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# Chapter Two

Base case

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(2-1)Air Conditioning Analysis
Air conditioning system is designed to control the environment of occupied
spaces, so the thermal comfort approached by occupants. So, according to seasonal
variation of weather, air conditioning system has to cope with heating and cooling
By conduction, convection and radiation sensible heat transmitted out of the
building in winter, and transmitted to the building in summer, and by the same way;
moisture can be transmitted in and out of the building, sensible and latent heat can be
produced within the building according to occupant’s activity, lighting and machines
also.
The first step before any design process for any air conditioning system;
engineers must carefully determine the amount of heat removal needed in summer
season and the amount of heat to be produced in winter season . Before an air
conditioning system can be designed, all these loads must be analyzed and summed
up together with great care in order to select the most suitable equipment for the
building systems.

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(2-2) Overall Heat Transmission Factor
1
U (2-1)
R
 External wall heat transmission factor(U)[R]

## Table (2-1):-”external wall construction materials& thickness of material and

thermal resistance”.
Material x(m) k(W/m.K) R(m2.K/W)
cement plaster 0.025 1.2 0.02
hollow brick 0.1 0.9 0.11
air gap 0.1 0.28 0.36
insulation 0.02 0.045 0.44
concrete 0.15 1.75 0.09
face stone 0.1 1.7 0.06
outside air - - 0.029
1nside air - - 0.12

## UExternal = 0.815 (W/m2.K)

 Floor heat transmission factor(U)

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Figure (2-2):” A schematic for Floor construction”.

Table (2-2):” Floor construction materials & thickness of material and thermal
resistance’’
material x(m) k(W/m.K) R(m2.K/W)
ceramic 0.02 1.05 0.02
sand and gravel 0.1 0.7 0.14
concrete baking 0.15 1.75 0.09
hollow brick 0.18 0.9 0.2
cement plaster 0.02 1.2 0.02
1nside air - - 0.12
1nside air - - 0.12

UFloor= 1.42(W/m2.K)

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 Roof heat transmission factor(U)

## Table (2-3): “Roof construction materials& thickness of material and thermal

resistance”
Material x(m) k(W/m.K) R(m2.K/W)
asphalt water proving 0.02 0.7 0.029
concrete baking 0.15 1.75 0.086
Hollow brick 0.18 1.1 0.164
cement plaster 0.02 1.2 0.017
outside air - - 0.029
1nside air - - 0.12

URoof=2.26 (W/m2.K)

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(2-3)Design Conditions and Desired Indoor Conditions
Inside and Outside Design Condition:
Inside design factors such as the following must be considered:
 Type and use of building
 Length or duration of occupancy
 Degree of activity of occupants
 Radiant heat source such as large lighting load or glass exposure.
 Outside design conditions and daily peak temperatures.
 Outside design conditions vary markedly with the locality. They are
determined by averaging conditions, which occur over a number of years.

##  Recommendations for Inside/Outside Design Conditions:

For preparing any load calculation or in evaluating the equipment
requirements, it is recommended to take into consideration the following
points:-

1- The desired inside design conditions are largely dependent on the load
components and on the use and occupancy of the building.
2- The most comfort applications, exact maintenance of space conditions is not
required if the system can limit the variation to acceptable tolerances.
3- Seldom do loads peak simultaneously in building.
4- Off peak or partial load conditions may and frequently do produce more
problems than the peak conditions. A successful system cannot be designed
solely for a single set of load conditions.
5- Economic operation of the system is to a large extent dependent upon the
analysis of the load variation, kind of building, and building use.

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(2-3-1)Design Conditions
I. Outdoor Design Conditions:
The building is located at Ramallah so the design conditions related to
(Palestinian Guidelines for energy efficient building design) are as follows:
a. winter (heating):
Tdb = 2 oC
Ф=50%

## No humidity adjustment is needed.

b. Summer (cooling):
Tdb = 35 oC
Twb = 24 oC
And also no humidity adjustment is needed
Ф=60%
Where:
Tdb: the dry bulb temperature at Ramallah
Twb: the wet bulb temperature at Ramallah
Ф: the relative humidity

## II. Indoor Design Conditions:

The recommended design conditions for Office Buildings refer to (Palestinian
Guidelines for energy efficient building design) were:-
a. In winter (heating):
Tdb= 230C. (For patient room)
0
Tdb= 21 C. (For CCU room)
Φ = 50%.
b. In summer (cooling)
Tdb= 230C. (For patient room)
Tdb= 210C. (For Corridors)
Φ = 50%.

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Cooling load calculations deal with two types of heat gain:-
a. Sensible Heat: heat that flows into or produced in a space will tend to
cause a temperature rise in the space.
b. Latent Heat: in the form of moisture which although it does not cause a
temperature rise does change the condition of the air in the space resulting in a
higher relative humidity.
 a)Sensible heat gains to the space include:
a1. Heat transmission through the building structure as a result of
a2. Sensible heat brought in with the outside air, which is introduced, for
ventilation.
a3. Sensible heat produced by occupants.
a4. Sensible heat produced in the space by lights, appliances, motors and
the like.
a5. Sensible heat to be extracted from materials or products brought into the
space, (industrial air taming).
 b)Latent heat (moisture) gain may be classified as follows:
b1. Latent heat from outside air ;( both that introduced for ventilation and
that which infiltrates into the space).
b2. Latent heat from occupants.
b3. Latent heat from cooling, hot baths or other vaporization processes in the
space.
b4. Latent heat from products or materials brought into the space
b5. Latent heat from equipment.

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The following features concern the Office building that we are going to
 Design Conditions:
 Outdoors design conditions:
Tdb=35 0C.
Twb = 240C.
WO= 0.014
 Indoors design conditions:
Tdb= 230C. (For patient room)
Tdb= 210C. (For CCU room)
WI=0.0085

## Figure (2-4):-“Cooling design Conditions on the psychometric chart”.

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A-External Walls:
By using the general heat transfer equation which is:

## Q = U×A × (CLTD) (2 - 2) 

Where:
Q =Heat transmitted. (Watts).
U =Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K).
A=Area of exposed surface (m2).
T=Temperature difference (To-Ti).
But since all external walls in this building were exposed to the sun, so no
need to this equation and instead using solar load equation which is described in the
next section.

B-Internal Walls:
By using the general heat transfer equation (2-2)as the external walls, by
noticing that T was equal to one or two degrees Celsius because of using the
different temperatures for the offices, corridor and WC’s.

C-Windows:
There are two type of heat gain through the windows which are by conduction
and by solar; all windows were assumed to be made of single clear glass.
1) Heat gain by conduction:
From equation (2-2)
2) Heat gain by solar

## Q solar heat gain = 𝐴 𝑆𝐶 𝐶𝐿𝐹 + 𝑈𝐴∆𝑇 (2-3)

Where:
CLF: Cooling load factor for glass
SHGF: Solar heat gain factor for sunlit glass (W/m2)
U: overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K)

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D- Doors:
The external door was assumed to be made of single glass, so it was treated as
windows. The Internal doors were made from wood.

E- Roofs:
Transmission load through the roof will be calculated by the solar load for the
third (last) floor, while the roof for the other internal floors will not transmit heat
since the floors are cooled, so there is no temperature difference just CCU room.

F- Floors:
Since the Office Building structure contains three floors, the first floor will
transmit heat from the ground because it was assumed to be 12 0C.
(a) Solar load through external walls and roof were calculated by using the following
equation[R]:-
q  UA(CLTD) adj (2 – 4)

Where:
U= Overall heat transfer coefficient (w/m2.oC).
A= Area of the roof.
CLTD=cooling load temperature difference. (From Appendix A).

## (CLTD) adj =CLTD + (25-Ti) + (Tav-29) (2 –5)

Where:
Ti = inside design dry-bulb temperature (oC).
Tav = Average outdoor dry-bulb temperature for design day, (oC).
(From appendix A)
CLTD = 12 (Roof with suspended ceiling at 1 Pm).
(CLTD) adj = 12 + (25-23) + (30-30)
CLTD=14
(b) Solar load through windows and external doors were calculated by using the Heat
gain by solar by equation (2-3)
Qsolar heat gain= 𝐴 𝑆𝐶 𝐶𝐿𝐹 𝑆𝐻𝐺𝐹 + 𝑈𝐴∆𝑇

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a- Lights:
For lamps and using the following equation:
q  LampsRating  f u  f b  CLF (2 – 6)

Where:

## From table (Appendix A), for 8 hours so, CLF = 1

b- Occupants:

For persons where people are doing office works, waking and standing; and
utilizing (Appendix A)

Where:-

## SGH: sensible gain heat

a- Occupants:
From (Appendix A), latent load for standing persons .

Where:

## LHG: latent heat gain

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 Sensible infiltration was calculated for the building by the following equation
qS= 1.23𝑉 ∆𝑇 (2-9) 

Where

𝑉=

qL=3000𝑥𝑉𝑥∆𝜔 (2-10)

Where

## ∆ω :(ω out – ω in)

ω: Humidity ratio, (kg moisture /kg dry air )from psychometric chart.

covered on coil.

*The previous equations are used in cooling load calculation and the final results are
tabulated below with sample calculation for (ground floor-doctor exam room 1) and
all detailed calculation results are in Appendix (A)

Table (2- 4): cooling Load Calculations for the Ground Floor “doctor exam
room1”
Element Length Height U A CLTD Q
(m) (m) (W/m.K) (m ) ( K) (W)
NW External Wall - - 0.815 - 8.0 0.0
NE External Wall - - 0.815 - 16.0 0.0
SW External Wall - - 0.815 - 9.0 0.0
SE External Wall - - 0.815 - 21.0 0.0
Western External Wall 3.7 4.0 0.815 13.0 8.0 96
Transmission

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wall, ground and Southern External - - 0.815 - 12.0 -
roof Wall
Eastern External Wall - - 0.815 - 22.0 -
Northern External - - 0.815 - 8.0 -
Wall
External Roof - - 2.26 - - -
Floor 6.0 3.0 1.42 18.0 12.0 306.7

Total 402 W
Element Length Height A SC SHGF CLF Q
(m) (m) (m ) (W/m2 ) (W)
Door - - - 0.8 - - -
Table(2-4),continued
Glass Load by Window 1 1.5 1.2 1.8 0.95 685.0 0.17 199
Solar Window 2 - - - 0.8 - - -
Total 199W
Element U A CLTD Q
Glass/Door Load (W/m.K) (m ) ( K) (W)
by Window 1 6.2 1.8 12.0 133.9
Transmission Window 2 6.2 - 12.0 -
Door 3.0 - 12.0 -
Total 133.9W
People load #of person HG(w) CLF Q(W)
3 60 0.8 144.4
3 40 1 120
Total 264.4W
Light Load Light Rating (W/m2 ) # of Fu Fb CLF Q(W)
lights
60 6.0 0.9 0.9 1 324
V (m3 ) Air Change Q(W)
Total 221 W

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Table(2-4),continued

## ventilation Load #of person Air change Q(W)

3 0.68 560
Total 501.8
# of machine machine (W) Q(W) computer
machine load 1 100 100 sensible &lamp
1 20 20 latent
Total 120W
Total latent load for this space is equal to
281W
Total sensible load for this space is equal to
1374W
1655W

*Load calculation for all room in GROUND FLOOR with same values of ∆T.

* Load calculation for all room in FIRST FLOOR with different values of ∆T in
some rooms that is because heat transfers from first to second floor with ∆T=2 oC.

*The load calculation for SECOND FLOOR of the last roof with temperature
difference for roof =14 oC and inside temperature in CCU rooms=21 oC which caused

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In winter, the factors affecting the heating load depends only on transmission
the room which helps in heating of the room.

Tdb = 2 0C.

## Tdb= 230C. (For patient room)

Tdb=21(For CCU room)

## By using the general heat-transfer equation

1
U
R

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For calculating the heat loss through:
A- External walls.

B- Internal walls.

C- External doors.

D- Roof.

E- Floor.

## The same procedure followed in cooling case.

Table (2- 5): “Ground floor-doctor exam room (1) heating load calculations”
width external wall A ext. ΔT U ext q ext(W)
3.7 12.55 21 0.815 140
width internal wall A int. ΔT U int. q int(W )
- - - 1.98 -
width window A window ΔT U window qwind(W )
1.5 1.8 21 6.2 200.88
width Door A door ΔT U door q door
- - - 3 -
#of windows A floor ΔT U ceiling Q ceiling(W)
1 18 21 1.42 460.08
A room #of persons Vroom Δω Q Tran.(W)
18 3 72 0.002 851.8
air change/person.min 𝑽inft.(l/S) q inf.(W)

0.75 15 421
Q tot(kcal/hr) Q tot(W)
1093 1273

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*Final results are in appendix (A)
* Load calculation for all room of GROUND FLOOR with same values

Where:- 1kW=859.58kcal/hr.
* Load calculation for FIRST FLOOR, ∆T=2 oC in some rooms which causes heat
transfer from first floor to second floor.

* Load calculation for SECOND FLOOR of the last roof with differences which
caused the difference in load calculations:
∆T for roof = 18 oC.
And in (CCU room) inside temperature=21 oC

## Floor Ground floor First floor Second floor

Heating 61 36 65
Cooling 90 65 88

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(2-6)Coil Capacity
(2-6-1) Cooling Consideration and design conditions
Cooling coil capacities for the selected area in the building are shown below:
Latent cooling load (QL) = 32.64kW
𝑞𝑠 213.96
SHR = = = 0.867
𝑞𝑠+𝑞𝐿 213.96+32.64

Where:
 SHR: is the sensible heat gain ratio.

Figure (2- 6): “Supply and Return Air for cooling” 

## Outdoor Design Conditions:

Tdb = 35 oC
Twb = 24 oC
Where:
Tdb: is the dry bulb temperature.
Twb: is the wet bulb temperature.
Indoor Design Conditions:
Tdb = 23 oC
Φ = 50%

Special Considerations:
For hospital it’s accepted to use 50% mass as fresh air, and 50% mass recalculated.

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For central cooling:
Coil Temperature is 13 oC
Fan Effect +1 oC
Duct Effect +2 oC
Supply Temperature = 16 oC
Return Temperature = 23 oC

Figure (2-7): “Supply and Return Air on psychometric chart for cooling”

## At Point O (which represents outside conditions):

Tdb = 35 oC
Twb = 24oC
From Psychometric Chart
 ho = 71.78 kJ/kg
 wo = 0.0142 kg/kg
At Point R (represents Room conditions):
Tdb = 23 oC
Φ = 50%
From Psychometric Chart
 hR = 45.37 kJ/kg
 wR = 0.0..8747 kg/kg

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At Point W (represents coil conditions):
Tw = 13 oC
h w = 35.9 kJ/kg
At Point B (represents Fan effect on temperature rise
TB = TW +1
TB = 13 + 1 = 14 0C
h b = 37 kJ/kg
By Locating W, B. we can find Point M (which represents mixing point conditions) at
the Psychometric Chart.
Mixing state can be obtained by mean conservation of mass:
  
m a x hm = ( m r x hr) + ( m o x ho) (2 – 11)

But:
 
m r = 0.5 m a
 
m o = 0.5 m a
Where:

m r = mass flow rate of air recalculated [kg/s].

m o = mass flow rate of fresh air [kg/s].
  
hm = (0.5 m a x hr + 0.5 m a x ho) / m a

By eliminating m a :
hm = 0.5 hr + 0.5 ho = 58.26 kJ/kg
Tm = 28.88 oC
At point C
hC = 47.5 KJ/Kg
TC = 24 0C
At Point S (this represents Supply air state):
TS = 16 0C
wS = 0.009 kg/kg
hS = 40 KJ/Kg

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(2-6-2)Cooling Coil Capacity Calculations
Table (2-7):-“Cooling and ventilation load for base case “
Ground floor First floor Second floor Total load
Cooling load 90kW 65kW 88 kW 243kW
25.6TR 18.4TR 25 TR 69TR
Ventilation 19.2 kW 15.07 kW 16.2 kW 50.5kW
14.4 TR

Cooling coil capacity for base case =243+50.5=293.5kW=83.4TR

## Cooling coil capacity (base case)=83.4TR

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(2-6-3)Heating Coil Calculations
As we are using central heating by a boiler we must find out the heating coil
capacity to ensure that the machine will meet the load we want, and by following a
similar steps as in cooling coil calculation we are going to find the heating coil
capacity:

## As there is no humidity adjustment in heating load calculations, our calculation

will be based on sensible heating load.
Sensible cooling load (Qs) = 72594 W.

Figure (2- 8): “Supply and Return Air for heating “. 
Outdoor Design Conditions:
Tdb = 2 oC
Φ = 60%
Where Tdb: is the dry bulb temperature.
Indoor Design Conditions:
Tdb = 23 oC
Φ = 30%
Special Consideration:
For office buildings it’s accepted to use 20% mass as fresh air, and 80% mass
recalculated.

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Since cooling load is always larger than heating load, duct design is calculated based
on the total air flow of the cooling season; this requires that the flow rate in the
heating season should be unchanged.
The supply temperature is calculated based on the sensible load obtained previously

𝑅𝑆𝐻
Ts = Tr + (2 –12)
𝑄

Where:
RSH: Room’s sensible heat [kW]
Q: Volumetric air flow rate in [m3/s]
The same mixing conditions are used (0.5 re-circulated and 0.5 fresh air supplied)

## At Point O (which represents outside conditions):

Tdb = 2 oC
Φ = 60%
From Psychometric Chart
 ho = 8.55 kJ/kg
At Point R (represents Room conditions):
Tdb = 23 oC
Φ = 30%
From Psychometric Chart
 hR = 36.4 kJ/kg

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Mixing state can be obtained by mean conservation of mass by equation
  
m a x hm = ( m r x hr) + ( m o x ho)
But:
 
m r = 0.5 m a
 
m o = 0.5 m a
where:

m r = mass flow rate of air recalculated [kg/s].

m o = mass flow rate of fresh air [kg/s].
  
hm = (0.75 m a x hr + 0.25 m a x ho) / m a

By eliminating m a :
hm = 0.5 hr + 0.5 ho = 30.3kJ/kg
Tm = 21.9 oC
At Point S (this represents Supply air state):
TS = 29 0C
hS = 40 kJ/kg
Table (2-8):-“Heating and ventilation load for base case “
Ground floor First floor Second floor Total load
Heating load 61kW 36 kW 65kW 162 kW
53936kcal/hr 31853kcal/hr 56495.2kcal/hr 142284.2kcal/hr
Ventilation 26 kW 20 kW 21kW 67kW

## Heating coil capacity for base case =163+67=229kW=196711kcal/h

H.Cbasecase =229kW

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(2-7)Equipment Selection
(2-7-1)Chiller Selection:
We selected an AIR-COOLED SCREW COMPRESSOR LIQUID
CHILLER Module and the selection was based on the Carrier Products Catalogue,
the following data was obtained.

1. The chiller used was selected to be an Air-Cooled because it can handle the

2. 30 GX series

3. The load required for the cooling coil was found to be 297kW

## Note: More details in Appendix(C)

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(2-7-2)Air Handling Unit selection (AHU):

The air-handling unit is equipment with a fan, cooling coil, air filter, motor
assembly, comprising shaft, bearings, pulley... etc.

The basic function of the AHU is to suck air from the rooms, let it pass through
chilled water cooling coils (or hot water heating coils) and then discharging the
cooled air (or heating air) back to the rooms. Normally, letting it pass through panel
or bag filters also filters the air. A certain amount of fresh air may be introduced at the
suction duct so that air in the rooms may be gradually replaced.

AHU's come in many sizes and shapes. Usually, the air conditioning designer will
choose a particular AHU based on the air flow requirements and the cooling
capacity.

## We selected a 39CD/CX/CH Central Station Air Handling Units Module

and the selection was based on the Carrier Products Catalogue, the following data
was obtained.

##  Customized and site assembly versions available.

 Heating and cooling coils mounted on slide tracks for easy removal.

## Note: More details in Appendix(C)

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(2-7-3)Boiler selection:

1. The boiler required to cover the load is selected from the CHAPPEE NXR 3,
this type belong to the new range of cast iron sectional boilers. It has been
designed to operate on oil or gas fuel.

## 2. The boiler was designed to operate in winter for heating.

3. The selections based on total Heating Coils Load with a safety factor of 5 %,
so from the boiler catalog MODEL, NXR 3-39 with a range capacity (250-
290) kW was selected, so it covered our load which are 283 kW

4. Technical data :

##  Net output= 290 kW = 990402 Btu/hr = 249582 kcal/hr

 Number of sections = 9

##  The boiler contains a burner already.

 Weight = 1000 Kg

##  Max operating pressure (primary) = 6 bar

 Efficiency = 93 %

## Note: More details in Appendix C

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(2-7-4)Chimney Selection:

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐶ℎ𝑖𝑚𝑛𝑒𝑦 = 𝐵𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝐾𝑤 × 12000 ÷ 3.5 = .
ℎ𝑟

290×12000 𝐵𝑡𝑢
= = 994285 .
3.5 ℎ𝑟

##  Vent Height=100 ft.

 Vent type ‘‘V’’, which are used.
 994285 Btu/hr.

## From catalog 8" common steel chimney, 3 mm thickness, insulated by 2'',

Rockwool protected by sheet metal.

## (2-7-5)Exhaust Fans selection

Exhaust fans will be used as a mechanical ventilation device for the WC’s in
the building. The return duct of them is shown in the duct design section. We should
notice here that there were some important considerations used to select the suitable
fans for this duty.

 The exhaust fans have a minimum static pressure of 800 Pa; (according to the
exhaust fan catalogue) they were from the WC return ducts in each floor and the
main return ducts which are in the utility shaft.
 The total air flow of the fan in the right side =1500 CFM = 0.7 m3/s
The total air flow of the fan in the left side =9000 CFM = 4.2 m3/s
 The exhausted flow rate is more than the calculated to maintain a negative pressure
in the WC’s, this to avoid any bad air quality exfiltrated to the corridor.
 So we selected two exhaust fans which are Roof Crub Mounted (shown in
detailed drawings)

## Note: More details in Appendix C

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(2-7-6) Pumps Selection

Pump Efficiency:

## Pump efficiency refers to the ability of a pump to convert electrical power to

pumping power. Pump efficiency commonly vary from 50% to 80% depending on the
application. Individual pump physical characteristics determine if pump is best suited
for a specific application. Great care should be given to match a pump with its
application. Refer to manufacture’s published data to determine which pump is best
for the desired application.

Pump Construction:

## Construction refers to the material of construction in of the pump impeller and

casing. In order to accommodate differing system and mediums, pump construction
must be altered. Most hydraulic systems employ cast iron construction. Domestic
water should have all bronze construction. Bronze fitted may also be used on
domestic systems to save cost. Applications where extreme duty is expected may
employ stainless steel construction.

In order to select any pump, two main properties should be taken into
consideration:

1. Total Head loss which is the sum of all pressure drops across equipments and the

2. The flow rate, which calculated previously in the coil load calculations.

##  Air cooled Chiller is located at the roof of the building

 Pump must re-circulated chilled water for all AHUs in different elevations

##  Pipe work has a considerable losses

 A pipe line connect chilled water to the main collector in boiler room, then
pump circulate water

hp = ΔZ + hf +hm (2-13)

Where:

## hp = pump head required in m.

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ΔZ = Vertical length in m. (ΔZ =0 here according to Bernoulli equation)

## hm = head minor losses in m.

hf = ƒ L V2/ 2 D g (2-14)

Where:

ƒ = friction factor
L = pipe length
V2 = square of water velocity m2/s2
ρ = is the density of water (kg/ m3)
D = is the inner diameter of the pipe (m)
Here we assume that: V =2 m/s, Є for steel pipe = 0.000046, ρ water = 1000 kg/ m3

## Table (2-9): “Chilled Water Pump hf Calculations”

Name of Pipe Є/D Total Rynolds ƒ hf(m)
Dia. Dia length no.
(in) [m]
Main 1 4
0.0005 36 144226 0.0194 1.51
AHU 1 3
0.0007 10 98805 0.0215 0.68
AHU 2 2½
0.0008 10 86074 0.0218 0.79
AHU 3 2
0.0012 10 60249 0.024 1.24

## hf = 1.51+ 0.68+ 0.79+ 1.24= 4.21m

 hm = K × (V2/2g) (2-15)

Where:
K = resistance coefficient.
V2 = squared velocity.
g = ground acceleration m/s2

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Table (2-10): “Chilled Water Pump hm Calculations”
Name of Pipe Check K Gate K Elbow K Tees K hm(m)
Dia Valves Valves no.
Dia.
(in) no. no.
Main 1 4 4 2.1 4 0.16 5 0.95 4 0.9 3.46
AHU 1 3 1 2.1 2 0.16 0 0.95 1 0.9 0.66
AHU 2 2½ 1 2.1 2 0.16 0 0.95 1 0.9 0.66
AHU 3 2 1 2.1 2 0.16 0 0.95 1 0.9 0.66

##  We added 3m to the head of the pump to compensate any losses in the

AHU or any other losses.

Tsupply = 7 oC

Treturn = 12 oC

Where:

## Tw2 = return water temperature.

m w = chilled water flow rate.

## = 293.4 / (50.83-29.4) = 13.69 kg/sec= 0.01369 m3/s

 m w = 49.3 m3 / hr

##  Model , 50-125-H1 (2poles - 50Hz, DN 65-50 )

38
Hot Water Pump

The same procedure followed in chilled water pump we found the following:

## Table (2-11): “Hot Water Pump hf Calculations”

Pipe Total
Name of Reynolds
Diameter Є/D length ƒ hf(m)
Dia. no.
(in) [m]

## Main 1 2 0.0010 16 70573 0.0235 1.66

AHU 1 1¼ 0.0016 24 43140 0.024 4.16
AHU 2 1 0.0019 18 36943 0.027 4.09
AHU 3 ¾ 0.0025 12 28242 0.028 3.70
DHW 1 0.0023 40 30937 0.026 10.46

##  hf = 1.66+ 4.16+ 4.09+ 3.70= 13.62 m

 For Domestic Hot Water hf = 10.46 m
Table (2-12): “Hot Water Pump hm Calculations”
Name of Pipe Check K Gate K Elbow K Tees K hm(m)
Dia Valves Valves no.
Dia.
(in) no. no.
Main 1 2 2 2.1 2 0.16 3 0.95 2 0.9 1.83
AHU 1 1¼ 1 2.1 2 0.16 0 0.95 1 0.9 0.66
AHU 2 1 1 2.1 2 0.16 0 0.95 1 0.9 0.66
AHU 3 ¾ 1 2.1 2 0.16 0 0.95 1 0.9 0.66
DHW 1 2 2.1 5 0.16 5 0.95 4 0.9 3.50

##  For Domestic Hot Water hm = 3.5 m

 hp = 0 + 3.81 + 13.62 = 18 m + 3 = 21m

##  For Domestic Hot Water hp = 12 + 3.5 + 10.46 = 26 m

 For Domestic hot water [ ΔZ =12 m ]
From boiler data sheet

Tsupply = 80 oC

39
Treturn = 60 oC

Where:

 3608 liter

## According to SALMSON catalogue:

1. Expansion Volume:

Where:

## Cm = Expansion Coefficient at filling temperature,

40
(To Boiler outlet + To return)/2

## 2. Total Vessel Volume:

V = Vt ×(Cm – Cr)/1-(P1/P2)

And

P1 = 442.4 kPa

P2 = 550 kPa

## Steam is used in hospitals for the purpose of sterilization of equipments, for

such hospital that contains 100 people and wants steam for laundries and
sterilization we need a steam boiler with capacity 63kW.

##  Tuttnauer Model GEN350-63kW

 Volume 70 liter

##  Serial No. 2804040

 400V,3ph,50Hz,95A

41
(2-8)Solar heating system

## (2-8-1)Hot water consumption

We saw that, for hospital, the average daily consumption of hot water is,
136.4 l/Person. Day
 from (1999 ASHRAE hand book, HVAC Applications, Chapter 48)
(Table – 7; hot water demands and use for various types of buildings):
 The daily hot water demand is given by
Average personal demand × Number of persons
 For 100 occupants,
136.4 × 100 = 13640 liter/ day

The building heat load varies during the year, depending on the temperature outside
and the building will be under service all over the year seasons,
 The calculation must be based on the following equation

Q = m × Cp × ΔT (2-17)
Where:

m = hot water flow rate (Kg/s)
ΔT = Temperature difference between required Temp. Hot water supply & inlet water
Temperature of the collector (o C)
Cp = specific heat of water (kJ/kg. K) = 4.197
Q = heat load of the system (kW)
The mass flow rate of water is calculated by the following equation:

m =ρ×V
Where:
ρ = water density (kg/m3)
V = Volume flow rate of hot water (m3/s)

m = hot water flow rate (kg/s)

42
 For 16 hour operation per day

 m = (1000×13.64)/ (16 × 3600) = 0.236 kg/sec.

We noticed that May has the lowest ambient temperature which will be our design
temperature for cold water supply.

Tin = 22.6 o C
Tout = 60 o C
Where our design temperature for hot water usage = 60 o C for hospitals (1999
ASHRAE hand book, HVAC Applications, Chapter 48),
 Q = 0.236 × 4.197 × (60 – 22.6)
 51.9 kW without heat losses.

## Piping system (steel pipes 40) estimated to have:

A- 3/4" main supply with total length = 60 m.
B- 1/2" supply branches of total length = 10 m.

Pipes system insulated using VEEDO FLEX insulator with low thermal conductivity;
K = 0.027 W/m.K
Total pipe length = 60+ 10 = 70m
From (1999 ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Applications, and Chapter 48):
Heat losses in insulated Piping System = 30 W/ m.
 Pipe losses = (70 × 30)/1000 = 2.1 kW
 Q tot = heat load + piping losses
 Q tot = 51.9+ 2.1= 54 kW

43
(2-9)Solar System Design

## (2-9-1)Solar collectors’ selection

To find the useful heat from the collectors based on the efficiency equation of
"AMCOR COMPANY" data:
The effective absorber area for (AM80- single glazing collector) = 1.32 m2.

## η col = 0.8 – (30 ×[ T m – T a] / I (2-18)

Where:
T m = is the mean water temperature of the collector (Tm=47.5 C).
T a = is the ambient temperature of the collector (Ta =Tavg).
I = is the total solar insulation on the tilted collector (kcal/ m2 day).

 For various ambient and insulation; efficiency will vary depending on these
variables as seen from the listed table:

## Table (2-13):”Solar energy”

Tavg. Hot water Energy/day Solar Solar Energy ηcol(%) Ecol.use
(ºC) (Qneeded) (kJ/day) Energy(kJ/m2) (kcal/m^2.day) kJ/m2 .day
22.6 54.00 3110502.6 24840 5932.9 67.4 16744
25.8 50.83 2927935.1 24120 5761.0 68.7 16570
27.4 49.25 2836651.3 24120 5761.0 69.5 16771
28.3 48.36 2785304.2 25920 6190.9 70.7 18324

## Note: Ramallah is located at 32 o latitude Northern hemispheres;

 Collectors must be oriented to the southern face.
From the table above we see that collector efficiency at May:
η col = 67.4 %

 The useful heat get from the collector given by the following equation:
E col .use = η col * I
Where:

44
η col : collector efficiency.
I: is the total solar insolation on the tilted collector (kJ/ m2 day).
E col .use: useful heat (KJ/m2 day).

 In May:
 E col .use = 0.674× 24840 = 16744(kJ/m2 day).
 Collectors area could be found by dividing the total heat by the useful from
the collector;
 A = Q tot / E col .use
 At May:
 A = (54×3600×16)/16744= 185.8 m2
 Number of collectors needed = A/1.32

## (2-9-2)Optimization of flat plate solar collector

Collector area must be large enough to cover the load without the aid of
auxiliary system in the sunny days, but the optimum collector's area must meet the
economical requirements.
Knowing the collector area and the unit price, the collector cost could be found.

## C col,(tot) = fixed cost + operating cost

C col,(tot) = FCR x Investment + maintenance. (2-19)

Where:
FCR = i + [i /{1 + i )n – 1}] + t + j

Where:
i = interest rate in Palestine = 10%

45
n = is the number of expected serving years of the system = 20 years.
t = annual taxes = 0
j = annual insurance = 0.3 %

## FCR = 0.1 + [0.1 / {1 + 0.1)20 – 1}] + 0 + 0.003 = 11.6 %

This cost is calculated for different values of collector's area as shown below,
Then these values plotted against collector's area.
The break even point could be obtained from the figures and it shows the optimum
collectors area and its cost. Above this point the addition of solar collectors will
not be justified economically. As the collectors solar energy is more expensive
than fuel cost.
From the figure below break even point gives us
 130 collectors.(LPG as auxiliary heater).
 With annual heating cost = 2324\$/year
And the total collectors produced energy = 2024945KJ / day

## (Cost) Vs.(# of collector)

10000
9000
8000
deisel
cost(dollar/year)

7000
6000
Gas
5000
4000
3000
2000 solar
1000
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
number of collector

## Figure (2-10):”Cost optimization for flat plate solar collector”

46
(2-9-3)Storage tank selection
 The daily hot water demand is given by
Average personal demand x Number of persons
 For 100 occupants,
136.4 × 100 = 13640 l/ day
It is recommended by the designer to design the volume of storage tank assuming
that 70% of hot water in the tank is usable;
 storage tank capacity =
 (13640)/0.7 = 19486 L
Storage tank capacity = 19.5 m3
To satisfy this volume choose four tank at the same volume
Vone tank=19.5/4= 5 m3
Assume that L = 3D = 6r
Where:
L = the length of storage tank. (m)
D = storage tank base diameter (m)
r = storage tank base diameter (m)

##  Storage tank volume can be estimated using the following equation:

V = r2 × π ×L (2-20)
V=6πr3
Where:
V = storage tank Volume (m3)
 r = (V/6π)1/3
 r = 0.64 m
 D = 1.28m
 L = 3.82m
Storage tank surfaces area:
Storage tank bottom and top area = 2× r2 × π = 2.55 m2
Storage tank side surface area = 2 r × π× L = 12 π r2 = 15.3m2
Storage tank total surface area = 2.55 + 15.3 = 17.85m2
 Storage tank insulation:

47
 From (1996 ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Systems and Equipment,
Chapter 33).
We can determine the vertical tank insulation factor (w/m2) (ƒQ/AӨ)

1 fQ 1
 (2-21)
R A (t avg  t a )

Where:-
R: thermal resistivity of insulation, m2· K / W.
f : specified fraction of stored energy that can be lost in time θ
Q: stored energy, J
A: exposed surface area of storage unit, m2
θ : given time period, s
tavg: average temperature in storage unit, °C
ta : ambient temperature surrounding storage unit during season when it will be
heated, °C

 (ƒQ/AӨ) = 15.36
 t avg = 60 °C
 t a = 22.6 °C
 1/R = 0.293 (W/ m2· K)
 R = 3.41 (m2· K/W)
 But R = L/K
Where:
L = insulation thickness (m).
K = thermal conductivity (W/m.k)

## (From Palestinian energy efficient building code, page 112)

For extruded polystyrene as insulator;
K = 0.028 (w/m.K)
L = K x R = 0.028 × 3.41= 0.0955 m = 9.5Cm.
U = thermal transmittance (w/ m2· K) = 1/R
 U(insulation) = 0.293 (W/ m2· K)

48
(2-9-4)Solar Boiler selection
Boiler Capacity(kJ /day) Capacity(kW)

Gas 2516051.3 54

In the previous section the number of collectors was found and so the quantity of
energy produced by the collectors.
Now assuming that there is no solar energy system under service, and the load of
coldest month must be covered by the conventional system then the load on the boiler
will be as follows
As the maximum load reach to = 54 kW, since there are 13 hours /day for solar
 Assuming that gas boiler efficiency = 0.9
Boiler capacity = 54/ η boiler = 65.8kW
 Boiler needed is “Heat master- model 60N”
Gas fired boiler with capacity reach to 69.9kW
 Determination of auxiliary load and fuel consumption is as follows:
Q auxiliary = Q load avg – Q useful (2-22)
Where:
Q auxiliary = is the heat supplied by the auxiliary heater (Boiler) (kJ / day)
Q load AVG = is the yearly average of the total heat load.
Q useful = is the useful heat from the collector.
The average useful heat in (KJ/day) from the collector was calculated as follows:
Q useful = A × η avg × Ecol.use avg (2-23)
Where:
A = area of collectors
η avg = yearly average efficiency of the collectors
Ecol.use avg =Yearly average useful heat from the collector

## Q useful = 130× 1.32 × 0.69 ×17102 = 2024945.2 kJ / day

Q auxiliary = 2915098 – 2024945.2= 890152.8 kJ / day

49

m fuel = Q auxiliary /( H.Vgas × ŋburning) (2-24)
Where:

m fuel = fuel mass flow rate ( kg/ day)
H.V of gas = 50000 kJ/kg K
Burning efficiency in selected boiler = 0.9

 m fuel = 890152.8 / (50000×0.9) = 19.8 kg/day

(2-9-5)Solar Pump Selection:
Selecting a specific pump needs two basic parameters, the flow rate that the pump
should operate at, and the head of the pump.
The selected flow rate should overcome heat load and heat losses flow rate,

Q total = m × Cp × ΔT (2-25)

## Q total = total heat load + heat losses (kJ/sec)

Cp = specific heat for water kJ/kg.K = (4.197)
ΔT = Temperature difference between required Temp hot water supply & inlet water
Temperature of the collector (o C)

m = water mass flow rate in kg / sec

 m = Q total / Cp × ΔT

 m = 54 / (4.197 ×(75- 22,6)) = 0.244 kg / sec
The second step is to determine the head required by the pump to over come.
At the beginning we have to calculate the velocity in all sizes of the pipes which are:
3/4" and 1/2"
It can be calculated from the following equation:

V = m / (ρ × A) (2-26)
Where:
m = is water mass flow rate (kg / sec)
ρ = is the density of water (kg / m3).
A = is the pipe cross sectional area (m2)

50
Then we have to find the friction factor from moody chart for commercial steel pipes.
Roughness constant for commercial steel "Є" = 0.046
D = 3/4" = 0.01905 m
D = 1/2" = 0.0127 m
Reynolds number = 4 m / (π D μ)

Where:
m = water mass flow rate in (kg/s)
D = pipe diameter (m).
μ = the viscosity of water (N.s/m2) = 489 × 10-6
ƒ = friction factor
ƒ; obtained from moody chart if flow is turbulent.
If the flow is laminar:
ƒ = 64 / Re

## Table (2-14): “Friction factor ƒ for solar pump”.

Pipe D [m] Velocity  Є/D Re Flow ƒ
m
type ( m/sec) state
kg /sec
3/4 " 0.01905 0.85826074 0.244 0.0023 33435 Turbulent 0.036
1/2" 0.0127 0.437712977 0.05542 0.00362 11368 Turbulent 0.034

 We can get pressure drop in piping system using above data, and pressure
drop can be evaluated using the following equation.

ΔP = ƒ L V2 ρ / 2 D (2-27)
Or, directly we can calculate head friction losses from following equation:
h f = ƒ L V2 / 2 D g
Where:
ΔP = is the pressure drop (Pa/m)
ƒ = friction factor
L = pipe length
V2 = square of water velocity m2 / sec2

51
ρ = is the density of water (kg/ m3)
D = is the inner diameter of the pipe (m)
hf = head friction losses (m)
Table (2-15): “head friction losses for solar pump”
Pipe type ƒ V2 L(m) 2D hf
(m2/s) (mm) (m)
3/4 " 0.036 0.736 60 0.0381 4.11
1/2" 0.034 0.191 10 0.0254 0.303

## hf (total) =4.11+ 0.26= 4.37m

Then we have to calculate pressure drop in fittings, because it is important to note the
pressure drop in these fittings.

## Table (2-16):” pressure drop in fittings for solar pump”

fitting 3/4" 1/2"
Elbows 8 6
Tees 6 4
Valves 4 6

 hm = (V2 K/2g)
Where:
K = resistance coefficient.
V2 = squared velocity.
g = ground acceleration m/s2
For 3/4" pipe: ((8×0.8) + (6×0.9) + (4×0.27))×(0.736)/ (2×9.81) = 0.63 m
For 1/2" pipe: ((6×0.3) + (4×0.9) + (6×0.9))×(0.191)/ (2×9.81) =0.105 m
 hm total = 0.63 + 0.105 = 0.735m
 htotal = ΔZ + hf + hm = 15 +4.37 +0.735 = 20.1m
Pump Specifications:
Circulating pump must circulate 1.08 (m3/ hr.)
 “SALMSON-JRL204-15/3”

52
(2-10)Air Distribution & Duct work
The supply air should in the right temperature, humidity and in the right quantity
so that when it is mixed with the room air, the resultant room air condition falls within
the comfort condition.
In the hospitals proper temperature and humidity control depends on
delivering the proper amount of supply air at a carefully controlled temperature and
humidity. The delivery and distribution of conditioned air must be accomplished
without appreciable draft or noise.

Important consideration:
 The correct amount of air (m3/s or CFM) that passes in each section or branch
of duct must be known and can be calculated from room sensible heat gain
 Noise level.
 Pressure drop in dampers, outlets, coils…etc. are obtainable from
manufacturer catalogues.
 Pressure drop in straight ducts and fittings is calculated or selected based on
recommended velocities.

## Components of a duct system :

1) Straight sections.
2) Fittings (Bends, Branches … etc).
3) Fire fighting dampers.
4) Terminal units and air outlets as grills, diffusers, register … etc).
5) Heating coil.
6) Cooling coil.
7) Filters.

## Methods of duct sizing:

(1) Velocity method (simple, not accurate)
Volume flow rate in each branch and main duct has been given.
Velocity of air in each branch and main duct has been selected from recommended
velocities.
(2) Equal pressure drop (or equal friction method, accurate enough, widely used)

53
This method gives better results. It reduces size of duct and cost and is suitable for
completer system.
(3) Static region method (for balancing of branches).
(4) T-method (for computer simulation)

## The method used is:-

Equal friction method
Main duct recommendation velocity is from 7m/s.
Branches recommendation velocity is from 6 m/s

## Steps of using this method:-

1- Determine the air quantity required for each zone to cover the cooling load (since
the cooling load is more critical than the heating load. So the duct design must depend
2- Locating the supply diffusers on the plane.
3-take the main duct velocity 7 m/sec (From velocity recommended for the buildings).
And by using the ductulator;
 We can determine the remaining unknown values:
 Pressure Friction (Pa/m)
 Rectangular Duct Dimensions (Width X Depth)

In each Floor there is 3 Air Handling Units (numbered from 1 to 3), they cover the
whole floor load, the table below show the floors CFM needed and each room will be
covered by the proper AHU

## Sample calculations of duct sizing:

A section of the duct connected to air handing unit # (1) (which will meet the

54
4-Way Ceiling Supply
Diffuser

## Figure (2-11) : “Section of duct line and grills distribution”

Line [A-B]
Assuming main duct velocity at A = 7m/s
Qtot=4928(l/s)
From ductulator (catalogue)
Qtot vs. V→ (ΔP/m)=0.494 (pa/m)
Duct dimensions = 87.5 (cm) × 85(cm)
Line [B-C]
ΔP= 0.494 pa/m Qtot =2763 L/s
From ductulator
Duct dimensions = 70(cm) × 70(cm
Line [C-D]
ΔP= 0.494 Pa/m Qtot =2486L/s
From ductulator
Duct dimensions = 65(cm) × 70(cm)
Line [D-E]
ΔP= 0.494 pa/m Qtot =2301 L/s
From ductulator
Duct dimensions =60(cm) × 70(cm)

55
Line [E-F]
ΔP= 0.494pa/m Qtot =2077 L/s
From ductulator
Duct dimensions =55 (cm) × 70(cm)

## Exhaust duct sizing

The same procedure followed by sizing the supply duct, by taking the ventilation load
only.
Return air :-
All return grills are located in the corridors and we added door grills for each room
in order to allow return air to pass through these door grills to return grills exists in
corridors.
50% of the supplied air is to be returned to the AHU by false ceiling the remaining
100% of fresh air for CCU rooms (AHU3)
50% of supplied air is exhausted by exhaust grills in bath rooms through door grills.
Duct area calculation
Area of one section = (2xdepth+2xwidth) × length of section
= (2x0.85+2x0.875) ×3.5
A=12.075 (m2)

## The total area of the duct = ∑ (section area) +∑ (fitting area)

=136.7+4.3=141 (m2)
And the same procedure for all A.H.U
The total area of duct for all = 941.8 (m2)

The A.H.U should be covered all friction loss in the duct and in the system,
and for it was noticed that the maximum pressure loss was 1.115
Maximum pressure loss in the duct = (Total length x pressure drop/meter) + (pressure
drop in diffuser)
= (95×1.2) + (0.03 in water × 350 pa/in water)
= 125 Pa.
Assume pressure loss in the air handling unit to be 375 Pascal (losses in the air intake,
filters cooling coil and other fittings).

56
So the fan pressure = 125 + 375 = 500 Pascal
And fan flow rate = 32204 CFM = 15.2m3/sec.
*all detailed duct sizing results are in Appendix (A)
Grills selection
 Supply grills
To determine the position of grill we shoud calculate the throw that grill can coverd it
Calculation of throw
V0.25 → T0.25 /L
Throw = (T0.25 /L) × L
All supply grills are selected as supply ceiling diffuser –four way
From catalogues (throw vs.CFM of grill)
L: is measured by dividing each room and taking the farthest point from the middle or
where the grill is to be located.
 Return Grills
All return grills are located in the corridors and we added door grills for each room in
order to allow return air to pass through these door grills to return grills exists in
corridors.
Exhaust grills the same as return grills taking the ventilation load, bath room, and
kitchen.

57