after posting the letter did 1 remember that I had forgotten
to put on a stamp.
Other examples are only if/when, only then, only later.
Note that when only refers to 'the state of being the only one', there
is no inversion following it.
Only Mary realised that the door was not locked.
• Phrases containing no/not
These include under no circumstances, on no account, at no
time, in no way, on no condition, not until, not only ... (but also).
On no condition are they to open fire without a warning.
90
Not until I got home did I notice that I had the wrong umbrella.
• Little
Little also has a negative or restrictive meaning in this sense:
Little does the government appreciate what the results will be.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Раньше я любила несерьезную литературу, но теперь
предпочитаю романы, в которых язык навевает воспоминания, а
герои выразительны. Это великолепные книги, главные герои
которых изображены блестяще и точно. - Ты раньше читала
только триллеры и детективы? - Я раньше не читала их, ненавижу
содрогаться от ужаса. Я читала бульварные (несерьезные)
романы о любви, а теперь это не мое. Никогда не буду тратить
время на книги, которые не задают важные социальные вопросы
(inversion). 2. Редко киноверсии выдающихся книг могут быть
лучше, чем сами книги (inversion). Это потому что продюсеры
фильмов стремятся к прибыли любой ценой. Однако некоторые
киноверсии и их римейки великолепны. Актёры, исполняющие в них
главные роли, чрезвычайно талантливы и бесспорно
харизматичны, и по мере раскрытия сюжета зрители ощущают
изображаемую эпоху. Я смотрю такие фильмы на оригинальном
языке, без озвучки. 3. В детстве я, бывало, проводил лето у
бабушки. Она была очаровательным, удивительным человеком,
одаренным музыкально и эрудированным. Едва я приезжал к ней,
как она начинала читать мне заставляющие задуматься истории с
моральным смыслом, и именно эти истории позволяли мне
взглянуть изнури на мир добра и зла. Бабушка казалась мне
человеком без людских слабостей и недостатков характера из
согревающей душу детской сказки. 4. Писатель N. в высшей
степени талантлив как биограф. Его биографии выдающихся
людей чрезвычайно хорошо написаны и поэтому обеспечивают
91
замечательное чтение для тех, кто хочет посмотреть на мир
глазами политиков, ученых и художников. Помимо того, что он
мастер биографических описаний, писатель N. в своих биографиях
как в зеркале отражает современную и прошедшую эпохи с их
приходящими в упадок ценностями и новыми тенденциями. Он
изумительный рассказчик, а от его биографий невозможно
оторваться.

6.3
Basic Vocabulary – see V4, p. 136
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 8 (tr. 6.4): a devoted reader, a hardcover, a paperback, a book-
worm, to read books in one sitting, a go-to choice, to read across many
genres.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Ты раньше активно читал книги? – Да, я был настоящий
книжный червь. В детстве я, бывало, читал книги не отрываясь, и
значительно опережал своих сверстников в чтении. Только
недавно я понял, как чтение в детстве помогло мне заглянуть
изнутри в мир вокруг меня (inversion). 2. Едва я начала работать
учительницей, как поняла, как велик разрыв между мальчиками и
девочками в их привычках читать. Этот разрыв особенно заметен
в начальной школе, где девочки значительно опережают
мальчиков как в чтении, так и практически во всех остальных
предметах. Этот факт обычно ассоциируется с психологическим
развитием мальчиков и девочек в раннем возрасте. 3. Каков твой
первостепенный выбор книг? – Я читаю многие жанры, но
несерьёзная литература – это не моё. Хотя раньше я покупала
дешевые книги в мягкой обложке о любви, теперь моё основное
предпочтение – это заставляющие задуматься книги в твёрдом
92
переплёте выдающихся классических авторов, в основном поэзия,
пьесы и научная фантастика. 4. Относительно большое
количество активно читающих книги – это высокообразованные
люди, много знающие и часто музыкально одарённые. Они ценят
то, что называется замечательным чтением, т.е. чрезвычайно
хорошо написанные книги с навевающим воспоминания языком,
динамичными диалогами и реалистичным сюжетом.

Grammar
Exercise 1. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sen-
tence.
a) When you passed the town hall clock, did you notice/were you
noticing what time it was?
b) Last night my neighbours were shouting/would shout for hours
and I couldn't get to sleep.
c) When you lived in London, did you use to travel/were you trav-
elling by bus?
d) Everyone was having a good time, although not many people
danced/were dancing.
e) Jill was really hungry because she didn't eat/hadn't eaten all
day.
f) Before we went to the theatre, we called in/had called in at
George's cafe for a pizza.
g) It took a while for me to notice, but then I did. Everyone
stared/was staring at me. What had I done wrong?
h) Nobody bothered to tell me that the school decided/had decided
to have a special holiday on Friday.
i) I was trying/tried to get in touch with you all day yesterday.
Where were you?
j) A: Excuse me, but this seat is mine.
B: I'm sorry, I didn't realise/hadn't realised that you were sitting
here.
93
Exercise 2. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable past verb
form.
This time last year I (1) (cycle) in the rain along a country road in
France with a friend of mine. We (2) (decide) to go on a cycling holiday
in Normandy. Neither of us (3) (be) to France before, but we (4) (know)
some French from our time at school and we (5) (manage) to brush up
on the basics. Now we (6) (wonder) if we (7) (make) the right decision.
We (8) (plan) our route carefully in advance, but we (9) (forget) one
important thing, the weather. It (10) (rain) solidly since our arrival and
that night we (11) (end up) sleeping in the waiting room at a railway
station. Then the next morning as we (12) (ride) down a steep hill my
bike (13) (skid) on the wet road and I (14) (fall off). I (15) (realise) im-
mediately that I (16) (break) my arm, and after a visit to the local hos-
pital I (17) (catch) the next train to Calais for the ferry home. Unfortu-
nately my parents (18) (not/expect) me home for a fortnight, and (19)
(go) away on holiday. So I (20) (spend) a miserable couple of weeks
alone, reading 'Teach Yourself French'.

Exercise 3. In each sentence decide whether one, or both, of


the alternative verb forms given are appropriate. Write O for one
or B for both.
a) In those days, I always used to get up/got up early in the morn-
ing.
b) When I got to the cinema Jack had been waiting/was waiting
for me.
c) We would always have/were always having breakfast in bed on
Sundays.
d) Mary was always falling/always fell ill before important exam-
inations.
e) My sister used to own/would own a motorcycle and sidecar.

94
f) Pay no attention to Dave's remarks. He wasn't meaning/didn't
mean it.
g) I felt awful after lunch. I ate/had eaten too much.
h) Brenda left/had left before I had time to talk to her.
i) The explanation was simple. In 1781 HMS Sovereign, on her
way back from India, had sighted/sighted an empty boat drifting off the
African coast.
j) Pauline has changed a lot. She didn't always use to look/wasn't
always looking like that.

Exercise 4. Complete the text by writing one word in each


space.
When I was a young man I spent a year in France, studying French
at the University of Grenoble. Every Friday I (1) eat at the Alps cafe. I
didn't (2) to spend much money, as I (3) not afford it, but it was a little
tradition of mine to eat there. Anyway, I'm going to tell you a true story
which happened on one occasion when I (4) eating there. I remember I
was having a pasta dish at (5) time. A beautiful girl came up to me and
said, 'I was (6) if you wanted to walk with me in the park?' I had never
seen her (7), so I was rather taken aback. I was (8) to go with her when
I noticed a tough-looking man was watching our every movement. (9)
my discomfort, the girl whispered to me, in English, 'Park - five
minutes!', and then disappeared. Well, my bill (10) ages to arrive, and
by the time I (11) to the park, there was no sign of the girl. I asked an
old lady (12) was sitting there if she (13) seen a young girl waiting
around. I described the girl to her. The old lady said that the girl (14)
had to rush to the railway station, and that I (15) to follow her there
urgently. She had also left me a note. It said, 'I will explain everything.
Meet me on platform 6.'

Exercise 5. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable past verb


form.
95
a) I realised that someone (steal) my wallet when I (feel) their hand
in my jacket pocket.
b) When 1 (phone) Helen last night she (wash) her hair.
c) Peter (offer) me another drink but I decided I (had) enough.
d) Nobody (watch), so the little boy (take) the packet of sweets
from the shelf and (put) it in his pocket.
e) I (not/realise) that I (leave) my umbrella on the bus until it
(start) to rain.
f) At school I (dislike) the maths teacher because he (always/pick)
on me.
g) Wherever Marion (find) a job, there was someone who (know)
that she (go) to prison.
h) Several years later I (find out) that during all the time I (write)
to my pen friend, my mother (open) and reading the replies!
i) I (not/understand) what (go on). Several people (shout) at me,
and one passer-by (wave) a newspaper in front of my face.
j) I (know) I (do) well in my exams even before I (receive) the
official results.

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the texts.
Are Books Better Than Films? (A Critic's Opinion) (p. 57).
I went to see Percy Jackson and the Sea of Monsters with the
Spinebreakers. We all needed to write something on the film and our
views on it. I did my research first. I re-read the book, made numerous
notes, wrote down everything I wanted to see in the film and brought a
notebook into the cinema with me, ready to jot down my thoughts as the
film played out before me.
The film was amazing – seriously, it blew me away. It was so, so
much better than its prequel, Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief, and
stuck so much closer to the book – something that obviously made me
exceptionally happy.
96
The people who worked on the film... they got a lot of things right.
They got the characters, the world, the creatures, the feel all right. They
changed the plot, of course, and missed various things out, adding others
in their place. But this didn't matter – Percy Jackson and the Sea of Mon-
sters was absolutely stunning.
So why am I so obsessed with the things they changed? Why am
I so much more in love with the book than with the film?
The same thing happened with The Hunger Games. They got al-
most everything exactly right, but it still... it didn't have the same feel to
it. The suspense and emotion just didn't project from page to the screen.
Films... they can do a lot of things. They can bring whole worlds
to life before our eyes, make characters into living, breathing flesh and
blood. They can have us on the edge of our seats as vicious battle scenes
are fought right before us, have us sobbing over a death, a heartbreak or
smiling with joy. Films can make us see a lot of things – sometimes
things that even books cannot do so well. They are a pure escape –
there's nothing like sitting in the cinema, devoid of any other distraction,
focused completely on the story playing on the screen.
And yet...
Films are great, but they just don't have the same...inclusion that
books have. You're merely an observer: you aren't feeling everything
the character feels, aren't reading every single one of their innermost
thoughts, all of their doubts and fears and hopes. Films let you observe
everything. Books? Books let you feel everything, know everything and
LIVE everything. With a book, you can be the hero who kills the demon
with one twirl of your blade. You can be the girl who battles cancer,
along with all the pain and uncertainty that comes with it. You can be a
demigod, you can be an alien, you can be an angel, a god, a villain, a
hero. You can be in love, you can hate, you can triumph, you can lose.
You can be anything and everything. There are no limits. No re-
strictions. Nothing is impossible, nothing is out of reach…

97
And that… that is why books are always better. When you read a
book, nothing else exists and you can be a whole other person in this
completely new and amazing world. You can live as someone else, free
of your own troubles, even if only for two hundred pages.
Books are magic. Which is why I'm telling you all to forget about
movie magic and get back to the pure magic that lives upon your book-
shelves. Because while the movies are good… the books are ALWAYS
better.
Are Films Better Than Books? (A Cinemagoer's Opinion)
Just as I enjoy watching Shakespeare's plays on the stage rather
than reading them in a book. I like watching Movies. Very rarely is a
great book turned into a movie that can stand on the same platform as
the book but that also works vice versa. Who would rather watch Ter-
minator than reading it? It comes down to what you are wanting from
the experience. It also all comes down to the brilliance of the people
involved, that is easier for a book because it is one person not hindered
by any other and a movie has many people involved and has an in-
creased chance of failure. 
 Many people argue books are better when
compared to the book based movie. Compare them separately. I for one
thought the Lord of the Rings trilogy was better on screen even if they
missed a few bits. Luckily I read the books after, so I enjoyed the movie
more without the niggling annoyance of seeing a part of the book missed
out.
 Saying films are better than books may be a bit too much but say-
ing that they are not are equally as bad. They both offer different things.
I know one thing for sure, I have never come out of the cinema thinking
the film should be turned into a book but have certainly finished a book
hoping it has been turned into a film.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/nov/06/discussion-
books-better-than-films-adaptations
http://www.debate.org/opinions/are-films-better-than-books
98
99
Stop and Check 2

1. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences and


questions. In some cases both are possible.
1. What are you going to do / are you doing when you finish uni-
versity?
We are working / We will be working together on the project. The
project begins next month.
2. Tonight we’re flying to Jamaica. Tomorrow morning we’ll be
sitting / we are sitting on the beach, relaxing.
3. I expect you’ll be studying / you are studying hard for the next
two weeks for your final exam.
4. You can’t speak to him tomorrow between ten and midday be-
cause he‘s going to give /he’ll be giving his long speech at the confer-
ence then.
5. I am going to do / I will be doing something about changing my
job next year.
6. I’m doing volunteer work overseas for two months this summer.
But don’t worry, I‘m thinking / I’ll be thinking of you every day I’m
away.

2. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into


the most appropriate future simple or future perfect simple form.
1. I must finish all the research by the end of November.
2. By December, I__________(finish) all the research.
3. She’s going to visit 20 hospitals in Africa next month.
4. In two month’s time she_________(visit) 20 hospitals in Af-
rica.
5. Next month John’s going to work in Mongolia for a year.
It_________(not be) an easy job, I’m sure, but it could be very interest-
ing.

100
6. When I see John next, he__________(be) in Mongolia for a
year.
7. I think he___________(make) an excellent doctor as he’s so
calm and confident.
8. What________(happen) when he returns to the UK?
9. He____________(not have) any problem finding a good
post after working abroad.
10. But surely, a lot_____________(change) while he’s away.
3. Choose the correct word.
1. She needs to see the doctor because she’s got a
chest__________.
2. What did the say to you when she did the X-ray?
3. I’m afraid you’re going to need to take insulin
4. __________ for your diabetes.
5. He was initially_______with malaria, contracted from a trip
to Africa, and further tests confirmed this.
6. I’m afraid that he needs a heart__________if he is going to
survive.
7. The___________in her knees is making it difficult for her to
walk.
8. Her father had a heart__________last week, but he’s recov-
ering well.

4. Complete the text with the correct prepositions.


Many people worry 1____their health today and a lot of them rely
2____the internet to give them a diagnosis. Instead of going to a doctor,
they try to deal 3_____it themselves until they are so scared that they
are suffering 4_____a terrible disease that they will visit the profession-
als. They are happy to complain 5_____their doctor, who has spent
years studying medicine, often specialising 6_____specific problems,
and believe they can do better. They often visit the doctor too late for
him/her to do anything to protect them 7____the illness getting worse.
101
In fact, doctors are finding that people don’t recover 8_____ their ill-
nesses very fast if they have access to the internet.

5. Complete the sentences with the appropriate modal verbs.


1. We ________have the chance to travel to the moon in the future,
but I’m not sure.
2. Without a valid passport, you ___________to travel to other
countries.
3. In 20 years’ time, more people ___________to travel into space
for their holidays.
4. I’ll _________ give you the answer next week. I can’t do it now,
I’m afraid.
5. We _____________find different sources of energy over the
next few years, otherwise we will run out.
6. Most people never __________ afford to buy eco-friendly cars
because they are so expensive.
7. We ___________reduce our energy use in the future, unless we
find new energy sources.
8. We __________find enough new energy sources to meet the
world’s requirements in the future.

6. Complete the text with the appropriate modal verbs.


We had always wanted to travel on the Blue Train in South Africa,
but we 1 afford it until now. When we phoned the travel
agent, we discovered that we 2 to book the dates we wanted be-
cause the train was full. My wife was extremely disappointed as she saw
her lifetime’s dream disappearing. She would not accept ‘no’ for an an-
swer and phoned the travel agent every day until she succeded in getting
us tickets for the dates we wanted when someone cancelled at the last
moment. We 3________get to Cape Town the next day to start the jour-
ney, which didn’t give us much time. However, we 4_______to get to
the station with only minutes to spare. We had a luxury suite with its
102
own bath, double bed and entertainment centre. When we boarded the
train, we were assigned our own butler who would look after us through-
out the journey. I felt like a king as we 5________to watch the sun rise
over the beautiful South African landscape on our first day. There was
also a wonderful lounge where we 6______sit during the day and so-
cialise with other travellers.

7. Choose the correct word.


1. My mother always looks back on her childhood with_________
and wishes she were still that child.
2. We were working to the most__________schedule ever to com-
plete the task and were all exhausted.
3. There were many outstanding features of the trip, but first and
foremost in my mind was the_________service we received.
4. The trip was a reflection of the___________of the 19th century
with beautifully luxurious suites and food.
5. On our flight back there was a lot of__________and we had to
stay in our seats for most of the flight.
6. Many people regret the passing of the__________of the steam
train.

8. Complete the text with the appropriate words.


Here is the traffic news. Due to 1__________runways, the main
London airports are closed this morning. As a result, the motorways are
at a virtual standstill, not helped by the weather conditions and several
lane 2__________near the exits to the north, which are also exacerbat-
ing the situation causing long 3__________all way up the main North
Road. There is also severe traffic 4___________in Birmingham this
morning due to all the 5__________signals crashing and the
6__________cameras are also out of action. Engineers are working on
them now and hope to have the system working by lunchtime. Best to
avoid the city if you can.
103
Now, to the trains. A 7__________problem on the main line into
King’s Cross has delayed all trains in and out of that station by at least
half an hour. This could get worse during the morning, so stay tuned to
hear the latest news. 8 ____________alterations at Euston Station
are also causing delays in and out of there too. Not a good day for com-
muters into and out of London! 9__________work just outside Reading
has also caused delays to trains into Waterloo this morning.

9. Complete the sentences with used to, be used to or would.


1. I __________working for a big company because all my expe-
rience had been in a smaller companies.
2. He never _________enjoy watching horror films, but now he
loves them.
3. I remember my grandfather __________always put a coin in
our hands when we went to visit him.
4. ____________ go to school in Scotland?

10. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words.


1. He has just finished writing his__________, which covers his
life up to last year. It’s a very interesting read.
2. I didn’t enjoy the___________of Psycho. I much preferred the
original version.
3. In the end I was very disappointed by the new film.
The ending was a real __________.
4. Her new book is very thought-__________. You should read it.
5. The film was so_________that nearly everyone came out of the
cinema with tears streaming down their faces.
6. The difference between the two versions of the films is particu-
larly_________in the final scenes.
7. She found the story extremely heart-_________and recom-
mended it to all her friends.

104
8. I found the book really hard-__________and couldn’t even fin-
ish it.
9. I liked the___________language he uses to describe the islands.
You can really imagine yourself there.
10. He’s a well-known___________and has won three Oscars al-
ready for his film scripts.

11. Complete the dialogue with the appropriate words.


A: What did you think of the new sci-fi book?
B: Amazing. I couldn't_____________.
A: Really? I found it quite the opposite – I just
couldn’t__________. There were too many characters at the beginning
and that confused me.
B: I thought it was a real __________ and I can’t wait for the se-
quel to come out.
A: Well, I’ve decided it’s not___________.
B: Why did you read it then?
A: Because I wanted to see if it____________ all the hype in the
press.

12. Complete the text with the appropriate forms of the verbs.
The old man 1__________(sit) in the doorway for hours, watching
the endless commuters and shoppers walking by. Usually, no one ever
2__________(stop) to speak to him or check that he was OK. He
3__________(live) on the streets for the past five years, and
4____________(become) invisible to the majority of passers-by. He
5____________(contemplate) moving off to the homeless shelter to get
some breakfast when a shadow suddenly 6__________(loom) over him.
Looking up, he 7_________(see) the angelic face of a young child peer-
ing at him through thick glasses. While he 8__________(stare) into the
boy’s face, he 9___________ (become) aware of a strident voice ad-
monishing the child: ‘Come away from that filthy old man.’ Somewhere
105
in the depths of his muddled brain was a flicker of recognition. That
voice! How could he forget it? The last time he 10 (hear) it
was over 20 years ago when he 11___________(leave) home five years
before.

106
Unit 7. Architecture
7.1
Basic Vocabulary - see V1, V2 p. 138
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 6 (texts): to capture the atmosphere

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Невероятно впечатляющий экстерьер Британского музея
с его великолепным куполом был спроектирован в классическом
стиле. 3. Колизей, который является огромным древним
амфитеатром, поддерживается правительством Италии в очень
хорошем состоянии; он регулярно реставрируется и обновляется.
4. Для многих людей Эйфелева башня является символом Парижа
и передает атмосферу этого великолепного города, однако когда-
то она считалась временной постройкой. 5. Во многих современных
городах элегантный и стильный деловой район находится вблизи
тесного района трущоб с его заброшенными, полуразрушенными и
ветхими домам бедняков с крошечными комнатками. 5. Самые
инновационные и современные материалы использовались для
строительства оригинального аэропорта Хадж с его уникальной
обширной крышей в форме бесчисленных солнечных зонтиков. 6.
Когда снесут этот уродливый памятник? Он как бельмо на глазу
среди грациозных построек прошлых веков. 7. Новое современное
здание этого величественного и впечатляющего гранд-отеля было
заказано правительством столицы и построено лучшими
архитекторами мира. 8. Богато украшенные дворцы с
элегантными интерьерами, роскошные, грациозные особняки
передают атмосферу прошедшей эпохи и вызывают восхищение
наших современников. 9. Здания в жилых кварталах уцелели во
время землетрясения, но многие из них были серьезно повреждены
и нуждаются в перестройке и реставрации.
107
7.2
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 2 (text): to prioritise, to come up with smth., to keep smth. in
mind, in its own right, densely populated, an (urban) dweller, viable.
Ex. 8 (tr. 7.2) to meet smb.’s needs, to integrate, affordable hous-
ing, a buzzword, reasonably priced.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. К сожалению, не всегда учитывается, что в
густонаселенных жилых районах должно строиться больше
доступного жилья по разумным ценам. 2. Многие уродливые
ветхие здания, бывшие когда-то бельмом на глазу, сейчас
сносятся, а вместо них строится современное жильё,
отвечающее потребностям городских жителей. 3. Современные
дизайнеры предлагают новые оригинальные решения, касающиеся
использования инновационных материалов для отделки
интерьеров и экстерьеров. 4. Следует учитывать, что
комфортабельное жилье должно быть не только стильным и
элегантным, но и обеспечивать важнейшие человеческие
потребности. 5. В идеальном здании внутренний дизайн и
потребности людей, его использующих, слиты воедино, и эта
идея стала приоритетом современного строительства. 6.
Архитекторы и дизайнеры должны учитывать задачу обеспечения
потребностей людей в комфортном и доступном жилье, которое
стало новым популярным термином для городских жителей,
привыкших к тесноте густонаселенных районов. 7. Что следует
иметь в виду при проектировании отеля? - Очень важно
объединить в нем возможности для отдыха и работы, что сейчас
является наиболее экономически целесообразным решением для
владельцев отелей. 8. Крошечные капсульные отели в Японии
стали самым удивительным современным архитектурным
108
прорывом и считаются самостоятельным символом Токио и
других японских городов.

7.3
Basic Vocabulary - see V3, V4 p. 138.
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 8: to suffer inconvenience, unbearable
Ex. 2-3 (text): to quit a job, to embody the spirit of smth., to list
smth. as a World Heritage Site, to overcome obstacles, to shatter a be-
lief, to withstand smth., to be named after smb.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Многие ветхие здания сейчас сносятся в этом жилом
районе, и местные жители испытывают большие неудобства из-
за невыносимого уровня шума. 2. Мосты воплощают дух многих
городов и передают их уникальную атмосферу. 3. Я хочу бросить
работу и сжечь все мосты, я не могу работать среди таких
бесчувственных и эгоистичных людей. 4. Не может быть, чтобы эта
проблема была неразрешима, но давай займемся ей, когда придет
время. 5. Все проходит, забудутся как все победы, так и все
препятствия, которые ты не смог преодолеть. 6. Многие
величественные древние крепости, элегантные и изящные дворцы
и впечатляющие богато украшенные замки входят в список
мирового культурного наследия. 7. Умение наводить мосты
является приоритетом в профессии журналиста. 8. Тот факт, что
развитие городов сделало их перенаселенными и привело ко
многим социальным проблемам, совершенно неоспорим. 9.
Должно быть, я Вас неправильно понял. Дайте, пожалуйста,
другое определение этого термина. 10. Этот регион выстоял много
землетрясений и извержений вулкана, поэтому он назван в честь
древнего бога природы. 11. Строительство нового жилого района с
109
парками и широкими пешеходными зонами значительно оживило
пригород. 12. Ничто не может поколебать мою веру в то, что я
сумею преодолеть все препятствия на пути к своей мечте.

Grammar
Additional Explanations
Verbs with two objects
Verbs which have two objects can be made passive in two ways.
I was handed a note. A note was handed to me.
Other common verbs of this type are:
bring, give, lend, pass, pay, promise, sell, send, show, tell

Reporting verbs
Present reference
With verbs such as believe, know, say, think, which report people's
opinions, a passive construction is often used to avoid a weak subject,
and to give a generalised opinion.
With present reference, the passive is followed by the present in-
finitive.
The criminal is thought to be in hiding in the London area.
Vitamin C is known to be good for treating colds.
Past reference
With past reference, the passive is followed by the past infinitive.
Smith is believed to have left England last week.
Past reporting verb
If the reporting verb is in the past, the past infinitive tends to fol-
low, though not always if the verb be is used.
People thought Sue had paid too much.
Sue was thought to have paid too much.
The police thought that the thief was still in the house.
The thief was thought to still be in the house.
Past reference with two objects
110
In this case there are two ways of making a passive sentence.
Everyone knows the portrait was painted by an Italian.
The portrait is known to have been painted by an Italian.
Continuous infinitive
Past and present continuous infinitives are also used.
Mary is thought to be living in Scotland.
The driver is thought to have been doing a U-turn.

Verbs with prepositions


By and with
With is used after participles such as filled, packed, crowded,
crammed.
The train was packed with commuters.
The difference between by and with may involve the presence of
a person:
Dave was hit by a branch, (an accident)
Dave was hit with a branch, (a person hit him with one)
Make is followed by to when used in the passive.
My boss made me work hard.
I was made to work hard by my boss.
Cover and verbs which involve similar ideas, such as surround,
decorate, can use with or by. Cover can also be followed by in.
The furniture was covered in dust.
The living room had been decorated with flowery wallpaper.

Exercise 1. Both sentences in each pair have the same mean-


ing. Complete the second sentence.
a) The crowd was slowly filling the huge stadium.
The huge stadium __________by the crowd.
b) The inventor of the computer simplified the work of the ac-
countants.

111
Since the computer __________the work of accountants
____________simplified.
c) Someone has suggested that the shop should close.
It ___________that the shop should close.
d) 'I'd take out some travel insurance if I were you, Mr Smith.'
Mr Smith ______________take out some travel insurance.
e) The waitress will bring your drinks in a moment.
Your drinks __________in a moment.
f) Someone used a knife to open the window.
This window __________a knife.
g) You will hear from us when we have finished dealing with your
complaint.
After your complaint __________, you will hear from us.
h) An announcement of their engagement appeared in the local
paper.
Their engagement ___________in the local paper.
i) Nobody ever heard anything of David again.
Nothing ____________David again.
j) They paid Sheila 1,000 as a special bonus.
1,000 ______________Sheila as a special bonus.

Exercise 2. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate pas-


sive verb form.
a) The boxes (not/pack) yet.
b) Your food (still/prepare).
c) The new ship (launch) next week.
d) Luckily by the time we got there the painting (not/sell).
e) We had to go on holiday because our house (decorate).
f) I'm afraid that next week's meeting (cancel).
g) If we don't hurry, all the tickets (sell) by the time we get there.
h) All main courses (serve) with vegetables or salad. At least that
is what is written on the menu.
112
i) The second goal (score) by Hughes in the 41st minute,
j) The cathedral (build) in the fourteenth century.

Exercise 3. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate pas-


sive verb form.
a) Nothing (see) of Pauline since her car (find) abandoned near
Newbury last week.
b) As our new furniture (deliver) on Monday morning I'll have to
stay at home to check that it (not/damage) during transit.
c) The new Alhambra hatchback, which in this country (sell) under
the name 'Challenger', (fit) with electric windows as standard.
d) For the past few days I (work) in Jack's office, as my own office
(redecorate).
e) It (announce) that the proposed new office block
(now/not/build) because of the current economic situation.
f) A major new deposit of oil (discover) in the North Sea. It (think)
to be nearly twice the size of the largest existing field.
g) Pictures of the surface of the planet Venus (receive) yesterday
from the space probe 'Explorer' which (launch) last year.
h) A large sum (raise) for the Fund by a recent charity concert but
the target of .250,000 (still/ not/reach).
i) No decision (make) about any future appointment until all suit-
able candidates (interview).

Exercise 4. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable active or


passive verb form.
Dear Mrs Patel,
We are delighted to inform you that you (1) (select) for a free hol-
iday. According to our information, you (2) (answer) a telephone survey
last month, as a result of which your name (3) (enter) in the holiday
draw. Now our computer (4) (choose) your name, so you and your fam-
ily (5) (invite) to spend a week in a European destination of your choice.
113
This offer (6) (make) on the condition that you attend a special promo-
tions day with other lucky families in your region who (7) (offer) a sim-
ilar deal. You (8) (ask) to attend on any Saturday next month at the
Royal Hotel, Manchester. If you (9) (interest) in attending and taking up
this offer, please (10) (detach) the slip below and return it to us as soon
as possible.

Exercise 5. Using the notes as a guide, complete the e-mail to


all company staff. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable passive
verb form.
NOTES FROM MANAGEMENT MEETING
Tell staff:
We'll try flexi-time for 3 months.
After 3 months we'll get the opinions of all staff.
We'll look at feedback comments and make a decision.
We may try it for another month.
All workers will have to arrive 8-9.30.
We hope you like the idea!
FROM: The Managing Director
TO: All staff
It (decide) to adopt a flexi-time system for a trial period of three
months. After this period (2) (elapse) all members of staff (3) (consult)
through their line manager, and feedback (4) (seek). Comments (5) (col-
lect) and analysed before a decision (6) (make) as to whether the system
(7) (adopt) permanently or not. Alternatively, the trial period (8) (ex-
tend) for a further month. All employees (9) (require) to arrive between
the hours of 8.00 and 9.30, and to leave after they have fulfilled their
contractual obligations of eight hours. It (10) (hope) that this arrange-
ment meets with your enthusiastic approval!

Exercise 6. Underline the correct word in each sentence.


a) The busy shopping street was thronged ____ people.
114
b) The emergency exit was concealed ______a red curtain.
c) The price of excursions is included _______the cost of the hol-
iday.
d) All through January, the fields were covered ______snow.
e) The room was crammed _____furniture of all descriptions.
f) Two of the climbers were injured _____falling rocks.
g) The island is inhabited _____people of mainly Chinese origin.
h) The bank was quickly surrounded ______armed police.
i) The window had been smashed ______a hammer taken from the
shed.
j) The stadium was packed ______cheering fans.

Exercise 7. Complete each sentence with a suitable preposi-


tion.
a) The tree had been decorated … coloured balls.
b) The answers have been included… the book.
c) After the rugby match, Jim's shorts were covered… mud.
d) The victim was struck from behind… a heavy object.
e) The house was built… money that David borrowed from the
bank.
f) The cat narrowly escaped being run over… a car.
g) When the accident happened, Sue was struck… flying glass.
h) The turkey was stuffed… chestnuts, and was very tasty.
i) No one knew that Peter had been involved… the investigation.
j) When I left the casino, my pockets were crammed… money.

Exercise 8. Complete the text using the phrases from the box.

A plane carrying 15 members of the government to a conference


in Brussels (1) is known to have experienced a small-scale fire earlier
115
this morning. The plane (2) about 20 minutes into its journey when the
fire occurred in the luggage area. It (3) how the plane caught fire, but
initial eyewitness accounts confirm that a trail of smoke (4) coming
from the under-carriage. The fire (5) rapidly under control, but the pilot
(6) make an emergency landing. Five people (7) treated for shock. The
plane (8) with business people flying to Belgium. All 209 passengers
(9) stay behind for questioning after landing at a military airport in
northern France. Police (10) treating the incident as suspicious.

Exercise 9. Rewrite the text using the passive where possible.


Make sure the words underlined do not appear.
Nobody knows exactly when someone invented gunpowder. Peo-
ple know for a fact that the Chinese made rockets and fireworks long
before people used gunpowder in Europe, which occurred at about the
beginning of the thirteenth century. We generally believe that gunpow-
der brought to an end the 'Age of Chivalry', since anyone with a firearm
could bring down a mounted knight. In fact, people did not develop ef-
ficient firearms until the sixteenth century. They used gunpowder
mainly in siege cannon when people first introduced it. Later they used
it in engineering work and in mining, but they found that it was ex-
tremely dangerous. Modern explosives have now replaced gunpowder,
but we still use it for making fireworks, just as the Chinese did.

Exercise 10. Put each verb in brackets into the appropriate


verb form.
Employees protesting at the planned closure of the Magnet elec-
tronics factory have begun a protest outside the factory in Brook Road.
It (1) (reveal) last week that production at the factory, where over 3,000
local people (2) (employ), (3) (transfer) to the existing Magnet plant in
Luton next month. Only a few new jobs (4) (expect) to be created. 'Why
(5) (we/not/inform) about this earlier? We (6) (only/tell) about this two
days ago,'said Marjory Calder, representing the workforce. 'It's about
116
time companies such as this (7) (start) thinking about how local com-
munities (8) (affect) by their policies. Most of us here own our houses.
How are we going to keep paying the mortgage and find a job? I wish I
(9) (know).' Reg Reynolds, Director of Magnet was asked what was be-
ing done to help those who have (10) (make) redundant. 'Every effort
(11) (make) over the past month to offer early retirement to those who
qualify/ he told our reporter. When (12) (question) about why the work-
ers (13) (not/tell) about the closure earlier, he revealed the company (14)
(promise) a government loan to keep the factory open, but that at the
last minute the government (15) (decide) not to provide the loan after
all. 'So don't blame the company, we've done our best.'

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the texts.
dRMM (p. 69)
dRMM (de Rijke Marsh Morgan) is a London-based, international
studio of architects and designers founded in 1995 by Alex de Rijke,
Philip Marsh and Sadie Morgan. They are renowned for creating archi-
tecture that is innovative, high quality and socially useful, and have won
numerous awards including the Building Design (BD) Architect Of The
Year 2013-14 and Building Design (BD) Housing Architect of the Year
2014-15.
dRMM architects say they are proud of their reputation, and owe
it to an incredibly talented and resourceful team who work in the belief
that outstanding architecture comes about through client collaboration,
creative design, environmental awareness and building innovation.
Clients trust them because they go out of their way to understand
and realise clients' needs through detailed research and careful practice.
They claim to use standardized, cost-effective materials and building
methods to make innovative architecture. And the press and public have
often warmed to them for a lightness of touch that has been described
as joyful, flamboyant and unique.
117
The company's work is driven by the following ethos:
«We are committed to outstanding architecture that transforms
and inspires. We see client constraints, culture & society as a site of
creative design. We collaborate to exceed client expectations. We think
about environment and people when making places. We are concerned
with how we build as well as what we build».
Sadie Morgan, one of the co-founders, says, «When we’re trying
to achieve high numbers, our focus must be on quality as well as quan-
tity: something that those in the developing countries will need to be
increasingly mindful of. And as the housing crisis continues to dominate
thinking over here, we need to bear in mind that the answer to the eye-
watering numbers needed is not always breakneck speed. Above all, we
must never forget that houses are homes, and homes make a commu-
nity».
http://drmm.co.uk/news/?i=homes-for-humans-an-article-by-
sadie-morgan-for-building-magazine
http://drmm.co.uk/practice/
Yasuhiro Yamashita (p. 69)
Born in Amami, Kagoshima in 1960, Yasuhiro Yamashita re-
ceived his education at Shibaura Institute of Technology in 1986, Later
he worked at large architectural companies in Japan and used this expe-
rience when he established Yamashita Kai Architectural Office in 1991
(now renamed to Atelier Tekuto). Combines architectural practice with
lecturing at Kyushu University.
Yasuhiro Yamashita says that in childhood he never thought of
becoming an architect. «I was born in a very rural area, a small island, I
had no ideas of architecture, or to become an architect. But I always
wanted to be creative with my hands». He describes his style as afford-
able housing and thinks that each architecture project has to be different
and depends on the time, the place or the people. He was one of the first
Japanese architects to come up with the idea of building at a ‘low cost’.

118
That's why Yasuhiro Yamashita started collaborating with structural en-
gineers to reduce costs by changing the construction system.
His advice for the young is: «Everything is borderless, so don’t be
limited, try to have a wide view and the most important thing is to con-
tribute to society and not to just satisfy yourself».
http://www.designboom.com/interviews/yasuhiro-yamashita-at-
elier-tekuto-interview/
http://www.archilovers.com/yasuhiro-yamashita/
Gary Chang (p. 69)
Gary Chang is a certified architect from who has designed projects
throughout China, Hong Kong, Japan, the Middle East, as well as Eu-
rope. He is known for his cost effective, flexible designs which focus on
spatial qualities. Chang’s designs can be categorized as modern or con-
temporary architecture. He is also known for his home, the Domestic
Transformer, which can turn into «24 rooms» within a limited space of
32 sq.m. He is currently the Managing Director of, the renowned
Chang’s architecture focuses on concepts of urban space, form and ma-
terial.
Most of his work concentrates on flexible designs with transform-
ing interior spaces and architecture. He has become an influential figure
in designs for compact living spaces. Space in Hong Kong homes has
become increasingly limited because of a growing population. Chang
uses his architecture skills to find solutions to crowding for the people
of Hong Kong. He has lived in the same 344 square foot apartment since
he was a child, and has experimented frequently with space-saving strat-
egies as part of his research. His designs combine comfortable living,
efficient use of space and practical day-to-day function.
Chang says that his home is a very good example of flexibility in
the sense of blurring the boundary of public and private, or simply ar-
chitecture as a device able to adapt for change.
http://www.designboom.com/architecture/gary-chang-on-urban-
ism-and-his-metamorphic-apartment/
119
http://www.edgedesign.com.hk/
Etgar Keret (p. 69)
Etgar Keret (born August 20, 1967) is an Israeli writer known for
his short stories, graphic novels, and scriptwriting for film and televi-
sion. He holds dual Israeli and Polish citizenship.
His house in Warsaw was designed by the architect Jakub
Szczęsny. The two-story art installation was named after him as he was
the building's first tenant. Keret plans to give the house to a colleague
after he moves out. The building measures 92 centimetres at its narrow-
est point and 152 centimetres at its widest point. The structure was in-
stalled between a pre-war house and an apartment building. Keret said
that staying at the Keret House is like a «memorial to my family»; his
parents' families died in World War II when Nazi Germany occupied
Poland.
Keret's house reflects his writing style. Often his stories are sur-
real, but believably so, leaving you in a curious world much like yours,
where the boundaries of possibility are easily changing. For him, writing
is the place where we can try to be human.
https://www.guernicamag.com/we-can-try-to-be-human/
http://kerethouse.com
http://www.etgarkeret.com

120
Unit 8. Economy.
1.1
Basic Vocabulary – see V1, V2, p. 140.
Additional Vocabulary
Texts p. 77: by means of smth., to benefit smb./from smth./a ben-
efit/beneficial (to smth.), inequality.
Ex. 6 (tr. 8.1): an abuse of human rights, to distribute evenly, to
contribute to smth., to compete with smb./competitiveness.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Выгодна ли глобализация развивающимся странам? – С
одной стороны, она помогает уменьшить бедность и
способствует более высоким жизненным стандартам, с другой
стороны – ведет к неравенству и нарушениям прав человека. 2.
Развитые страны никогда не перестанут извлекать выгоду из
бедных путем эксплуатации рабочих и нарушений прав человека.
3. Благодаря глобализации повышается конкурентоспособность
национальной экономики и улучшается качество производства. 4.
Ведение честной торговли означает равное распределение
прибыли и отказ от корпоративной жадности. 5. Бедные страны
не могут позволить себе соревноваться с богатыми из-за
отсутствия свободных рынков и доминирования международных
корпораций, что увеличивает разрыв между развитыми и
развивающимися экономиками. 6. Крупные международные
компании стремятся избегать использования детского труда,
уничтожения местных культур и истощения природных ресурсов.
7. Если изменение климата повредит естественной среде и
приведет к крупномасштабному глобальному потеплению,
катастрофа будет невообразимой. 8. Конкуренция и свободные
рынки вносят вклад (способствуют) более широкому выбору для
потребителей и борьбе с корпоративной жадностью. 9. Ты бы
121
рассмотрел возможность конкурирования с крупными
международными компаниями? 10. Я предлагаю извлекать выгоду
из глобализации путем ведения честной торговли и справедливого
распределения прибылей. Это будет способствовать
международному взаимопониманию, улучшит условия труда и
уменьшит бедность.

8.2
Basic Vocabulary – see V3, p. 140
Additional Vocabulary
Ex. 3 (tr. 8.2): to recruit, to have a global mindset, to catch smb.’s
eye, (not) to make quick judgements, to put oneself in smb.’s shoes, to
grab the spotlight.
Text p. 78-79: to get to know smb. over coffee, to build trust, to
consider smb.’s feelings.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Вместо того, чтобы сжигать мосты, я стараюсь везде
знакомиться с людьми, например, за чашкой кофе в ресторанах.
Это позволяет мне устанавливать доверие в отношениях с
людьми. 2. Работодатели все больше стремятся брать на работу
людей, способных мыслить глобально и не делающих поспешных
выводов. 3. Я намереваюсь достичь согласия с моими коллегами
по вопросу сотрудничества с международными компаниями,
чтобы извлечь выгоду из своего бизнеса. 4. Мои родители всегда
поощряли установление доверия в отношениях с людьми, поэтому
всегда находили важным считаться с чувствами других. Они,
бывало, говорили мне: «Поставь себя на их место». 5.
Любознательность и способность адаптироваться современных
выпускников привлекает внимание работодателей по всему миру и
позволяет нанимать их на работу в международные компании. 6.
122
К сожалению, невозможно избежать встреч с людьми, которым не
хватает чувства такта и которые не считаются с чувствами
других. 7. Сначала я не одобрял, когда на деловых встречах
пытаются привлечь все внимание к себе, но постепенно начал
понимать, что для многих это способ попасть в поле зрения
потенциальных партнеров. 8. Я бы советовал тебе использовать
интернет, чтобы найти побольше информации о злоупотреблениях
правами человека, вместо того, чтобы полагаться на интуицию
делать поспешные выводу самому. 9. Я с грустью сообщаю вам о
том, что, несмотря на согласие всех стран по вопросу развития
глобального взаимопонимания, все еще слишком много нарушений
и злоупотреблений правами человека, а социальное и
экономическое неравенство сохраняется.

8.3
Basic Vocabulary – see V4 p. 140.
Additional Vocabulary
Text p. 80: reciprocity, expertise.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1 Благодаря нашему сотрудничеству и взаимодействию, нам
удалось достичь важный прорыв в сфере медицины. 2. Нам
установили самое современное оборудование в офисе, и теперь
каждый сотрудник может внести более значительный вклад в
развитие компании (use have smth. done). 3. Синергия и
сотрудничество стали двумя наиболее важными феноменами в
глобальном развитии, посредством которых ученые всего мира
борются с неравенством и корпоративной жадностью. 4. Более
глубокое понимание таких проблем, как злоупотребления правами
человека, эксплуатация рабочих, использование детского труда,
нечестная конкуренция, не даст увеличить разрыв между
123
сторонниками глобализации и антиглобалистами. 5. Современные
ученые стремятся раздвинуть границы инноваций и проложить
путь для новых открытий и прорывов. 6. Взаимодействие, не
приоритезирующее прибыль, - вот новая динамическая сила,
благодаря которой люди получили многие самые современные
научные достижения. 7. Передовой опыт этой международной
корпорации позволяет ей нанимать на работу и сотрудничать с
выдающимися учеными. 8. Когда у рабочих в развивающихся
странах улучшаться их невыносимые условия труда, сокращение
бедности и борьба с эксплуатацией перестанут быть просто
популярными словами (use have smth. done).

Grammar 1.

Verbs + infinitive or -ing

Verbs followed by either -ing or infinitive with to


Can't bear, hate, like, love, prefer
Followed by to, they usually refer to habitual preferences.
We like to go out to lunch on Sunday.
Not + to means think it wrong to.
I don't like to disturb colleagues at home.

Attempt, begin, continue, intend, plan, propose, start


There is no difference in meaning whether we use -ing or infinitive
with to.
Intend, plan, and propose can be followed by that + clause. This
may include should.

Forget, remember
With to both verbs refer to an obligation.
I had to phone the office but I forgot to do it.
124
With -ing both verbs refer to past events.
I don't remember learning to walk.
Both can be followed by that + clause.
I remembered that I had to pay the phone bill.

Try
With to this refers to something attempted, which might fail or
succeed.
I tried to warn him, but it was too late.
With -ing this refers to making an experiment, or to a new experi-
ence.
Try taking an aspirin. You'll feel better.
Have you tried windsurfing? It's great!

Go on
With -ing this refers to the continuing of an action.
She went on working even though it was late.
With to this refers to the continuation of a speech or a change in
actions.
The Prime Minister went on to praise the Chancellor.
(This means the Prime Minister continued his speech by praising
the
Chancellor.)

Mean
With the meaning intend, this is followed by to.
Sony, I meant to tell you about the party.
With -ing, and an impersonal subject, this refers to what is in-
volved.
If we catch the early train, it will mean getting up at 6.00.
That + clause is possible when meaning is being explained.
This means that you have to report to the police station.
125
Regret
With to this refers to the speaker's regrets about what is going to
be said. It often occurs in formal statements of this kind.
We regret to inform you that your application has been unsuc-
cessful.
With -ing this refers to a regret about the past.
I regret saying that to him.
That + clause is also possible.
We regret that we didn't tell her earlier.

Stop
With to this refers to an intention.
Jane stopped to check the oil level in the engine.
With -ing this refers to the ending of an activity.
The baby has stopped waking up during the night now.

Hear, see, watch


When followed by infinitive without to, the action is complete.
We watched all the cars cross the finishing line.
With -ing, the action is still in progress.
I heard someone coming up the stairs.

Come
Use to + infinitive to talk about a gradual change. The same mean-
ing has the phrase grow to do.
After some years, they came to accept her as an equal.
Use –ing form to say that someone moves in the way that is de-
scribed.
He came hurrying up the path.

126
Verbs with an object, followed by either -ing or infinitive with
to

Advise, encourage are followed by -ing when there is no object


and to-infinitive when there is one. Compare:
I'd advise taking more exercise.
I'd advise you to take more exercise.

Admit
This can be used with or without to followed by -ing.
They admitted (to) being members of the gang.
That + clause is also possible.
He admitted that he was wrong.

Allow, forbid, permit


With an object and to:
The school forbids students to smoke in the classrooms.
With an object -ing form:
The school does not allow smoking.

Consider
With an object and to this refers to an opinion.
She is considered to be the finest pianist of her generation.
With -ing this means think about.
At one point I considered emigrating to Canada.
With that + clause it refers to an opinion.
We consider that she has behaved badly.

Imagine
With an object and to:
I imagined the castle to be haunted.
With -ing, an object is also possible.
127
I couldn't imagine (her) living in a place like that.
With that + clause it means suppose.
I imagine that you'd like a cup of tea after your long journey!

Require
With an object and to:
They required him to fill out a form.
With -ing:
These letters require typing.

Verbs normally followed by infinitive with to


Verbs marked * can also be followed by that + clause.
*agree *demand hurry *pledge *swear
*appear deserve *learn *pretend *threate
*arrange *expect long *promise n
attempt fail manage refuse *vow
ask grow neglect *resolve want
choose hasten offer seek *wish
dare *happen pay *seem
*decide *hope *plan struggle

Appear, (so) happen and seem are only used impersonally with
that + clause.
It appears that I've made a mistake.
It so happens that he is my brother!
128
It seems that Mary is going to win

Want, need
The need to have a service done can be described with need doing.
Want has a similar meaning to need.
Your hair needs cutting.
The car wants cleaning.

Verbs followed by an object and to


Verbs marked * can also be followed by that + clause.
*advise, assist, beg, bribe, command, dare, employ, enable, en-
courage, instruct, invite, lead, *order, *persuade, select, send, *teach,
*tell, train, urge, *warn

Dare can be used without to when there is no object. Compare:


They dared him to jump.
I didn't dare (to) say anything.
How dare you speak like that to me!

Verbs followed by infinitive without to

Help can be used with or without to.


I helped George (to) carry the bags.

Make, and expressions with make


They made me leave.
We shall have to make do.
In the passive, to is used.
I was made to leave.

Let and expressions with let


They didn't let me leave.
129
Let me go!

Verbs normally followed by –ing


Verbs marked * can also be followed by that + clause.
*appreciate face *suggest
avoid *fancy it's no good/use
contemplate finish feel like
delay involve give up
*deny *mention keep on
detest mind leave off
dislike miss look forward to
endure postpone put off
enjoy practise can't stand
escape *resent spend/waste
excuse risk time

Appreciate is often followed by possessive + -ing.


I appreciate your trying to help.

Involve has an impersonal subject.


Being an athlete involves regular training.

130
Exercises.

Exercise 1. Underline the word or phrase that is correct.


a) What do you mean to do/doing about the leaky pipes?
b) I never imagined the mountains to be/being so high!
c) Don't forget to wake me/waking me before you leave.
d) I regret to tell you/telling you that we cannot accept your offer.
e) Did you manage to find/finding the book you were looking for?
f) I tried taking/to take that medicine you gave me but I couldn't
swallow it.
g) We have postponed to tell/telling anyone the news until after
Christmas.
h) Have you considered to buy/buying a microwave oven?
i) Sorry I'm late, I had to stop to pick up/picking up the children
from school,
j) Margaret was slow at school, but she went on to be/being Prime
Minister.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct


verb from the box, and putting it in the appropriate form.

a) It's too late to buy any food. We'll have to make do with what
we've got.
b) I hardly… ask how much it cost!
c) Have you ever … taking a year off work?
d) I didn't like the town at first, but I …to love it eventually.
e) What do you … doing after this course has finished?
f) We are all …our holiday in Australia this year. It's going to be
such an adventure.
g) Jim and I …to meet at 6.00 but he didn't turn up.
h) It …that we won't need to pay so much after all.
131
i) I can't wait for Saturday! I'm really …to see you!
j) I can't …getting up at 6.30 tomorrow morning! I'll catch a later
train.

Exercise 3. Complete each sentence using the verb in brackets


in an appropriate form.
a) Sorry, I meant (tell) I would be out, but I forgot.
b) That's all for now. I (hope) hear from you soon!
c) If I take the new job, it (mean) working a lot harder!
d) Are you still tired? Or do (feel) going out for a meal?
e) Jane is (say) the most outstanding player in the team.

Exercise 4. Complete the text by putting the verbs in brackets


into the correct form, gerund or infinitive.
Yukie Hanue is considered by many (1) (be) the finest violinist of
her generation - and she's still in her early twenties. When we visited
her, in the music department of the University of New York, she was
too busy practising (2) (talk), but she invited us (3) (have) a coffee with
her in her mid-morning break. Astonishingly, she manages (4) (com-
bine) her PhD at the university with international concerts and recitals,
numerous public appearances and interviews. She evidently thrives on
the workload, buzzing around the place with an industrious enthusiasm
that leaves us all breathless. Her fame as a performer means (5) (make)
regular appearances at high profile events. Last month, for example, she
agreed (6) (appear) in a series of recitals organised by Coca-Cola. This
involved (7) (travel) to far-flung places like Seoul, Oslo and Montevi-
deo on successive days, a schedule which would have caused any nor-
mal person to wilt. ‘I can't stand (8) (do) nothing,' she says. I happen (9)
(have) a particular talent, and it would be wasteful not (10) (exploit) it
to the full.' I encouraged her (11) (tell) me about her upbringing, but she
was rather reticent to sing her own praises. I did, however, succeed in

132
persuading her (12) (confess) to a secret desire. 'If I hadn't been a musi-
cian, I would have loved to train (13) (become) a martial arts expert,'
she says. Certainly, she would have had the discipline, but I couldn't
imagine someone so physically frail actually (14) (stand) there hitting
someone. But it was an interesting revelation, and one that I was (15)
(learn) more about during my day with her.

Exercise 5. Complete these sentences with your own ideas, us-


ing a to-infinitive, bare infinitive or –ing form. Think about
whether or not you should include an object before the to-infinitive,
bare infinitive or -ing form.
1 'I'm afraid Dr Sanders won't be free to see you for another hour.'
'That's okay, I don't mind...'
2 I wanted to borrow Jim's bike, but he refused...
3 If Steve doesn't work harder at school he risks...
4 Baker told the police that someone got into the car, put a gun to
his head, and forced...
5 Peter kept on asking me to go out with him, and eventually I
agreed...
6 The two companies have been discussing the merger for some
weeks now, but a spokesperson has said that they hope...
7 When I took my shoes back to the shop, they said that they
couldn't refund my money, but they offered...
8 I was always scared of dogs when I was a child, and even now I
can't bear...
9 Paula wanted to see a film, but I told her I didn't feel like...
10 At first she said she was nowhere near the office at the time of
the robbery, but later she admitted...
11 Suzanne has got a wonderful voice, but we couldn't persuade...
12 We had to complain to the children's mother when we discov-
ered...

133
13 Frances says she handed the money to me last Monday, but I
don't remember...
14 We were beginning to think we would never get out of the
maze, but finally we managed...
Exercise 6. Complete these sentences with either a to-infinitive
or an -ing form. Choose an appropriate verb. Sometimes more than
one verb is possible.
admire check enioy introduce live notify put say buy smoke
spend talk put race tell tear turn down
a Although it was hard at first, she came ...... working for the air-
line.
b As I walked through the gate, the dog came…. towards me.
с After working with her for so long, I came …her patience and
efficiency.
d Yesterday, Tom was so late he came …downstairs, grabbed a
cup of coffee and left.
a The children were shouting and screaming, but he went on …to
Frank.
b We've tried to persuade her to stop, but she just goes on…
с Dr Harris welcomed the members of the committee and went on
…the subject of the meeting,
d Then, in her letter, she goes on …that most of her family have
been ill.
3 a I regret… you that the model you want is out of stock.
b We regret …you that your request for a tax refund has been re-
jected.
с Almost as soon as I had posted the letter, I regretted …the job.
d It cost me a fortune, but I don't regret …a year travelling around
the world.
4 a Bill was very young when they left, and he could no longer
remember … in the house.
b Did you remember …a newspaper on the way home?
134
с Remember… your answers before handing in your exam paper.
d I remember …the money in the top drawer, but it's not there now.
Exercise 7. Complete these sentences in any appropriate way
using either the to-infinitive or the -ing form of the verb in brackets.
If both forms are possible, give them both.
1 Passing the kitchen, he stopped … a large glass of water.
2 When the car broke down, she started...
3 Here's the money I owe you. I meant...
4 To lose weight, I'd advise you...
5 I found that my back stopped... when...
6 To help me get to sleep, I tried...
7 The orchestra was just beginning...
8 Please don't hesitate...
9 When he found that he couldn't walk, he began...
10 The handle came off when I tried...
11 You could see the doctor today but as you haven't got an ap-
pointment it would mean...
(drink) (push) (give) (cut out) (ache) (think) (play) (call) (shout)
(lift) (wait)
Exercise 8. Consider which verb form is more likely and why.
1 I heard the baby cry / crying for most of the night.
2 I felt the snake bite / biting me and saw it slither off into the
bushes.
3 When you came out of the station, did you notice the children
play / playing musical instruments across the street?
4 I noticed her quickly slip / slipping the necklace inside her coat
and leave the shop.

Grammar 2
Have/get smth. done
We use have... We use get...

135
if it is clear that the person when we say that the person
referred to in the subject of the referred to in the subject of the
sentence is not responsible for or sentence does something them-
has no control over what happens: selves, causes what happens, per-
• I had my appendix re- haps accidentally, or is to blame
moved when I was six. for it:
• They had their car broken • I'll get the house cleaned if
into again. you cook the dinner. (= I'll clean
However, in informal the house)
speech some people use get in • Sue got her fingers trapped
sentences like this. in the bicycle chain. (= Sue
trapped her fingers)
We prefer have if we want to focus on the result of the action ra-
ther than the action itself:
• I'll have the house cleaned by the time you get home.
• Sue had her fingers trapped in the bike chain for half an hour.
We use won't (or will not) have, not get, if we want to say that we
won't allow something to happen to someone or something:
• I won't have him spoken to like that.
• I won't have my name dragged through the dirt by the press.
Exercises
Exercise 1. Complete these sentences using had/got + it + past
participle as in 1. Select from the verbs below and use each word
once only. In these sentences you can use either had or got.
delivered dry-cleaned framed mended photocopied put down re-
built
redecorated serviced
1 Karen's car wasn't starting well and seemed to be using too much
petrol so….
2 Peter bought a new bed, but couldn't fit it in his car so…
3 Our poor cat was old and very ill so…

136
4 In the storm the roof was blown off our shed and a wall fell down
so…
5 Janet spilt coffee on her silk dress. It couldn't be washed by hand,
so…
6 I needed a copy of my driving licence for my insurance company
so…
7 When Bill's watch broke he decided he couldn't afford to buy a
new one, so…
8 Our bedroom was in a mess, with the wallpaper and paint peeling
off, so…
9 The poster Sue had brought back from Brazil was getting dam-
aged so…
Exercise 2. Complete these sentences with the most likely form
of have or get. Give possible alternatives.
1 Carl had food poisoning and had to …his stomach pumped.
2 She left the lights on overnight and in the morning couldn't…
the car started.
3 We always… the car cleaned by the children who live next door.
4 When they… it explained to them again, the students could un-
derstand the point of the experiment.
5 I won't… my valuable time taken up with useless meetings!
6 We… the painting valued by an expert at over $20,000.
7 When he tried to tidy up his desk, he… all his papers mixed up.
8 I won't… Richard criticised like that when he's not here to de-
fend himself.
Exercise 3. Here are some verbs commonly used in the pattern
get/have something done. Do you know what they mean? Make sen-
tences using them to illustrate the meaning.
get/have a prescription filled
get/have something fixed
get/have a job costed
get/have something overhauled
137
get/have your house done up
get/have your hair permed

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the texts.
CERN (p. 80)
The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as
CERN, is a European research organization that operates the largest par-
ticle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organiza-
tion is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss bor-
der,and has 22 member states. Russia has observer status.
CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and
other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a re-
sult, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through in-
ternational collaborations. CERN is also the birthplace of the World
Wide Web.
At CERN physicists and engineers are probing the fundamental
structure of the universe. They use the world's largest and most complex
scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter – the fun-
damental particles. The particles are made to collide together at close to
the speed of light. The process gives the physicists clues about how the
particles interact, and provides insights into the fundamental laws of na-
ture.
Noadays CERN is a recognised example of peaceful international
collaboration based on transparency, openness and inclusion. Since the
very beginning of the scientific venture that gave birth to CERN, people
from different cultures, religions and political opinions could speak the
common language of science. In this scenario, peace appears as a natural
consequence and becomes an attitude. More than 60 years of peaceful
and fruitful collaboration are the tangible result that science can indeed
serve as a successful model to follow.

138
https://home.cern/about/opinion/2016/02/science-model-collabo-
ration
https://home.cern
Bob Langer (p. 80)
Robert Samuel Langer, Jr., Fellow of the Royal Academy of En-
gineering (born August 29, 1948 in Albany, New York) is an American
chemical engineer, scientist, entrepreneur, inventor and the Professor at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He also maintains activity in
the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Bio-
logical Engineering at MIT.
Robert Langer is a widely recognized and cited researcher in bio-
technology, especially in the fields of drug delivery systems and tissue
engineering. Langer is one of the 10 most cited individuals in history
and the most cited engineer in history. Langer's research laboratory at
MIT is the largest biomedical engineering lab in the world, maintaining
over $10 million in annual grants and over 100 researchers. In 2015,
Langer was awarded the Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering, the
most influential prize in the world for engineering.
His message to other scientists is: «Do great science - and create
things that could change the world and make it a better place».
http://web.mit.edu/langerlab/langer.html
http://www.sciencemag.org/careers/2014/11/robert-langer-creat-
ing-things-could-change-world
Cesar Harada (p. 80)
Cesar Harada is an French-Japanese Inventor, Environmentalist
and Entrepreneur. Currently Director of MakerBay, Hong Kong Mak-
erSpace for Social & Environmental Impact. Cesar is developing Protei
– a revolutionary shape shifting sailing robot.
Cesar Harada is passionate about «opening hardware for the envi-
ronment» (the name of his PhD work) with a strong focus on ocean
communities and technologies. He is a graduate from the Royal College
of Arts London, Design Interactions Department, and worked as
139
MIT Boston USA Project Leader as well as construction manager in
Nairobi, Kenya.
Together with an international team of scientists Cesar Harada is
developing Protei : a low-cost open-source oil collecting robot that au-
tonomously sails upwind, intercepting oil sheens going downwind. Pro-
tei combines conventional technologies in an innovative design that we
can implement in the short term to address timely environmental crisis
or perform ocean research.
Harada and his team's goal is to explore and protect the oceans
with open technologies. The scientist always welcomes platforms that
allow people to exchange data, compare sets, collaborate and accelerate
research, saying: «We have a lot in common, let’s work together».
https://planetos.com/blog/cesar-harada-protei-open-source-sail-
ing-robot/
https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/cesarminoru/protei-open-
hardware-oil-spill-cleaning-sailing-ro
http://www.cesarharada.com/

140
Unit 9. Art.

9.1
Basic Vocabulary - see V1, p. 142
Additional Vocabulary
Text p.87: to recreate reality, to question smth., to challenge au-
thority, at the end of the day.
Ex. 8 (tr. 9.1): to be into smth., to take one’s breath away, to live
up to smb.’s expectations, to inspire / inspiring, to be worth the effort.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Современное абстрактное искусство вызывает
противоречивые реакции у зрителей. 2. Многие ценители
искусства хотят, чтобы искусство было не только вдохновляющим,
но и воссоздавало реальность, ставило под вопрос традиционные
ценности и даже бросало вызов властям. 3. Подлинное искусство
заставляет задуматься, оно вечно и реалистично, именно
поэтому оно способно и вдохновлять, и воссоздавать реальность.
4. Последняя выставка современных скульпторов не оправдала
моих ожиданий, она не стоила ни потраченных на нее усилий, ни
денег. 5. Революционные работы этого художника - настоящие
шедевры, они вдохновляют и захватывают дух. 6. Поскольку я не
очень увлекаюсь современным искусством, в конечном счете
только традиционное искусство я считаю вдохновляющим и
заставляющим задуматься. 7. Предварительный просмотр
фресок этого художника вызвал противоречивые реакции у
знатоков искусства: одни считают их революционными, а другие –
не стоящими потраченных усилий. 8. Те, кто увлекаются
искусством в стиле перформанс, глубоко верят в то, что в
конечном итоге только оно способно полностью воссоздать
реальность.
141
9.2, 9.3
Basic Vocabulary - see V2, V3, p.142
Additional Vocabulary
Text p. 80: iconic (an iconic work of art).
Texts pp. 90-91: to be reminiscent of smth., to drop out.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Революционные работы этого модного художника давно
стали культовыми, но их до сих пор жестко критикуют
некоторые критики. 2. Совершенно неправильно предполагать, что
античное искусство не воссоздавало реальность и не ставило под
сомнение ценности. 3. Совершенно невероятно, что ты решил
бросить институт, ты никогда не сможешь стать
высококлассным специалистом. 4. Абсолютно невозможно, чтобы
этот ужасный старинный английский замок являлся сказочным
шедевром архитектуры. 5. Современное огромное впечатляющее
здание отеля из блистающей нержавеющей стали получило
высокую оценку туристов. 6. Этот трогающий, согревающий
сердце старый французский фильм считается культовым
произведением искусства. 7. Захватывающие повороты сюжета
и абсолютно неожиданный финал твоего последнего романа
напоминают интеллектуальные книги выдающихся английских
старых авторов детективов. 8. Кажется совершенно невероятным,
что в детстве я был такой нервный и болезненно застенчивый, что
боялся разговаривать даже с бабушкиными подругами - старыми
уважительными аристократичными леди. Сейчас я абсолютно
другой человек – веселый и остроумный. 9. Утверждение
некоторых критиков, что Эйфелева башня, эта огромная
блестящая металлическая современная конструкция, не может
передавать атмосферу очаровательного старинного
142
французского города, абсолютно неоправданно. Это культовый
символ Парижа. 10. Совершенно бесполезно спорить об искусстве,
потому что оно противоречиво: то, что одни высоко ценят и
считают шедевром, другие жестко критикуют и называют
возмутительным и смехотворным.

Grammar
Additional Explanations

Gradable and ungradable adjectives


Gradable adjectives can be used with adverbs such as very or ex-
tremely to say that a thing or person has more or less of a particular
quality.
Ungradable adjectives themselves imply to a large degree and are
seldom used with these adverbs. Instead, we can use adverbs such as
absolutely or totally.

adverbs adjectives
extremely, deeply, angry, big, busy, com-
fairly, hugely, immensely, fortable,
pretty (informal), rather, re- common, happy, im-
ally, reasonably, slightly, portant, quiet, rich, strong,
very young
absolutely, completely, amazed, awful, dread-
entirely, pretty, really, ful, furious, huge, impossible,
simply, totally, utterly invaluable, terrible, wonder-
ful, useless

Our teacher gave us a completely impossible problem to solve.


She was extremely rich.
143
Notice that not all the adverbs given can go with all the adjectives
given. For example, we wouldn't usually say 'completely essential'. Re-
ally and pretty can be used with both gradable and ungradable adjec-
tives.

More on the position of adjectives


When we use more than one adjective before a noun, there is often
a preferred order for these adjectives. However, this order is not fixed:
opinion + size/physical quality/shape/age + colour + participle ad-
jectives + origin + material + type + purpose + noun.
an old plastic container (= age + material + noun)
a hard red ball (= quality + colour + noun)
a frightening Korean mask (= opinion + origin + noun)
a round biscuit tin (= shape + purpose (for holding biscuits) +
noun)
a small broken plate (= size + participle adjective + noun)

a useful digital alarm clock (= opinion + type + purpose + noun)

To help you to learn this order, it can be useful to remember that


gradable adjectives (describing opinion, size, quality, shape, and age)
usually precede ungradable adjectives (participle adjective and adjec-
tives describing origin, material, type and purpose).

When two gradable adjectives come before the noun, we can put
either a comma or and between them. Compare:
an attractive, big garden and an attractive and big garden

Two colour adjectives have and between them:


Sweden's yellow and blue flag (not ...yellow, blue flag)

144
Two ungradable adjectives have and between them if they are
from the same class, but and is not used if they are from different clas-
ses. Compare:
financial and political conditions and improving financial con-
ditions

Exercise 1. Are the underlined adjectives gradable or un-


gradable? Suggest an appropriate adverb to complete each sen-
tence. Try to use a different adverb each time.
1 The play was … marvellous.
2 The answer is …simple.
3 His new flat is ….enormous.
4 He was …devastated by the news.
5 The instructions were …complicated.
6 I was …disappointed.
7 The answer was …absurd.
8 The questions were …hard.
9 Her books are …popular.
10 I was terrified by the film.
11 He's a(n) successful artist.
12 He's a(n) essential member of the team.

Exercise 2. Use an adverb + adjective in your response, as in


1. How would you feel if:
1 a friend said s/he had just won a million pounds?
2 your best friend told you s/he was emigrating to Australia?
3 someone broke a window in your house or flat?
4 a complete stranger told you that you were very beautiful/hand-
some?
5 you lost some airline tickets you had just bought?

145
Exercise 3. Put the adjectives in brackets in these sentences in
the most appropriate order.
1 Mine's the car. (blue, Japanese, small)
2 I rent a(n) house. (furnished, large, old)
3 I've just bought a table.(beautiful, coffee, wooden)
4 Their forces soon overcame the invasion. (combined, military,
powerful)
5 Have you seen this invention? (fantastic, German, new)
6 There was a rug on the floor. (soft, wonderful, woollen)
7 She gave me a box. (jewellery, metal, small, square)
Do the same for these. Write and between the adjectives if pos-
sible.
8 Cycling is a(n) activity, (outdoor, popular)
9 They live in houses, (mud, straw)
10 He was a doctor, (famous, medical)
11 There was an meeting, (important, urgent)
12 I've just finished a novel, (boring, depressing)

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the texts.
Robert Capa and “The Falling Soldier” (p. 88)
Robert Capa (born Endre Friedmann; 1913 - 1954) was a Hungar-
ian war photographer and photo journalist, arguably the greatest combat
and adventure photographer in history.
Capa fled political repression in Hungary when he was a teenager,
moving to Berlin, where he enrolled in college. He witnessed the rise of
Hitler, which led him to move to Paris, where he changed his name and
became a photojournalist. He subsequently covered five wars: the Span-
ish Civil War, the Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II across Eu-
rope, the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and the First Indochina War, with his
photos published in major magazines and newspapers.

146
During his career he risked his life numerous times, most dramat-
ically as the only photographer landing with the first wave on Omaha
Beach on D-Day. He documented the course of World War II in Lon-
don, North Africa, Italy, and the liberation of Paris. His friends and col-
leagues included Irwin Shaw, John Steinbeck, Ernest Hemingway and
director John Huston.
In 1947, for his work recording World War II in pictures, U.S.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower awarded Capa the Medal of Freedom.
Hungary has issued a stamp and a gold coin in his honor.
From 1936 to 1939, Capa worked in Spain, photographing the
Spanish Civil War. It was during that war that Capa took the photo now
called «The Falling Soldier», showing the death of a Republican soldier.
Capa's bibliographer states: «The image, known as «Death of a
Loyalist militiaman» or simply «The Falling Soldier», has become al-
most universally recognized as one of the greatest war photographs ever
made».

147
https://pro.magnumphotos.com/Archive/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&V
F=MAGO31_2_VForm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Capa
Kevin Carter (p. 88)
Kevin Carter (1960 - 1994) was a South African photojournalist
and member of the Bang-Bang Club - a group of photographers and
photojournalists active within the townships of South Africa between
1990 and 1994, during the transition from the apartheid system to gov-
ernment based on universal suffrage. This period saw much black on
black factional violence.
In March 1993, while on a trip to Sudan, Carter was preparing to
photograph a starving toddler trying to reach a feeding center when a
hooded vulture landed nearby. Carter reported taking the picture, be-
cause it was his «job title», and leaving. He was told not to touch the
children for fear of transmitting disease. After taking the picture, he got
up and chased the vulture away.
Sold to The New York Times, the photograph first appeared on 26
March 1993 and was carried in many other newspapers around the
world. Hundreds of people contacted the newspaper to ask the fate of
the girl. The paper reported that it was not known whether she had man-
aged to reach the feeding centre. In April 1994, the photograph won the
Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography.

148
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Carter

149
Stop and Check 3

1. Complete the text by putting the verbs in brackets into the


most appropriate passive form.
The South Valley Development in Egypt is one of the world’s
largest construction projects. It 1___________(establish) in the 1980s
to ease the population situation in the Nile Valley and to increase
Egypt’s economy by converting over one million acres of land into ag-
ricultural and industrial development. The project also hoped to provide
work
for more than 10,000 people. Numerous analyses
2____________(undertake) to find the best location for the project and
finally Toshka and the New Valley oases 3___________(choose). The
world’s largest pumping station 4_______________(install) in 2003
near Lake Nasser. Part of this project is now complete and it is an amaz-
ing feat of engineering. Water 5___________(pump) at 360 cubic me-
ters per second, through a concrete- lined canal into the desert. The
Sheikh Zayed Canal, as it 6 (know), has two main canals which
7_______________(divide) into four branches. Electricity for the
pumping station 8___________(provide) by the Aswan Dam. Although
significant progress 9_____________(make), there is still a lot to do be-
fore the project is completed in 2020.

2. Rewrite the second sentence in the passive form so that it


means the same as the first sentence.
1. They are still building the bridges and they should be ready next
year.
The bridges and should be ready next year.
2. They will finish the second bridge next month.
The second bridge next month.
3. For many years governments were doing nothing about envi-
ronmental pollution.
150
For many years nothing about environmental pollution.
4. They haven’t sent all the documents.
Not all the documents___ .
5. What should people do if they are to claim compensation?
What should people do if compensation_____?
6. They will send a letter to everyone involved explaining what to
do.
A letter to everyone involved explaining what to do.

3. Choose the correct word.


1. The house is virtually . It will need complete rebuilding if
we are to live in it.
2. The flat is very so I can’t fit all my furniture into it and there
is no storage space.
3. I think their new office building is – it’s very grand and you
feel you might get lost in there.
4. They have just all those old terraced houses so they can
build a new apartment block.
5. You should never___all your bridges when you leave. You may
want to come back at some time.
6. The architects who were___to design the new palace were
South American.
7. I think you need to_____some bridges with your boss if you
want your job back.
8. They found interesting historical objects when they dug up
the old site.
9. I love his designs because they’re so . I’ve never seen an-
ything like them before.
10. The builders have managed to the old house to its former
glory.

151
4. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words with
prefixes.
1. The fact is that the government has run out of money.
2. The local council has the centre of the town, making it at-
tractive for new business.
3. They have the major problems and will start building next
month.
4. Their attitude towards the environment meant that they didn’t
win the contract.
5. Her faith in his abilities was proved to be when he let her
down once again.

5. Complete the text by putting the verbs in brackets into the


most appropriate form.
Is globalisation really good for us?
There appear 1 ___(be) two schools of thought about globalisa-
tion. The first is that it works for everyone and the second that it only
works for the wealthy. Many people complain that large corporations
and developed countries are the only ones that benefit, but when we
travelled through Africa last year and stopped 2 _______(meet) people
in small villages, I shall never forget the villagers 3 (tell) us how
delighted they were to have work provided by multinationals. So I’ve
stopped 4_______(question) the value of globalisation and begun to
look at how people can benefit from of it instead. In fact, some compa-
nies now regret 5 (relocate) overseas and are returning manu-
facturing to their home countries. I dislike large multinationals
_________(take) over the world, but surely, we could all benefit as long
as businesses are run ethically? One current theme of discontent among
the public is that multinationals seem to avoid 7_________(pay) taxes
by claiming not to be based in that country. This is something govern-
ments need to resolve so that everyone in that country can benefit.

152
6. Rewrite the second sentence so that it means the same as the
first sentence. Use the word given in capitals.
1. Someone is going to redecorate my house.
GET I am going .
2. They are sending the documents to us by courier.
HAVING We to us by courier.
3. A lawyer has checked the contract.
HAD We by a lawyer.
4. Someone stole her laptop.
HAD She
5. The best architect in the country designed the new building for
us. GOT We by the best architect in the coun-
try.
6. They make the jeans for us in a small factory in China.
GET We in a small factory in China.
7. Someone was cutting her hair when I called.
HAVING She when I called.
8. Someone serviced the machines last week.
GOT We last week.

7. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word.


1. His___________ means that he finds it quite easy to get used to
working in different kinds of places.
2. They took advantage of their cutting _________expertise.
3. _____________can be defined as the ways in which things or
people behave, react, and affect each other.
4. If you want to work abroad successfully, it’s important to have
a _____________toward the culture of the country you are moving to.
5. Her experience abroad had a ______________effect on her.
6. I am not sure that he has the right ______________to work for
us.

153
7. Scientists are always ____________ the boundaries of our
knowledge.

8. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words.


For too long corporate 1_________has been driving the free
2____________. Unfortunately, this has also led to huge disparities be-
tween rich and poorer countries as natural 3____________have been
exploited without care for the environment or people from which
they’ve been taken. There has also been a huge increase in the awareness
of the use of child 4__________in the manufacturing industries. In de-
veloped countries people now expect a vast consumer 5__________:
they can eat any food they want at any time of the year or buy clothing
at rock bottom prices without giving a thought to how the goods were
produced. However, more people are taking an active 6__________in
how their purchases were produced. Many consumers look for the ‘Fair
7___________ ’ sticker on goods, which theoretically ensures that the
product was ethically sourced. When getting our bargains while shop-
ping, we should also check the carbon 8___________of the goods.

9. Choose the correct option to complete the text.


Swimming with dolphins was a 1 totally / very / completely unu-
sual experience. I was 2 a little / absolutely / bit worried about it at first,
but also3 extreme / totally / pretty excited and when I got into the sea
with them and they swam up to me, I cannot explain how 4 very / abso-
lutely / extremely wonderful it was. I thought the sea was 5 slightly /
awfully / absolutely freezing when I got in, but I soon got used to it. The
dolphins were 6 dreadfully / really / a bit fascinating to watch as they
twisted and turned around me, and one even came up and nudged me
with his nose. I swam with them for ages and felt 7 completely / awfully
/ very exhausted, yet delighted by the 8 totally / pretty / terribly unique
experience when I got back into the boat.

154
10. Put the words in the correct order to make sentences.
1. they / been seen / their / old / visiting / often / have / art col-
lege
They ____________.
2. Bahamas / for / year / she / lived / in / the / has
She____________.
3. quickly / puts / very / the first / of / paint on / layer / he.
He ______________.
4. they / exhibitions / the / have / city / frequently / cultural / in
They _____________.
5. her / by / strongly / other / been / work / modern artists /
influenced / has
Her .
6. abstract / does / metal / mainly / sculptures / he / enormous
He .
7. millions / definitely / sculptures / has / from / incredible /
earned / his / he
He .

11. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word.


1. The art world has been extremely _____________of his instal-
lations.
2. When she first had an exhibition, the critics were quite
_____________about it, but now she’s one of the most highly respected
artists in the world.
3. The view of the mountains from our hotel window was
most_____________.
4. I thought the film was really ______________; I couldn’t relax
at all wondering what was going to happen next.
5. The story was so___________ that I couldn’t believe in the
characters or the plot.

155
6. The plot twist at the end of the book was com-
pletely___________. I had no idea that it would end that way.
7. I’m afraid the artist is ___________shy and doesn’t do any in-
terviews.
8. His work was___________ criticised at the last exhibition. In
fact, I think he’s stopped painting now.

12. Complete the sentences by putting the adjectives in brack-


ets in the correct order.
1. They built a(n) cube for their new offices. (stainless-
steel/shiny/ amazing)
2. The painting entitled Water Lilies is one of the most famous
in the world. (Monet/exquisite / impressionistic)
3. The sculpture in the centre of the room is by a new artist.
(rectangular/large/marble)
4. The carving was part of an archaeological discovery in
Mali. (African/ wooden/varnished)
5. Her novel is going to be made into a movie. (best-sell-
ing/new/romantic/ brilliant)
6. He collects figurines. (stone/ancient/unusual)
7.The exhibition included some _______ furniture.
(original/metal/strange)

156
Unit 10. Psychology

10.1
Basic Vocabulary - see V1, V2, p. 144
Additional Vocabulary
Text p. 97: to generate ideas, to delegate, to offload one’s share of
(the) work, to judge accurately, to avert friction, a crunch situation, to
worry unduly.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Властные, амбициозные люди часто ссорятся с другими
членами команды в критических ситуациях, поскольку не умеют
предотвращать столкновения. 2. Те, кому не хватает
изобретательности, не способны предлагать новые идеи.
Совершенно бесполезно просить их взяться за любую творческую
работу. 3. Я не только в хороших отношениях со всеми членами
команды, но и часто предотвращаю столкновения в критических
ситуациях. (Write an inversion). 4. Что мне нравится в нашем лидере
группы, так это его дипломатичность и объективность. Он очень
знающий и эффективно распределяет обязанности, но никогда не
перекладывает свою работу на других. 5. Моя подруга никак не
может смириться с тем, что ее любимая группа распалась. – Она
зря беспокоится. Эти слухи абсолютно неверны. 6. Мой брат
отлично общается с людьми, он может поладить даже с очень
властными и амбициозными личностями. 7. Как правило,
энергичные и творческие люди чрезвычайно наблюдательны и
точно судят о других. 8. Людям, которым трудно приняться за
работу, не хватает сознательности. В конечном счете за них все
делают другие. 9. Я никак не могу привыкнуть к тому, что она
ведет себя так нерешительно и негибко. Должно быть, она
болезненно застенчива. – В ее возрасте это смешно! 10. Знающие,
157
находчивые, практичные люди всегда получают высокую оценку в
обществе.

10.2
Basic Vocabulary - see V3, V4, p. 144
Additional Vocabulary
Text p. 98: a peer, to go against the grain, to look down on smb.,
to seek smb.’s approval, to bully/ a bully, to become a target for smb.,
low self-esteem

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Тинэйджеры, которые имеют низкую самооценку и ведут
себя нерешительно, часто становятся мишенью для
издевательств. 2. Чтобы ладить со сверстниками, многим
молодым людям приходится поступать против своих желаний,
что приводит к критическим ситуациям. 3. Родители детей, на
которых сверстники смотрят свысока, не могут обрести
спокойствие духа. 4. Джек, который все время стремится к
одобрению других, определенно имеет низкую самооценку. Он
болезненно застенчив и часто зря беспокоится. 5. Я не могу
решить, что делать с моим братом, который слишком властный и
смотрит на других свысока. 6. Должно быть, ты сошел с ума, если
хочешь дружить с человеком, который издевается над другими. 7.
Судьи не должны формировать предвзятых суждений, что
позволяет им оставаться беспристрастными и объективными. 8. Я
в нерешительности по поводу того, принимать ли мне работу,
которая требует способности предотвращать столкновения в
критических ситуациях. 9. Приходится мириться с тем фактом,
что всегда будут люди, которые смотрят на других свысока и
издеваются над теми, кто имеют низкую самооценку и болезненно
застенчивы. 10. Мой отец, который никогда не идет против своих
158
желаний, не стремится к одобрению своих действий другими
людьми.

10.3
Basic Vocabulary - see V5, p. 144
Additional Vocabulary
Text p. 100: to rise in popularity, an offender, a serial killer/ mass
murderer, to hijack/ hijacking, a suicide bomber, a suspect/ to suspect
smb. of smth., a place of residence, minute (adj.), a crime scene, a petty
crime, to defy (authority).
Ex. 9, p.101: to serve a sentence.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Этот серийный убийца, сейчас отбывающий пожизненный
срок, первоначально совершал только мелкие правонарушения. 2.
Правонарушитель, подозреваемый в угоне самолета, едва
сохранял спокойствие духа, когда зачитывался приговор. 3. Легко
убеждаемые люди, ищущие одобрения других, часто попадают в
террористические организации и становятся террористами-
смертниками. 4. Мельчайшие детали места преступления,
замеченные следователями, могут стать ключом к раскрытию
преступления. 5. Детективы и криминальные истории с
захватывающими поворотами сюжета становятся все более
популярными, оправдывая то, что о них так много говорят. 6. Не
формируя предвзятых суждений, следователь должен стремиться
к тому, чтобы оставаться объективным в оценке преступления и
судить точно. 7. Место жительства правонарушителя
позволило следователям сделать вывод о том, что он один из
многих местных жителей, подозреваемых в подобных
преступлениях и не подчиняющихся властям. 8. Отбывая срок в

159
тюрьме, правонарушитель решил не совершать даже мелких
преступлений.

Grammar

Exercise 1. The following text contains many 'which's and


'that's. Underline the ten extra ones, which are grammatically
wrong.
Having just spent three weeks of my life sitting on an uncomfort-
able saddle, pounding the roads of France, I am in no fit state that to do
anything except sit and write, which suits me fine. For I have cycled
some 1,500 kilometres, a figure which includes some extremely hilly
routes, and frankly the thought of mounting a bicycle again which is not
one that I can face for a good few days yet. The journey, which I under-
took alone for most of the way, was all in the name of charity - Help the
Aged, a cause which I support whenever that I can. Having organised
my sponsorship, which I arrived in France armed only with a tiny map
of the Tour de France route, which hastily removed from last month's
'Cycling World' magazine. My intention which was to try and follow the
route that the professionals take, but after three days in which I pushed
my body to extremes that it had never experienced before, that I rapidly
abandoned this plan and returned to flatter ground. On the flat which I
was able to keep to about 120 kilometres a day, which is respectable. I
did have to rest my weary limbs at the weekends, though, which enabled
me to recharge my batteries, by which I mean my bodily ones, not the
ones that inside my bike lights. I am pleased to say, that after three tor-
tuous weeks, which I ended up in Marseilles, but what pleased me all
the more is that I managed to raise over £2,000 for Help the Aged.

Exercise 2. Complete each sentence with one suitable word.

160
a) Midway through the second half City scored their fourth goal,
at …
point United gave up completely.
b) There is one person to … I owe more than I can say.
c) It was the kind of accident for … nobody was really to blame.
d) … leaves last should turn off the lights.
e) Mary was late yesterday, … was unusual for her.
f) At 6.00, … was an hour before the plane was due, thick fog
descended.
g) I don't know … told you that, but they were wrong.
h) The first time I saw you was … you answered the door.
i) Mrs Brown was the first owner … dog won three prizes in the
same show.
j) I've just spoken to Sally, … sends you her love.

Exercise 3. Make one sentence from the sentences given, be-


ginning as shown. Make any other necessary changes. Omit any un-
necessary relative pronouns.
a) We eventually caught a train. It was one that stops at every sta-
tion.
The train …
b) Carol slammed the door behind her. Her father had given her a
car as a
present. She drove off in it.
Slamming …
c) At the end of the street was a building. The street was crowded
with
shoppers. Tom had not noticed the building before.
At the end of the street …
d) Some people have just moved in next door. They have the same
surname as some other people. Those other people have just moved out.
The people who have just moved in next door …
161
e) I noticed that the door was open. I decided to go in. This turned
out to be a mistake.
Noticing …
f) Everyone expects the Popular Party candidate, Flora Benstead,
to win the election. She has announced that she will cut income tax by
10% if elected.
Flora Benstead, …
g) I listened to George patiently until he started insulting me. At
that point, I told him a few home truths. He didn't like it.
I listened to George patiently until he started insulting me, …
h) Pauline asked me a question. I had no reply to it.
Pauline asked me …
i) He rushed out of the room. He was shouting at the top of his
voice. This was typical.
Shouting …

Exercise 4. Correct the mistake in each sentence. Omit any


unnecessary relative pronouns in your corrections.
a) To take my life in my hands, I walked to the very end of the
high diving board.
b) I wasn’t sure what to address the letter to, so I put ‘The Man-
ager’.
c) Most of the guests turned up two hours early, that took us by
surprise.
d) Whoever that he spoke to last was probably the person who
murdered him.
e) The book I bought for his birthday is one where I enjoyed very
much myself.
f) There's a chance that I may be late, in that case I'll phone you.
g) Everyone admires her. She's the kind of person whose everyone
looks up to.

162
h) No one knows who she is. She is the only member of the gang
who the
identity remained a secret

Exercise 5. Most of the following sentences are punctuated in-


correctly. Correct any that are wrong.
a) Many people think that Saturn is the biggest planet which is
wrong.
b) That's the man, I used to live next door to.
c) I couldn't remember, which house I had to deliver the card to.
d) The coat she wore to the party, was similar to one I have at
home.
e) Lynn is the only person in my circle of friends, who is married.
f) Whoever catches the ball, must come into the middle of the cir-
cle.

Exercise 6. Match the sentences in the most likely way, and


write them as one sentence using an –ing clause (reduced relative
clauses).
1 Some wooden beams hold up the roof.
2 Some teachers attended the meeting.
3 Some people were driving past.
4 A man was operating the equipment.
5 A girl is waiting for the bus.
6 Some steps lead down to the river.

a They waved to us.


b He was dressed in protective clothing.
c They decided to go on strike.
d They are dangerous.
e They have been damaged.
f She is Jack's daughter.
163
Example: 1. Some wooden beams holding up the roof have been
damaged.

Exercise 7. Complete these sentences with the past participle


form of an appropriate verb and one of these phrases (reduced rel-
ative clauses).
from the jeweller
on the label
to the players
on the motorway
to represent Britain
at today's meeting in the storm
1 The road repairs carried out on the motorway might delay traf-
fic.
2 The decisions … will affect all of us.
3 The building … will have to be demolished.
4 Jack Sullivan was the man … in the 100 metres.
5 The warning… about their behaviour on the pitch was ignored.
6 All the rings and necklaces … have now been recovered.
7 The instructions … say it should only take a few minutes to cook.

Exercise 8. If possible, change the relative clause in these sen-


tences to an -ing, past participle or being + past participle clause as
appropriate. If it is not possible, write X after the sentence (reduced
relative clauses).
1 The people who are being asked to take early retirement are all
over the age of 60.
.. .people being asked to take...
2 The book that she wanted to borrow wasn't available in the li-
brary.

164
3 The eye hospital has recently obtained new equipment which
will allow far more patients to
be treated.
4 The children who are being moved to another school all have
learning difficulties.
5 The man who died in the accident came from Bulgaria.
6 An agreement has been signed to protect the forests which are
being cut down all over the
world.
7 I ran through the crowd of people who were hurrying to get to
work.
8 If you know of anyone who would like to buy Maggie's car, let
me know.
9 The trees that were blown down in last night's storm have been
moved off the road.
10 The woman who visited us last week has sent us a present.

Exercise 9. Use the information given to make one sentence


beginning with the word or words shown. Give all possible relative
pronouns, but if you can leave them out, put them in brackets. Make
sure you put in commas where necessary.
1 Sheila Brown is giving a concert at Webley Hall. I have long
admired her. Sheila Brown…
2 I picked up the paper. Richard had written his address on it. I...
3 My grandfather is the fittest person I know. His house is at the
top of a steep hill.
My grandfather...
4 Gail led the way to the office. It had windows on three sides. The
office...
5 The choir is touring Norway next month. Its members are all
over 60. The choir...

165
6 She'd recently bought the motorbike. She took me for a ride on
it. She took me...
7 The Earls of Euston were landowners in London. Euston Station
is named after them.
The Earls of Euston...
8 He set about cleaning off the dirt. It was covering the floor and
walls. He set about...
9 I went to stay with the Watson family. They were friends of my
mother's. I went...
10 Sue saw Joseph off at the airport. Then she went back to work.
Having...
11 Alderson wrote a number of books about British coal miners.
He specialised in their history. Alderson wrote...
12 I put the papers on her desk and left. I didn't wish to disturb her.
Not...
13 The agreement ended six months of negotiation. It was signed
yesterday. The agreement...

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the texts.
Meredith Belbin (p. 97)
Raymond Meredith Belbin (born 1926) is a British researcher and
management theorist best known for his work on management teams.
He is a visiting professor and Honorary Fellow of Henley Management
College in Oxfordshire, England.
Dr Meredith Belbin originally identified the Team Roles as part of
a unique study of teams that took place at Henley Business School
which included a business simulation game. In 1969, Dr Belbin was in-
vited to use this business game as a starting point for a study of team
behaviour. Belbin's 1981 book Management Teams presented conclu-
sions from his work studying how members of teams interacted during
these business games. Amongst his key conclusions was the proposition
166
that an effective team has members that cover eight (later nine) key roles
in managing the team and how it carries out its work. This may be sep-
arate from the role each team member has in carrying out the work of
the team.
Based on Belbin's model of nine team roles, managers or organi-
sations building working teams would be advised to ensure that each of
the roles can be performed by a team member. Some roles are compati-
ble and can be more easily fulfilled by the same person; some are less
compatible and are likely to be done well by people with different be-
havioural clusters. This means that a team need not be as many as nine
people, but perhaps should be at least three or four. While comparisons
can be drawn between Belbin's behavioural team roles and personality
types, the roles represent tasks and functions in the self-management of
the team's activities. Tests exist to identify ideal team roles, but this does
not preclude an extravert from being a Completer Finisher, nor an intro-
vert from being a Resource Investigator.
http://www.belbin.com/about/dr-meredith-belbin/
Kurt Lewin (rec. 10.2)
Kurt Lewin is universally recognized as the founder of modern
social psychology. He pioneered the use of theory, using experimenta-
tion to test hypothesis. He placed an everlasting significance on an entire
discipline - group dynamics and action research.
Lewin was born in Prussia in 1890 and immigrated to the United
States in 1933, where he became a citizen. While at the University of
Berlin, Lewin found many of the department's courses irrelevant and
dull. His thinking was changing to emphasize social psychological prob-
lems. He is well known for his term life space and work on group dy-
namics. He wanted to reach beyond the mere description of group life
and to investigate the conditions and forces which bring about change
or resist it. Lewin believed in the field approach. For change to take
place, the total situation has to be taken into account. If isolated facts
are used, a misrepresented picture could develop.
167
It is not an exaggeration to say that Kurt Lewin had a profound
impact on a generation of researchers and thinkers concerned with group
dynamics. The basic line of argument is that groups come into being in
a psychological sense not because their members necessarily are similar
to one another (although they may be); rather, a group exists when peo-
ple in it realize their fate depends on the fate of the group as a whole.
«A person who has learned to see how much his own fate depends upon
the fate of his entire group will ready and even eager to take over a fair
share of responsibility for its welfare».
Secondly, if the group’s task is such that members of the group are
dependent on each other for achievement, then a powerful dynamic is
created. «These implications can be positive or negative. In the former
case one person’s success either directly facilitates others’ success of,
in the strongest case, is actually necessary for those others to succeed
also… In negative interdependence – known more usually as competi-
tion – one person’s success is another’s failure».
http://infed.org/mobi/kurt-lewin-groups-experiential-learning-
and-action-research/
http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/lewin.htm
Bruce Tuckman (rec. 10.2)
Bruce Wayne Tuckman (1938- ) is probably best known for a short
article – ‘Developmental sequence in small groups’ first published in
1965. However, the vast bulk of his published work has been concerned
more broadly with educational research and educational psychology.
Currently Bruce W. Tuckman directs the Academic Learning Lab at
Ohio State University (from 1998).
The forming–storming–norming–performing-adjourning model
of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965,
who mentioned that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in or-
der for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to
find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results.

168
Bruce W. Tuckman’s model is linear (sometimes described as
‘successive-stage’). A number of other theorists have proposed cyclical
models. An example of how this may occur comes from Bales (1965).
He argued that group members tend to seek a balance between accom-
plishing the task and building interpersonal relationships in the group.
At one point the focus will be on the former, at another on the latter. The
result is, effectively, a movement between norming and performing. Be-
low Tuckman’s initial model is represented in a way that follows the
same phases but allows for issues recurring at different points in a
group’s life.

http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperfor
ming.htm
http://infed.org/mobi/bruce-w-tuckman-forming-storming-norming-
and-performing-in-groups/

169
Unit 11. Cultures

11.1
Basic Vocabulary - see V1, p. 146
Additional Vocabulary
Tr. 11.1: hospitality, superficial, friendship and bonding.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Составляющие культуры – это не только определенная
территория, но и такие феномены, как обычаи, традиции и
ценности. 2. Национальная кухня – важнейший элемент культуры,
поскольку повседневная еда может совершенно отличаться в
разных странах. 3. Правила поведения и этикета относятся к
национальной культуре, например, правила гостеприимства
совершенно различны в восточных и западных странах. Отношение
к дружеским связям также является важным культурным аспектом.
4. Культурное наследие России настолько богато, что многие
культурные объекты входят в список мирового культурного
наследия. 5. Многие исторические события и отражающие их
памятные даты требуют более глубокого понимания. Их оценка
зачастую поверхностна, что совершенно неоправданно. 6.
Совершенно невероятно, что некоторые суеверия до сих пор
чрезвычайно сильны в национальном сознании. 7. Секты обычно
вызывают жесткую критику у людей, потому что они разрушают
традиционные ценности, например, традиции гостеприимства и
дружеские связи.

11.2, 11.3
Basic Vocabulary – see V2 – V5, p. 146.
Additional Vocabulary
Texts pp. 111: underlying causes, systems of values, etc.
170
Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-
cabulary.
1. Мой друг сказал, что чувствовал себя разочарованным и
изолированным, когда переехал. Он добавил, что гостеприимство
и дружелюбие местных жителей оказалось только поверхностным.
2. В послевоенный период возникли многие контркультуры, чьи
ценности, обычаи и жизненные ритуалы совершенно отличались
от традиционных субкультур. 3. Правонарушитель заявил, что
причиной, лежащей в основе его асоциального поведения были
непонимание, враждебность и неадекватные реакциями местного
сообщества. 4. Тот факт, что письмо было датировано задним
числом, казался интригующим. 5. Преподаватель по истории
объяснил нам, что многие традиции, обычаи и суеверия, а также
лежащие в их основе системы ценностей предшествуют
(возникли раньше) XX веку. 6. Культурный шок нередко вызывает
в беженцах враждебные реакции по отношению ко многим
аспектам новой культуры, в том числе к правилам этикета,
жизненным ритуалам и повседневной еде. 7. Столкнувшись с
враждебностью в чужой стране и вернувшись на родину, многие
иммигранты признавались, что переставали чувствовать себя
разочарованными и изолированными, как только видели знакомую
местность. 8. Мой друг говорил, что узы дружбы между нациями
способствуют глобальному взаимопониманию, а враждебность
является причиной, лежащей в основе неравенства и конфликтов.

Grammar
More on Reporting Verbs
• Verbs followed by that + clause (with * can be followed by a
person)
171
add confirm feel predict say
admit consider hope promise* state
agree decide imply reassure * suggest
announce deny insist reckon suppose
argue doubt mean remark tell*
believe estimate mention repeat think
claim expect* object reply threaten
complain explain persuade report* warn*

• Verbs followed by person + to


advise forbid invite persuade remind warn tell ask
instruct order
• Verbs followed by subjunctive or should
Most of these verbs can also be used in the other ways given.
As these verbs contain the sense that someone 'should do' some-
thing, should can follow them.
They suggested that she should apply again.
More formally, the subjunctive can be used instead of should. This
is formed from the base of the verb (without third person V).
They suggested that she apply again.
Some other verbs of this type are:
advise (also: someone to do/against something)
agree (also: to do something, that + clause)
demand (also: to do something)
insist (also: on someone doing something)
prefer (also: someone to do something)
propose (also: doing something)
recommend (also: doing something)
request (also: someone to do something)
suggest (also: that + clause)
urge (also: someone to do something)
• Verbs which can be followed by that + clause containing would
172
All these verbs report statements containing will. These verbs can
also be followed by 'to do something'.
I’ll leave at 8.00.
She decided to leave at 8.00.
She decided (that) she would leave at 8.00.
Others are: expect, hope, promise, threaten.

Exercise 1. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sen-


tence.
a) The government spokesperson denied/refused that there was a
crisis.
b) Jane said me/told me there was nothing the matter.
c) Peter persuaded me/insisted me to stay to dinner.
d) The director of studies advised me/suggested me to spend more
time in the library.
e) Sheila explained me/warned me not to leave the heater on all
night.
f) The chairperson mentioned us/reminded us that time was ex-
tremely short.
g) Bill answered them/replied them with a detailed description of
his plans.
h) Michael and Sarah announced/reported that they were going to
get married,
i) Paul accepted/expected that he had made a mistake, and apolo-
gised,
j) The manager confirmed/reassured that our room had been re-
served.

Exercise 2. Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, using the


verbs given in the appropriate verb form. Some may be negative.
a) 'I think I'll take the brown pair/ said the customer. (decide) (de-
cide) + (will) (say) + (will)
173
b) 'Me? No, I didn't take Sue's calculator.' said Bob. (deny)
c) 'Don't forget to buy some milk, Andy,' said Clare. (remind) (say)
+ (should) (remind) + (need)
d) 'I'm sorry I couldn't come on Saturday,' said David. (say) +
(could) (say) + (be able to) (apologise for)
e) 'Why don't you go back to Singapore, Brian?' I said. (ask) + (do)
(suggest) + (should) (suggest)
f) 'Make sure you don't take the A20, Tim,' said Jack. (say) +
(should) (warn)

Exercise 3. Underline the most suitable word to complete each


sentence.
a) I thought Jim would say something about his new job. But he
didn't mention/state/declare it.
b) Sorry, I wasn't being insulting. I simply offered/reassured/re-
marked that you seem to have put on rather a lot of weight recently.
c) The police requested/estimated/advised that the crowd was un-
der 50,000, although the organisers of the march put it at nearer 100,000.
d) The children complained/threatened/persuaded that their par-
ents were always checking up on them.
e) It has been objected/hoped/predicted that by the year 2050 some
capital cities will be almost uninhabitable because of the effects of air
pollution.
f) During the months before Smith's transfer from City, it had been
rumoured/doubted/threatened that he and the manager had come to
blows in the dressing-room, though this was denied by the club.
g) Brown forbade/recommended/claimed that the arresting offic-
ers had treated him roughly, and that one of them had punched him in
the eye.
h) An army spokesman stressed that all troops patrolling the
streets had been denied/ordered/announced to issue clear warnings be-
fore firing any shots.
174
i) Although he didn't say so directly, the Prime Minister told/or-
dered/suggested that an agreement between the two sides was within
reach.
j) The witness suggested/insisted/gave her name and address to the
court before the cross-examination began.

Exercise4. Complete the text with one word in each space.


The case of the break-in at a Cambridge home entered its third day
today. The accused's defence was based on the fact that he (1) not have
entered the house at 6.30. He claimed (2) have been playing football at
the time, and stated that several witnesses could confirm this. At this
point, the prosecution (3) him of changing his story, as he had previ-
ously stated that he had been at home at the (4) of the break-in. The
defendant agreed that his memory (5) not in the best of shape, as he had
been (6) from bouts of depression. The judge stepped in, reminding the
defendant that he (7) taken an oath to tell the truth, and warning (8) of
the severe consequences of lying in court. The defendant said that he
had simply forgotten (9) the football match, and insisted (10) he was not
changing his story.

Exercise 5. Using the information in the e-mail as a guide, com-


plete each space in the letter with a verb. The first letters of the
verbs have been given.
TO: Roberts.hifi.co.uk
FROM: Dave@electricalsupplies.com
We are sorry that our computer ordering system went on the blink
last week.
Don't worry, the system is now up and running again, but we think
goods will arrive 2 or 3 days late. I'd guess the goods you've just ordered
should arrive round about Thursday. Thanks a lot for telling us about
the problem with the ZP200. You'll be pleased to know the problem's
been put right now. Re the exhibition you're organising, it seems you
175
want to return any goods you don't sell. We're certainly interested, yes,
but could I ask for more details before I let you know. Finally, just to
tell you, as of 1st May our warehouse is now open 24 hours a day!

Dear Mrs Henderson,


We would like to (1) a… for the failure of our computer ordering
system last week. Please (2) b… reassured that the system is now fully
functional again. It is (3) a… that the goods ordered will be delayed by
two or three working days. The (4) e… arrival time for your latest order
is Thursday.
We are grateful to you for (5) r… the defect in the ZP200 model.
We are happy to (6) a… that the defect has now been remedied. You (7)
m… the possibility of taking goods from us 'on sale or return' at an ex-
hibition you are organising. We can certainly (8) c… our interest, but
we would like to (9) r… further information before we commit ourselves
to a decision.
Please be (10) a… that as of 1 May our warehouse is now open 24
hours a day.
Yours sincerely,
David Smith.

Broaden Your Horizons


Get ready to retell and discuss the text.
Reverse culture shock: What, when, and how to cope (p. 108)
Moving home isn't always easy – many who repatriate feel differ-
ent and utterly out of touch. Just like expatriation, repatriation has its
psychological phases that are unexpected and daunting. Most notably,
encountering reverse culture shock when returning home is a surprising
situation that's overlooked by both expats returning and their businesses
calling to come home.
Like culture shock, reverse culture shock has a number of stages;
imagine this to be a U-shape curve. At first, you may be excited to return
176
home – seeing friends and family members, wearing the rest of your
wardrobe, and eating at your favourite restaurants.
This initial euphoria eventually wears off, and that's when you find
yourself feeling out of place in your own culture. This is the experience
of reverse culture shock; it's the bottom of the curve and often the rough-
est part.
The good news is, although it may take time, you will begin a
gradual adjustment back towards feeling comfortable with where and
whom you are.
«Reverse culture shock is experienced when returning to a place
that one expects to be home but actually is no longer, is far more subtle,
and therefore, more difficult to manage than outbound shock precisely
because it is unexpected and unanticipated», says Dean Foster, founder
and president of a firm that specialises in intercultural training and
coaching worldwide.
Foster explains that expats learn over their time in a host country
«...to behave and think like the locals, to greater or lesser degrees, while
on international assignment».
«By the time most traditional international assignments come to
an end several years may have passed, providing the international as-
signee a significant amount of time to learn new patterns of behavior
and thought necessary to fit into their host country».
As strange as it sounds, expats become less and less familiar with
their home stomping grounds. Returning brings a blanket of fog on per-
ception, like an audience member walking around in a setting that’s fa-
miliar but still unreal.
Robin Pascoe, author of Homeward Bound, writes: «Re-entry
shock is when you feel like you are wearing contact lenses in the wrong
eyes. Everything looks almost right».

Simply put, being an expat is such a lengthy and deep international


experience it brings about great professional and personal changes. Old
177
norms and values from your home country are viewed from a fresh per-
spective, and expats and their families see things in a new light; some-
thing like Dorothy going from black and white to Technicolor.
In addition, expats can begin to feel frustrated or confused when
their close friends and family are anything but curious and intrigued
about their experience. After all, the expat was gone to a foreign land
for years, with sights, sounds and smells exotic and new.
Expats returning home can expect their top re-entry challenges be-
ing:
Boredom
No one wants to listen
You can’t explain
Reverse homesickness
Relationships have changed
People see 'wrong' changes
People misunderstand you
Feelings of alienation
Inability to apply new knowledge and skills
Loss/compartmentalisation of experience
How to deal with reverse shock

Share your experience with others
Although you might feel like no one wants to listen, there will be close
ones who will support you with open ears and honest interest.
Start a blog, contact friends you made as an expat, or write articles –
find new ways to incorporate your urge to share stories with an audience
who will listen intently.
Maintain your style and stay international
Things might be different, people (including yourself) might have
changed, but this doesn’t mean a 'repat' should give up character and
interest learned from abroad just to fit in. Maintain your lifestyle, from
the food you ate abroad to the nature of your evolving personality.
Ask for training
178
From an occupational point of view, to help expats have a success-
ful repatriation Foster recommends training courses not just for the em-
ployee but the entire family that is returning. Training will assess and
value those changes, and see the ways their home country has changed
while they were abroad.
In the end, the transition requires patience and even more of an
open mind than before. Careful preparation will ease the bumps experi-
enced on the ride home for the entire family. Brace yourself for the
shock and enjoy the unique thrills of seeing your home from this differ-
ent and, in a sense 'far out', perspective.
http://www.expatica.com/nl/moving-to/Moving-home-Reverse-
culture-shock_104957.html

179
Unit 12. Technology.

12.1
Basic Vocabulary - see V1, V2, p. 148

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. На твоем месте я покупал бы только самые современные
приборы, поскольку они удобные и долго служат. 2. Если бы ты
вчера не нашел банкомат, мы бы сейчас были без наличных. 3.
Если бы «умные» приборы и современные устройства заменили
все устаревшую домашнюю технику, выполнение работы по дому
занимало бы меньше времени. 4. Если бы дыхательный аппарат
не был изобретен, дайвинг никогда бы не стал таким популярным.
5. Если бы современные «зеленые» технологии не были удобными
для потребителей и не служили долго, люди до сих бы
пользовались устаревшими приборами и устройствами. 6. Если
бы двигатель (внутреннего сгорания) нашей машины был более
экологичным, ее выбросы были бы менее вредными. 7. Если бы
домашняя техника в прошлом веке была такая, как сейчас,
домашние обязанности не были бы таким тяжким бременем. 8.
Если бы современные экономящие труд устройства продавались
по разумной цене, их производители получали бы гораздо большую
выгоду. 9. Если бы ученые не совершили технологический прорыв,
экономящие труд устройства и «умные» приборы не были бы
такими долговечными и удобными для потребителей. 10. Если бы
технические достижения прошлого века не проложили дорогу для
самых современных технологий, многих «умных» приборов,
экономящих труд устройств и домашней техники могло бы
сейчас не существовать.

12.2, 12.3
180
Basic Vocabulary - see V3, p. 148
Additional Vocabulary
Text p. 118: self-sufficiency, close-knit community.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences, using active vo-


cabulary.
1. Технофобам давно пора перестать относиться к
современной технологиям с недоверием. 2. Если неравенство
между большинством населения и маргинальными группами не
будет ликвидировано, чувства вражды и изоляции будут
сохраняться в обществе. 3. Хотел бы я, чтобы все неэффективные
меры, принятые в результате плохого руководства, были отменены
(start with I wish/If only). 4. Если бы не современные практичные
экономящие труд устройства, было бы очень неудобно вести
хозяйство. 5. Вчера ты вел себя так, как будто ты бесчувственный
и эгоистичный. 6. Мой режим работы неудобный, хотел бы я иметь
более гибкое расписание (I wish/if only). 7. Совету директоров пора
положить конец неподобающему поведению некоторых
менеджеров на работе. 8. Если бы не неточные прогнозы и плохое
управление, мы бы не потеряли столько прибыли. 9. Хотелось бы
мне, чтобы ты не проявлял свою враждебность и недоверие на
переговорах (start with I'd rather). 10. Нам пора сменить свою
устаревшую домашнюю технику на современную и
износостойкую. 11. Если бы не самодостаточность нашего тесно
сплоченного сообщества, мы бы чувствовали себя
разочарованными и изолированными в этом враждебном мире. 12.
Мотор у твоей машины никак не работает как следует. Хотел бы
я, чтобы ты хоть раз послушал меня и отвез ее на ремонт (I wish).
13. Если бы современное компьютерное оборудование не было
таким дорогим, больше людей могли бы позволить себе купить его.
14. Ты смотришь на него с таким недоверием и неприязнью, как

181
будто он когда-то издевался над тобой, хотя он не такой
бесчувственный, чтобы так поступать.

Grammar
Additional Explanations (Variations)

• If only
This adds emphasis to hypothetical situations. With past events it
adds a sense of regret. The second part of the sentence is often left out.
If only I had enough time!
If only I hadn't drunk too much, this wouldn't have happened!

• Unless and other alternatives to if


Unless means only if not.
I'll go ahead and get the tickets unless you call me this afternoon.
(This means if you call me this afternoon, I won't get the tickets.)
This means if one situation depends on another, if can be replaced
by as/so long as, provided or only if.
I'll do what you say provided the police are not informed.
Even if describes how something will happen whatever the condi-
tion.
Even if it rains, we'll still go for a picnic.

• Should
After if, this makes the possibility of an event seem unlikely.
If you should see Ann, could you ask her to call me?
(This implies that I do not expect you to see Ann.)

• Were to
This also makes an event seem more hypothetical.
If I were to ask you to marry me, what would you say?

182
• Happen to
This emphasises chance possibilities. It is often used with should.
If you happen to see Helen, could you ask her to call me?
If you should happen to be passing, drop in for a cup of tea.

• If it were not for/if it hadn 't been for/ but for


This describes how one event depends on another and must be fol-
lowed by a noun form.
If it weren't for Jim, this company would be in a mess.
If it hadn't been for their goalkeeper, United would have lost.
But for your help, we would have been in trouble.

• Supposing, otherwise
Supposing or suppose can replace if, mainly in everyday speech.
Supposing you won the football pools, what would you do?
Otherwise means 'or if not'. It can go at the beginning or end of the
sentence.
If you hadn't given us directions, we wouldn't have found the
house.
Thanks for your directions to the house. We wouldn't have found
it otherwise.

• It's time, it's high time


These are followed by past simple or continuous, though the time
referred to is unreal.
It's time we left. It's high time I was going.

• Wish
Notice the past verb forms after wish. These are wishes where you
want to change a present/future state.
I wish I had a motorbike. (I don't have one now.)
I wish you weren't leaving. (You are leaving.)
183
I wish I was going on holiday with you next week. (I am not going.)
Would after wish is used when the speaker wants somebody or
something else to change.
I wish he would change his mind and marry Jane.
I wish it would stop raining.
The use with would is often used to describe an annoying habit.
I wish you wouldn't make such a mess.
As with present wishes, the verb form after wish is one stage fur-
ther back in the past. These are wishes referring to a past event, which
cannot be changed.
I wish I hadn't eaten so much.
This use of wish is common after if only to express regrets.

• I'd rather
I'd rather is followed by past verb forms in the same way as wishes
about the present. It expresses preference about actions.
I'd rather you didn't smoke in here.
Both I'd rather and I'd sooner are used with normal verb forms
when comparing nouns or phrases.
I'd rather be a sailor than a soldier, (present)
I'd rather have lived in Ancient Greece than Ancient Rome, (past)

• I'd prefer
I'd prefer can be used in the same way, but note that prefer in this
type of sentence has an object it.
I'd prefer it if you didn't go.
However, I'd prefer is not followed by an unreal verb form in other
situations.
I'd prefer tea to coffee.
I'd prefer you to go swimming (rather than go jogging).

• As if, as though
184
Real and unreal
The verb form here depends on whether the situation is true or
unreal.
You look as if you're having second thoughts. (True. He is having
second thoughts.)
He acts as if he were in charge. (Unreal. He isn't in charge.)
I feel as if an express train had hit me. (It didn't hit me.)
Note however, that the more colloquial like does not require this
verb form change. Compare:
You look like you've just seen a ghost
You look as if you'd just seen a ghost.

Exercise 1. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate verb


form.
a) Now we're lost! If you (write down) Mary’s directions, this
(not/happen).
b) Why don't we emigrate? If we (live) in Australia, at least the
weather (be) better!
c) I'm afraid that Smith is a hardened criminal. If we (not/punish)
him this time, he (only/commit) more crimes.
d) Thanks to Dr Jones, I'm still alive! If it (not/be) for her, I (be)
dead for certain.
e) I'm sorry I can't lend you any money. You know that if I (have)
it, I (lend) it to you.
f) Don't be afraid. If you (touch) the dog, it (not/bite).
g) In those days, if you (have) a job, you (be) lucky.
h) It's always the same! If I (decide) to leave the office early, my
boss (call) me after I've left!
i) What a terrible thing to happen! Just think, if we (not/miss) the
plane, we (kill) in the crash.
j) Did you enjoy your meal? If you (finish) eating, I (clear away)
the plates.
185
Exercise 2. Decide whether each sentence is grammatically
possible or not.
a) If you haven't received a letter yet, you haven't got the job.
b) If it isn't for David, we are missing the bus.
c) If it's raining, we go to the pub on the corner instead.
d) If you didn't lend us the money, we would have gone to the
bank.
e) If you should happen to change your mind, drop me a line.
f) If it wasn't for the rain, we would have been home by now.
g) If you will drive so fast, no wonder the police keep stopping
you.
h) If I knew you were coming, I would have met you at the airport.
i) But for you helped us, we would have taken much longer.
j) If Jack joins the team, I'm leaving.

Exercise 3. Finish the sentences by ticking the correct option


(a-c).
1) If you'd told me you were coming
a) I can get some food in.
b) I'd have found us something to eat.
c) I made a lovely dish.

2) If you're too ill to come


a) I'll come over and see you.
b) I wouldn't have done all this for you.
c) I asked someone else.

3) If I'd known you weren't coming


a) I wouldn't be very upset.
b) I would like to know why.
c) I wouldn't have gone to so much trouble.
186
4) If you're not coming
a) perhaps you'd have the courtesy to tell me.
b) we'd never have met.
c) you'd be so lucky.

5) If only you'd come


a) I'll be the happiest girl alive.
b) I'd have had a lovely time.
c) I would look forward to it.

6) If you do decide to come


a) the party's always a success.
b) I won't be coming either.
c) let me know.

7) If you really don't want to come


a) I'll understand.
b) I can't be sure.
c) tell me tomorrow.

Exercise 4. Complete each sentence with a phrase containing


the verb in brackets in an appropriate form.
b) If it (rain) I would have gone out for a walk.
c) If you'd told me it was a surprise party, I (say) anything to Uncle
Dave!
d) Thanks for your help with the garden; I (do) otherwise.
e) If only Mick had come to the disco, then we (have) a great time!
f) (pay) the phone bill today, the phone will be cut off.
g) If I (had) your tools, I wouldn't have been able to fix the car.
h) Those wires look a bit dangerous; (touch) if I were you.
i) If (be) the goalkeeper's heroics, we would have lost the match.
187
a) If I were (say) loved you, what would you do?

Exercise 5. Complete each second sentence so that the meaning


is similar to the first sentence.
a) I wish you were a bit tidier.
I wish you would
b) I wish you were more interested in your school work.
I wish you would
c) I wish I spoke more languages.
I wish I could
d) I wish I had enough money to buy a car.
I wish I could
e) I wish they had more chess books in the library.
I wish the library would
f) I wish there was some soap in the bathroom.
I wish the cleaners would
g) I just wish my partner was a bit more romantic!
I just wish my partner would

Exercise 6. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate verb


form.
a) I'd rather you (not/watch) television while I'm reading.
b) It's high time you (start) working seriously.
c) I wish I (spend) more time swimming last summer.
d) Helen is bossy. She acts as if she (own) the place.
e) I wish you (not/keep) coming late to class.
f) Suppose a complete stranger (leave) you a lot of money in their
will!
g) I wish I (go) to your party after all.
h) I'd rather you (sit) next to Susan, please.
i) You are lucky going to Italy. I wish I (go) with you.

188
Broaden Your Horizons
Get ready to retell and discuss the text.
Pushing Boundaries in Agriculture (p. 120)
Rob Saik, a professional agrologist and a certified agriculture con-
sultant asks a question: «Do you believe that agriculture can feed 9 bil-
lion people? The real question is will agriculture be allowed to feed 9
billion people?»
«I believe the anti-science movement is the biggest threat to global
food security today. The voices of science are being drowned out by the
voices of fear and paranoia», he says.
Saik believe that the technology to feed people already exists. He
urges to celebrate the accomplishments of fertilizer, pesticides and ge-
netic engineering in boosting agricultural production while also provid-
ing more sustainable ways of farming.
For example, Bt crops have lowered pesticide use, he says, while
adoption of GMOs in Brazil has helped relieve pressure to tear down
rainforests by increasing yields on land already converted to agriculture.
He asks the provocative question, «Could the future of food pro-
duction be genetically modified organic food production?» saying that
the ideology of the organic movement could be met with GM technol-
ogy.
However, the anti-GMO movement is very popular. The 'mob'
mentality has forced the sentiment into borderline threatening, espe-
cially where the GMO research community is concerned. This has
coaxed many scientists in the field into undercover research lab loca-
tions and anonymously published work.
But is this distrust in its place or have the masses misinterpreted
the pros and cons of genetic modification?
Kevin Folta, head of Horticultural Sciences at the University of
Florida, believes that much of the aggression directed at GMOs is a re-
sult of poor communication and lack of transparency from the larger

189
GMO producing companies that have become synonymous with the re-
search.
The GMO 'big six' are the largest producers of genetically modi-
fied seeds in the world, including Syngenta, Bayer, Dow and, arguably
the most recognisable name of the bunch, Monsanto.
While Folta agrees that Monsanto should be more willing to inter-
act with the general public about their GMO concerns, he argues that
most are still resistant when approached by non-affiliated scientists.
"I'm no big corporate friend. I look at the data, and we make the
decisions. We try to distill, for the public, what does the science tell us?
Frequently it tells them a story they don't want to hear."
Samuel Hutton, a colleague of Folta's at the University of Florida,
and a tomato breeder, says the way forward for GMO acceptance might
be utilising natural genes in their modifications, versus man-made solu-
tions.
For example, using the Bs2 gene found in peppers to help stop the
bacterial spot problem spreading across Florida's tomato crop.
«It is a natural gene. We know the protein product, we know what
it does, we know it's safe. And so something like that, a natural defence
gene, would come across more palatable to some people», confirms Hat-
ton.
From within camp 'no GMO', it is clear that the fight for ac-
ceptance of GMOs remains a steep, uphill climb. In the two decades
since GMOs have been commercially available, a consistent distaste for
the mere mention of genetic modification is as evident as ever.
«The public needs to know that something is going into their food
that shouldn't really be there», says Lorna Paisely of the Label GMOs
group. Several states, including Maine and Vermont, have already
passed laws requiring labels on food products that include GMOs.
Food outlets and supermarkets have become so concerned about
their business and the so-called 'Monsanto effect' of using GMO foods,

190
that many have given in to the calls for labelling and even phasing out
all GMO products.
However, questions remain. But what are the environmental im-
plications of genetically modified organisms? Is the anti-GMO move-
ment too judgmental or are their concerns in the right place? And finally,
who can the consumer trust in the battle for or against GMOs?
http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/techknow/2016/08/anti-
gmo-foods-movement-science-160803083735422.html
https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2015/01/27/tedx-talk-
how-the-organic-movement-became-anti-gmo/

191
Stop and Check 4

1. Complete the sentences with a relative pronoun and, if re-


quired, a preposition.
1. The manager__________they were discussing the situation
knew nothing about the recent incident.
2. Bullying has become a serious problem _________ needs to be
tackled by every institution.
3. Parents _________children are being bullied usually notice a
change in behaviour and attitude before they realise what is happening.
4. The one result of the survey_______ surprised all of us showed
that nearly every member of staff felt they had been bullied at some
point of their working lives.
5. Company bosses seem to have little sympathy with
those______ claim to have been bullied.
6. Her studies in psychology,_______ she completed two years
ago, have helped her enormously in her role as a manager.
7. The accounts,________ they had a meeting yesterday, have
been finalised today.
8. The book was dedicated to the people_______ had helped her
in her research.

2. Join the sentences using reduced relative clauses. Keep the


meaning the same.
1. He acted without authority. This caused anger in the depart-
ment.
He acted without authority,_______.
2. His actions caused the whole department to be angry. As a result
of this, the director gave him an official warning.
The anger of the whole department, , led to an official
warning from the director.

192
3. Criminal profiling was developed in the 1950s. Many police
forces use it nowadays.
Criminal profiling,__________, is used by many police forces
nowadays.
4. I’ve lost my file. It contains all the documents for the meeting.
I’ve lost the file___________ for the meeting.
5. The jewellery is very valuable. It is hidden in the safe.
The jewellery __________ is very valuable.
6. I haven’t met the psychologist. He’s giving a talk this afternoon.
I haven’t met the psychologist ___________ this afternoon.
7. The police have arrested a man. The newspaper described him
as very dangerous.
The police have arrested a man ___________ in the newspaper.

3. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words.


1. You can’t do that! You must be your mind. It’ll never make
any money.
2. They fell with each other last month after a big argument
and haven’t spoken since.
3. The company was broken into separate divisions and sold
to various organisations.
4. I think we need to take out some form of insurance just for
of mind.
5. The company won’t up with people who are not prepared
to work hard.
6. It’s very easy to get working in such a beautiful office.
7. Have you up your mind about which supplier to use this
year?

4. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in


capitals.

193
1. The company which took us over was really our__________.
We would have gone bankrupt otherwise. SAVE
2. Young children are always seeking their parents _________.
APPROVE
3. His has proved to be very useful in this job. DIPLO-
MATIC
4. Jenny is very__________about computers. KNOW
5. His attitude is very and nobody dares to contradict him.
AUTHORITY
6. Their_________to make the necessary changes left the com-
pany in a poor state. REFUSE
7. It’s important to have ____________of leadership at this time.
CONTINUE
8. Her_________has become very erratic recently. BEHAVE

5. Report these statements. Only change the tense if it is nec-


essary. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.
1. I loved studying in Madrid, but I’m glad to be back now.
She said _____________________glad to be back now.
2. We met some lovely people when we were there.
They told me_______________________were there.
3. I was living with a host family when I was in Madrid.
He said_________________was in Madrid.
4. I wish I could have stayed there longer.
He said_________________there longer.
5. We often visit art galleries at weekends.
They told me________________art galleries at weekends.
6. I’m looking for a job at the moment.
She said_______________at the moment.
7. I haven’t seen them for ages.
She said_____________ for ages.

194
6. Complete the reported statements using the verbs given.
1. ‘I didn’t say anything to him.’
DENIED She to him.
2. ‘I think I ought to ask my parents for a loan'.
CONSIDERED He for a loan.
3. ‘Would you like to come to dinner, Jo?’
INVITED I dinner.
4. ‘I’m sorry I couldn’t help you.’
APOLOGISED She me.
5. ‘I should have taken the job.’
REGRETTED She____ the job.
6. I made a mistake.’
ADMITTED He a mistake.
7. ‘I’ll never be late again.’
PROMISED She late again.
8. ‘Make sure you don’t tell anyone
about this.’
WARNED She _____ about it.

7. Complete the sentences with the most appropriate word.


1. He found the way in which life__________ such as births, mar-
riages and deaths are treated in different cultures fascinating to study.
2. They loved the____________ of the region, where the special-
ities included stuffed and curried fish.
3. People from different cultures can sometimes ap-
pear___________ towards each other, but it’s usually caused by a lack
of understanding.
4. It’s important to try and understand the___________of other
cultures, that is, traditions and history passed down from generation to
generation.

195
5. The way the people celebrated birth was___________ and com-
pletely different from anything else they had seen, so they wanted to
find out more.
6. When you go to dinner in a new country, it’s important to un-
derstand the ___________ required.

8. Complete the sentences with a word formed from the word


in capitals. You may need to add a prefix.
1. In our____________society, made up of people from many dif-
ferent countries and backgrounds, it’s important to have respect for oth-
ers. CULTURE
2. It is also very important to develop a____________for attitudes
which are different from your own. TOLERATE
3. The___________ of those with diverse views into a community
is of paramount importance. ADMIT
4. There have been many recent___________ in this area. HOS-
TILE
5. He has made a___________ contribution to his community.
VALUE
6. After the fighting ended, that is, in the__________years, he
worked hard to set up the company. WAR
7. There seems to have been a ____________. That was not what
I meant. UNDERSTAND
8. I hope you got your information from a__________ source.
RELY

9. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into


the most appropriate conditional form.
1. ____________(you/be) happy to work for them if they gave you
the job?
2. If electricity hadn’t been invented, we probably (not have)
all the technology we have today.
196
3. I might not be able to meet you if themeeting___________(run)
later than expected.
4. If he’d really wanted to be a doctor, he___________(study)
harder at university.
5. We (be) unable to access all the information we have today
if the web hadn’t been invented.
6. If you___________(buy) a map as I suggested, we wouldn’t be
stuck in the middle of nowhere now!
7. She wouldn’t have had the accident if she___________ (not
drive) while looking at the map.
8. What____________(you/change) in your life if you had the
chance?
9. Imagine you could have any job you wanted.
What__________(it/be)?
10. We could go on holiday if you __________(think) it’s a good
idea.

10. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences.


1. Supposing / As long as / Unless you won the lottery, what would
you do with the money?
2. We can meet unless / supposing / provided that you have the
time.
3. I can help them as long / provided / if as you bring back my
computer.
4. Provided / Unless / If you give me my computer back, I’ll have
to report the theft to the police.
5. Unless / If / As long I had had time, I would have gone to the
conference last week.

11. Complete the sentenes with the most appropriate word.


1. He has to buy every electronic____________ he sees.

197
2. My kitchen contains many __________ which do every kitchen
job imaginable.
3. We’ve got to buy new household __________when we move
into our own home.
4. They’ve bought some new office___________, so we won’t
have to put up with the printer breaking down every five minutes!
5. Their ideas are __________-edge and have won them many
awards.
6. You need to use long-_______materials for this.
7. How many____________make up the production line in the
factory?
8. When people go into space, they use special breathing
__________ to survive.
9. They come from a very___________-knit community.

12. Complete the text with the appropriate words in the neg-
ative form.
There has been a lot of 1__________ recently with regard to the
value of technology, especially where large organisations seem to be
spying on people. Furthermore, the information we receive from the
press may often be 2_____________, so you can’t believe everything
you hear or read. Technology enables people to do almost anything
these days, however much we may 3____________it. We have allowed
its development to continue unrestrained because we want to improve
4___________systems. But what about the human element of all this?
When a computer generates a standard letter to someone who has just
died, even though the company has been informed, this is extremely
5_____________and upsetting for those who receive the letter. It has
also led to an increase in 6____________, especially amongst children:
those who have all the latest gadgets and computers and those who
don’t.

198
Writing Skills Practice

1. Complete the e-mail with the appropriate words and


phrases (unit 1).
Dear Mr Jones,
Thank you for your email asking me to speak at your conference
next month. I am afraid that I am 1 _____________as I have a prior
2____________in America that week. I can, however, suggest a col-
league of mine, Sally Keeley, who would be happy to take my place.
Please 3_____________her CV and email contact address.
Once again, I would like to 4____________for not being able to
accept your invitation.
5_________ you have any problem contacting Sally, please
6______________to contact me again.
7_____________,
Ellen Matthews

2. Rewrite these recommendations in a more formal way using


the word given (unit 4).
1. Find out as much as you can about any therapist you are con-
sidering seeing.
VITAL _______________as much as you can about any therapist
you are considering seeing.
2. It’s best to check the accuracy of the information on the website.
SHOULD______________ the accuracy of the information on the
website.
3. Don’t try to solve your medical problem only using the internet.
ADVISABLE_____________ your medical problem only using
the internet.
4. Spend time checking your sources carefully.
IDEA ___________ checking your sources carefully.

199
3. Choose the correct option to complete the text (unit 5).
STATE OF TRAFFIC SURVEY RESULTS: AN ARTICLE
According to a survey, in which 2000 people were questioned
about the state of traffic in their towns 1 likewise / in comparison
/whereas to ten years ago, the majority of people felt that traffic had got
much worse than they believed possible. Most people were worried
about the fact that there was 2 however / many / far more pollution on
the roads than ever before, 3 whereas / likewise/ similarly only about 30
percent of respondents thought cars were more energy-efficient and eco-
friendly today.
Less than a quarter believed that the traffic situation in major cit-
ies would not improve over the next ten years. 4 In contrast / More and
more / Similarly, just under a quarter believed that pollution would get
worse. 5 However /Although / Overall, as many as 85 percent felt that it
would be possible to improve the situation provided governments were
willing to invest in new traffic schemes and support the manufacture of
green energy vehicles. Of these, 75 percent thought that governments
would never actually do anything, 6 while / similarly / as 25 percent
believed that governments are already responding positively to the cur-
rent situation. So, there are 7 significantly more / slightly more / far
fewer people who have confidence in the government than there should
be. Although most people feel that increasing traffic is a problem, there
are a few, by 8 way / means / point of contrast, who thought there was
no problem at all to solve.
So, 9 likewise / overall / on the other hand, most people thought
that traffic was becoming 10 more and more / further / slightly less of a
problem and needed dealing with immediately, otherwise there would
be chaos. It is also clear that governments need to work harder to ac-
tively resolve these problems.

4. Choose the correct option to complete the text (unit 11).


Changing people’s perceptions
200
We work with young people from different cultures and back-
grounds, to help them have a more open and respectful attitude towards
others. Firstly, 1 nevertheless / in order to / alternatively help them to
get to know each other, we ask them to get into teams of four 2 provided
that / alternatively / therefore there are at least eight people. We usually
find that they tend to want to stay with what is familiar and choose peo-
ple similar to themselves. 3 Alternatively, / On the contrary, / Therefore,
we have to ask them to create other groups which are more diverse. 4 In
addition, / Similarly, / Provided that, we tell them we want each group
to have two boys and two girls. Some of the boys can often be unhappy
about this, but we insist. 5 In order to, / Therefore, / Similarly, some of
the girls complain and refuse to do the exercise. We tell them that this
isn’t an option and they are holding up everything. You might think that
this would really upset them and that they would refuse to cooperate. 6
On the contrary, / Alternatively, / Similarly, it usually gets people think-
ing about their hates and fears more clearly.

201
Retelling Practice

1. How Well do We Communicate? (unit 1)


Results of bad communication
Poor communication can lead to disastrous results both at work
and in the home. Saying the wrong thing in the wrong way can upset
people and lose their trust and respect and, when people’s feelings are
hurt, they respond negatively. Appreciating the fact that the person you
are with is giving their time and attention to you is extremely important,
especially in business.
Listen more carefully
One area of communication in which most people fail is the skill
of listening. In order to do this effectively, you have to have an open
mind, remain patient and be polite. First of all, try to see the discussion
from
the other person’s perspective. Many of us are too quick to inter-
rupt to either agree or disagree with the speaker or to try and finish what
they are saying because we are in a hurry.
Be more observant
While you are listening, you should also be looking at the other
person and taking note of their non-verbal behaviour. We communicate
a lot by the way we sit and stand, by the expressions on our faceand our
gestures. People’s physical behaviour can let us know if they are un-
comfortable, not telling the truth, disagreeing with us or not understand-
ing what we are saying.

2. Threats to Our Oceans (unit 2).


Overfishing
Over the past decades the world’s oceans and marine life have
been severely affected by human activity. So many fish have been taken
out of the oceans that a lot of fish stocks are close to extinction. Popular

202
fish like cod, tuna and snapper are already at an all-time low and yet
people are still fishing for them in a non-sustainable fashion.
Pollution
It is estimated that about 5.5 billion kilograms of rubbish ends up
in the oceans, a lot of it plastic, which kills more than one million sea-
birds and 100,000 marine mammals every year. This damages or de-
stroys many fish populations, their migration routes and their feeding
and breeding areas. Much of this litter is dropped from sea-going vessels
or left on beaches by tourists.
Global climate change
The changing climate is melting the ice at the poles and therefore
sea levels are rising, which will result in the flooding of large areas of
land. In fact, nearly 650 million people could be affected by this type of
disaster. The climate changes are also causing the ocean to become more
acidic and therefore damaging or destroying natural habitats for ocean
dwellers.
Oil, gas and mining
Billions of gallons of oil leak into the oceans every year. This is a
terrifying amount of pollution. Deep-sea mining can also damage the
sea bed and destroy the rare marine life that lives there.
Coastal development
The popularity of tourism to exotic places has damaged sensitive
habitats like coral reefs, which, in turn, affects the fish that depend on
these reefs. Another result of increased visitors to an area is the increase
in waste water containing bacteria.

3. How to Be a World-Class Sportsperson (unit 3).


A strong mental attitude is the one thing that will differentiate
those who win medals and those who do not. Even if someone is ex-
tremely talented at asport, without the right attitude, they may not be
able to convert their talent into winning trophies.

203
Experts all agree that a positive attitude should be the default set-
ting of a high-achieving sportsperson. However, they should not pursue
perfection, but excellence. After all, none of us is perfect.
Another important element is to set realistic goals in order to limit
disappointment, but they should be high enough to maintain motivation.
Once the goals are agreed upon, then a detailed plan for achieving them
must be developed.
Athletes often talk about visualising themselves winning or per-
forming well at competitions and this is a tool which is very useful, but
the visualisations need to be both detailed and realistic if they are to be
of any lasting benefit.
An athlete’s concentration must never wander during a competi-
tion. There are many distractions at competitions and a successful
sportsperson is able to maintain or regain his focus at all times.
These days, athletes do not only train hard physically, but also un-
dergo extensive mental training in order to reach their goals.

5. The Future of Medicine (unit 5).


The future of medicine is already here. As technology continues
to advance at an ever- increasing pace, scientists are working hard to
make use of the inventions and systems being developed. Often, great
ideas are developed by accident and at other times, after years of dedi-
cated studies.
One great discovery which could save millions of lives is a gel
which can stop bleeding. It uses a natural substance which can help cells
in the body grow together. Spare- part technology will probably also be
par for the course in the near future as scientists are finding more and
more ways of reproducing human tissue outside the body. The science
of this is now moving to a cellular level and it will soon be possible to
create specific cells. 3D printers have been around for quite a while, but
scientists at Washington State University have developed a very special
material to be used in these printers which has the same properties as
204
human bone. This means that if you break an arm or a leg,for example,
they will be able to create a bone which can be implanted while the real
bone grows successfully around it. The artificial bone would then disin-
tegrate.

6. The Value of Literature (unit 6).


Literature can be defined as the body of written works, both fiction
and non-fiction, of a language, period or culture. However, in this mod-
ern world of mass communication, can everything that is written be de-
fined as literature? Surely, it needs to have some lasting benefit for so-
ciety if it is to be classed as such?
People say that true literature is a reflection of real life and human
experiences and emotions. Contemporary literature is obviously a won-
derful way of giving the reader and historians a view of life through the
eyes of others into how people lived at a particular time. Not only do
they reflect the way people spoke, but how they thought, what they
wore, how they lived and the prevailing political conditions. On the
other hand, historical novels or non-fiction written today have to be
well- researched in order to get as close as possible to the reality of the
time on which they are based.
For many, in order to be regarded as a classic piece of literature, a
novel has to stand the test of time as well as tell a good story. There are
many other criteria that the author of such a novel should fulfil, some of
which include the ability to draw the reader to its characters and leave a
lasting impression. It is the closest we can get to being another person
as it allows us to imagine a different life through the words and experi-
ences of fictional characters.
Children should be encouraged as early as possible to read as it
broadens their perspectives on the world and helps them to understand
others who live in very different worlds and circumstances.

7. God's Architect Antoni Gaudi (unit 7).


205
Barcelona is famous for its buildings by Antoni Gaudi, who was
born in 1852. Today, people travel thousands of miles to look at his
iconic buildings. Gaudi’s use of colour has influenced the buildings
around the whole of the city. He preferred to use the shapes that he found
in nature in his designs. Gaudi's work was influenced by his passions in
life: architecture, nature, and religion. Gaudi considered every detail of
his creations and integrated into his architecture such crafts as ceramics,
stained glass, wrought ironwork forging and carpentry. He also intro-
duced new techniques in the treatment of materials, such as waste ce-
ramic pieces.
Under the influence of neo-Gothic art and Oriental techniques,
Gaudi became part of the Modernista movement which was reaching its
peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His work transcended
mainstream Modernisme, culminating in an organic style inspired by
natural forms. Gaudi rarely drew detailed plans of his works, instead
preferring to create them as three-dimensional scale models and mold-
ing the details as he conceived them.
Gaudi's work enjoys global popularity and continuing admiration
and study by architects. His masterpiece, the still-incomplete Sagrada
Familia, is the most-visited monument in Spain. Between 1984 and
2005, seven of his works were declared World Heritage Sites by
UNESCO. Gaudi's Roman Catholic faith intensified during his life and
religious images appear in many of his works. This earned him the nick-
name "God's Architect".
Architects around the world admire Gaudi’s designs, which are
extremely distinctive in both colour and shape. He utilised a lot of mo-
saic patterns in his work, many of which are clearly demonstrated in the
Park Guell, where you can also visit the small house in which he once
lived. His work represents a major brilliant creative contribution to the
development of building technology at the turn of the 20th century. It
also influenced a lot of construction techniques used in the 20th century.

206
8. Global Justice (unit 8).
The global justice movement is the loose collection of individuals
and groups—often referred to as a "movement of movements"—who
advocate fair trade rules and perceive current institutions of global eco-
nomic integration as problems. The movement is often labeled an anti-
globalization movement by the mainstream media. Those involved,
however, frequently deny that they are anti-globalization, insisting that
they support the globalization of communication and people and oppose
only the global expansion of corporate power.
The movement is based in the idea of social justice, desiring the
creation of a society or institution based on the principles of equality
and solidarity, the values of human rights, and the dignity of every hu-
man being. Social inequality within and between nations, including a
growing global digital divide, is a focal point of the movement. Critics
of globalization argue that globalization results in weak labor unions:
the surplus in cheap labor coupled with an ever-growing number of
companies in transition weakened labor unions in high-cost areas. Un-
ions become less effective and workers their enthusiasm for unions
when membership begins to decline. They also cite an increase in the
exploitation of child labor: countries with weak protections for children
are vulnerable to infestation by rogue companies and criminal gangs
who exploit them.
Many nongovernmental organizations have now arisen to fight
these inequalities that many in Latin America, Africa and Asia face. A
few very popular and well known non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) include: War Child, Red Cross, Free The Children and CARE
International. They often create partnerships where they work towards
improving the lives of those who live in developing countries by build-
ing schools, fixing infrastructure, cleaning water supplies, purchasing
equipment and supplies for hospitals, and other aid efforts.

9. Mona Lisa (unit 9).


207
The Mona Lisa or La Gioconda is a half-length portrait of Lisa
Gherardini by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci, which
has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written
about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".
The painting is a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco
del Giocondo, and is believed to have been painted between 1503 and
1506. Leonardo may have continued working on it as late as 1517. The
portrait was commissioned by Lisa’s husband, Francesco Del Giocondo,
a wealthy silk merchant from Italy. He wanted it to celebrate the build-
ing of a new home and the birth of their second son. However, Leonardo
never delivered the painting to his client for reasons unbeknown to all,
although this has led to fascinating speculation!
It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the prop-
erty of the French Republic, on permanent display at the Louvre Mu-
seum in Paris since 1797.
The subject's expression, which is frequently described as enig-
matic, the monumentality of the composition, the subtle modelling of
forms, and the atmospheric illusionism were novel qualities that have
contributed to the continuing fascination and study of the work.
During the 20th century it was an object for mass reproduction,
merchandising, lampooning and speculation, and was claimed to have
been reproduced in 300 paintings and 2,000 advertisements
From December 1962 to March 1963, the French government lent
it to the United States to be displayed in New York City and Washing-
ton, D.C. In New York an estimated 1.7 million people queued "in order
to cast a glance at the Mona Lisa for 20 seconds or so." In 1974, the
painting was exhibited in Tokyo and Moscow.
More than nine million people visit the Louvre every year , and
one of its former directors reckoned that 80 percent of the people only
want to see the Mona Lisa.

10. Peer Pressure (unit 10).


208
Imitation plays a large role in childrens' lives; in order to pick up
skills and techniques that they use in their own life, children are always
searching for behaviors and attitudes around them that they can co-opt.
Children are aware of their position in the social hierarchy from a young
age: their instinct is to defer to adults' judgements and majority opinions.
A study done on groups of preschool children showed that they were
influenced by groups of their peers to change their opinion to a demon-
strably wrong one.
Peer pressure becomes a mmajor problem during adolescence. Ad-
olescence is the time when a person is most susceptible to peer pressure
because peers become an important influence on teenagers' behavior,
and peer pressure has been called a hallmark of adolescent experience.
Children entering this period in life become aware for the first time of
the other people around them and realize the importance of perception
in their interactions. Peer conformity in young people is most pro-
nounced with respect to style, taste, appearance, ideology, and values.
Peer pressure is commonly associated with episodes of adolescent
risk taking because these activities commonly occur in the company of
peers. Affiliation with friends who engage in risk behaviors has been
shown to be a strong predictor of an adolescent's own behavior. Peer
pressure can also have positive effects when youth are pressured by their
peers toward positive behavior, such as volunteering for charity or ex-
celling in academics. The importance of peers declines upon entering
adulthood.
Even though socially accepted children often have the most op-
portunities and the most positive experiences, research shows that social
acceptance (being in the popular crowd) may increase the likelihood of
engaging in risky behavior, depending on the norms in the group.
Groups of popular children showed a propensity to increase risky, drug-
related and delinquent behavior when this behavior was likely to receive
approval in their groups. Peer pressure was greatest among more popu-

209
lar children because they were the children most attuned to the judg-
ments of their peers, making them more susceptible to group pressures.
Gender also has a clear effect on the amount of peer pressure an adoles-
cent experiences: girls report significantly higher pressures to conform
to their groups in the form of clothing choices or speech patterns. Addi-
tionally, girls and boys reported facing differing amounts of pressures
in different areas of their lives, perhaps reflecting a different set of val-
ues and priorities for each gender.

11. Immigration (unit 11).


Immigration is the international movement of people into a desti-
nation country of which they are not natives or where they do not pos-
sess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent
residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant
worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Immigrants are motivated to leave their former countries of citi-
zenship, or habitual residence, for a variety of reasons, including a lack
of local access to resources, a desire for economic prosperity, to find or
engage in paid work, to better their standard of living, family reunifica-
tion, retirement, climate or environmentally induced migration, exile,
escape from prejudice, conflict or natural disaster, or simply the wish to
change one's quality of life. Commuters, tourists and other short-term
stays in a destination country do not fall under the definition of immi-
gration or migration, seasonal labour immigration is sometimes in-
cluded.
The United Nations estimates that there are more than
230,000,000 immigrants in the world (apx. 3.25% of the global popula-
tion). The United Arab Emirates has the largest proportion of immi-
grants in the world, followed by Qatar.
Immigration is not a new concept. For millennia people have been
moving across borders looking for work and a better life, or fighting for
power and control of natural resources, often wiping out the indigenous
210
inhabitants of an area. Some countries decided to solve their over-
crowded prison problem by sending their criminals to other countries.
The British government’s first convicts arrived with a Navy ship at Syd-
ney Cove, Australia, in 1788, and the government continued to send
prisoners there for about another 30 years.
Today, with much tougher and more clearly defined political and
geographical boundaries, migrating to other countries is more formal-
ised and controlled and possibly much more difficult than ever before.
However, there are still thousands of refugees fleeing conflict and pov-
erty around the world in the hope the new country will provide them
with safety and a new life. Unfortunately, it is clear human nature has
hardly changed in thousands of years when these refugees are not al-
ways given a warm welcome from the country which they hope will
provide them with safety and a new life.

12. Technology: Good or Bad? (unit 12).


A lively debate is going on these days about the value of technol-
ogy and whether the human race is actually gaining from it more than it
is losing.
The technophobes tend to have a certain arrogance in their attitude
towards technology, wearing this attitude almost as badge of honour,
and rejecting mobile phones, tablets and computers, announcing that
they will eventually destroy the human race.
As people get older, they often become more entrenched in their
ways and hate change of any kind. As a result, the older generation are
often uninterested in new technology.
In addition, there is a school of thought that believes the younger
generation spend too much time on the computer and other devices and
that technology is diminishing their concentration span, leading to poor
results in their studies. It is thought they do little physical exercise, thus
contributing to the growing problem of obesity.

211
Another area which causes problems is the proliferation of health
websites. Medical professionals are very concerned by the increased
anxiety people suffer when self-diagnosing (often mistakenly) serious
or terminal illnesses or failing to recognise the symptoms of a serious
illness and delaying a visit to the doctor.
On the other hand, it should also be remembered that the older
generation can actually gain from technology. Older people are more
likely to find themselves isolated when they are ill or living alone and
technology is the one thing that can act as a lifeline to the rest of the
world.
In terms of the younger generation, many would argue that using
the internet can help students broaden their knowledge and, as a result,
gain better marks at school. Also, if a child has a long- term illness and
can’t attend school, they can be connected to their teachers and class via
computer. As far as a lack of exercise goes, there are many apps that can
be downloaded to help people train and lose weight.
It can also be argued that there are many good health websites on
the internet and these can enable people to become more aware of their
health, which can cut down on unnecessary visits to the doctor or help
people recognise the early symptoms of an illness.
There is clearly some value in technology for the older and
younger generations. However, there are also some potential pitfalls.
Technology: good or bad? The jury is still out, but the best outcome
would be to take advantage of the positive aspects and be aware of the
negatives.

Sources:
Cotton D., Falvey D., Kent S. New Language Leader Upper Inter-
mediate Tests. Pearson Education Limited, 2014.
https://www.casabatllo.es/en/antoni-gaudi/
http://www.globaljusticemovement.net/home/origins.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa
212
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557636/
http://www.un.org/esa/population/migration/

213
Список использованной литературы

1. Cotton D., Falvey D., Kent S. New Language Leader Upper Interme-
diate Coursebook. Pearson Education Limited, 2014.
2. Martin Hewings. Advanced Grammar in Use. Cambridge, 3d ed.,
2013.
3. Liz and John Soars. New Headway (Fourth Edition) Upper-Interme-
diate Student's Book. Oxford University Press, 2014.
4. Michael Vince. Language Practice for Advanced: English Grammar
and Vocabulary. Macmillan, 2014.
5. Н.Н. Дианина. Дополнительные материалы к учебнику «New
Headway Upper-intermediate». М.: МГИМО, 2003.
6. Н.С. Измайлова. Английский язык: учебное пособие для
студентов ф-та МЖ. М.: МГИМО-Университет, 2013.

214
Принципы измерения навыков экзаменуемых

1. Программа зачета уровня В2 по английскому языку в


части, касающейся модуля «Речевая практика» (1 семестр для
продвинутых групп продолжающего потока, 3 семестр для
средних групп продолжающего потока, 5 семестр для групп
начинающего потока).

Письменная часть

Письменная лексико-грамматическая работа (время написания 2


ак. часа), включающая упражнения на изучавшуюся в течение
семестра грамматику, лексические конструкции, а также перевод
предложений с русского языка на английский.

Устная часть

- Пересказ текста на одну из пройденных в течение семестра тем


(уровень сложности текста В2, объем текста до 2000 печ.зн., время
подготовки 20 мин).
- Беседа по указанной теме, предусматривающая ответы на
вопросы экзаменаторов.
- Устный опрос лексико-грамматического материала, пройденного
в течение семестра.

2. Программа экзамена уровня В2 по английскому языку в


части, касающейся модуля «Речевая практика» (2 семестр для
продвинутых групп продолжающего потока, 4 семестр для
средних групп продолжающего потока, 6 семестр для групп
начинающего потока).

215
Письменная часть

Письменная лексико-грамматическая работа (время написания 2


ак. часа), включающая упражнения на изучавшуюся в течение
учебного года грамматику, лексические конструкции, а также
перевод предложений с русского языка на английский.

Устная часть

- Пересказ текста на одну из пройденных в течение учебного года


тем (уровень сложности текста В2, объем до 2500 печ.зн., время
подготовки 20 мин).
- Беседа по указанной теме, предусматривающая ответы на
вопросы экзаменаторов.
- Устный опрос лексико-грамматического материала, пройденного
в течение учебного года.

2. Программные требования к уровню владения английским


языком

В письменной части:
 владение основными грамматическими навыками по
следующим темам: система времен глагола, употребление
артиклей, модальные глаголы, страдательный залог, герундий и
инфинитив, виды прилагательных и их порядок в предложении,
придаточные предложения и правила пунктуации при их
использовании, косвенная речь, сослагательное наклонение
 знание проходившихся лексических конструкций (включая
идиомы, сращения, словообразование, употребление предлогов,
фразовые глаголы и др.)
 владение навыками письменного перевода с русского языка на
216
английский (различные по тематике мини-ситуации из 1-2
предложений)

Критерии оценки
Для измерения письменных языковых навыков испытуемых
используется следующая шкала оценки.
Письменная работа оценивается как отличная (excellent),
если от 90% до 100% её объёма выполнены без ошибок. Оценка
хорошо (good) выставляется, если от 75% до 89% объёма работы
выполнены правильно. Испытуемый получает оценку
удовлетворительно (satisfactory), если от 60% до 74% её объёма
выполнены без ошибок.
Как вычисляются эти проценты? Тест, состоящий из 100
баллов, включает в себя задания, за выполнение каждого из
которых начисляется один балл (в переводе – 2 балла). Таким
образом, 60% работы, достаточных для получения минимальной
положительной оценки, – это 60 правильно выполненных заданий.
Чтобы получить минимальную положительную оценку,
позволительно сделать ошибки в 40 заданиях.
Если в одном предложении перевода более одной ошибки, то
рейтеры исходят из правила квалифицировать только самую
грубую ошибку, остальные ошибки при этом только лишь
подчёркиваются, но не считаются. Если в работе испытуемого
более 40 неправильно выполненных заданий, то его работа
считается выполненной менее чем на 60% и оценивается как
неудовлетворительная(unsatisfactory).
Внутри категорий хорошо и удовлетворительно рейтеры
выделяют «низкую» и «высокую» оценки, которые обозначаются
соответствующими буквами латинского алфавита. Так,
испытуемый получает оценку E (low satisfactory), или «низкую
тройку», если от 60 до 67% его работы выполнены правильно.
Работа оценивается как D (high satisfactory), или «высокая тройка»,
217
если от 68 до 74% её объёма выполнены правильно. Испытуемый
получает за свою письменную работу оценку C (low good), или
«низкую четвёрку», если от 75 до 81% объёма работы выполнены
без ошибок. Оценку B (high good), или «высокую четвёрку», он
получает в том случае, если от 82 до 89% объёма его работы
выполнены без ошибок. В категории отлично (excellent) нет
промежуточных делений, обозначаемых латинскими буквами.
Оценка A (excellent) выставляется, если работа выполнена
правильно от 90 до 100% её объёма.
Как считаются ошибки? Одна грамматическая ошибка
квалифицируется как одна полная ошибка. К числу полных ошибок
относятся также лексические и стилистические ошибки.
Искажение в переводе соответствует двум полным ошибкам. Таким
же образом квалифицируются и композиционные ошибки.
Неправильное использование артиклей, предлогов, текстовые и
орфографические ошибки квалифицируются как 0,5 ошибки.
Что такое текстовая ошибка? Это неполное понимание
ситуации. Например, испытуемый должен перевести следующее
предложение с русского языка на английский: Он сказал, что
принесёт книгу завтра. Экзаменуемый переводит его следующим
образом: He said that he would bring the book back the next day.
В русском предложении не было слов принесёт назад,
поэтому в английском переводе слово back является лишним и его
употребление считается текстовой ошибкой.
В соответствии со шкалой оценивания письменных работ
оценка E выставляется, если испытуемый допустил от 40 до 33
ошибок; оценка D выставляется, если он допустил от 32 до 26
ошибок; оценка C выставляется, если допущено от 25 до 19
ошибок; оценка B выставляется, если допущено от 18 до 11
ошибок, и, наконец, оценка A выставляется, если допущено от 1 до
таблице.

218
Категория Оценка Процент Количество
оценки правильного ошибок
выполнения
работы
Отлично 90–100%
(Exсellent)
Хорошо 89–82%
–75%
Удовлетворите 74–68%
льно
67–60%

Неудовлетвори Менее 60% Более 40


тельно

В устной части:
Устная часть экзамена представляет собой устное тести-
рование, под которым принято понимать процедуру проверки
устно-речевой коммуникативной компетенции, в которой тес-
тируемый говорит и оценивается на основе того, что он сказал.
Устная часть экзамена состоит из трех частей, направленных на
проверку устной коммуникативной компетенции экзаменуемого.
Для выявления уровня сформированности устной
коммуникативной компетенции используется собеседование (oral
пройденных в течение года тем (коммуникация, экология, спорт,
медицина, транспорт, литература, архитектура, экономика,
искусство, психология, культура, технологии). На подготовку
пересказа отводится 20 минут из общего времени подготовки к
устному экзамену.

219
Вторая часть - беседа по указанной теме, предусматривающая
ответы на вопросы экзаменаторов. Времени на подготовку к
данной части не требуется. Третья часть – опрос пройденного в
течение года лексико-грамматического материала – также
проводится «с места».
Во время проведения устного экзамена члены экзаменационной
комиссии, не занятые в процессе коммуникации с испытуемым,
выступают в роли рейтеров – людей, которые слушают
испытуемого и проводят оценивание на основе услышанного. При
оценивании устной коммуникативной компетенции рейтеры
руководствуются оценочной шкалой. В рамках этой оценочной
шкалы произношение оценивается в баллах от 1 до 5, где 1 балл
обозначает самый низкий уровень (произношение непонятное), а 5
баллов — самый высокий уровень (произношение характеризуется
незначительным влиянием родного языка). Грамматическая и
лексическая компетенция, а также понимание речи на слух
оцениваются в рамках от 2 до 10 баллов, где 2 балла обозначают
самый низкий уровень (практически не владеет грамматикой;
словарный запас недостаточен даже для простого разговора; почти
не понимает даже простейшую речь) и 10 баллов соответствуют
самому высокому уровню оценки (одна или две незначительные
грамматические ошибки, которые могут встречаться даже в речи
носителя языка; достаточно широкий словарный запас и точное
использование лексики; понимание формальной и разговорной
речи в любом темпе).
На основе данной рейтинговой шкалы устная коммуни-
кативная компетенция испытуемого может быть оценена в рамках
четырёх категорий: 1) коммуникация эффективна; 2)
коммуникация в основном эффективна; 3) коммуникация в какой-
то степени эффективна; 4) коммуникация неэффективна, –
которые соответствуют традиционно выставляемым отметкам:
неудовлетворительно, удовлетворительно, хорошо, отлично.
220
Итоговая оценка англоязычной коммуникативной компе-
тенции испытуемых выносится на основе оценок за все тесты,
входящие в экзамен.

221
Образцы зачетных/экзаменационных материалов

Зачет за первый семестр обучения по программе уровня


В2, модуль «Речевая практика» (1 семестр для продвинутых
групп продолжающего потока, 3 семестр для средних групп
продолжающего потока, 5 семестр для групп начинающего
потока)

1. Письменная часть
Written Test
Time allowed: 2 hours

A For questions 1–10, read the text below and decide which
answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. There is an example at
the beginning (0).
Looking from the balcony of my 0 apartment block, you might
think this is a nice part of town. Unfortunately, this gives a 1 _________
impression of how things are here. For the last five years the crime 2
_________ in this area has been constantly increasing and crimes are
3
_________ happening within 250 metres of my front door. Only last
week my friend Peter was stopped by a man near my house. The man
asked my friend Peter for money. His 4_________ language suggested
that he would attack Peter if he had no money. My friend didn’t seem to
understand the danger he was in as he just 5_________into laughter and
asked the man why he was asking a student for money. Instead of hitting
him, the man showed an amazing amount of 6_________ and just
walked away. I think Peter needed to 7_________ before he spoke but
he tells me he behaved like this 8_________. Normally, in such situa-
tions some knowledge of self- 9_________ would be useful to protect
yourself physically. In Peter’s case all he needed was a good sense of 10
_________.

222
0 a open b cosmopolitan c detached d
apartment
1 a good b untrue c false d right
2 a service b rate c process d
performance
3 a perhaps b relatively c mainly d
intentionally
4 a own b spoken c visual d body
5 a burst b hold c run d
move
6 a charisma b tolerance c agility d
flexibility
7 a hear b wait c think d
listen
8 a mainly b pensively c relatively
d deliberately
9 a respect b defence c development d
confidence
10 a charisma b humour c culture d contact
__________ out of 10

B For questions 1–15, read the text below and think of a word
which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. In some
cases a word is not necessary so write ‘X’.
This year there have been 0_hardly any sightings of eagles in
1
_________ mountains north of the forest. The number of sightings of
eagles has 2__________ decreasing for the last three years and we now
3
__________ believe that the eagles 4__________moved to another lo-
cation to build their nests. Before she left us, Sarah Reeve was
5
__________ a report on the eagles but I don’t think she 6 __________
finished it.

223
On the other hand, there have been 7__________ many sightings
of foxes in the forest this year and we are afraid that their numbers
8
__________ increased to dangerous levels. 9__________ sightings
have mainly been by 10__________ Lake Devere. We wonder
11
__________the farmers have noticed. If they have 12 __________ los-
ing chickens in the last six months we’ll soon know about it and if they
decide to act there is 13 __________chance of stopping them shooting
14
__________ foxes. I’d like to 15 __________how many complaints
there have been from the farmers.
________ out of 15

C For questions 1–11, read the text below and decide which
answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space.
Martin Dawson, the 0 novelist famous for his best-selling
1
_________ about special agent Lee Hole, is very lucky to be alive.
Fifteen years ago, while driving down a country road at night in rough
weather, a small 2 _________ suddenly came round the corner. The
3
_________ from the bike’s light blinded Matt and he suddenly braked.
His 4_________ brakes didn’t work and his car smashed into a tree.
Martin was not wearing a 5_________ and these were the days before
the 6_________. Martin was thrown through the window.
Luckily, the man on the bike was a 7 _________ and he was able
operate on Martin the moment he arrived at the local hospital. Unfortu-
nately for Martin, he contracted 8 _________ at the hospital and ended
up staying in the hospital for four more months. Once he left hospital he
was using 9_________ for a further three years and still occasionally
needs to have 10_________. However, he knows how lucky he was. He
says ‘My life is rather boring so this is a story I’m sure will be included
in my 11_________’.
0. a poet b critic c dramatist d novelist
1. a memoirs b thrillers c plays d
blogs
224
2. a scooter b truck c barge
d glider
3. a gleam b glare c yell d audible
4. a one-way b turbulence c anti-lock d
speed
5. a signals b shuttle c airbag d
seatbelt
6. a airbag b signals c puncture d cameras
7 a anaesthetist b psychiatrist c midwife d
surgeon
8 a an infection b a parasite c an injection
d a symptom
9 a mould b antibiotics c painkillers d
vaccines
10 a transplants b physiotherapy c radiology
d diabetes
11 a diary b essays c blogs d biog-
raphy
________ out of 11

D For questions 1–14, read the text below and add a word
which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. In some
cases a word is not necessary so write ‘X’.
Dear Diary,
Today 0 was the fiftieth day I 1 _________ spent on this island.
This morning, as always, I woke up at dawn, washed in the sea and
2
_________ had a breakfast of melons and mangoes. I think I might 3
_________ ill if I eat much more fruit. It 4 _________ raining all day
and I had to spend the whole time in my hut. 5_________ you find my
message in the bottle? I hope so. I 6_________ to think that it would be
7
_________ found quickly. I 8_________ wake up every morning and

225
stand by the sea looking for the ship that never came. I know there 9
_________ be a chance that we will see each other again but I doubt it.
The rain had stopped by the evening so I had some time to hunt.
Until last week I hadn’t been 10_________ into the forest but I
11
_________ keep eating just fruit and fish. I need meat. While I
12
_________ hunting I heard the sound of a plane. I 13 _________ to
climb to the top of the hill but by the time I got there the plane was gone.
I think I will still 14_________ waiting for a plane in a year’s time.
______ out of 14

E Circle the correct word in the sentences.


0 The room was silence / silent. Nothing could be heard.
1 If you strike / strain a match, we might be able to see something.
2 There was a sudden yell / shriek. Someone was very frightened.
3 He couldn’t see anything in the darkness / glare.
4 He spoke in a voice that was only just cry / audible.
5 If you shout in a cave you may hear the shrieks / echoes.
6 Don’t let the wax from the candle / lamp burn your hand.
7 The sudden flash /gleam blinded him for a moment.
8 I wish I could identify the tune he cries / whistles.
________ out of 8

F Put the following verbs in their correct form in the right spaces.
lie step see wait put hide
watch
walk look shoot close turn out no-
tice

The man closed his book and 0 put it on the table. He looked
down the street to the house and 1________________________ that
someone 2________________________the light in the bedroom. He
3
________________________for this impatiently and now it was time
226
to move. He stood up and 4________________________ onto the
street. He looked round, hoping no one 5________________________
him. As he was turning to look behind him there was a sudden noise
and he felt a sharp hot pain in his thigh. The next thing he knew, he
6
________________________in a hospital bed. He immediately sat up
and 7________________________around. Where were the letters he
8
________________________in his shoe. If any one found them there
would be trouble. And who 9________________________him while
he 10________________________ towards Celia’s house? Who knew
he 11________________________ her from that cafe? He lay back
down and 12_______________________ his eyes. One thing he was
sure of was he had to get out of there fast.
_________ out of 12

G Add used to, use to or would to the following sentences.


0 I used to believe that my parents didn’t understand me. Then
I became one.
1 Didn’t you ___________ live with Sarah in Harlow?
2 When we were at university, we ___________ go home every week-
end.
3 People didn’t ___________ spend hours on the Internet because there
wasn’t very much on there.
4 I’m sure I’ve seen you before. Did you ___________ take the early
train to London?
5 We ___________ always be sent to bed before seven o’clock when
we were children.
________ out of 5

H Identify the extra word in the following sentences.


0 Look there, I’d like to make a proposal.
_there__
227
1 Could I suggest we meet towards you the end of next month?
__________
2 If you included the more information about your colleagues, it’d make
it more interesting.
__________
3 I need more of time to think about this.
__________
4 I wasn’t expecting to be pay as much as that.
__________
5 You’ll find it is good value for some money.
__________
________ out of 5
I Translate the following sentences, using active vocabulary
1. С середины прошлого века многие виды животных находятся
под угрозой вымирания из-за изменений климата и глобального
потепления.
2. Обычно вопросы защиты окружающей среды не занимают таких
высоких мест в списке проблем, как, например, уровень
преступности.
3. Приоритетная задача правительства в области спорта - создать
равные условия для спортсменов-любителей и профессионалов по
всей стране.
4. Все знают, что спорт развивает координацию, выносливость,
гибкость и ловкость.
5. Многие люди не одобряют трансплантологию, поскольку это
очень противоречивая вещь.
6. Именно врачи больше всего подвергаются опасности заболеть,
поэтому они часто заражаются инфекциями.
7. Никогда еще я не читал такого занудного исторического романа!
8. Баржи могут перевозить много коммерческих грузов.

228
9. B подразделениях дорожной полиции все твердо убеждены, что
наилучший выбор решения проблемы дорожной безопасности –
это введение ограничений.
10. Душа компании - это человек, который обладает харизмой и
всегда в центре внимания.
_____ out of 20

Total: 100 points

Устная часть

1. Retell the text on the topic “Ecology”.


Time for Preparation: 20 min
Volume: 2000 symbols
Climate Will Change What Reefs Look Like in the Future

The impact of a warming climate on reefs is not a future event —


complex changes have already begun that could fundamentally change
what reefs look like in the future.
Over the past century global temperatures have warmed by 0.7C
and those of the surface tropical oceans by 0.5C. This raising of baseline
temperatures has already resulted in widespread coral bleaching events
and outbreaks of coral diseases. Current projections indicate that the
tropical oceans could be 1-3C warmer by the end of this century.
Even with the modest amount of warming to date —compared to
future projections—coral growth rates are responding to these observed
temperature changes. Several reefs, including the Great Barrier Reef,
have witnessed slower massive coral growth in recent decades, while
cooler reef sites off Western Australia have, initially, responded by in-
creasing their growth rates. The latter is unlikely to be sustainable, given
the setbacks in growth following coral bleaching and, as temperatures
229
continue to warm, optimum temperatures for coral growth are exceeded,
she said.
Ultimately the global community must act to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions. But new science is also showing that, given that the im-
pact on corals will be more variable than first realized, our management
approaches must become more sophisticated, with particular focus on
reducing local threats such as overexploitation and pollution. Managing
reefs for local stress will ensure maximum health as they continue to
confront a changing global climate.
Changes to coral reef habitat caused by climate change will also
potentially lead to changed fish populations. The direct impacts, which
are already occurring, are reduced coral cover and less habitat structure
for fish.
These changes will ultimately have severe impacts on the millions
of people worldwide who depend on reefs for food, income and storm
protection. Reefs also contribute to national economies through such
sectors as tourism and commercial fisheries.
Source: http://www.ecology.com/2012/07/12/climate-has-al-
ready-changed-reefs/

2. Tell about your main ecological concerns. Can you call


yourself an environmentally-conscious person?

3. Translate from Russian the following word-combinations:


катастрофа будет невообразимая, извержение вулкана, быть
крайне чувствительным к заболеваниям, вредные выбросы,
брошенные машины. Comment on the usage of articles with geo-
graphical names.

Экзамен за второй семестр обучения по программе


евроуровня В2, модуль «Речевая практика» (2 семестр для
групп продолжающего потока, 4 семестр для групп
230
коррекционного потока, 6 семестр для групп начинающего
потока)

1. Письменная часть
Written Test
Time allowed: 2 hours

A For questions 1–15, read the text below and decide which
answer (A, B, C or D) best fits the space.
In September, I’m going to university but at the moment I am 0 in
two minds about where to go and what to study. My personal choice
would be to study theatre in Rome. I have a very open personality, I am
full of self- 1 ___________ and people say that when they talk to me
they can’t 2___________. So, studying theatre would be a great idea as
I could be an actor, or even a 3___________. In addition, living in Rome
sounds so 4___________. Life in Italy is totally 5___________ to life in
England but I think I can 6___________the different 7___________ and
ways of life there. The only big problem for me is the 8___________ in
Rome. There are just too many cars! The university does provide a
9
___________ service to the university but friends tell me it still takes
two hours. Another problem is my parents. I think it is highly
10
___________ that they will 11___________me going to Italy and stud-
ying theatre. They want me to study International Politics in York. Their
12
___________for this is that they want me to be a highly
13
___________ academic. I must admit, I am interested in 14
___________but I’d rather study theatre. Still, I’d better
15
___________doing some more work because if I don’t pass my exams
I won’t be going anywhere!
0 a out of my mind b making up my mind c in two minds
d keeping an open mind
1 a confidence b defence c development d
respect
231
2 a speak louder than words b get a word in edgeways

c hear it on the grapevine d on the same wavelength


3 a poet b critic c ghostwriter d
dramatist
4 a frustrated b isolated c intriguing d
inadequate
5 a criticised b different c moving d
impossible
6 a approve of b consent to c participate in
d adjust to
7 a cuisines b climates c customs d geogra-
phy
8 a traffic congestion b mindless vandalism c open
spaces d crime rate
9 a barge b shuttle c scooter d tram
10 a unnecessary b ineffective c unlikely d
mistrust
11 a relate to b get on with c succeed d
approve of
12 a motive b profile c assessment d
false impression
13 a praised b different c unexpected
d qualified
14 a natural resources b psychology c human rights
d hierarchy
15 a get down to b put up with c fall out with
d get used to
________ out of 15

B For questions 16–30, read the text below and think of the
word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.
232
When you visit 0___the_____Louvre Gallery in Paris you find
yourself face to face with one of the greatest mysteries in the art world.
For hundreds of years, no one has known 16___________ the woman in
Da Vinci’s famous painting ‘The Mona Lisa’ was. No one knows
17
___________she was rich or poor, fact or fiction. Her identity
18
___________ caused 19___________ argument over the years.
20
___________the back of the painting had 21___________signed or
dated, investigators may have been able to discover Mona Lisa’s iden-
tity. In addition, there is 22___________record of a commission for the
portrait in Da Vinci’s papers. Supposing there was a note in his paper,
would 23___________ have helped us find this mystery women’s iden-
tity? Maybe the answer can be found in the fact that the painting
24
___________ to be called ‘La Gioconda’. German scientist Veit
Probst thinks so. He has 25___________ he knows who Mona Lisa
26
__________. He is sure that she is Lisa Gerardoni, wife of a Florentine
cloth merchant 27___________Francesco del Giocondo. Probst
28
___________ journalists that her identity 29___________revealed by
a note that belonged to a former owner of the painting. His scientific
article on this issue will 30___________ published next month.
________ out of 15

C For questions 31–40, complete the second sentence so that


it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word in bold
and other words. You must use between two and five words in total.
31 I could give you my boat for a month. Where would you go?
imagine
________________________my boat for a month, where would
you go?
32 They drove for ten hours and then saw the coast.
driving
They ________________________ten hours before they saw the
coast.
233
33 I finally managed to convince him to come.
succeeded
I finally ________________________ come.
34 It’s not possible for him to finish the report by ten.
finished
He ________________________ the report by ten.
35 What time is it?
know
Do you ________________________?
36 ‘Is the train arriving at eleven tomorrow?’
arriving
She asked ________________________ at eleven the next day.
37 David says he will do it so it won’t be necessary for you to go.
need
David says he will do it so you ________________________ to
go.
38 Someone comes and cleans our carpets twice a year
have
We ________________________ twice a year.
39 The exhibition will take place at Thornley Castle. The exhibi-
tion will close on Monday.
which
The exhibition ________________________, will take pace at
Thornley Castle.
40 I am very tired this evening.
absolutely
I ________________________this evening.

_______ out of 10

234
D For questions 41–50, read the text below and look carefully
at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word
which should not be there.
If a line is correct, put a tick (). If a line has a word which
should not be there, write the word in the space.
0 Last year, while we were on our way to _____had___
our holiday house, we had had a _________
00 car crash. It wasn’t a bad accident. Both ___________
cars were only slightly ___________
41 damaged and the man with who was in ___________
the other car hurt his hand but ___________
42 it was not a bad injury. However, his ___________
lawyer suggested taking us to ___________
43 court to get damages. We didn’t want ___________
go to court so we had a little ___________
44 choice but to offer him a large amount ___________
of money. If you were ___________
45 being in our situation, what would you
have done?
46 His lawyer advised to him to accept the
offer. However, to our
47 surprise, he has felt that he deserved
more than we were offering.
48 After that, the man had refused to dis-
cuss any offer we might
49 suggest, even though we asked to him
what he wanted from us.
50 So here we are now in court. We are
extremely devastated by all this
but what can we do?
_____ out of 10

235
E For questions 51–60, read the text below. Use the word given
in capitals beside each gap to form a word that fits in the same space
in the same line.
It’s not that I 0 dislike (LIKE) working in this office. That com-
ment would be totally 51___________ (ACCURACY). There are a lot
of things that I really like, for example the 52___________ (DEVELOP)
programme, which is really 53 ___________ (VALUE) in this profes-
sion if you want to get a promotion. What really makes me angry is the
54
___________ (RESPONSIBILITY) behaviour of some of the manag-
ers here. In recent years, this company has grown so large that we are
now an 55___________ (NATIONAL) company with offices in ten cit-
ies around the world. As well as being a large company, we are now a
56
___________ (CULTURE) company. However, many of the British-
based managers don’t seem to realise this and have made no effort to
understand their foreign colleagues. This has resulted in a lot of
57
___________ (UNDERSTAND) and a feeling of 58___________
(TRUST) in many offices. I’d like to think we can do something about
this but I think it is 59___________ (LIKELY). Many managers, how-
ever, think such action is 60___________ (NECESSITY) and we should
only be concentrating on making a profit.
_____ out of 10

F For questions 1–14, read the text below and decide which answer
(A, B, C or D) best fits each space.
Purleigh Manor, the home of the late great 0 sculptor, Feridun Ozat
(whose statues can be found throughout the 1_________ gardens of the
manor) has finally been put up for sale. The 2_________ artist decided
to move out of London in 1969, after he was 3 _________ criticised for
his anti-war work ‘A Soldier Dies Twice’. After spending months trying
to escape the 4_________ who followed him everywhere, he bought

236
the empty and 5_________ old manor, on the Isle of Tresco, as far away
as he could get from the 6 _________ press.
Purleigh Manor was completely 7_________ by Feridun in 1982, after
it was badly 8_________ in a fire. However Feridun decided not to
change the 9 _________ style of the house and it still remains a great
example of sixteenth century architecture.
Although he was 10_________ shy, Feridun occasionally made tele-
vised appeals for some of the things he cared about, for example
11
_________ in factories in Asia and other 12_________ issues. Many
of these recordings were made at Purleigh. In 1984, in an effort to
13
_________ bridges with the newspapers and TV channels, he opened
part of the manor to the public, especially the gardens.
There will be a 14_________ of Feridun’s work at Purleigh before it
goes onto the market.
0 a art lover b painter c sculptor d critic
1 a ornate b ancient c derelict d magnificent
2 a groundbreaking b retrospective c masterpiece d
controversial
3 a highly b heavily c totally d completely
4 a paparazzi b characters c collectors d
critics
5 a ancient b dilapidated c stylish d ornate
6 a indisputable b unusual c insensitive d insoluble
7 a rebuilt b renovated c designed d main-
tained
8 a constructed b damaged c restored d com-
missioned
9 a classical b contemporary c stylish d innovative
10 a completelyb painfully c totally d entirely
11 a free markets b corporate greed c child labour
d multinational companies
237
12 a human rights b fair trade c consumer choice d
climate change
13 a burn b cross c build d water
under a
14 a masterpiece b abstract c preview d retrospective
_______ out of 14

G For questions 1–11, read the text below and think of the word
which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. In some
cases a word is not necessary so write ‘X’.
Do you remember 0 eating at the Asterix Pancake Restaurant last year.
It was deep winter and outside it was 1 _________, colder than cold. We
had 2_________ walking over the hills all day and were totally
3
_________. After all that walking I wasn’t just hungry, I was 4
_________! Do you remember our car had broken down that morning
and it was still 5 _________ repaired at the garage when we came back
to the village. The Asterix was easy to remember because, at that time,
they were 6 _________ their windows painted red. It looked so strange.
We had 7_________ passed the restaurant, in fact, almost every day, but
we hadn’t gone in mainly because the restaurant was 8_________ ex-
pensive. However, that night we were too cold to care.
Anyway, the story is that the Asterix 9_________ closed by the owners
last week. They had 10_________ bankrupt. I know you’ve always
wanted to open a restaurant. Shall we try 11_________ buy it?
_________ out of 16
H Add an extra word to each sentence.
0 You see him if you get there on time.
will
1 If you went to night school, you be able to learn French.
________

238
2 You had won the competition, what would you have done with the
money? ________
3 They will be released that they don’t leave town over the next few
days. ________
4 There be a clear reaction from the chemicals if you add a drop of
water. ________
5 If you get here really early, you have a chance of getting a ticket but
it’s unlikely. ________
________ out of 5

I Translate the sentences, using active vocabulary.


1. Невероятно впечатляющее здание Британского музея с его
великолепным куполом было построено в классическом стиле.
2. Потенциал для развития туризма зависит от наличия недорогих
отелей, предлагающих проживание и завтрак.
3. Я хочу бросить работу и сжечь все мосты, я не могу работать
среди таких бесчувственных и эгоистичных людей.
4. Последняя выставка современных скульпторов не оправдала
моих ожиданий, она не стоила ни потраченных на нее усилий, ни
денег.
5. Современное огромное впечатляющее здание роскошного отеля
получило высокую оценку туристов.
6. Крупные международные компании стремятся избегать
использования детского труда и истощения природных ресурсов.
7. Сначала я не одобрял использования Интернета, но постепенно
начал понимать, что для многих это жизненно важная вещь.
8. Если бы современные экономящие труд устройства продавались
по разумной цене, их производители получали бы гораздо
большую выгоду.
9. Хотелось бы мне, чтобы ты не проявлял свою враждебность и
недоверие на переговорах.

239
10. Нам пора сменить свою устаревшую домашнюю технику на
современную и износостойкую.

______ out of 20

Total: 100 points

Устная часть

1. Retell the text on the topic “Art”.


Time for Preparation: 20 min
Volume: 2500 symbols

The Appeal of Contemporary Art Tapestries

Since antiquity people have used textiles for all range of purposes.
From blankets for warmth, to elaborate woven fabrics for commerce,
they have been at the very center of human life.
The need for textiles, combined with our desire to embellish the
world around us, has given rise to a huge range of fabric-based art, eve-
rything from basic colored cloth to complex woven textiles. Tapestries
and wall hangings have long been one of the most accomplished forms
of this art, having a history dating back millennia, and artists from al-
most all cultures have contributed some form of textile wall art.
Recently tapestries and wall hangings have enjoyed a rise in inter-
est, with many people looking beyond traditional options for wall decor.
The tactile nature of tapestries, combined with their long history, has
made them once again a choice for the discriminating home improver.
Although there are a vast range of traditional designs available, a
more recent development is the growth in contemporary art as a basis

240
for modern tapestry designs. Because of the nature of the modern weav-
ing process almost any design can be successfully incorporated into a
tapestry, providing the weaver has the skill to do so. This has led many
contemporary artists to consider wall tapestries as an alternative me-
dium to framed canvases and prints.
Encompassing a vast range of subject matter, from modern city-
scapes and impressionist inspired landscapes, to idyllic coastal scenes
and fantasy art, these contemporary works of art are adding a new di-
mension to fabric design, marrying traditional weaving techniques with
modern, vibrant images.
Additionally many textile artists who use fabric as their main me-
dium are enjoying a renewed prominence in the art world. Rather than
plying their art in paintings there are a growing number of artists using
tapestries and other types of wall hanging as their primary medium for
expression. Modern artists such as Ulrika Leander, Monique Lehman
and Elda Abramson combine their artistic vision with the depth and
range available through fabrics to create a new, modern twist on this
ancient art.
Many of these textile works of art are abstract in nature, often em-
ploying bold colors and striking, modern designs that incorporate the
weave of the fabric as an essential part of the design to create a depth
not available with traditional materials like canvas. As a home décor
option they can add a splash of color to brighten up a room, and often
become a great focal point in almost any setting.

Source: http://interiordec.about.com/od/artindecorating/a/con-
temptapestry.htm

2. Tell about your views on contemporary arts. Why do you


think it is becoming increasingly popular all over the world?

241
3. Translate from Russian the following word-combinations:
оправдать чьи-то ожидания, вдохновляющие шедевры,
предварительный просмотр, высоко ценить, жестко критиковать,
передавать уникальную атмосферу, отражать современное
общество. Comment on the usage of adverbs with gradable and un-
gradable adjectives.

242