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Engineering Report

SAER-6353 8 August 2011


Corrosion Control Document – Yanbu Refinery Continuous Catalytic
Regeneration (CCR) Platformer Plant V11

Table of Contents

1 Introduction............................................................ 2
2 Process Description............................................... 2
3 Top Corrosion Challenges..................................... 5
4 Corrosion Loops and Damage Mechanisms……. 11
5 Risk Assessment.................................................. 22
6 Corrosion Management Strategies....................... 23
7 Plant Integrity Windows........................................ 28
8 CMP Dashboard……………………………………. 33
9 Technologies........................................................ 33
10 Assessment Findings........................................... 35
11 References........................................................... 35
Appendix I - Corrosion Loop Drawings....................... 37
Appendix II - Customized Damage Mechanism
Narratives…………………………….….. 45
Appendix III - List of CMP Deployment Observations. 63

Previous Issue: New Next Planned Update: 1 September 2012


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Primary contact: Al-Ghamdi, Sami Mohammed on +966-3-880-9573

Copyright©Saudi Aramco 2011. All rights reserved.


SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
Issue Date: 8 August 2011 Next Planned Update: 1 September 2012

1 Introduction
This Corrosion Control Document provides guidelines for Yanbu Refinery (YR) to proactively
manage risks due to corrosion and identify, monitor damages and provide corrosion control
options in the Operation & Maintenance phase of the asset life cycle of CCR Platformer Plant
V11.
The document provides basic information on material and corrosion considerations for the
unit. It includes corrosion loops, potential damage mechanisms, corrosion management
strategies, plant integrity windows, key performance indicators, and dashboard.
The guidelines laid out in this document will permit to:
 Ensure minimal foreseeable risk on safety and reliability
 Assure maximum life expectancy of aging equipment
 Meet increasing production demands
 Provide prioritized input for fiscal planning
 Identify areas of new technology applications
This document will require periodic revisions based on facility performance reviews,
corporate audits, T&I findings, changes in design, feed composition, capacity and operational
parameters.

2 Process Description
Yanbu Refinery Plant V11 was originally designed as a Fixed-Bed Platformer Unit to
process 35 MBPD Heavy Straight Run Naphtha (HSRN) and produce 28 MBPD Platformate
at 94 RON. The unit was shut down every 6 to 8 months to regenerate (burn-off coke and re-
activate) the catalyst. The unit was later revamped to convert it to a Continuous Catalyst
Regeneration (CCR) Platformer. The unit is now designed to process a higher capacity of 40
MBPD HSRN and produce 30.2 MBD Platformate at 100 RON. The CycleMax CCR
regenerator is designed to continuously regenerate UOP-R234 catalyst at 100 % circulation
rate (2000 lb/hr) to maintain the catalyst selectivity and activity. The spent catalyst from the
3 stacked reactors’ side is transported to the regeneration tower in the CCR to burn off the
coke and distribute the platinum over the catalyst. The regenerated catalyst is then
transported back to the reduction zone above the Platformer stacked reactors to reduce the
catalyst and complete the regeneration steps. A simplified process flow diagram is provided
in Figure 1.
2.1 Platformer Reactor Section
The CCR Platforming Plant consists of three (3) stacked reactors (C-0102 – C-0104), product
recontacting and stabilization. Hydrotreated naphtha feed from Naphtha Hydrotreater (NHT)
Plant V09 is combined with Hydrogen-rich, recycle gas from the recycle compressor (C1
A/B) before entering the tube-side of four parallel vertical combined feed heat exchangers
(E1 A-D). In the heat exchangers, the combined feed is heated by the effluent from the 3rd
reactor. The different feed streams then recombine and flow to the charge heater (H1) which
heats it to 549oC (design). The combined feed then enters the 1st reactor (C-0102) which
undergoes several reactions over platinum catalyst in the stacked reactors to produce high

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
Issue Date: 8 August 2011 Next Planned Update: 1 September 2012

octane gasoline blending product, hydrogen, and LPG. The predominant reactions are
endothermic decreasing the temperature to 92oC, so interheaters are used between each
reactor to reheat the charge feed to reaction temperature. The first interheater (H2/H3) heats
the effluent from C-0102 to required operating temperature before entering the second
reactor (C-0103). The effluent is reheated again in the new second interheater (F-0101) from
62 to 549oC before entering the 3rd reactor (C-0104). The product stream then passes
through the shell-side of E1 A-D heating the feed before being cooled in the air-cooled
product condensers (E2 A-F) and water-cooled product trim coolers (E3 A-D) down to 38oC.
The product stream is split into vapor (H2 gas) and liquid (unstabilized reformate) products in
the product separator (V4). The unstabilized reformate, which is composed of high octane
reformate, light ends (propane and butane), and dissolved hydrogen, is pumped to the
Saturated Gas & LPG Recovery for further processing. A slip stream is sent to the recontact
drum (D-0103) to enhance the recovery of liquids from the net gas stream.
2.2 Hydrogen Gas Compression Section
Hydrogen concentration in the product separator gas is around 85% while the remainder is
light end gases. The gas leaving V4 is compressed by C1 A/B and is then split into three (3)
streams:
 Recycle gas which is combined with the fresh feed into E1 A-D
 Purge gas to catalyst collector on the bottom of the reactors’ stack
 Net gas to the net gas system
The net gas stream is cooled in the net gas cooler (E-0101) and net gas trim cooler (E-0102)
before entering the suction drum (D-0102). Recovered liquids are sent back to V4. The
product net gas is split into three (3) streams:
 Around 10% is sent to the suction of the booster compressors (C2 A-C) for further
recontacting with the platformate for recovery of heavier components in D-0103
 Around 10% is sent to the suction of the new booster compressors (K-0106 A/B) then to
the chloride treater (D-0104) to be used as make-up gas for NHT and LSRN Hydrotreater
Plants.
 Around 80% is sent to the Advanced Extraction Technology (AET) LPG Recovery
section. The process absorbs gaseous LPG from the net gas in a rich platformate stream
from the debutanizer feed from Plant V14. Recovered LPG is separated in the debutanizer
of V14 and off gas is routed to the Fuel gas system.
2.3 AET LPG Recovery Section
This section is designed to recover 97% LPG from the Platformer net gas and subsequently
increases the H2 purity from 80 to 88.6% for CCR Platformer unit & fuel gas consumption.
The net gas is chilled down to -28.9oC while passing through the gas/gas cross exchanger (E-
0106) and feed gas chiller (E-0107) using closed-loop propane refrigeration (-33oC) before
entering the bottom of absorber (C-0101). The rich platformate stream was also cooled down
to -28.9oC through the cross exhangers (E-0110 A-D) and platformate chiller (E-0111) using
propane refrigeration before entering C-0101. In the absorber, which contains three (3)
packed beds, the gas is washed by a counter-current flow of the platformate entering below

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
Issue Date: 8 August 2011 Next Planned Update: 1 September 2012

the top bed. The LPG-rich stream leaves C-0101 bottom to the debutanizer (V14-V1) for
separation and recovery. The absorber overhead gas is quenched with debutanizer bottoms
and cooled and particially condensed in the presat chiller (E-0108). Separated gas passes
from the presat separator (D-0110) to the fuel gas system via the net gas chloride treater (D-
0105 A/B), while separated liquid is pumped back to C-0101 top.
2.4 Continuous Catalytic Regeneration (CCR) Section
The CCR is designed to regenerate the catalyst continuously by burning off with air the coke
deposited on the catalyst surface. The CCR is a pressurized and valveless design. The
Catalyst Regeneration Section performs two functions: catalyst regeneration and catalyst
circulation.
In CCR regeneration section, the spent catalyst from the reactors is regenerated at certain
circulation rate to maintain catalyst activity and selectivity. Regenerated catalyst is recycled
back to the stacked reactors. The spent catalyst is continuously withdrawn from the last
reactor, regenerated in the CCR regenerator tower (D-0140), and then returned to the first
reactor (C-0102). This ensures a continuous operation of the plant at higher severities for
better quality products with higher yields. Spent catalyst chips and fines are elutriated in the
disengaging hopper (D-0151) using nitrogen gas and removed in the dust collector (D-0156).
The CCR performs four main functions in the following zones of the catalyst regeneration
system:
2.4.1 Burn Zone
Coke burning takes place in presence of oxygen. It results in temperature rise on the
catalyst. The coke burning is performed in a controlled manner by maintaining the
oxygen content at 0.5 to 0.8 mol%.
2.4.2 Chlorination Zone
The chloride content on the catalyst is adjusted in this zone by injecting perchloro-
ethylene (PERC). Chloride maintains the acidic function of the platforming catalyst and
re-disperses the metal on the catalyst surface. Chloride is maintained at 0.8 – 1 wt%
during normal operations.
2.4.3 Drying Zone
The excess moisture from the catalyst is removed in this zone. Drying air is a
combination of instrument air and preheated air from the cooling zone below. Air from
drying zone, which is required for coke burning in the burn zone enters the chlorination
zone and the excess air exits the regeneration tower.
2.4.4 Reduction Zone
The final step of catalyst regeneration occurs in the reduction zone. The reduction zone
is located at the top section of the lock hopper (D-0153). Catalyst is lifted to the reactor
surge drum at the top of the reactor structure by hydrogen lift gas where it then flows
by gravity to the first reactor (C-0102). The reduction step converts the metals from an
oxidized state to a reduced state using pure hydrogen gas. This must be done after the
oxychlorination step to return the metals to an optimum state before returning catalyst
to the reactors. The conditions favoring this reduction step are high hydrogen purity,
sufficient reduction zone temperatures and adequate reduction gas flow rate.

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
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2.5 Vent Gas Wash Tower Section


Circulating caustic solution with a concentration of 0.2 %wt, pH between 7.5 – 8.5 and total
solids of 1.0 %wt is mixed with the combustion gas from D-0140 with a temperature of
472oC first in the venturi scrubber (D-0141) then again in the vent gas wash tower (D-0137).
The intent is to scrub the vent gas free of residual chloride prior to being vented to the
atmosphere. The HCl removal efficienty is between 95 and 99%.

Figure 1 – Simplified YR CCR Platformer Process Flow Diagram

3 Top Corrosion Challenges


Several corrosion challenges have been historically noted in the CCR Platforming Plant V11,
as follows:
3.1 LPG Recovery (AET) Corrosion
Chlorides can be stripped from the catalyst and react to form HCl that is carried through the
effluent trains, regeneration system as well as the recycle gas, net gas, off-gas and fuel gas
systems. Excessive corrosion can also be found after mixing dry chloride containing streams
with others containing water.
In 2009, severe corrosion was observed in several stagnant locations; drain lines, sight glass
lines, valves and piping. Also, during February 2011 T&I, 32 to 45% of E-109 total tubes
were MFL tested. Results are similar to those from 2008 T&I results, with a maximum of 20
to 40% metal loss was observed due to HCl corrosion. A comprehensive evaluation
conducted in October, 2009 identified the use of chloride treaters upstream of the AET to be
the best long-term solution; hence, during 2011 T&I, tie-in connections were made for their
installation.

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
Issue Date: 8 August 2011 Next Planned Update: 1 September 2012

From 2010 Health Check, the recommendation to extend cold insulation around the drain
connections was addressed to ensure there was no condensation leading to HCl corrosion
(Figure 2). Also, insulation throughout the unit was inspected to ensure it was completely
sealed and was not damaged especially around the valves.

Figure 2 – 1” drain line in Plant V11 that experienced a pinhole leak due to HCl corrosion.
(Ref. CSD/ME&CCD/L-065/11)

Severe corrosion was observed in the impeller of AET Absorber Bottoms Pump (G-0109).
This was most likely due to condensation during the standby mode. Also, plugging was
observed in the strainer upstream of Platforming Product Separator Bottom Pump (G-0103),
which is also attributed to the presence of chlorides and moisture.
To address the above challenges, the following recommendations are proposed:
 Expedite the installation of the Chloride Treaters. That will only minimize future deposit
formation; plugging due to existing deposits can still be expected.
 Support YR effort to raise the AET operating temperature to around -10oC to minimize
the formation of liquid water. The economic trade-off need to be evaluated for the loss of
LPG recovery.
 Flush the pumps soon after being on standby and during T&I to prevent condensation and
HCl corrosion. If pH is still low, flush with caustic solution.
3.2 Vent Gas System Corrosion
The cause of the severe corrosion in the vent gas system is mostly due to acidic conditions
resulting from pH control concerns, high chloride content of the feed and ineffective caustic
neutralization; refer to Figure 3. The resulting high solids content can result in under-deposit
corrosion. Frequent leaks were observed in the 2" vent line, flanges and the 10" to 8" reducer
in the venturi scrubber discharge. This had led to the bypassing of the tower for, as long as,
10 months. The metallurgy for Wash Tower (D-0137) is CS with APCS 2G (polyglass VEF)
coating which required minor repairs during the 2008 T&I but not during 2009 inspection. D-
0137 was not part of the 2011 TRS because it was not a shutdown item. Severe corrosion and
leaking of the operating CS Caustic Circulation Pump (G-0117) are still continuing with the
spare pump in the shop.
From 2010 Health Check, the recommendation to upgrade the metallurgy to Hastelloy C-
2000 from the Venturi Scrubber to the Wash Tower was addressed. Also, modification to the
caustic injection scheme is being considered to ensure reliability of neutralization.

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The following recommendations are proposed to address above concerns:


 Maintain circulating caustic solution at target total alkalinity of 0.2 – 0.35 wt%, pH
between 7.5 and 8.5, and total solids less than 1.0 wt% (10,000 ppm).
 Flush the pumps soon after bypassing VGWT to prevent salt accumulation and corrosion.
 Utilize isolation kits between the dissimilar materials in the spent caustic system.
 Consider use of nonmetallic for the pumps and venturi discharge piping (thermoplastic
liner) to the wash tower.
 If APCS 2G coating fails during next inspection, then it is advised to conduct coating
failure analysis and consider alternative coatings (APCS 2H/APCS 27) in SAES-H-001.
7 1.2E+05
Alkalinity Limit of 0.2 wt% (max.) TSS Limit of 10,000 ppm (max.)
6
1.0E+05

5
Caustic Alkalinity (wt %)

8.0E+04

Caustic TSS (ppm)


4
6.0E+04
3

4.0E+04
2

2.0E+04
1

0 0.0E+00
01/01/10 04/01/10 07/01/10 10/01/10 01/01/11 01/01/10 04/01/10 07/01/10 10/01/10 01/01/11
Date Date

(a) (b)
14
pH limit from 7.5 - 8.5
12

10
Caustic pH

0
01/01/10 04/01/10 07/01/10 10/01/10 01/01/11
Date

(c)

Figure 3 – Plant V11 VGWT Caustic Solution Alkalinity, TSS, and pH trends for 2010.

3.3 Sea Water Corrosion


The malfunction of the current NaOCl disinfection system and consequent low chlorine
residuals (around 0.03 ppm) is allowing bacterial growth and biomass build-up leading to
microbial corrosion and fouling. Many attempts were made to rectify the current system, but
the system was deemed “beyond repair.” Also, the installation of the new ClO2 system is

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advantageous but has been delayed for years now. Repeated failures of the sea water
exchanger 70-30 Cu-Zn tubing and Monel weld overlays were observed (Figure 4). The latter
failures could have also been exaserbated by poor workmanship and utilizing wrong welding
electrodes. PMI testing of some Monel weld overlays indicated high iron contents. Also,
concerns with the intake filters are allowing large objects and marine life to enter the cooling
system further aggravating the fouling problems (Figure 5).

Figure 4 – MIC of Plant V11 Caustic Cooler Figure 5 – Fouling and Macrobiological
V11-E-0125 Monel 400 tubes. (Ref. CSD/ Organisms found in Plant V11 Platforming
ME&CCD/L-095/10 & YR-EIU-056/2010) Products Trim Cooler V11-E3 (A-D)
Premature failures of cement lined/coated CS spools have been repaired using elastomer and
CS clamps. There were also repeated coating failures in the channel heads, e. g. APCS 3
coal-tar epoxy coating in E-003 B/D. Permanent repair and replacement in-kind are normally
done at the next shutdown.
The following are recommendations to resolve above challenges:
 Ensure adequate chlorination of the cooling water make-up and maintain the sea water
intake filter integrity. Expedite utilizing ClO2 which is a better alternative disinfectant.
 Perform routine monitoring of the microbiological profile of the cooling water.
 Consider coatings (applied at 8-10 mils) to minimize fouling in heat exchanger tubes and
under deposit/MIC corrosion. Use heavy duty coatings as per APCS-28 in SAES-H-001
in the channel heads, piping, spools and associated valves.
 Consider alternative cost effective options: a. Thermoplastic (PP) lined carbon steel pipes
or nonmetallic (RTR) pipes replacement. b. Composite repairs to restore the pipe integrity
as a temporary measure.
3.4 Corrosion Monitoring Deficiencies
3.4.1 Coupons
Corrosion coupons are removed on a 6-12 month frequency or sooner, if high corrosion
rates are observed. Coupons’ data need to be supplemented by OSI to confirm results;
however, review of available data did not indicate the coupons were recently retracted.
3.4.2 Probes
Corrosion probes installed at different locations in Plant V11 are providing acceptable
corrosion rates ranging between 0.09 to 0.36 mpy. It is preferable to correlate these

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readings with OSI program to confirm accuracy. YR can use the planned RBI study to
identify the highest risk locations to optimize installation of the corrosion coupons and
probes. The system has been recently bypassed to upgrade to wireless data gathering.
3.4.3 OSI
Review of measured UT data available in SAIF showed that out of 6000+ TMLs 767
points had a corrosion rates > 5 mpy, out of which 47 TMLs also had a remaining life <
10 years. The most severe location is located in circuit # ¾”-FG-0605AC-1CC1P-S
with a corrosion rate of 126 mpy and a remaining life of 4.2 years.
The following are recommendations to address above findings:
 Define high risk locations from RBI study to re-activate corrosion monitoring. Also, use
the RBI study to prioritize the ongoing effort to establish UT baseline data for corrosion
analysis.
 Consider installing corrosion coupons of different metallurgy in the seawater system
(V11-E-3 and V11-E-0125) and vent gas systems (wash tower piping) where severe
corrosion has been observed. Additional installation locations can be identified after
completing the requested OSI readings specified in section 3.5.
 Maintain trending records of corrosion probes and coupons data over the years to build-
up a historical performance that will clearly provide the corrosion behavior over time.
 Utilize both corrosion rates and remaining life to detect locations of high penetration
rates
3.5 Corrosion Review
Based on a review of CL’s and potential DM’s, several high priority locations were identified
for further detailed evaluation. Currently, analysis could not be conducted due to lack of
required data. These locations are discussed below:
 Potential HCl corrosion due to condensation in 4"-P-203-3CA1B, Recontact Chiller (E-
0116) to Recontact Drum (D-0103) in CL-3, but OSI data was not available in SAIF.
 Potential HCl corrosion in C-0101 Absorber Bottom in CL-7, but OSI data was not
available in SAIF and individual readings were not analyzed.
 Potential HCl corrosion in 12"P-0133/134-1CA1B, C-0101 Absorber to G-109 A/B in
CL-7, but OSI data was not available in SAIF and individual readings were not analyzed
while UT readings are taken every 3 months.
 Potential HCl corrosion in 6"P-0124-1CA1B, from G-109 A/B to E-109 A/B in CL-7, but
OSI data were not available in SAIF.
 Potential corrosion pitting in 3"P-0220-3CJIP, from E-0123 to E-0119 in CL-8, but OSI
data was not available in SAIF.
 Potential corrosion due to stagnant conditions in 24" P-1256-3SDIP, Regen. Blower (K-
0110) to Regen. Cooler (E-0126) in CL-11, but OSI data was not available in SAIF.
Previously, severe corrosion and cracking was observed in the same loop in 3”-IA-1183-
3SD1P (operational deadleg) and downstream 3” block valve (FV-0222). The failed line

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was replace in-kind and 3” valve was relocated closer to 24” line to eliminate the deadleg
during 2011 T&I. A new connection was installed from dryer to loop to reduce moisture.
To address the above challenges, the following recommendations are proposed:
 Expedite the entry and analysis of the already taken UT and RT data into the SAIF
program so detailed corrosion analyses could be performed.
 Send samples with repeated failures to MEU Lab for a detailed failure analysis e.g. 3"P-
0220-3CJIP.
 Utilize this Corrosion Control Document to focus on highly critical values and conduct
your annual review/audit.
3.6 Coating Application and Maintenance
3.6.1 Coatings under Insulation
External corrosion was observed on insulated piping, valves and flanges (including
bolts and nuts) in low temperature service, e.g. outlet piping valve of E-0109 A-D, E-
0123, and E-0116. The inorganic zinc coating (APCS-17A) does not provide adequate
corrosion control for piping in such service with moisture and ice forming externally
under the existing foam glass insulations. There was damage observed in this cold
insulation and other hot insulation (calcium silicate). There was no vapor barrier, top-
coating, over the cold insulation to keep moisture from forming on the piping surface.
To address the above challenges, the following recommendations are proposed:
 For cold insulation: a) use immersion resistance coatings based on epoxies APCS-
2A/2E/2I, under cold insulation instead of inorganic zinc coating, and b) apply
vapor barrier elastomeric top-coating type over foam glass in cold service.
 For hot insulation: a) use APCS-11C coatings designed for temperature cycling
under calcium silicate, or b) use APCS-5B sprayable insulating coatings as a cost-
effective alternative for insulating irregular shapes with valves and flanges
 For bolts and nuts use floupolymer coating standard 09-SAMSS-0107. This will
protect fasteners from corrosion and seizing during dismantling.
3.6.2 Coating for Heaters H-1/2/3 and F-101
The silicone based external coating (APCS-11A) was failing in the burner areas and on
the heater roof side. Also, there might not have been any anti-corrosion coating applied
before the installation of the refractory. Also, there was external scale formation on
heater tubes that might lead to localized hot spots.
Damper plates and shafts were distorted by high temperature. During 2011 TRS, three
complete sets of heater dampers were replaced by new sets in H1 including casing,
shafts, and plate. All were replaced in-kind except shaft material which was upgraded
to 25Cr-35Ni (HF). Remaining four dampers for H2 and H3 are planned for an upgrade
during next T&I. The dampers may still be exposed to higher than design temperatures
due to original design deficiency of not having convection section in the heaters' stacks
that can lower flue gas temperatures.
To address the above challenges, the following recommendations are proposed:

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 For heaters’ external surface use APCS-11C coating which has better surface
tolerance and high temperature resistance.
 For heaters’ casings, including anchors, use high temperature coatings based on
aphaltic-ureathane.
 For heaters’ dampers consider the use of thermal barrier coating technology, if
distortion is still observed.
3.6.3 Flare Header Isolation Valves
It was observed that external top-coatings over pressure safety valves (PZVs) is an
aluminum pigmented coating instead of the orange pigmented system.
It is recommended to select proper external coating system that contain orange pigment
in their top-coat from SAES-H-001 after checking the process temperatures.
3.7 Heater Transfer Lines Terminal Welds
There has not been any inspection for the potential damage mechanism of creep cracking for
the heaters' transfer piping. This includes the externals of heater to reactor terminal welds
where stress levels can be very high and creep can initiate. This has been an industry-wide
concern; refer to Figure 6.

Figure 6 – Tyical creep cracking usually found in high temperature piping terminal weldments
of low alloy steels.

It is advised, during next opportunity or T&I, to conduct inspection of the terminal welds of
all low-alloy transfer piping.

4 Corrosion Loops and Damage Mechanisms


The CCR Platformer Plant V11 was divided into fourteen (14) corrosion loops (CL's). These
were defined mainly on the basis of similar process conditions, materials of construction or
active/potential corrosion, materials degradation and fouling mechanisms. Eighteen (18) unit-
specific damage mechanisms (DM’s) were identified. DM narratives were derived from

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SABP-A-033 “Corrosion Management Program (CMP) Manual (Volume 3 of 3) – Damage


Mechanism Narratives.” These were customized to account for differences in process
streams, metallurgy and historical maintenance/operational experience for YR CCR
Platformer Plant. The information provided in this section can also be used in the
development of the Plant Integrity Windows (PIWs), Key Performance Indicators (KPIs),
and Dashboard as well as in the undertaking of the Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) study.
It is noted that the damage mechanism numbers in the materials of construction section
below refer to a Saudi Aramco numbering system adapted from API RP 571. Also, for
process details refer to Section 2 “Process Description.” The Corrosion Loop Drawings
(CLD’s) and customized DM’s Narratives are provided in Appendix I and II, respectively.
4.1 Corrosion Loop (CL-1): Hydrotreated Naphtha Feed
4.1.1 Description
This corrosion loop contains the naphtha piping from the battery limit (Plant V09 -
NHT) to the Platforming Combined Feed Exchangers (V11-E1 A-D), upstream of H2
gas injection from Platforming Recycle Gas Compressors (V11-C1 A/B).
4.1.2 Materials of Construction
Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
8-O-47001-A2B2-H25 Seamless CS N N N Y
4.1.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
None
4.2 Corrosion Loop (CL-2): Combined Feed
4.2.1 Description
Hydrotreated naphtha is combined with recycle H2 gas before entering the tube-side of
E1 A-D. The combined feed is heated by the effluent from the 3rd reactor (C-0104). The
stream then flows to the charge heater (H1) before entering the 1st reactor (C-0102).
The first interheater (H2/H3) reheats the effluent before entering the 2nd reactor (C-
0103). The effluent is reheated again in the new second interheater (F-0101) before
entering C-0104. The product stream then passes through the shell-side of E1 A-D
heating the feed.
This corrosion loop contains C-0102/3/4, E-0112 (tube side), E1 A-D, F-0101, H1/2/3,
and interconnecting piping.
4.2.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-C-0102/3/4 2.25 Cr - 1 Mo Y N N Y
V11-E-0112 TS 1.25 Cr - 0.5 Mo Y - N -
V11-E1 A-D SS 1.25 Cr - 0.5 Mo Y N N Y
V11-E1 A-D TS 1.25 Cr - 0.5 Mo Y - N -

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V11-F-0101 9 Cr - 1 Mo Y - N -
V11-H1/2/3 2.25 Cr - 1 Mo Y - N -
24-O-47005-E2B1-H100 1.25 Cr - 0.5 Mo Y N N Y
4.2.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(3) Creep/Stress Rupture
(10) High Temperature Hydrogen Attack
(11) Oxidation
(12) Thermal Fatigue
(30) Short Term Overheating
(59) Metal Dusting
4.3 Corrosion Loop (CL-3): Unstabilized Reformate/Separator Liquid Product
4.3.1 Description
The platformate product stream from E1 A-D gets cooled in the air-cooled Product
Condensers (E2 A-F) and water-cooled Products Trim Coolers (E3 A-D) before
entering Product Separator (V4) where H2 gas is separated from unstabilized reformate.
A liquid drain from the Booster Gas Coalescer (D-0147) is also routed to V4. The
Separator liquid product, which is composed of high octane reformate, light ends, and
dissolved H2, is pumped offsite to the Saturated Gas & LPG Recovery for further
processing. A slip stream is sent to the Recontact Drum (D-0103) to enhance the
recovery of liquids from the Net Gas stream.
During normal operations, there is 0.5 – 1 ppm HCl in the separator liquid, especially
from E-0116 to D-0103. Also, there is around 5 – 6 ppm HCl and 30 ppm of moisture
in the unstabilized reformate. However, during plant start-up, around 750 – 1,000 ppm
of water is processed in the reactor effluent which only occur after elongated shutdowns
(every 5 years). The process dries out down to normal moisture levels in around 5 days
of plant operation. Finally, there is < 1 ppm of N2 in the hydrotreated naptha feed to the
unit.
This corrosion loop contains D-0103 bottom, E2 A-F, E3 A-D (shell-side), E-0116
(shell-side), V4 bottom, outlet piping from D-0147 and interconnecting piping.
4.3.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0103 bottom CS N N N Y
V11-E-0116 SS CS N N N Y
V11-E3 A-D SS CS N N N Y
V11-E2 A-F FF CS N N N -
V11-V4 bottom CS N N N N
30-O-47016-A2B2 Killed ITCS N N N N
10-P-0152-1CA1P Killed ITCS N N N N
4-P-0203-3CA1P Killed ITCS N N N Y

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4.3.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms


(9) HCl Corrosion
4.4 Corrosion Loop (CL-4): Recycle/Net H2 Gas
4.4.1 Description
H2 gas from V4 is compressed in the Recycle Gas Compressor (C-1A/B) and is split
into three streams. The temperature of C1 A/B discharge is around -65oC. Recycle gas
is combined with the naphtha feed into E1 A-D. Another stream is heated in the shell
side of Reactor Purge Exchanger (E-0112) and is sent to the Catalyst Collector at the
bottom of the reactor stack. The final stream (Net Gas) is cooled in Net Gas Cooler (E-
0101) and Net Gas Trim Cooler (E-0102) before entering the Net Gas Compressor
Suction Drum (D-0102). Recovered liquids from D-0102 are sent back to V4. During
normal operations, there is 3 – 4 ppm HCl, 20 – 25 ppm H2O, and 2 – 4 ppm H2S in the
recycle gas.
This corrosion loop contains D-0102 bottom, E-0101, E-0102 (shell-side), E-0112
(shell-side), V4 top, and interconnecting piping.
4.4.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0102 bottom CS Y N N N
V11-E-0101 FF CS N N N -
V11-E-0102 SS CS N N N N
V11-E-0112 SS 1.25 Cr - 0.5 Mo Y N N Y
V11-V4 top CS N N N N
26-O-47020-A2B2 Killed ITCS N N N N
20-O-47022-A2B2-P25 Killed ITCS N N N Y
18-P-0162-1CA1P Killed ITCS N N N Y
2-P-0174-3CJ1P-HC 1.25 Cr - 0.5 Mo Y N N Y
4.4.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(9) HCl Corrosion
(31) Brittle Fracture
(54) Mechanical Fatigue
4.5 Corrosion Loop (CL-5): Net/Make-up H2 Gas Compression
4.5.1 Description
The product Net Gas from D-0102 top is split into three streams. Around 10% is sent to
the suction of the Booster Compressors (C2 A-C) then cooled in Net Gas Compressor
Discharge Cooler (E-0103). Another 10% is sent to the suction of the Booster
Compressors (K-0106 A/B) then to the Make-up Gas Chloride Treater (D-0104) to be
used as make-up gas for NHT and LSRN Hydrotreater Plants. However, the majority
(around 80%) is sent to the AET LPG Recovery section.

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This loop contains D-0102 top, D-0104, D-130 A-H, D-0162 A/B, E-0001 A/B, E-0103
and interconnecting piping.
4.5.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0102 top CS Y N N N
V11-D-0104 CS N N N Y
V11-D-130 A-H KCS N N N Y
V11-D-0162 A/B KCS N N N Y
V11-E-0001 A/B FF SS 316L N N N -
V11-E-0103 FF CS N N N -
18-P-0105-1CA1P KCS N N N Y
6-P-0182-1CA1P KCS N N N N
4.5.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(9) HCl Corrosion
(23) Chloride SCC
(54) Mechanical Fatigue
4.6 Corrosion Loop (CL-6): Presat/Reduction Gas Chloride Treating
4.6.1 Description
The separated gas from the Presat Separator (D-0110) is heated in the shell side of the
gas/gas cross exchanger (E-0106) then is combined with the moist Reduction Gas from
C-0102 via Reduction Gas Exchanger (E-0123) shell side. The combined gas (2 – 3
ppm HCl) is routed to the Refinery Fuel Gas System via the Net Gas Chloride Treaters
(D-0105 A/B).
This loop contains D-0105 A/B, E-0106 (shell-side), E-0123 (shell-side) and
interconnecting piping.
4.6.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0105 A/B CS N N N N
V11-E-0106 SS CS Y N N Y
V11-E-0123 SS 1.25 Cr - 0.5 Mo Y N N Y
16-FGH-0372-1CA1P Killed ITCS N N N N
14-FGH-0373-1CA1P Killed ITCS N N N Y
4.6.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(9) HCl Corrosion

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4.7 Corrosion Loop (CL-7): AET LPG Recovery


4.7.1 Description
Net Gas from D-0102 is combined with gas from the Debutanizer Overhead Reciever
(V14-V2) before passing through the tube-side of E-0106 to be cooled. The mixture is
further cooled in the feed gas chiller (E-0107) tube-side before entering the Absorber
(C-0101). Rich Platformate from Debutanier (V14) feed is also cooled via tube-side of
the Cross Exhangers (E-0110 A-E) and tube-side of Platformate Chiller (E-0111)
before entering C-0101. Absorber overhead gas is quenched with Debutanizer (V14-
V1) bottoms before further cooling in the tube-side of Presat Chiller (E-0108) and
partial condensing in D-0110. The condensed fluids are returned to C-0101 top. The
LPG-rich stream leaves C-0101 bottom to V14-V1 via shell-sides of E-0110 A-D and
E-0109 A-D for separation and recovery.
The LPG recovery was designed with no chlorides in the feed, while actually there is
around 6 ppm. Also, operation of LPG recovery is close to the gas stream dew point
around -32oC. the combined effect of both factors lead to excessive corrosion of CS
components and piping.
This loop contains C-0101, D-0110, E-0106 (tube-side), E-0107 (tube-side), E-0108
(tube-side), E-0109 A-D (shell/tube-sides), E-0110 A-E (shell/tube-sides), E-0111
(tube-side), piping from D-0102, piping to/from V14-V1, piping from V14-V2, and
interconnecting piping.
4.7.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Cladding Internal Insulation
Coating
V11-C-0101 CS Y SS A20 Strip Lining N Y
V11-D-0110 CS Y SS A20 Strip Lining N Y
V11-E-0106/7/8/11 TS ITCS N - N -
V11-E-0109 A-D SS CS Y SS A20 Strip Lining N Y
V11-E-0109 A-D TS ITCS N - N -
V11-E-0110 A-E SS CS Y SS A20 Strip Lining N Y
V11-E-0110 A-E TS ITCS N - N -
16-P-0113-1CA1P ITCS N N N N
4-P-0223-1CA1P ITCS N N N Y
4.7.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(9) HCl Corrosion
(31) Brittle Fracture
(46) Corrosion Under Insulation
4.8 Corrosion Loop (CL-8): Booster Gas
4.8.1 Description
Hydrogen gas from the top of D-0103 is routed to the to Booster Gas Coalescer (D-
0147). A portion of the booster gas is heated in the tube-side of the Booster Gas Heater

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(E-0124) before being routed to the Lock Hopper (D-0153) for catalyst reduction. Lock
Hopper Gas is routed to the to the Fuel Gas Drum (D-0101). This gas is added to the
fuel gas used for the Reactor Heaters (H1/H2/H3 and F-0101). Also, a portion of the
gas from E-0124 goes to the catalyst line near FCV-0254/0256 to help with
fluidization.
The other portion of the booster gas is heated in the Reduction Gas Exchanger (E-0123)
tube-side and the Reduction Electric Gas Heater No. 1 & 2 (E-0119 and E-0120) before
entering C-0102 at a temperature around 480oC.
This loop includes, D-0101, D-0103 top, D-0147, E-0119 (shell-side), E-0120 (shell-
side), E-0123 (tube-side), E-0124 (tube-side), and interconnecting piping.
4.8.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0101 CS N N N N
V11-D-0103 top CS N N N Y
V11-D-0147 KCS N N N Y
V11-E-0119 SS SS 304H - N N Y
V11-E-0120 SS SS 304H - N N Y
V11-E-0123 TS 1.25 Cr - 0.5 Mo Y - N -
V11-E-0124 TS KCS N - N -
10-FG-0601-1CC1P CS N N N Y
10-FG-0602-1CC1P CS N N N N
3-P-0205-3CA1P ITCS N N N Y
4.8.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(10) High Temperature Hydrogen Attack
(11) Oxidation

4.9 Corrosion Loop (CL-9): Circulated Catalyst


4.9.1 Description
Spent catalyst received from C-0104 is sent to the Disengaging Hopper (D-0151)
before entering the Regeneration Tower (D-0140) top. Make-up catalyst is added to the
reactor discharge line via Catalyst Addition Funnel No. 1 (D-0149) and Catalyst
Addition Lock Hopper No. 1 (D-0150). Catalyst from the bottom of D-0140 goes to the
Nitrogen Seal Drum (D-0136) to the top of D-0153. Again, make-up catalyst can be
added to D-0136 via Catalyst Addition Funnel No. 2 (D-0154) and Catalyst Addition
Lock Hopper No. 2 (D-0155). Regenerated catalyst from the bottom of D-0153 is sent
to C-0102 top.
Gas vented from D-0151 is separated from catalyst dust in the Dust Collector (D-0156).
Dust fines are collected in the Fines Collection Pot (D-0152) and are then sent to the
catalyst fines drum. The fines are also sent to the Fines Removal Blower (K-0112) back
to inlet of D-0151. The gas from D-0156 is sent to the Lift Gas Blower (K-109) then

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mixes with C-0104 catalyst withdrawal line going to D-0151. Some of the gas also
meets the K-0112 outlet prior to going to D-0151.
This loop includes D-0136, D-0147, D-0149 to D-0156, and interconnecting piping.
4.9.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0136 CS N N N Y
V11-D-0147 CS N N N Y
V11-D-0149 SS 304 N N N N
V11-D-0150 SS 304 N N N N
V11-D-0151 CS N N N N
V11-D-0152 CS N N N N
V11-D-0153 CS N N N Y
V11-D-0154 CS N N N N
V11-D-0155 CS N N N N
V11-D-0156 CS N N N N
4-CAT-1063-1CA0P ITCS N N N N
3-CAT-1087-1CC0P CS N N N Y
4.9.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(9) HCl Corrosion
(10) High Temperature Hydrogen Attack
(20) Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion
4.10 Corrosion Loop (CL-10): Sea Water Cooling
4.10.1 Description
Sea water is used as cooling media for different process streams. This loop includes the
tube side of Net Gas Trim Cooler (E-0102), Caustic Cooler (E-0125), Platforming
Product Trim Cooler (E3 A-D), and interconnecting piping.
4.10.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-E-0102 TS 70Cu-30Ni - - N -
V11-E-0125 TS 70Cu-30Ni - - N -
V11-E3 A-D TS 70Cu-30Ni - - N -
10-CW-47007-X8F2 Seamless CS N N Y N
3-CWS-1098-1NM1C Seamless Ni-Cu N N N N
4.10.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(51) Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)
(80) Under-Deposit Corrosion

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4.11 Corrosion Loop (CL-11): Catalyst Regeneration


4.11.1 Description
Catalyst from D-0151 enter D-0140 top in the “coke burning” section. The regeneration
gas is driven by the Regeneration Blower (K-110) to the Regeneration Cooler (E-0126)
where it is cooled from 519oC to 481oC by atmospheric air. The temperature can be
maintained by the Electric Regeneration Gas Heater (E-0121). The gas is then returned
to D-0140.
Catalyst flows downward by gravity to the “chlorination/oxidation section” where
platinum on the catalyst is oxidized and dispersed and chloride content is adjusted.
Organic chloride is injected into D-0140 via a steam jacketed pipe.
Finally, the catalyst is dried off in the “drying section”. After removing moisture in the
instrument air by the Air Dryer Package, it is further heated in the Electric Air Heater
(E-0122).
This corrosion loop includes D-0140, D-0148 A/B, E-0121 (shell-side), E-0122 (shell-
side), E-0126, and interconnecting piping.
4.11.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0140 CS N N N Y
V11-D-0148 A/B CS N N N N
V11-E-0121 SS SS 316H - N N Y
V11-E-0122 SS SS 304H - N N Y
V11-E-0126 SS 316 - N N Y
24-P-1259-3SD1P SS 316L - N N Y
6-P-1175-3SC1P SS 304H - N N Y
8-P-1176-3SC1P ITCS N N N Y
4.11.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(9) HCl Corrosion
(12) Thermal Fatigue
(20) Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion
(23) Chloride SCC
4.12 Corrosion Loop (CL-12): Vent Gas Wash System
4.12.1 Description
Vent Gas from E-0121 outlet (D-0140 inlet) containing chloride compounds and CO2 is
initially mixed with 1% caustic solution in the Venturi Scrubber (D-0141). The stream
is routed into the Vent Gas Wash Tower (D-0137) where it is further washed with
caustic for better neutralization of HCl before venting to atmosphere. The spent caustic
is circulated to the Caustic Cooler (E-0125) to help cool it down. Some spent caustic is
drawn off to maintain low total solids. Fresh caustic from the Caustic Break Tank (D-

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0138) is injected to maintain pH and alkalinity, while water from the Water Break Tank
(D-0139) is injected to maintain concentration and circulation rate.
This loops contains D-0137, D-0138, D-0141, E-0125, and interconnecting piping.
4.12.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0137 CS Y N Y N
V11-D-0138 CS Y N N N
V11-D-0141 C-2000 N N N Y
V11-E-0125 SS CS Y N N Y
6-P-1261-3SD1P SS 316L - N N Y
6-P-1267-ICC4P CS N N N Y
6-CA-1040-1CC1C4 CS N N N N
4.12.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(9) HCl Corrosion
(18) Caustic SCC
(19) Caustic Corrosion
(23) Chloride SCC
(53) Galvanic Corrosion (Coating, Dissimilar Metals)
(80) Underdeposit Corrosion (Salt)
The potential for Chloride SCC and HCl corrosion is predominantly during
extended shutdown of VGWS without proper drainage. HCl is also of concern in
relief and stagnant lines.
4.13 Corrosion Loop (CL-13): Propane Refrigeration
4.13.1 Description
Propane from Propane Accumulator (D-0111) is chilled in the HP Economizer (D-
0116) to Suction Drums (D-0112/0113/0114) and LP Economizer (D-0115). The
propane gas is compressed again in the Propane Compressors (K-0104) then cooled in
Propane Condenser (E-0105) before returning back to D-0111 to complete the closed-
loop refrigeration circuit. Propane from D-0115 is used in the shell-side of the chillers
E-0107/0108/0111 to cool the process streams.
This loop consists of D-0112 to D-0116, E-0105 A-M, E-0107 (shell-side), E-0108
(shell-side), E-0111 (shell-side), E-0116 (tube-side), and interconnecting piping.

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4.13.2 Materials of Construction


Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0111 ITCS N N N N
V11-D-0112 ITCS N N N Y
V11-D-0113 ITCS N N N Y
V11-D-0114 ITCS N N N Y
V11-D-0115 ITCS N N N Y
V11-D-0116 ITCS N N N Y
V11-E-0105 A-M FF ITCS N N N -
V11-E-0107 SS ITCS N N N Y
V11-E-0108 SS ITCS N N N Y
V11-E-0111 SS ITCS N N N Y
V11-E-0116 TS ITCS N N N Y
24-RP-0646-3CA1P ITCS N N N Y
10-RP-0667-3CA1P ITCS N N N N
4.13.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(31) Brittle Fracture
(46) Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
4.14 Corrosion Loop (CL-14): Waste Heat Boiler/Steam System
4.14.1 Description
Boiler feed water enters Steam Drum (D-0122) to tubes in the Waste Heat Boiler (F-
0104) heating by the hot flue gases from the reactor heaters and the produced MP steam
goes to the main header. The blowdown goes to Blowdown Tank (D-0106) and finally
to Waste Heat Boiler Effluent Tank (D-0108).
This loop contains D-0106, D-0122, E-0124 (shell-side), and interconnecting piping.
4.14.2 Materials of Construction
Equipment/Piping Materials PWHT Internal Internal Insulation
Cladding Coating
V11-D-0106 CS N N N Y
V11-D-0122 CS Y N N Y
V11-E-0124 SS CS N N N Y
12-150S-1011-3CS1P KCS N N N Y
3-BBD-0481-1CC1P CS N N N Y
4.14.3 Potential Damage Mechanisms
(26) Steam Blanketing
(50) Boiler Water/Condensate Corrosion

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5 Risk Assessment
The main objective of the Risk Assessment is to identify the probability and consequences of
the potential DM’s. The overall risk of the equipment or piping is driven by the worst of
safety, production loss (economic), and environment risks that may result from different
failure scenarios based on the DM’s. The Risk Assessment will provide the priority ranking
for the Corrosion Management Plan (CMP) implementation. Focus will be towards the
highest risk items.
The procedure for determining the risk and prioritizing begins by listing all plant equipment
and piping then by identifying all potential DM’s. For YR CCR Platformer Plant V11, this
has already been developed and is provided in Section 4 of this CCD. This information can
then be used to determine the probability, determine the consequences, and assess the risk
based on worst failure scenario. The latter part can be determined using the company-
approved API-RBI software based on API Publication 581, Risk-Based Inspection Base
Resource Document. Figure 7 provides a typical risk matrix generated from the API-RBI
analysis. Although the methodology uses the risk assessment for inspection planning, it can
also be used to plan for CMP implementation.

Figure 7 – A typical risk matrix generated by API-RBI software.

Since risk assessment represents a key requirement of CMP, the following is recommended:
 Finalize the RBI study on YR CCR Platformer Plant V11 for prioritization of CMP
implementation.
 As for piping OSI data necessary for the study but are unavailable in the SAIF program,
utilize the list of equipment and piping in Section 4 to estimate conservative corrosion
rates for representative piping based on connected equipment at similar process
conditions, materials of construction and potential damage mechanisms. Then utilize
resulting risk ranking to prioritize the ongoing OSI to detect for identified potential
DM’s.

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6 Corrosion Management Strategies


The various methods of corrosion prevention, control and monitoring in CCR Platforming
plants are described below:
6.1 Process Variables
The key primary process-related corrosion variables are high temperatures, corrosive liquids
and gases, and erosive solids that can lead to excessive metal loss. Key areas of concern and
associated process mitigation measures are discussed below:
6.1.1 Recycle Gas Moisture and Chlorides
High moisture in the recycle gas can accelerate corrosion in the net gas recontact and
AET section in stagnant locations. Chloride stripped from the catalyst, upsetting the
catalyst acid/metal balance, can later form HCl in the presence of water. This acid
attacks the carbon steel drain systems and stainless steel valve internals. This is
especially true if the affected drain piping was not sloped to allow for drainage.
To manage corrosion, the target recycle gas moisture level should be from 15 to 25
ppmv while ensuring the online moisture analyzer reliability to detect elevated level.
Stable control of the catalyst chloride level should be maintained by reducing the
average chloride level to 0.9 – 1 wt% for regenerated catalyst and 0.8 wt% for the spent
catalyst. Another method of control is to use upstream chloride treaters to minimize
chloride concentration circulation throughout the unit.
6.1.2 Catalyst Fluctuation Erosion
The catalysts piping and nozzles affected by frequent catalyst circulation rate
fluctuation leads to high velocities that may increase erosion and metal loss. In the past,
this has also caused undesirable hot shutdowns, leading to depressurization of the lock
hopper and switching the CCR to black burn mode.
The circulation can be adjusted by continuously monitoring the CCR operating
parameters, general operating curves or by reducing the operating severity.
6.1.3 Spent Caustic pH Control
The cause of the severe corrosion in the vent gas system is mostly due to acidic
conditions resulting from pH control concerns, high chloride content of the feed and
ineffective caustic neutralization. The resulting high solids content can also result in
under-deposit corrosion
Operating guidelines include maintaining circulating caustic solution at target total
alkalinity of 0.2 – 0.35 wt%, keeping the pH from 7.5 to 8.5, and maintaining total
solids less than 1.0 wt% (10000 ppm).
6.1.4 Sea Water Chlorine Residuals
Widespread microbiological fouling can lead to severe corrosion and repeated failures
of all metallurgies including 70-30 Cu-Zn tubing and Monel weld overlays. The main
causes are malfunctioning disinfecting chlorinators and problems with intake filters.
Utilizing chlorine dioxide as an alternative provides superior disinfection by
eliminating sessile biological films at a significantly lower cost.

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Adequate chlorination of the cooling water make-up can be assured by maintaining a


0.5 – 2 ppm residual chlorine and performing routine monitoring of the microbiological
profile of the cooling water such as GAB and SRB.
6.2 Materials Selection
The majority of the equipment and piping in a catalytic reformer is made of carbon steel
unless the temperature is above 500 °F (260°C). The presence of hydrogen requires the use
of low-alloy steels containing chromium, which prevent HTHA above 500 °F (260°C).
6.2.1 Reactors
Reactors are heavy-walled vessels fabricated from chrome-bearing steels. The reactors
in the combined feed are made of 2.25Cr–1Mo alloy to resist HTHA.
6.2.2 Exchanges and Piping
Heat exchanger metallurgy varies with stream composition and temperature.
Feed/effluent exchanges and associated piping have to resist hydrogen on the feed side
and hydrogen sulfide/hydrogen streams on the effluent side. Heat exchangers are
mainly made of carbon steel except for the following cases:
 1.25Cr–0.5Mo used for HTHA;
 Cu-Ni alloys for sea water in non-hydrocarbon services;
 Impact tested carbon steel for low temperature services.
The piping material used is mostly carbon steel except for the following cases:
 Impact tested carbon steel for low temperature services;
 1.25Cr–0.5Mo used for HTHA;
 304H/316H SS for high temperature piping in the regenerator section;
 316 SS for corrosion resistance in the vent gas system piping system.
 Nonmetallic materials can be utilized as piping material to handle corrosive fluids.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Polypropylene (PP) lined carbon steel pipework
is suitable to handle seawater and caustic solutions. Also Reinforced Thermoset
Resin (RTR) pipes can be considered to handle corrosive water solutions.
6.2.3 Fired Heaters
Heater tubes are subject to high temperature corrosion both on the process side and in
the fire-box. 2.25Cr–1Mo and 9Cr–1Mo alloys are commonly used in reactor section to
resist hydrogen attack in furnace tubing while providing good oxidation resistance
externally.
6.3 Corrosion Monitoring and Inspection
6.3.1 Coupons
Retractable coupons can give reliable data under turbulent and laminar flow conditions.
Typical locations for installing coupons are the susceptible locations of well known

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damage mechanisms such under deposit corrosion (MIC) and caustic and acid corrosion
in seawater and vent gas systems, respectively.
Generally, corrosion coupons are removed on a 6-12 month frequency or sooner, if high
corrosion rates are observed either from past coupon/probe data or the OSI analysis.
Coupon data needs to be supplemented by OSI inspection program to confirm results.
6.3.2 Probes
Probes offer the advantage of continuous data collection without the need for frequent
replacements. However, if there is pitting or high velocity the thin probe element used
can fail by fatigue. Below table listed all corrosion probes presently installed at V11
where all of these are showing acceptable readings at these locations.
Table 1 – Corrosion Probes’ Locations and Corresponding Corrosion Rates
Probe Location Corrosion Rates (mpy)
Number Maximum Average
V11-CE-0001 V11-E-0107 inlet (tube side) 0.7 0.14
V11-CE-0003 V11-E-0109 outlet 0.2 0.03
V11-CE-0005 V11-E-2 outlet 1.1 0.2
V11-CE-0007 V11-E-0102 outlet 0.2 0.2
V11-CE-0009 V11-E-0116 outlet 2 0.1
6.3.3 Non-Destructive Techniques
Details on corrosion monitoring and locations are provided in the individual potential
DMs’ narrative provided in the Appendix II. Key areas of concern and monitoring
highlights are provided below:
Corrosion Under Insulation is external corrosion of piping, pressure vessels and
structural components resulting from water trapped under insulation or fireproofing
materials. Vulnerable areas can be found in the recycle/net gas, AET and the propane
refrigeration units. Multiple inspection techniques can be used to provide the most cost-
effective approach. Below are some of these techniques:
 Visual examination of partially or fully stripped insulation.
 UT inspection for thickness verification.
 Real-time profile x-ray (for small bore piping).
 Neutron backscatter techniques for identifying wet insulation.
 Deep penetrating eddy-current inspection (can be automated with a crawler).
 IR thermography to identify wet insulation and damaged insulation under the jacket
Creep can be observed in heater tubes, tube supports, hangers and other furnace
internals. Monitoring techniques include:
 Visual examination for bulging, blistering, sagging, and diametrical expansion.
 UT, RT, Eddy Current Testing and/or diametrical measurements may be required to
assess remaining life as per API RP 579.
 Destructive sampling and metallographic examination are used to confirm and
determine the degree of creep damage and available remaining life.
 Life assessment calculation as per API 530 accounting for creep and metal loss.

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HCl and Erosion Corrosion is usually inspected for using UT, but specialized corrosion
coupons and on-line corrosion monitoring probes have been used in some applications.
HTHA usually occur in reactors, heater tubes, and piping/heat exchangers in high
pressure H2 service. The Inter-Critical Heat Affected Zone (ICHAZ) of reactor welds,
especially nozzle welds & downstream of mixing tees are more susceptible to HTHA.
In terms of monitoring, HTHA can be detected through visual Inspection for blistering,
metallographic replication, and hardness measurements to check for surface
decarburization. Also, Time Of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) and Advanced Ultrasonic
Backscatter Technique (AUBT) can be used for fissuring or internal cracking.
Chloride SCC can be monitored using SWUT (or TOFD) around butt welds during T&I
Under-deposit corrosion can occur in cooling water exchangers (biological), stagnant
areas in the AET unit (chlorides) and relief valve dead legs (condensation). In cooling
water systems, special probes have been designed to monitor for evidence of fouling
which may precede or coincide with MIC damage. An increase in the loss of duty of
heat exchangers may be indicative of fouling and potential MIC damage. Also,
conducting UT and/or RT as part of the OSI program is recommended.
Caustic SCC can be can inspected for at weld HAZ, deadlegs, drains and other
locations where caustic could concentrated. Crack detection is best performed with
WFMT, EC, RT or ACF techniques. Surface preparation by grit blasting, high pressure
water blasting or other methods is usually required. Additionally, crack depths can be
measured by external SWUT.
6.4 Coatings
Engineered coatings are applied on various structures and operating equipment in the
refinery externally or internally to protect against corrosion/erosion, act as thermal barriers,
prevent fouling, etc. The coatings can be organic, metallic, ceramic or composite-based.
Surface coating shall be considered an integral part of the overall equipment.
6.4.1 Heaters
In high temperature applications, coatings can be applied on CS shell under refractory
and welded anchors to serve as protection against acid gas dew point corrosion.
Ceramic (liquid) coatings can be sprayed externally on the heater tubes to prevent
oxidation and scale build-up reducing the risks of hot spots/tube ruptures. This coating
can be applied on the refractory surface to enhance its heat emissivities and reduce fuel
firing reducing % NOx and SOx in the flue gas. Also, ceramic (powder) coatings can be
applied by thermal spraying on damper plates to prevent bulging and distortion.
Advanced coatings, with smart pigments and nano-fillers, are used to sense and monitor
for over-heating. For example, temperature indication coatings can be applied
externally on refractory-lined equipment to detect for hot spots.
6.4.2 Insulated Piping, Fittings and Equipments
Special acrylic-based coatings with ceramic fillers can resolve the chronic concerns
with corrosion under thermal insulation. It can simply be applied on any surface with
intricate shape without the need for cladding.

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6.4.3 Heat Exchangers


Thin film, heat-cured organic coating can be applied on the inner tube surface of heat
exchangers in sea water service to avoid scaling and fouling build-up. The coating will
enhance the flow through the tubes and exchanger duty.
6.4.4 Vessel, Drum, Tanks
Organic composite coatings with glass, ceramic or metals can be applied internally to
protect equipment from corrosion and chemical attack up to 120oC in wet conditions
and up to 180oC in dry conditions.
6.4.5 Instrumentation
Level gauges can be lined with chemical and corrosion resistance PTFE. Also,
temperature sensing probes in corrosive service can be lines with glass type coating for
reliable and accurate measurement.
6.4.6 Fasteners
Bolts and nuts in sweating piping and are insulated can be coated with PTFE type
coating with dual coats (primer + top coat) as per 09-SAMSS-107.

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7 Plant Integrity Windows


Tables 2 (a,b) and 3 (a,b,c) list the customized, unit-specific Plant Integrity Windows (PIWs)
based on the observations listed in Assessment Findings. The below tables provide the PIWs
locations, variable names, DCS tag numbers, limits, urgency, consequences, and required
action. These variables and others developed in conjunction with the PIW Team will be
provided online to YR for their utilization.
Table 2 (a) – Plant Integrity Windows for YR Plant V11 Platformer Section #1
Platformer Hydrotreated Vertical Combined Feed Vertical Combined Feed Vertical Combined Feed Vertical Combined Feed
Location/Equipment
Naphtha Feed Exchanger V11-E-1A Exchanger V11-E-1B Exchanger V11-E-1C Exchanger V11-E-1D

Nitrogen in Platformer Feed Hot End Approach Hot End Approach Hot End Approach Hot End Approach
Variable
Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature
(Tag Name)

Tag # Not Available 11TI0232.PV - 11TI0210.PV 11TI0235.PV - 11TI0210.PV 11TI0242.PV - 11TI0210.PV 11TI0245.PV - 11TI0210.PV

Upper Safety Limit


Upper Integrity Limit
Upper Performance
0.5 110 110 110 110
Limit
Lower Performance
80 80 80 80
Limit
Lower Integrity Limit

Lower Safety Limit


o o o o
Unit ppmw C C C C
Control (M. S.) Lab DCS DCS DCS DCS
Frequency W ----- ----- ----- -----
Urgency H H H H H
Plugging and corrosion of Additional load on Platformer Additional load on Platformer Additional load on Platformer Additional load on Platformer
Platformer equipment such as furnaces which requires furnaces which requires furnaces which requires furnaces which requires
vertical combined feed reducing Platformer feed rate reducing Platformer feed rate reducing Platformer feed rate reducing Platformer feed rate
exchangers, recycle and net gas Increased tube skin Increased tube skin Increased tube skin Increased tube skin
compressors, and debutanizer temperature and reduced temperature and reduced temperature and reduced temperature and reduced
overhead due to ammonium radiant tube life which could radiant tube life which could radiant tube life which could radiant tube life which could
Consequences
chloride deposits. lead to Heater radiant tube lead to Heater radiant tube lead to Heater radiant tube lead to Heater radiant tube
failure. failure. failure. failure.
Reduced Platformer heater Reduced Platformer heater Reduced Platformer heater Reduced Platformer heater
refractory life. refractory life. refractory life. refractory life.

Change of feed source due to Tube side fouling, Sulfiding Tube side fouling, Sulfiding Tube side fouling, Sulfiding Tube side fouling, Sulfiding
improper operation of upstream agent / filmer interaction agent / filmer interaction agent / filmer interaction agent / filmer interaction
units and/or nitrogen ingress with
feed due to improper NHT
Possible Root Causes operation.

Reduces the N2 level of the feed, Reduce Platformer feed rate Reduce Platformer feed rate Reduce Platformer feed rate Reduce Platformer feed rate
do mitigation with corrosion group and plan for cleaning with and plan for cleaning with and plan for cleaning with and plan for cleaning with
& inspection. specialized contractor, specialized contractor, specialized contractor, specialized contractor,
calculate LMTD calculate LMTD calculate LMTD calculate LMTD
Action Required

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Table 2 (b) – Plant Integrity Windows for YR Plant V11 Platformer Section #2

Platformer Recycle Gas Platformer Recycle Gas Platformer Recycle Gas Platformer Net Gas to AET
Location/Equipment
Compressor V11-C-1 A/B Compressor V11-C-1 A/B Compressor V11-C-1 A/B System

Recycle Gas Moisture Recycle Gas HCL Recycle Gas H2S Net Gas Moisture
Variable
(Tag Name)

Manual (Need to be Manual (Need to be


Tag # 11AI0843.PV Not Available
automated) automated)

Upper Safety Limit


Upper Integrity Limit 30 5 2 30
Upper Performance
25 3 1
Limit
Lower Performance
15 1 0.5
Limit
Lower Integrity Limit 5 5

Lower Safety Limit


Unit ppmv ppmw ppmw ppmv
Control (M. S.) DCS Other Other Other
Frequency ----- D D D
Urgency H H H H
High: increases coke make, High: Causes severe High: Deactivates the High: causes severe
reduces recycle gas H2 corrosion in downstream platforming catalyst and corrosion in downstream
purity, increases light ends piping and equipment causes severe corrosion in piping and equipment
production, and causes downstream piping and
severe corrosion in equipment
downstream piping and
Consequences
equipment

Water ingress with feed due High chloride injection rate Sulfur ingress with feed due Water ingress with feed due
to improper operation of NHT and leaching of chloride from to improper NHT operation to improper operation of NHT
Stripper, poor initial drying, the catalyst. and incorrect measurment of Stripper, poor initial drying,
high water injection rate, and the sulfur injection rate. high water injection rate, and
Possible Root Causes steam leak to Recycle Gas. high moisture content of the
reduction gas vent.

Reduce Platformer severity to Reduce Platformer severity to Reduce Platformer severity Adjust the operation of the
98 RON while adjusting the 98 RON and adjust the to 98 RON and adjust the recovery plus unit
chloride injection and chloride injection . chloride injection while (increasing chiller outlet
correcting the Stripper checking the sulfur injection tempeeratur) and check
Action Required operation. and Stripper operation. source of the high moisture.

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Table 3 (a) – Plant Integrity Windows for YR Plant V11 CCR Section #1
Location/Equipment Platformer Reactors Disengaging Hopper Regeneration Tower Regeneratoion Tower
Spent Catalyst Lift Gas Elutriation Gas Velocity Chloride Makeup Rate Regenerated Catalyst
Variable Velocity Chloride
(Tag Name)

V11-SP-7-02.CLWT - V11-
Tag # Calc. Calc. V11-SP-7-02.CLWT
SP-7-01.CLWT

Upper Safety Limit

Upper Integrity Limit 1.1


Upper Performance
5.5 2.4 0.3 1
Limit
Lower Performance
0.1 0.8
Limit
Lower Integrity Limit
Lower Safety Limit
Unit m/s m/s wt% wt%
Control (M. S.) Cal Cal Lab Lab
Frequency ----- ----- 3PW 3PW
Urgency H H H H
Accelerated Loss of metal Loss of metal at bends Higher makeup rate High chloride level
at bends of catalyst lift and increase of catalyst indicates higher injection increases coke make,
line due to erosion, Leaks, fines generation at the rate which causee severe reduces recycle gas H2
H2 Fire, , and increase of upper limit while allowing corrosion and more purity, increases light
catalyst fines. catalyst chips and fines to severity ends production, and
enter the regeneration causes severe corrosion
Consequences
tower and plug the screen
at the lower limit.

Erosion due to high lift gas Erosion due to high High severity operation Loss of chloride injection
flow, change of lift gas elutriation gas velocity and loss of catalyst control and/or excessive
hydrogen purity surface area chloride injection.

Possible Root Causes

Optimize lift line operating Optimize Elutriation gas Adjust the chloride Reduce reactors
parameters (Lift line flow, operating parameters injection while checking temperature while
Action Required lift gas quality) (Elutriation line gas flow, for the right causes adjusting the chloride
gas quality) injection

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Table 3 (b) – Plant Integrity Windows for YR Plant V11 CCR Section #2
Sea Water Cooler
Location/Equipment Vent Gas Wash Tower Vent Gas Wash Tower Vent Gas Wash Tower
Fouling/Corrosion
Spent Caustic Total Spent Caustic pH Spent Caustic Total Chlorine Dioxide Residual
Variable Alkalinity Solids
(Tag Name)

Not Available "New chlorination


Tag # V11-SP-6-03.NAOHC V11-SP-6-03.PH V11-SP-6-03.TS system will be installed in the
near future"

Upper Safety Limit

Upper Integrity Limit 0.35 10000.0 0.5


Upper Performance
8.5 0.5
Limit
Lower Performance
7.5 0.1
Limit
Lower Integrity Limit 0.2 1000 0.1

Lower Safety Limit


Unit wt% pH ppmw ppm
Control (M. S.) Lab Lab Lab Lab
Frequency D D D Daily (during treatment period)
Urgency H H H H
HCl corrosion of vent gas HCl corrosion of vent gas Lead to increase of Fouling of cooling seawater
system at lower limit. system at lower limit. under deposit corrosion system and exchangers
Deposit formation at upper Deposit formation at upper
limit. limit.

Consequences

Causes for corrosion are Lack of pH control due to Increase of caustic Malfunction of chlorine dioxide
lack of pH control due to excessive chlorides in vent injection flow generating unit
excessive chlorides in vent gas and loss of caustic
gas and loss of caustic injection flow
injection flow while causes
Possible Root Causes
forvdeposit formation are
increase of caustic
injection flow and high
chloride level in the vent
gas.
Check and Adjust caustic Check and Adjust caustic Check and Adjust Alert Utilities
injection flow, water injection flow caustic injection flow,
Action Required injection flow and/or spent increase water injection
caustic flow flow and/or spent caustic
flow

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Table 3 (c) – Plant Integrity Windows for YR Plant V11 CCR Section #3
Location/Equipment Dust Collector Dust Collector Lock Hopper Lock Hopper
Mesh Size 14 & 16 of Catalyst Fines Rate Regenerated Catalyst Lift Gas Catalyst Circulation
Variable Catalyst Fines Velocity
(Tag Name)

Calc. (Catalyst Fines


Weight needs to be
V11-SP-FD.SIEVEUS14 +
Tag # automated to enable Calc. 11FI0181.PV
V11-SP-FD.SIEVEUS16
automatic calculation of
fine make rate)
Upper Safety Limit

Upper Integrity Limit 0.03 100


Upper Performance
35 7.6 90
Limit
Lower Performance
15 60
Limit
Lower Integrity Limit 50
Lower Safety Limit
Unit % wt% CCR m/s %
Control (M. S.) Lab Other Cal DCS
Frequency W W ----- -----
Urgency H H H H
Loss of metal at bends of Increase of catalyst fines Accelerated Loss of metal at Unstable CCR operation and
catalyst lift line due to generation causes bends of catalyst lift line due Erosion in the catalyst lift lines
erosion, Leaks, H2 Fire, , unstable CCR opeeration to erosion, Leaks, H2 Fire,
and increase of catalyst leading to shutdown. and increase of catalyst fines.
fines.
Consequences

Erosion due to high lift gas Erosion due to high Erosion due to high lift gas Measurement not accurate,
flow, change of lift gas elutriation gas velocity flow, change of lift gas abnormal CCR operating
hydrogen purity hydrogen purity parameters, increase catalyst
fines generation, and higher
operating severity
Possible Root Causes

Optimize lift line operating Optimize Elutriation gas Optimize lift line operating Check CCR operating
parameters (Lift line flow, lift operating parameters parameters (Lift line flow, lift parameters and check general
Action Required gas quality) (Elutriation line gas flow, gas quality) operating curve
gas quality)

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8 CMP Dashboard
The CMP dashboard is a visual display of the high level, corrosion-related performance
variables with color-coding to indicate compliance to set limits to adequately manage
corrosion. Table 4 provides the dashboard for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11 based on PIWs
from previous Section 7 and key performance indicators (KPIs) provided in Appendix II &
Appendix III.

Table 4 – Corrosion Performance Dashboard for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11


Performance Deviation
Timescale KPI Method Compliance
Measure Impact
Corrosion-Related CMP Based on
Daily 100%
PIW's within Limits Dashboard individual PIW
TML's with High
Corrosion Rates (> 5 Quarterly 0 SAIF Corrosion
mpy)
Chemical Treatment
Corrosion and/or
Program Annually 100% Lab Sampling
(1) Fouling
Performance
Plant Availability
Critical Corrosion Investigation
Annually 0 and Mechanical
Failures Reports
Integrity
Lost Profit
Manufacturing
Opportunity due to Annually 0 Profitability
Planning
Corrosion ($)
(1)
Mainly Sea Water Chemical Treatment
Significant (negative) deviation from target
Moderate (negative) deviation from target
Compliance with or exceeds target

9 Technologies
9.1 On-line Clamp-On Erosion-Corrosion Monitoring System
The monitoring system is a non-intrusive device that enables measurement of corrosion
or erosion damage in piping. It is based on acoustic guided lamb wave’s techniques.
Utilizing this approach will provide flexibility in selecting the monitoring locations in
congested areas where tools required maintaining intrusive devices may not have
enough space to function. It can enhance the plant safety and reliability by identifying
and monitoring the loss in the pipe wall thickness. Corrosion detected by these devices
could then be addressed through implementing appropriate corrosion mitigation
measures.
The subject system has been installed, as a field trial, downstream of the heat exchanger
V14-E-0103 B to Debutanizer (V14-V1). Currently, the technology is available to all
producing, pipelines, gas plants and refineries departments.

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9.2 Protective Coatings


The following are some coating technologies that can used by YR CCR Platformer Plant:
9.2.1 Thermal insulating coating can be used for cooled hydrogen piping and exchangers as
an alternative to exiting insulation on equipment, piping and valves.
9.2.2 Ceramic coatings can be used for heater tubes and refractory. They can:
 prevent oxidation and scale build-up on the tubes, thus extending tube life
 obtain uniform tube wall temperature with lower fuel firing, thus preventing
overheating and subsequent tube rupture
 enhance heat emissivity of refractory, thus increasing radiant heat transfer
efficiency, protecting against flue gas erosion, and preventing dust accumulation
 lower corrosive NOx and CO2 emission with efficient heater performance
9.2.3 Thermal barrier coating for heaters damper plate to prevent over-heating damage.
9.2.4 Temperature indicating coating on refractory lined equipment to indicate hot spots.
9.2.5 Thin film, heat cured modified phenolic coating for heat exchanger tubes in sea water
service. It can protect against corrosion and reduce fouling by reducing the surface
tension and the ability of micro and macro foulants to adhere to tube surface.
9.2.6 PTFE linings can be used for instrumentation piping and bridles.
9.2.7 Glass lining can be used on temperature thermowell probes.
9.3 Deployment of Non-Metallics & Composites
The use of nonmetallic material products should be considered to control corrosion in YR
CCR Platformer Plant V11. The following are some of the technologies to be considered:
9.3.1 Thermoplastic lined carbon steel according to 12-SAMSS-025 or ASTM F1545:
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Polypropylene (PP) lined carbon steel pipework is
suitable to handle cooling seawater and caustic solutions. This technology can be
utilized to replace the existing venturi discharge piping to the wash tower; and the
seawater cooling piping system.
9.3.2 Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTR): RTR pipe to handle corrosive water such as
seawater cooling water. RTR should be considered to replace the existing cement lined
carbon steel piping system.
9.3.3 Composite Repair: Composite repair systems can be utilized to restore the integrity of
pipes with wall thickness loss due to corrosion or erosion such as the seawater cooling
water piping system which shows leaking defects in several locations.
9.3.4 Nonmetallic Pumps: Composite or thermoplastic pumps are an alternative material to
control corrosion and avoid the constant maintenance cost of the existing metallic
pumps in caustic service which show recurrent failures..
9.3.5 Nonmetallic Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Tanks: FRP material can be utilized to
manufacture caustic solution storage tanks as a cost-effective alternative.

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10 Assessment Findings
Details of the assessment findings made in conjunction with CMP deployment at YR CCR
Platformer Plant V11 are given in Appendix III. This table also provides possible root causes,
recommendations, associated gaps in the work processes and attributes, associated PIWs,
KPIs, assigned priority, and phases at which the gap occurred in the assets’ life cycle. This
information is also included in the Asset Performance Management (APM) program report
for integration and consolidation with other APM teams’ findings and recommendations.
The top corrosion challenges from the assessment findings were previously presented in
Section 3 of this report.

11 References
11.1 Saudi Aramco References
Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
SAEP-1135 On-Stream Inspection Administration
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
SAES-A-007 Hydrostatic Testing Fluids and Lay-Up Procedures
SAES-H-001 Coating Selection & Application Requirements for
Industrial Plants and Equipment
SAES-L-132 Material Selection for Piping Systems
SAES-L-133 Corrosion Protection Requirements for Pipelines, Piping
and Process Equipment
SAES-W-010 Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels
SAES-W-011 Welding Requirements for On-Plot Piping
Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications
01-SAMSS-035 API Line Pipe
Saudi Aramco Best Practices
SABP-A-033 Corrosion Management Program (CMP) Manual (Volume
3 of 3) - Damage Mechanism Narratives
Saudi Aramco Engineering Report
SAER-6344 Corrosion Control Document - ShGP CCD-1 ShGP Gas
Treat Units #1/2/3/4
11.2 Industry Codes and Standards
American Petroleum Institute
API STD 530 Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum
Refineries
API RP 570 Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Rerating of
In-Service Piping Systems

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API RP 571 Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the


Refining Industry
API RP 579 Fitness-for-Service
API PUB 581 Risk-Based Inspection Base Resource Document
API RP 941 Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and
Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical
Plants
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NACE RP 0198 The Control of Corrosion Under Thermal Insulation and
Fireproofing Materials - A Systems Approach
NACE SP 0403 Avoiding Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking of Carbon
Steel Refinery Equipment and Piping
NACE SP 0590 Prevention, Detection, and Correction of Deaerator
Cracking
11.3 Publications
Metals Handbook, “Corrosion,” Volume 13, ASM International
D.N. French, “Metallurgical Failures in Fossil Fired Boilers,” John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., NY, 1993.
Corrosion Basics – An Introduction, NACE International

Revision Summary
8 August 2011 New Saudi Aramco Engineering Report.

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Appendix I – YR CCR Platformer Plant V11 Corrosion Loop Drawings

CL-1 CL-2 CL-3 CL-4

CL-8 CL-9 CL-10

Corrosion Loops Diagram No. 1 (CLD-1) for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11

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CL-4 CL-5 CL-6 CL-7

CL-8 CL-10 CL-13

Corrosion Loops Diagram No. 2 (CLD-2) for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11

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CL-4 CL-6 CL-8 CL-9

CL-11 CL-14

Corrosion Loops Diagram No. 3 (CLD-3) for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11

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CL-8 CL-9

Corrosion Loops Diagram No. 4 (CLD-4) for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11

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CL-2 CL-8 CL-9 CL-11

CL-12 CL-13

Corrosion Loops Diagram No. 5 (CLD-5) for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11

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CL-6 CL-7 CL-13

Corrosion Loops Diagram No. 6 (CLD-6) for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11

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CL-13

Corrosion Loops Diagram No. 7 (CLD-7) for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11

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CL-14

Corrosion Loops Diagram No. 8 (CLD-8) for YR CCR Platformer Plant V11

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Appendix II – YR CCR Platformer Plant V11 Customized Damage Mechanism


Narratives
The damage mechanisms identified during the corrosion loop development have been addressed
in the below narratives customized to YR CCR Platformer Plant V11.
6.1 Creep/Stress Rupture (SA-03)
Damage Mechanism Creep/Stress Rupture
Damage Description · Occurs at high temperatures due to deformation of stressed
components under loads below yield stress.
· Deformation leads to damage that may eventually lead to a rupture.
· Creep damage is not reversible. Once detected, much of the life has
been used up and the options are to repair or replace.
Affected Materials & · All metals and alloys.
Equipment · Susceptible equipment are the H-1, 2, 3 and F-0101 heater tubes.
· Heater tubes in fired heaters are especially susceptible as well as
tube supports, hangers and other furnace internals.
Control Methodology · Generally, increases of 25°F (12°C) or 15% on stress can cut the
remaining life in half or more, depending on the alloy.
· Alloys with improved creep resistance may be required for longer
life.
· Heaters should be designed and operated to minimize hot spots and
localized overheating
· Minimizing process side fouling/deposits and fire side
deposits/scaling can maximize tube life.
Monitoring Techniques · Visual inspection for bulging, blistering, cracking, sagging, bowing
& diametrical expansion.
· UT, RT, Eddy Current Testing and/or diametrical measurements
may be required to assess remaining life per API RP 579.
· Destructive sampling and metallographic examination are used to
confirm damage and conduct testing to determine degree of creep
damage and available remaining life
· Calculation life assessment per API530 taking into account both
creep and metal loss
Inspection Frequency Most inspections are performed at every T&I
KPIs · Number of visual/NDT inspections carried out
· Number of tube failures
References · API RP571 (DM #3)
· API Standard 530
· API RP579, Fitness-For-Service

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6.2 HCl Corrosion (SA-09)


Damage Mechanism HCl Corrosion
Damage Description · Hydrochloric acid (aqueous HCl) causes both general and localized
corrosion.
· Damage is most often associated with dew point corrosion where
vapors containing water and hydrogen chloride condense. The first
water droplets that condense can be highly acidic (low pH) and
promote accelerated attack.
· Dry HCl is normally not corrosive.
· The critical factors are HCl acid concentration, temperature and
alloy composition. The severity of corrosion increases with
increasing HCl concentration, temperature and oxidizing agents
(oxygen, ferric and cupric ions).
Affected Materials & · Carbon steel and low alloy steels are subject to excessive corrosion
Equipment at pH below about 4.5. 300 and 400 series SS are subject to pitting
attack. Alloy 400, titanium and some nickel base alloys have good
resistance.
· Chlorides may be stripped from the catalyst and react to form HCl
that carries through the effluent trains, regeneration system (stagnant
and relief valve piping) as well as the recycle, net gas and fuel gas
systems.
· Serious corrosion can also be found at mix points where dry
chloride containing vapors mix with streams containing free water or
where water saturated streams are cooled below the dew point.
Control Methodology · Special adsorbents in chloride beds and chloride treaters can be
used to remove chlorides.
· Minimize carryover of water and chloride salts from upstream units
including neutralizing amine hydrochloride salts.
· Maintain regenerated catalyst chloride between 0.8 to 1 wt% and
moisture level 15 to 25 ppmv to minimize corrosion in the net gas,
recontact and AET sections.
· Selective use of corrosion resistant nickel base alloys.
Monitoring Techniques · Strategically placed corrosion probes and/or corrosion coupons
· Chloride levels in the Platformer unit gas stream and the AET unit
inlet and outlet gas streams
Inspection Frequency Locally thinned areas can be found by using automatic ultrasonic
scanning methods or profile radiography.
KPIs · Chloride Level Exceedances
· Corrosion Rates
Reference Resources · API RP571(DM #9)
(Standards/GIs/BPs) · Metals Handbook, “Corrosion,” Volume 13, ASM International

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6.3 High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (SA-10)


Damage Mechanism High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)
Damage Description · Hydrogen decomposes into atomic hydrogen at the surface and
enters the steel. At the elevated temperatures, this hydrogen reacts
with carbon (from carbides) to form methane (CH4) at grain
boundaries. The resulting decarburization lowers material strength.
· Methane pressure builds up, forming bubbles or cavities, and
microfissures at grain boundaries. Eventually, fissures may combine
to form cracks. Blistering at internal locations may also occur at an
advanced stage.
· Failure can occur when the cracks reduce the load carrying ability
of the pressure containing part.
Affected Materials & · In order of increasing resistance: carbon steel, 1Cr-0.5Mo, 1.25Cr-
Equipment 0.5Mo, 2.25Cr-1Mo, 2.25Cr-1Mo-V, 3Cr-1Mo, 5Cr-0.5Mo.
· Reactors and heater tubes are the main focus. Also, piping & heat
exchangers in the high pressure hydrogen circuits (reactor and
booster gas sections) should be considered.
· Inter-Critical Heat Affected Zone (ICHAZ) of reactor welds,
especially nozzle welds & downstream of mixing tees are more
susceptible to HTHA
Control Methodology · Use Cr-Mo steels per Nelson Curve described in API 941.
· Verify that the proper steel has been installed and that the proper
weld metal has been used in all the areas where HTHA is likely. PMI
the unit for rogue material in HTHA environment
· Follow temperature limits of API RP 941 curves for specific alloys,
with a 50 F (28 C) safety factor
· An integral austenitic stainless steel cladding or weld overlay
would be expected to reduce the effective hydrogen partial pressure
acting on the underlying base metal. Ferritic or martensitic stainless
steel cladding would not be expected to provide a similar benefit.
Monitoring Techniques · Visual Inspection for blistering
· Metallographic replication and hardness checks to check for surface
decarburization, i.e. early signs of HTHA
· Time Of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) and Advanced Ultrasonic
Backscatter Technique (AUBT) for fissuring or internal cracking
Inspection Frequency · Visual examination, metallographic replication and hardness checks
at every T&I.
· Temperature trends and major process upset or temp. excursion
· AUBT at susceptible locations if metallurgical replication shows
evidence of carburization
KPIs · Number and duration of temperature exceedances.
· Number of Inspections Completed
References API 571 (DM #10), API 941, API 581 BRD for R

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6.4 Oxidation (SA-11)


Damage Mechanism Oxidation
Damage Description · Oxygen reacts with carbon steel and other alloys at high
temperature converting the metal to oxide scale. It is most often
present as oxygen in the surrounding air (approximately 20%) used
for combustion in fired heaters and boilers.
· Oxidation of carbon steel begins to become significant above about
1000F (540C), 1.25Cr-0.5Mo at 1100F (595C) and 2.25Cr-1Mo at
1200F (650C). The 300 Series SS are resistant to scaling up to about
1500F (815C).
Affected Materials & · Carbon steel and low alloy steels.
Equipment · All 300 Series SS, 400 Series SS and nickel base alloys also oxidize
to varying degrees, depending on composition and temperature.
· The fired heaters (H-1, 2, 3) in the reactor section with 21/4 Cr–
1Mo tubes and the 304/316 SS in the regenerator section can be
particularly susceptible.
Control Methodology · Establish a maximum oxidation temperature given by API 571.
Note that these maximum temperatures are also limited by creep (per
API 530) and may be lower.
· Resistance to oxidation is best achieved by upgrading to a more
resistant alloy.
· Chromium is the primary alloying element that affects resistance to
oxidation.
· Strictly avoid scaling as this generally indicates that a metal has
been exposed to a temperature exceeding its high temperature
mechanical capability (i.e. it is in the creep range).
Monitoring Techniques · Process conditions should be monitored for establishing trends of
high temperature equipment where oxidation can occur.
· Temperatures can be monitored through the use of tube skin
thermocouples and/or infrared thermography.
· Loss in thickness due to oxidation is usually measured using
external ultrasonic thickness measurements and radiography.
Inspection Frequency · NDE and visual inspection at T&I
· Infrared surveys at regular intervals
KPIs · Temperature Exceedances
Reference Resources · API 571 (DM #11)
(Standards/GIs/BPs) · API 579 Part 11
· API 530

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6.5 Thermal Fatigue (SA-12)


Damage Mechanism Thermal Fatigue
Damage Description · Thermal fatigue is cracking due to the result of cyclic stresses
caused by variations in temperature. Damage frequently occurs
where relative movement or differential expansion is constrained,
particularly under repeated thermal cycling.
· The cracks usually initiate on the surface of the component and are
generally wide and often filled with oxides due to elevated
temperature exposure. Cracks may occur as single or multiple
cracks. They generally propagate transverse to the stress and they are
usually dagger-shaped and transgranular.
· Key factors are the magnitude of the temperature swing and
stresses and the frequency (number of cycles). Time to failure
decreases with increasing stress and increasing cycles.
· Start-up and shutdown of equipment increases susceptibility to
thermal fatigue. As a practical rule, cracking may be suspected if the
temperature swing exceeds about 200°F (93°C).
· Damage is also promoted by rapid changes in surface temperature
that result in a thermal gradient through the thickness or along the
length of a component
Materials & Equipment · All materials of construction are affected.
· Susceptible equipments are in the reactor and regenerator sections
including the reactors, heat exchangers, and welds and piping
connections.
· Notches (such as the toe of a weld) and sharp corners (such as the
intersection of a nozzle with a vessel shell) and other stress
concentrations may serve as initiation sites.
Control Methodology Thermal fatigue is best prevented through design and operation to
minimize thermal stresses and thermal cycling. These include:
· Designs that incorporate reduction of stress concentrators, blend
grinding of weld profiles, smooth transitions and sufficient flexibility
to accommodate differential expansion.
· Controlled rates of heating and cooling during startups and
shutdowns.
· Considering differential thermal expansion between adjoining
components of dissimilar materials
Monitoring Techniques · VE, MT and PT are effective methods of inspection.
· External SWUT and TOFD can be used for NDT
· Heavy wall reactor internal attachment welds can be inspected
using specialized ultrasonic techniques.
Inspection Frequency Periodic at T&Is
KPIs # of failures
References API RP-571 (2003)

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6.6 Caustic SCC (SA-18)


Damage Mechanism Caustic SCC
Damage Description · Characterized by surface cracks primarily adjacent to non-PWHT’d
welds.
· Cracking is always intergranular in carbon steels.
· Caustic concentration exceeding 5 wt% in the aqueous phase can
produce SCC in CS. It can occur at lower levels due to local
concentration effects by evaporation.
· It occurs at temperatures from ~46°C (115°F) to boiling.
Affected Materials & · Carbon steel, low alloy steels and 300 Series SS are susceptible.
Equipment · Equipment affected is in the vent gas caustic injection system and
neutralization. This includes piping, tanks, pumps, exchangers and
valves.
Control Methodology · Cracking can be effectively prevented in carbon steels by PWHT,
up to a given service temperature that depends on caustic
concentration. This also applies to repair welds and internal and
external attachment welds.
· Above certain caustic concentrations and temperatures, 300 Series
SS offer little advantage in resistance over CS.
· Steam out of non-PWHT’d carbon steel must be avoided.
Equipment can be water washed before steam out to remove all
traces of caustic.
Monitoring Techniques · Inspect for cracking at weld HAZ at deadlegs/drains & other
locations where caustic concentrations could occur
· Crack detection is best performed with WFMT, EC, RT or ACF
techniques. Surface preparation by grit blasting, high pressure water
blasting or other methods is usually required.
· Crack depths can be measured by external SWUT.
· AET can be used for monitoring crack growth and locating growing
cracks.
Inspection Frequency Internally inspect vulnerable locations every T&I
KPIs · Caustic concentration
· Temperatures
References · API RP571 (DM #18)
· API 581-2008
· NACE SP0403-2008

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6.7 Caustic Corrosion (SA-19)


Damage Mechanism Caustic Corrosion
Damage Description Localized corrosion due to the concentration of caustic or alkaline
salts that usually occurs under evaporative or high heat transfer
conditions. However, general corrosion can also occur depending on
alkali or caustic solution strength.
Affected Materials & · Carbon Steel, low alloy steels and 300 Series Stainless Steel.
Equipment · Equipment in the vent gas caustic injection system during long
periods of shutdown.
Control Methodology · Shutdown corrosion in the vent gas caustic injection system can be
controlled by flushing the system and proper mothballing procedure
(SAES-A-007).
· In process equipment, caustic injection facilities should be designed
to allow proper mixing and dilution of caustic in order to avoid the
concentration of caustic on hot metal surfaces.
· Carbon steel and 300 Series SS have serious corrosion problems in
high strength caustic solutions above about 150F (66oC). Alloy 400
and some other nickel base alloys exhibit much lower corrosion
rates.
Monitoring Techniques · For process equipment, UT and RT are useful to detect and monitor
general corrosion.
· Injection or mixing points should be inspected in accordance with
API 570.
Inspection Frequency UT, coupons and visual inspection at T&I
KPIs · Corrosion Rate
· # of leaks
References API 571 (DM #19)

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6.8 Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion (SA-20)


Damage Mechanism Erosion – Corrosion
Damage Description · Erosion is the accelerated mechanical removal of surface material
as a result of relative movement between, or impact from solids,
liquids, vapor or any combination thereof.
· Erosion-corrosion occurs when corrosion contributes to erosion by
removing protective surface films or scales.
· Metal loss rates depend on the size, hardness, velocity and
concentration of impacting particles, the hardness and corrosion
resistance of material and the angle of impact.
· Damage is characterized by localized loss in thickness, as pits,
grooves, gullies, waves, rounded holes and valleys, often exhibiting
a directional pattern. Failures can occur in a relatively short time.
Affected Materials & · All materials of construction: metals, alloys and refractories. Some
Equipment alloys have recognized fluid & gas velocity limits to minimize
erosion/erosion-corrosion, e.g. alloys for seawater service.
· Susceptible equipment are catalyst piping and nozzles, dust fines
piping and regenerator section piping and heat exchangers
Control Methodology · Consider design improvements involving changes in shape,
geometry and materials selection, e.g. increasing the pipe diameter to
decrease velocity; streamlining bends to reduce impingement;
increasing the wall thickness; and using replaceable impingement
baffles
· Improved resistance can be achieved through increasing substrate
hardness using harder alloys, hard-facing or surface-hardening
treatments.
· Erosion-corrosion is best mitigated by using more corrosion-
resistant alloys and/or altering the process environment to reduce
corrosivity.
· Heat exchangers utilize impingement plates and occasionally tube
ferrules to minimize problems.
Monitoring Techniques · Visual, UT and RT of vulnerable locations such as bends, elbows,
tees and reducers; injection points, downstream of letdown valves
and block valves, heat exchanger tubing.
· Specialized corrosion coupons and on-line corrosion monitoring
electrical resistance probes have been used in some applications
Inspection Frequency · OSI TMLs for piping
KPIs · Piping erosional velocity limits (per SAES-L-132) exceedances
· Solids/catalyst concentration
References · API 571 (DM #20)
· API 570
· SAES-L-132

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6.9 Chloride SCC (SA-23)


Damage Mechanism Chloride SCC
Damage Description · Surface initiated cracks caused by environmental cracking of 300
series SS under the combined action of tensile stress, temperature
and an aqueous chloride environment. The presence of dissolved
oxygen increases the cracking susceptibility. Trace levels of chloride
can concentrate even at very low levels
· Branched, mostly transgranular cracks with a crazed or spider-web
and brittle appearance.
· This can occur in the regenerator section during shutdowns - 304H
SS (drying section) and 316SS (coke burning, chlorination/oxidation
and vent gas piping)
Affected Materials & · 300 Series austenitic stainless steels ≥ 60⁰C
Equipment · Duplex stainless steels ≥ 130⁰C, depending on the grade and heat
treatment
Control Methodology · Use more resistant materials
· Avoid designs that allow stagnant areas where chlorides can
concentrate or deposit. Slope to drain with no pockets
· If problematic, replace socket welds with resistant materials (Alloy
625, 825)
· When hydro testing austenitic stainless steel, use low chloride
content water. Follow SAES-A-007
Monitoring Techniques · Shear wave UT (or Time Of Flight Diffraction) around butt welds
during the T&I
· PT of exposed surfaces
Inspection Frequency · Shear wave 10% of butt welds during each T&I at selected high
risk locations
KPIs · Chloride level exceedances
· # of cracks found
Reference Resources · API RP571(DM #23)
(Standards/GIs/BPs) · SAES-A-007
· SAES-L-133

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6.10 Steam Blanketing (SA-26)


Damage Mechanism Steam Blanketing
Damage Description · The flow of heat energy through the tube wall results in the
formation of discrete steam bubbles (nucleate boiling) on the ID
surface. The moving fluid sweeps the bubbles away. When the heat
flow balance is disturbed, individual bubbles join to form a steam
blanket, a condition known as Departure from Nucleate Boiling
(DNB). Once a steam blanket forms, tube rupture can occur rapidly,
as a result of short term overheating, usually within a few minutes.
· These failures always show an open burst with the fracture edges
drawn to a near knife-edge. The microstructure reveals severe grain
structure elongation due to the plastic deformation.
· Failure occurs as a result of the hoop stress in the tube from the
internal steam pressure at the elevated temperature.
· Heat flux and fluid flow are critical factors. On the water side,
anything that restricts fluid flow (for example, pinhole leaks lower in
the steam circuit) can lead to steam blanketing conditions.
Affected Materials & Carbon steel and low alloy steels in the Waste Heat Boiler
Equipment
Control Methodology · Proper Boiler Feed Water (BFW) treatment can help prevent some
conditions that can lead to restricted fluid flow.
· Maintain uniform flue gas flow
Monitoring Techniques Tubes should be visually inspected for bulging
Inspection Frequency Routinely during normal operator rounds and at the T & I
KPIs # of Tube Failures
Reference Resources · API RP571 (DM #26)
(Standards/GIs/BPs) · D.N. French, “Metallurgical Failures in Fossil Fired Boilers,” John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 1993.

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6.11 Short-Term Overheating (SA-30)


Damage Mechanism Short-Term Overheating
Damage Description · Permanent deformation, typically from 3% to 10%, occurring at
relatively low stress levels as a result of localized overheating.
· Eventually results in bulging and failure by stress rupture
characterized by open “fish mouth” and with thin lip fractures
· In ferritic steels, bulging is typically associated with local
microstructural changes that confirm high temperature exposure
· It is a fairly common in utility boiler tubes and is sometimes
associated with starvation (loss of steam/water on the tube-side).
· Overheating may also be caused by deposit built-up inside furnace
tubes or in streams with coking tendencies.
Affected Materials & · All fired heater and boiler tube materials.
Equipment · Susceptible equipment are the H-1, 2, 3 and F-0101heater tubes.
Control Methodology · Verify the material selection conform to the design temperatures
and pressure and that metal temperatures do not exceed design limits
· Monitor for flame impingement using visual inspection via peep
holes, or local overheating with.
· Fired heaters require proper burner management and
fouling/deposit control to minimize hot spots and localized
overheating.
· Utilize burners which produce a more diffuse flame pattern.
· Perform remaining life assessment per API Standard 530 or API RP
579 to determine the impact of having higher temperature than
normal.
Monitoring Techniques · In fired heaters, visual observation, tube skin thermocouples,
infrared guns or thermography are used to monitor temperatures.
· Check for distortion and diametric growth during turnaround
inspection.
· Metallographic replication and hardness testing can be used for
micro-structural categorization to detect overheating
Inspection Frequency · Monitor temperature trends every shift especially in hotter/outlet
sections of fired heaters
· Internal inspection and diametric dimensional checks at T&I
· Metallographic replication and hardness testing after process upsets
or temperature excursions.
KPIs · # of internal visual inspection
· # of temperature excursions (over design limits) and durations
References · API RP571 (DM #30)
· API Standard 530
· API RP 579, Section 10

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6.12 Brittle Fracture (SA-31)


Damage Mechanism Brittle Fracture
Damage Description Sudden rapid fracture under stress (residual or applied) where the
material exhibits little or no evidence of ductility or plastic
deformation.
Affected Materials & · Carbon steels and low alloy steels are of prime concern, particularly
Equipment older steels.
· Areas having impact tested carbon steel including the net gas, AET
and propane refrigeration sections.
Control Methodology · Brittle fracture is best prevented by using materials specifically
designed for low temperature operation.
· Control the operating conditions (pressure, temperature),
minimizing pressure at ambient temperatures during startup and
shutdown, and periodic inspection at high stress locations.
· Establish the minimum pressurization temperature (MPT) from
reactor manufacturers or derive from Charpy tests conducted with
samples removed from the vessel.
Monitoring Techniques · Inspect to verify that reactors are crack-free, since defects promote
brittle fracture.
Inspection Frequency Every T&I to check for cracks by visual and conventional Non-
Destructive Testing
KPIs · MPT deviations
· Number of cracks found and repaired
References · API RP571 (DM #31)
· API RP 579, Fitness-For-Service

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6.13 Corrosion Under Insulation (SA-46)


Damage Mechanism Corrosion Under Insulation
Damage Description External corrosion of piping, pressure vessels and structural
components resulting from water trapped under insulation or
fireproofing materials.
Affected Materials & · Carbon steel, low alloy Steels, 300 Series SS and duplex stainless
Equipment steels.
· Vulnerable areas can be found in the recycle/net gas, AET and the
propane refrigeration units. NACE RP0198 can be used for guidance.
Control Methodology · Use immersion resistance coatings depend on surface temperature
suitable for process conditions (cold, hot, cycling).
· Use appropriate cold or hot insulations/sealing materials/vapor
barrier coating and corrosion resistance jacket to prevent moisture
ingress.
· Use low chloride insulation and halide free coating on 300 Series
SS to minimize the potential for pitting and chloride stress corrosion
cracking (SCC).
· Another option is to use thermal insulation coating systems with
appropriate anti-corrosion primer coating instead of conventional
insulation.
Monitoring Techniques Utilize multiple inspection techniques to produce the most cost
effective approach, including:
· Partial and/or full stripping of insulation for visual examination.
· UT for thickness verification.
· Real-time profile x-ray (for small bore piping).
· Neutron backscatter techniques for identifying wet insulation.
· Deep penetrating eddy-current inspection (can be automated with a
robotic crawler).
· IR thermography looking for wet insulation and/or damaged and
missing insulation under the jacket.
· Guided wave UT.
Inspection Frequency T&I Inspections
KPIs · CUI Program Implementation
· # of failures
References · API 571 (DM #46)
· NACE RP0198

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6.14 Boiler Water/Condensate Corrosion (SA-50)


Damage Mechanism Boiler Water/Condensate Corrosion
Damage Description · General corrosion and pitting in the boiler system and blow down
piping is usually the result of dissolved gases, oxygen and carbon
dioxide.
· Oxygen corrosion tends to be pitting type damage. Oxygen is
particularly aggressive in economizers where there is a rapid water
temperature rise.
· Carbon dioxide corrosion results in a smooth grooving of the pipe
wall. Some oxygen pitting can occur if the oxygen scavenging
treatment is not working correctly.
· Critical factors are the concentration of dissolved gas (oxygen and
carbon dioxide), pH, temperature, quality of the feed water and the
specific feed water treating system.
Affected Materials & · Primarily carbon steel, some low alloy steel, some 300 Series SS
Equipment and copper based alloys.
· Corrosion can occur in the waste heat boiler and blow down system
used to recover heat from the heater flue gases that produces medium
pressure steam.
Control Methodology · Lay down and continuously maintain layer of protective Fe3O4
(magnetite).
· Oxygen scavenging treatments typically include catalyzed sodium
sulfite or hydrazine and proper mechanical deaerator operation.
· The chemical treatment for scale and deposit control must be
adjusted to coordinate with the oxygen scavenger.
Monitoring Techniques Water analysis is the common monitoring tool. This includes the pH,
conductivity, chlorine or residual biocide, and total dissolved solids.
Inspection Frequency · Visual shutdown inspections.
· Use WFMPT inspection to check for deaerator cracking problems.
KPIs · # of tube leaks
· pH deviations
Reference Resources · API RP571(DM #50)
(Standards/GIs/BPs) · NACE SP0590-2007, “Prevention, Detection, and Correction of
Deaerator Cracking”

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6.15 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (SA-51)


Damage Mechanism Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)
Damage Description · Caused by living organisms such as bacteria, algae or fungi. It is
often associated with the Presence of tubercles or slimy organic
substances.
· Microbes require water to thrive
· Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is the most common in oil
industry and reduce the sulfate to the corrosive H2S, which again
reacts with steel to form iron sulfides.
· H2S is generated in aqueous environments, and is patent in
stagnant or low-flow conditions that allow and/or promote the
growth of microorganisms.
· Observed as localized corrosion (pitting) under deposits
Affected Materials · Carbon and low alloy steels
Control Methodology · Maintain proper sea water treatment with chlorine or ClO2.
· Maintain flow velocities above minimum levels.
· Minimize low flow or stagnant zones to avoid solid deposits.
· Maintain coatings
· Prevent oxygen incursion.
Monitoring Techniques · Measuring residual chlorine or chlorine dioxide in the sea water
outlet channel during the treatment period.
· Establish bacteria monitoring program to be taken in a regular
basis in order to obtain useful baseline data and assess long term
trends.
· Install flush coupons for evidence of fouling coinciding with MIC
damage.
· Periodic UV surveillance.
Inspection Frequency Regular UT, coupons, OSI, and visual inspection at T&I
Lab analyses on a weekly basis to detect and quantify MIC
KPIs SRB: 10 -> 102 (count of the bacteria in 1 mm2)
Reference Resources · SAES-H-001
(Standards/GIs/BPs) · SABP-A-018
· SABP-A-019
· ASTM A 123
· API 571

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6.16 Galvanic Corrosion (SA-53)


Damage Mechanism Galvanic Corrosion
Damage Description Occurs at the junction of dissimilar metals when they are joined
together in a suitable electrolyte, such as a moist or aqueous
environment, or soils containing moisture.
Affected Materials · All metals with the exception of most noble metals
· Vent gas system equipment: carbon steel, 316SS (inlet vent gas
piping), Hastelloy 2000 (venture scrubber internal) and coating (vent
wash tower internal).
Control Methodology · Avoid contact of different alloys in conductive environments unless
the anode/cathode surface area ratio is favorable.
· Rivets, bolts, and fasteners should be of as more noble metal that
the material to be fastened.
· Use metallic coatings, such as inert barrier, organic or vitreous for
the more noble material.
· Use nonmetallic inserts, washers, fittings at the joint between the
materials to eliminate their electrical connection. (Insulation kits for
flanges)
· Provide an appropriate corrosion allowance for more active metals
· Avoid dissimilar-metal crevices such as those that occur at
threaded connections. Crevices should be seal welded.
Monitoring Techniques · Visual Inspection
· UT Survey
Inspection Frequency Visual during T&Is
KPIs Corrosion Rate
References · API 571 (DM#53)
· Corrosion Basics – An Introduction,” NACE International.

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Issue Date: 8 August 2011 Next Planned Update: 1 September 2012

6.17 Metal Dusting (SA-59)


Damage Mechanism Metal Dusting
Damage Description · It is a form of carburization resulting in accelerated localized
pitting which occurs in carburizing gases and/or process streams
containing carbon and hydrogen. Pits usually form on the surface
and may contain soot or graphite dust. It is also known as
catastrophic carburization.
· In low alloy steels, the wastage can be uniform but usually is in the
form of small pits. The corrosion product is a voluminous carbon
dust containing metal particles which will be swept away by the
flowing process stream.
· Metal dusting involves a complex series of reactions involving a
reducing gas such as hydrogen, methane, propane or CO. It usually
occurs in the operating temperature range of 900°F to 1500°F
(482°C to 816°C).
· Metallography will show a heavily carburized under the attacked
surface.
· Critical factors are stream composition, operating temperature and
alloy composition. Damage increases with increasing temperature. It
can also occur under alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions.
Materials & Equipment There is currently no known metal alloy that is immune to metal
dusting under all conditions.
Susceptible equipment are the H-1, 2, 3 and F-0101 heater tubes.
Control Methodology · An aluminum diffusion treatment to the base metal substrate can be
beneficial in some applications.
Monitoring Techniques · For heater tubes with suspected damage, compression wave
ultrasonic testing is probably the most efficient method of inspection
since large areas can be inspected relatively quickly.
· RT techniques can be employed to look for pitting and wall
thinning.
· If internal surfaces are accessible, visual inspection is effective.
· Filtering the cooled furnace or reactor effluent may yield metal
particles that are a tell tale indication of a problem upstream.
Inspection Frequency Every T & I if the composition and operating temperatures are in the
metal dusting range.
KPIs # of inspections conducted
Reference API RP-571 (2003)

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
Issue Date: 8 August 2011 Next Planned Update: 1 September 2012

6.18 Under-Deposit Corrosion (SA-80)


Damage Mechanism Under-Deposit Corrosion
Damage Description A localized internal corrosion attack that occurs due to any build up
of debris/sand, adherent corrosion/scale deposits, biological bacteria
growth and sea water barnacles.
Affected Materials& · Most materials of construction including carbon and low alloy
Equipment steels, 300 & 400 Series SS, copper and some nickel base alloys.
· Susceptible equipment are the cooling water exchangers
(biological), stagnant areas in the AET unit (chlorides) and relief
valve dead legs(condensation).
Control Methodology · For cooling water systems - treat with biocides such as chlorine
dioxide to control bacterial growth.
· Maintain flow velocities above minimum levels for the different
materials. Minimize low flow or stagnant zones.
· Hydrotest water shall be emptied quickly with blowing dry air.
· Using a combination of pigging, blasting, chemical cleaning and
biocide treatment.
· Applying protective coatings/linings and cathodic protection. can
minimize fouling and under deposit corrosion/leaks in heat
exchanger tubes.
Monitoring Techniques · In cooling water systems, monitor chloride residual, microbial
counts and visual appearance.
· Special probes have been designed to monitor for evidence of
fouling which may precede or coincide with MIC damage.
· An increase in the loss of duty of heat exchangers may be
indicative of fouling and potential MIC damage.
· Conduct UT and/or RT as part of the OSI program.
· Perform Internal visual or NDT inspections during T&I.
Inspection Frequency · Periodic Cooling Water chloride residuals, microbial counts.
· Chloride levels in the recycle and net gas systems
· UT and RT per OSI output.
KPIs · Chloride limit exceedance
· High microbial counts
· Number of failures
References · API 571 (DM #51)

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
Issue Date: 8 August 2011 Next Planned Update: 1 September 2012

Appendix III – List of Observation from the Corrosion Management Program deployment in YR CCR Platformer
Plant V11
KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
Corrosion Loops Review ---- 1. Conduct a CL workshop EWP-04-05-01- MOC ----
Review of existing Corrosion Loops that will identify any process, 02: Perform Implementation
(CL) that were developed during the design, mechanical changes Corrosion Risk
2010 Health Check indicated that and associated Damage Assessment
there was a need to revise some of Mechanisms.
the DM’s based on the detailed AWP-02-03-02-
1 review of the current Operations, 2. Perform the RBI study to 01-02: Identify High Design
Maintenance and available T & I and determine high risk Damage
Inspection data. equipment and develop Mechanisms
corresponding integrity plans.
AWP-02-03-02-
01-01: Identify
Corrosion Loops
LPG Recovery (AET) Corrosion 1. Design New EWP-04-04-02- 1. Chloride 1. corrosion
Stream operating near dew point, so Deficiencies 1. Expedite the installation of 02: Plan Level rate < 5 mpy
condensation leads to HCl corrosion the chloride treaters. This Maintenance
in presence of high chloride conc. 2. Improper will only help in future Tasks 2. Moisture 2. # of Leaks
above design limits. HCl attacked CS Construction deposit formation - some Level
drains and SS valve internals. In issues with existing deposits EWP-04-05-01-
addition, some of the affected drain 3. No can still be expected. 01: Develop 3. Operating
pipings were not sloped to allow for procedure for Corrosion Temperature
proper drainage. regularly 2. Support YR effort to raise Management
2 flushing the AET operating Strategy High Operations
In 2009, severe corrosion was pumps temperature to around -10oC
observed in several stagnant to minimize the formation of
locations; drain lines in C-101, D- liquid water. The economic
110 and E-107, 4" Level Troll sight trade-off need to be evaluated
glass, valves and piping. Also, the E- for the loss of LPG recovery.
109 tubes showed 20-40% metal loss
in a few years. X-ray surveys at 54 3. Flush the pump soon after
locations showed only a few being on standby and during
locations had minor corrosion attack. T&I to prevent condensation

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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
and HCl corrosion. If pH is
Also, a comprehensive evaluation still low, flush with caustic.
conducted in October, 2009
identified the use of chloride treaters
upstream of the AET to be the best
long term solution. During the 2011
TRS, tie-in connections were made
for future installation of the chloride
treaters that are currently in the
refinery. 21 to 40% tubes metal
losses had been reported.

From 2010 Health Check, the


recommendation to extend cold
insulation around the drain
connections to ensure there was no
condensation was addressed. Also,
insulation throughout the unit was
inspected to ensure it was completely
sealed and was not damaged
especially around the valves.

Severe corrosion was observed in the


G-0109, AET Absorber Bottoms
pump impeller. This was most likely
due to condensation during the
standby mode. Also, plugging was
observed in the strainer upstream G-
0103, Platforming Prod. Separator
Btm., which is also attributed to the
presence of chloride and moisture.

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
Vent Gas Wash Tower (VGWT) 1. Design New EWP-04-05-04- 1. Caustic 1. corrosion
System Corrosion Deficiencies 1. Flush the pump soon after 01: Act on Solution pH rate < 5 mpy
Frequent leaks were observed in the bypassing VGWT to prevent Operations
2" vent line, flanges and the 10" to 8" 2. No salt accumulation and 2. Caustic 2. fouling rate
reducer in the venturi scrubber procedure for corrosion. EWP-02-05-03- Solution
discharge. This had led to the regularly 03: Develop Alkalinity 3. % VGWT
bypassing of the tower for as long as flushing 2. Consider use of Process Stream system
10 months. The metallurgy for D- pumps and nonmetallic for the pumps Monitoring 3. Caustic utilization
0137, Wash Tower, is CS with APC backwashing and venturi discharge piping Strategy Solution TSS
2G (polyglass VEF) coating which exchangers (thermoplastic liner) to the
required minor repairs during the wash tower.
2008 T&I. In 2009, the vessel was
inspected and was shown to be in 3. Utilize isolation kits
good condition with no coating between the dissimilar
damage. It was not part of the 2011 materials in the spent caustic
TRS because it is not a shutdown system.
item. Severe corrosion and leaking of
3 Low Operations
the operating CS caustic circulation 4. If APCS-2G coating fails
pumps, G-0117, are still continuing during next T&I, then it is
with the spare pump in the advised to conduct coating
shop.From 2010 Health Check, the failure analysis and consider
recommendation to upgrade the alternative coatings APCS-
metallurgy to Hastelloy C-2000 from 2H/APCS-27 of SAES-H-
the Venturi Scrubber to the Wash 001.
Tower was addressed.Review of
2010 trend data showed that severe
corrosion was mostly due to acidic
conditions resulting from the
difficulty in controlling pH based on
vent gas high chloride content. Also,
modification of the caustic injection
scheme is being considered to ensure
reliability of caustic neutralization
from a process stand point.
4 Sea Water Corrosion 1. Corrective Previous EWP-04-05-04- 1. Cl2 or ClO2 1. corrosion High Operations

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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
Repeated failures of the sea water action not yet 1. Utilize ClO2 which is a 01: Act on residuals rate < 5 mpy
exchanger 70-30 Cu-Zn and 90-10 implemented better alternative disinfectant Operations
Cu-Ni tubing and Monel weld (chlorination to gaseous Cl2 and bleach. It 2. Bacteria 2. fouling rate
overlays (i.e. E-3, E-125, E-117, E- system) provides superior disinfection TWP-02-05-02: (SRB/GAB)
130, cooler to K-102) were observed. with lower cost of Develop sessile count 3. Cl2 or ClO2
Also, the sacrificial zinc anodes in 2. Infrequent maintenance and power Corrosion treatment rate
the channel boxes were rapidly review of the consumption Management
consumed. cooling water Design Strategy 4. Cl2 or ClO2
KPIs 2. Ensure adequate Basis conc. at SW
Fouling was observed in Plant V11 chlorination of the cooling outlet (during
sea water header. Also, concerns 3. Faulty water make-up (0.5 ppm TWP-05-03-01: treatment)
with the intake filters are allowing installation (of residual chlorine min.) and Conduct Full
large objects and marine life to enter lining) maintain the sea water intake Root Cause 5. Cl2 or ClO2
the cooling system further filter integrity. Analysis treatment time
aggravating the fouling problems. 4. Improper per spec.
coating 3. Perform routine EWP-04-04-02-
The malfunction of the current selection. monitoring of the 02: Plan 6. Macro-
NaOCl disinfection system and microbiological profile of the Maintenance fouling results
consequent low chlorine residuals cooling water, i.e. GAB Tasks (inlet/outlet
(around 0.03 ppm) is allowing (General Aerobic Bacteria), canals)
bacterial growth and biomass build SRB (Sulphate Reducing AWP-04-05-01-
up leading to microbial corrosion and Bacteria), etc. Samples for 04-04: Plan for 7. sessile SRB
fouling. The repair of the current these analyses can be routed Paints, Coatings count
system is possible, but is not to Dhahran. and Linings (inlet/outlet
complete. Also, the installation of canal)
the new ClO2 system is advantageous New EWP-02-05-03-
but has been delayed for years now. 1. Expedite repairing and 01: Select 8. minimum
operating the current Materials flow rate in
Premature failures of cement chlorination system until the each
lined/coated CS spools have been system is upgraded to ClO2. exchanger
observed in the cooling water system. bank
These leaks have been temporarily 2. Expedite implementation
repaired using elastomer and CS of previous recommendations
clamps. 3. For heat exchanger tubes, 9. # of tube
consider coatings applied at leaks

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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
Also, there were repeated coating 8-10 mils to minimize
failures in the channel heads, e. g. fouling and low velocity
APCS-3 coal tar epoxy coating in E- under deposit/MIC corrosion
003 B/D. Permanent repairs -
replacement in kind are normally 4. Alternative cost effective
done at the next shutdown. options for repair and
replacements are: a.
Thermoplastic (PP) lined
carbon steel pipes or
nonmetallic (RTR) pipes. b.
Composite repairs to restore
the pipe integrity

5. Use heavy duty coatings as


per APCS-28 in SAES-H-
001 in the channel heads,
piping, spools and associated
valves. Use non-metallic
composite repairs to stop
leaks occurring on the
cement lined piping.
Coating Application and 1. Design Coatings Under Insulation EWP04-05-04- ---- corrosion rate
Maintenance deficiencies Cold Insulation: a. Use 02: Act on < 5 mpy
Coatings Under Insulation immersion resistance Maintenance
External corrosion was observed on 2. Improper coatings based on epoxies
insulated piping, valves and flanges coatings APCS-2A/2E/2I as stated in AWP-04-05-01-
(including bolts and nuts) in low selection SAES-H-001, under cold 04-04: Plan for
temperature service, e.g. outlet insulation instead of Paints, Coatings
5 Medium Operations
piping valve of cross exchanger 1 (E- inorganic zinc coating. b. and Linings
109A-D), reduction gas exchanger Apply elastomeric top-
(E-123), and recontact chiller (E- coating type over foam glass
116). The inorganic zinc coating (cold service) to serve as a
(APCS-17A) does not provide vapor barrier
adequate corrosion control for piping Hot Insulation: Use coatings
in such service with moisture and ice designed for cycling

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
forming externally under the existing approved for APCS-11C,
foam glass insulations. There was under calcium silicate. An
damage observed in this cold alternative cost-effective
insulation and hot insulation (calcium option is to use sprayable
silicate). There was no vapor barrier, insulating coatings approved
top-coating over the cold insulation for APCS-5B in SAES-H-
needed to keep moisture from 001. This will eliminate the
forming on the piping surface. risk of hidden corrosion
under conventional bulky
Coating for Heaters H-1/2/3 and F- insulations. It can insulate
101 irregular shapes; valves and
The silicone based external coating flanges with only spraying
(APCS-11A) was failing in the the coating.
burners areas and on roof side areas. Bolts & Nuts: Use
There might not have been any anti- floupolymer coating standard
corrosion coating applied before the 09-SAMSS-0107. This will
installation of refractory. protect fasteners from
There was external scale formation corrosion and seizing and
on heater tubes that might lead to difficulty in dismantling
localized hot spots. during maintenance.
Damper plates and shafts were
distorted by high temperature. The Coating for Heaters H-1/2/3
damper metallurgy was recently and F-101
upgraded to 25Cr-12Ni for shaft and External: Use APCS-11C
310SS for plates with bolts/nuts in coating which has better
the last TRS. The dampers may still surface tolerance and high
be exposed to higher than design temperature resistance.
temperature due to not having a Internal: Use special high
convection section in the heaters' temperature coatings based
stacks that can lower flue gas on aphaltic-ureathane on
temperatures. heater casing including
anchors.
Flare Header Isolation Valves Heater Dampers: Consider
External coating system over PZV the use of thermal barrier
valves and the top-coat color is coating technology if

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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
aluminum pigmented coating system problems continue.
instead of orange pigmented system
Flare Header Isolation Valves
Check the process
temperature and select proper
external coating system that
contain orange pigment in
their top-coat from SAES-H-
001.

Heater Transfer Lines Terminal Previously not During next EWP-04-05-01- ---- ----
Welds identified as a opportunity/TRS, conduct 02: Perform
There haven't been any inspection for potential DM inspection of the terminal Corrosion Risk
the potential damage mechanism of welds of all low-alloy Assessment
creep cracking for the heaters' transfer piping.
6 Medium Operations
transfer piping. This includes the EWP-04-05-01-
externals of heater to reactor terminal 01: Develop
welds where stress levels can be very Corrosion
high and creep can initiate. This has Management
been an industry-wide concern Strategy
Annual Corrosion Review: No work 1. Expedite the entry and EWP 04-03-02- 1. Chloride 1. corrosion
Based on a review of CL and process analysis of the UT and RT 02: Carry out Level rate < 5 mpy
potential DM’s, several high priority data into the SAIF program On-Stream
locations were identified for detailed so that a detailed corrosion Inspections 2. Moisture 2. # of failures
evaluations. Analysis could not be analysis could be performed. Level
conducted due to lack of required EWP 04-05-01-
data. These locations are discussed 2. Send samples to MEU Lab 01: Develop
7 High Operations
below: for a detailed failure analysis Corrosion
Potential HCl Corrosion due to e. g. 24" P-1256-3CDIP. Management
condensation - CL#3 - 4" P-203- Strategy
3CA1B Recontact Chiller (E-0116) 3. Utilize Corrosion Control
to Recontact Drum (D-0103), (OSI Document to focus on highly EWP-04-05-01-
data not available) critical variables and conduct 02: Perform
Stagnant Corrosion- CL#11 A - 24" your annual review/audit. Corrosion Risk

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
P-1256-3CDIP, K-0110 Regen Assessment
Blower to Regeneration Cooler (E-
0126) was cracked and pitted. EWP-04-05-03-
Replaced in kind with 316SS and 01: Corrosion
shifted valve down to pipe during the Data Assessment
2011 TRS. Installed new connection
from dryer to loop to reduce EWP-04-05-03-
moisture. (OSI data not in SAIF) 02: Corrosion
Potential Cl Pitting- CL#8: 3"P- Management
0220-3CJIP Reactor to E-0120 - Review
304H 366ºC v/s 120ºC (OSI data not
in SAIF)
Corrosion CL#7C: C-0101 Absorber
Bottom (OSI data not in SAIF,
individual readings not analyzed)
Potential HCl Corrosion - CL#7C:
12"P-0133/134-1CA1B C-0101
Absorber to G-109A/B - currently
taking UT reading every 3 months.
(OSI data not in SAIF, individual
readings not analyzed)
Corrosion CL#7C: 6"P-0124-1CA1B
- G-109A/B to E-109A/B
(OSI data not available)

Corrosion Management Deficiency 1. Lack of 1. Define high risk locations TWP-04-05-01 ---- corrosion rate
Coupons: Corrosion from RBI study to re-activate Plan: Corrosion < 5 mpy
Retractable coupons can give reliable Management the corrosion monitoring. Management
data under turbulent and laminar Also, use the RBI study to
flow conditions. Typical locations 2. Accepted prioratarize the ongoing EWP-04-05-01-
8 Low Design
for installing coupons are susceptible Plant Upgrade effort to establish UT 02: Perform
locations of well known damage without baseline data for corrosion Corrosion Risk
mechanisms such underdeposit establishing analysis. Assessment
corrosion (MIC) in seawater and equipment/pipi
caustic or acid corrosion in VGWT ng baseline 2. Additional installation EWP-04-05-02-

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
system.. thicknesses. locations can be identified 03: Implement
Generally, corrosion coupons are after completing the Corrosion
removed on a 6-12 month frequency requested OSI reading on the Monitoring
or sooner if high corrosion rates are specified locations in item Strategy
observed either from past #6.
coupon/probe data or the OSI EWP-04-05-03-
analysis. Coupon data needs to be 3. Maintain trending records 02: Corrosion
supplemented by OSI inspection of corrosion probes and Management
program to confirm the results; coupons data over the years Review
however, review of available data did to build up a historical
not indicate if the coupons were performance that will clearly
recently retracted. provide the corrosion
behavior over time.
Probes:
Probes offer continuous data 4. Utilize corrosion rates and
collection without the need for remaining life to detect
frequent replacements. However, if locations of high penetration
there is pitting or high velocity the rates
thin probe element used can fail by
fatigue. 5. Consider installing
As a major finding, corrosion probes corrosion coupons of
installed at different locations in V11 different metallurgy in the
are providing acceptable seawater system (V11-E-3
readings/corrosion rates ranging and V11-E-125) and vent gas
between 0.09 to 0.36 MPY. It is systems (wash tower piping)
preferable to correlate these readings where severe corrosion has
with OSI program to confirm been observed.
accuracy. YR can also get additional
benefit out of the RBI studies to
identify the high risk locations where
installation of corrosion coupons or
probes at these identified spots would
to very sufficient.
The system has been recently
bypassed due to the upgrade to

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SAER-6353 Corrosion Control Document - Yanbu Refinery CCR Platformer Plant V11
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KPI /
Observations Root Causes Recommendations WPs PIW Priority Phase
Attributes
wireless data gathering.

YR has exerted a huge effort to


establish baseline thickness readings
for hundreds of TML's in Plant V11,
but there still are many more that
might be of greater importance.
Having said that, review of already
measured UT data that are available
in SAIF showed:
Out of 6000+ TMLs, 767 points had
a corrosion rates > 5 mpy, out of
which 47 TMLs also had a remaining
life < 10 years. The most severe
location is that located in circuit #
¾”-FG-0605AC-1CC1P-S with
corrosion rate = 126 mpy and
remaining life of 4.2 years.

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