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FLUID MECHANICS-I 2019

FLUID MECHANICS-I
LABORATORY REPORT

SUBMITTED TO:-
ENGR. HASSAN ASHFAQ

SUBMITTED BY:-
MUHAMMAD SHABIR AHMAD
(BSCE01183127)

SECTION:- (D1)

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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

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LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

 To carry out the layout of fluid mechanics lab.


 Determination of various physical properties of a fluid.
 To determine the metacentric height of a floating body and to locate position of center of
buoyancy and center of gravity”

 To check the validity of bernoulli’s equation for water flow.


 To determine hydrostatic force on a given plane and to locate the center of pressure.

 To determine the coefficient of discharge of horizontal Venturi-meter and to draw its


calibration curve

 To determine the co-efficient of discharge of rectangular notch


 To determine the co-efficient of discharge of triangular notch
 To verify the “impulse momentum principle” for a jet of water striking on 45o,
90°&120o deflectors and to investigate the effect of velocity of flow on impulse force of
the jet for various deflectors.

 To determine the hydraulic co-efficient of the orifice


 To investigate the operations and characteristics of three different basic types of flow
meters including accuracy and energy losses.

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1 EXPERIMENT NO. 01 ____________________________________________________ 7

1.1 SIGNIFICANCE: ______________________________________________________________ 7

1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF FLUID MECHANICS:____________________________________________ 7

1.3 LAB APPARATUS: ___________________________________________________________ 10


1.3.1 HYDRAULIC BENCH: _______________________________________________________________ 10
1.3.2 VISCOMETER: ____________________________________________________________________ 11
1.3.3 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE APPARATUS: ________________________________________________ 13
1.3.4 IMPACT OF JET APPARATUS: ________________________________________________________ 15
1.3.5 VENTURI METER: _________________________________________________________________ 17
1.3.6 BERNOULLI’S APPARATUS: __________________________________________________________ 18
1.3.7 ORIFICE APPARATUS: ______________________________________________________________ 19
1.3.8 NOTCHES APPARATUS: _____________________________________________________________ 20
1.3.9 FLUID FRICTION APPARATUS: ________________________________________________________ 22
1.3.10 WASH HAND BASIN:_____________________________________________________________ 23
1.3.11 META CENTRIC HEIGHT: _________________________________________________________ 23

1.4 COMMENTS:- ______________________________________________________________ 24

2 EXPERIMENT NO. 2 ____________________________________________________ 25

2.1 APPARATUS: ______________________________________________________________ 25

2.2 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 25


2.2.1 DENSITY: ________________________________________________________________________ 25
2.2.2 SPECIFIC WEIGHT: _________________________________________________________________ 25
2.2.3 SPECIFIC VOLUME: ________________________________________________________________ 26
2.2.4 SPECIFIC GRAVITY: ________________________________________________________________ 26
2.2.5 VISCOSITY: _______________________________________________________________________ 26
2.2.6 COMPRESSIBILITY: ________________________________________________________________ 28
2.2.7 VISCOMETER: ____________________________________________________________________ 28

2.3 PROCEDURE: ______________________________________________________________ 29

2.4 CALCULATION OF DENSITY: ___________________________________________________ 29

2.5 CALCULATION OF VISCOSITY: _________________________________________________ 30

2.6 COMMENTS: ______________________________________________________________ 30

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3 EXPERIMENT NO. 3 ____________________________________________________ 31

3.1 OBJECTIVE ________________________________________________________________ 31

3.2 APPARATUS _______________________________________________________________ 31

3.3 RELATED THEORY___________________________________________________________ 31


3.3.1 ASSUMPTION ____________________________________________________________________ 31
3.3.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ___________________________________________________________ 31
3.3.3 CENTER OF PRESSURE ______________________________________________________________ 32
3.3.4 CENTRE OF AREA__________________________________________________________________ 32
3.3.5 DEPTH OF CENTER OF PRESSURE _____________________________________________________ 32
3.3.6 DEPTH OF CENTER OF AREA _________________________________________________________ 32

3.4 CASE-I:- __________________________________________________________________ 32


3.4.1 FOR PARTIALLY SUBMERGED, _______________________________________________________ 32
3.4.2 CASE-II __________________________________________________________________________ 33

3.5 PROCEDURE _______________________________________________________________ 33

3.6 DATA FOR CALCULATIONS ____________________________________________________ 33

3.7 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION ____________________________________________ 34


3.7.1 CASE - I PARTIALLY SUBMERGED _____________________________________________________ 34
3.7.2 CASE – II FULLY SUBMERGED ________________________________________________________ 35

3.8 QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: ____________________________________________________ 35

3.9 COMMENTS _______________________________________________________________ 36

4 EXPERIMENT#4 ________________________________________________________ 37

4.1 OBJECTIVE:________________________________________________________________ 37

4.2 APPARATUS: ______________________________________________________________ 37

4.3 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 37

4.4 PROCEDURE: ______________________________________________________________ 39

4.5 CALCULATION DATA: ________________________________________________________ 39

4.6 OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS ____________________________________________ 41

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4.7 COMMENTS: ______________________________________________________________ 42

5 EXPERIMENT#5 ________________________________________________________ 43

5.1 OBJECTIVE:________________________________________________________________ 43

5.2 APPARATUS: ______________________________________________________________ 43

5.3 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 43


5.3.1 FLOW: __________________________________________________________________________ 43
5.3.2 ENERGY: ________________________________________________________________________ 44
5.3.3 PRESSURE _______________________________________________________________________ 44
5.3.4 HEAD: __________________________________________________________________________ 44
5.3.5 HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE: ___________________________________________________________ 44

5.4 PROCEDURE: ______________________________________________________________ 45

5.5 DIAGRAM: ________________________________________________________________ 45

5.6 OBSERVATIONS & CALCULATIONS: _____________________________________________ 46

5.7 ASSUMPTIONS: ____________________________________________________________ 46

5.8 QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: ____________________________________________________ 47

5.9 COMMENTS: ______________________________________________________________ 47

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EXPERIMENT NO 6 ________________________________________________________ 39

6.1 OBJECTIVE:________________________________________________________________ 39

6.2 APPARATUS: ______________________________________________________________ 39

6.3 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 39


6.3.1 MANOMETER: ____________________________________________________________________ 39
6.3.2 SIMPLE MANOMETER: _____________________________________________________________ 39
6.3.3 DIFFERENTIAL MANOMETER: ________________________________________________________ 39

6.4 PARTS OF VENTURI-METER: __________________________________________________ 40

6.5 PRINCIPLE OF VENTURI-METER: _______________________________________________ 40

6.6 PROCEDURE: ______________________________________________________________ 41

6.7 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS ___________________________________________ 41

6.8 COMMENTS: ______________________________________________________________ 41

7 EXPERIMENT NO 7 ____________________________________________________ 42

7.1 OBJECTIVE ________________________________________________________________ 42

7.2 APPARATUS _______________________________________________________________ 42

7.3 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 42


7.3.1 NOTCH: _________________________________________________________________________ 42
7.3.2 RECTANGULAR NOTCH: ____________________________________________________________ 43
7.3.3 DISCHARGE THROUGH A RECTANGULAR NOTCH: _______________________________________ 43

7.4 PROCEDURE: ______________________________________________________________ 44

7.5 OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS ____________________________________________ 44

7.6 Graph Qact Vs QTH FOR RECTANGULAR NOTCH _________________________________ 45

7.7 COMMENTS: ______________________________________________________________ 46

8 EXPERIMENT NO 8 ____________________________________________________ 47

8.1 OBJECTIVE ________________________________________________________________ 47

8.2 APPARATUS _______________________________________________________________ 47

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8.3 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 47


8.3.1 NOTCH: _________________________________________________________________________ 47

8.4 TRIANGULAR NOTCH: _______________________________________________________ 48

8.5 DISCHARGE THROUGH A TRIANGULAR NOTCH: ___________________________________ 48

8.6 PROCEDURE: ______________________________________________________________ 50

8.7 OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS ____________________________________________ 50


8.7.1 Graph Qact Vs QTH FOR TRIANGULAR NOTCH _________________________________________ 51

8.8 COMMENTS: ______________________________________________________________ 52

9 EXPERIMENT # 9 ______________________________________________________ 53

9.1 OBJECTIVE:________________________________________________________________ 53

9.2 APPARATUS: ______________________________________________________________ 53

9.3 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 53


9.3.1 IMPULSE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE ____________________________________________________ 53

9.3.2 IN THE CASE OF DEFLECTOR OF 45O __________________________________________________ 54

9.3.3 IN THE CASE OF DEFLECTOR OF 90O __________________________________________________ 55

9.3.4 IN THE CASE OF DEFLECTOR OF 120O _________________________________________________ 55


9.3.5 IMPACT OF JET APPARATUS _________________________________________________________ 56
9.3.6 PARTS OF JET APPARATUS __________________________________________________________ 56

9.4 PROCEDURE: ______________________________________________________________ 57

9.5 EQUATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:______________________________________________ 57

9.6 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS: ___________________________________________ 58


9.6.1 Graph Fexpe Vs FThe FOR 45 DEGREE DEFLECTOR _____________________________________ 59
9.6.2 Graph Velocity Vs FThe FOR 45 DEGREE DEFLECTOR ____________________________________ 60
9.6.3 Graph Velocity Vs Fexp FOR 45 DEGREE DEFLECTOR ____________________________________ 61
9.6.4 Graph Fexpe Vs FThe FOR 90 DEGREE DEFLECTOR _____________________________________ 62
9.6.5 Graph Velocity Vs FThe FOR 90 DEGREE DEFLECTOR ____________________________________ 63
9.6.6 Graph Velocity Vs Fexp FOR 90 DEGREE DEFLECTOR ____________________________________ 64
9.6.7 Graph Fexpe Vs FThe FOR 120 DEGREE DEFLECTOR ____________________________________ 65

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9.6.8 Graph Velocity Vs FThe FOR 120 DEGREE DEFLECTOR___________________________________ 66


9.6.9 Graph Velocity Vs Fexp FOR 120 DEGREE DEFLECTOR ___________________________________ 67

9.7 COMMENTS: ______________________________________________________________ 68

10 EXPERIMENT # 10 _____________________________________________________ 69

10.1 1. OBJECTIVE: _____________________________________________________________ 69

10.2 APPARATUS: ______________________________________________________________ 69

10.3 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 69


10.3.1 ORIFICE: ______________________________________________________________________ 69
10.3.2 W.R.T SHAPE: __________________________________________________________________ 69
10.3.3 W.R.T NATURE: ________________________________________________________________ 70
10.3.4 W.R.T EDGE OR SHAPE: __________________________________________________________ 70
10.3.5 JET OF WATER: _________________________________________________________________ 70
10.3.6 VENACONTRACTA: ______________________________________________________________ 70

10.4 CO-EFFICIENT OF VELOCITY: __________________________________________________ 71

10.5 CO-EFFICIENT OF CONTRACTION: ______________________________________________ 71

10.6 CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE:_________________________________________________ 71

10.7 EXPERIMENTAL RELATION B/W CC, CD & CV:_____________________________________ 72

10.8 DETERMINATION OF CO-EFFICIENT OF VELOCITY BY EXPERIMENT: ____________________ 72

10.9 OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION’S: ___________________________________________ 73

10.10 COMMENTS: ____________________________________________________________ 74

11 EXPERIMENT NO 11 ___________________________________________________ 75

11.1 OBJECTIVE:________________________________________________________________ 75

11.2 APPARATUS: ______________________________________________________________ 75

11.3 RELATED THEORY: __________________________________________________________ 75


11.3.1 FLOW METER: _________________________________________________________________ 75
11.3.2 VENTURIMETER: _______________________________________________________________ 76
11.3.3 PARTS OF VENTURIMETER: _______________________________________________________ 76

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11.3.4 TYPES OF VENTURIMETER: _______________________________________________________ 76

11.4 PRINCIPLE OF VENTURIMETER: ________________________________________________ 76


11.4.1 CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE: _____________________________________________________ 77
11.4.2 ACTUAL DISCHARGE: ____________________________________________________________ 77
11.4.3 THEORETICAL DISCHARGE: _______________________________________________________ 78
11.4.4 CONSTANT ‘K’: _________________________________________________________________ 78
11.4.5 VENTURIMETER FLOW RATE: _____________________________________________________ 78
11.4.6 PERCENTAGE FLOW RATE ERROR: _________________________________________________ 78
11.4.7 HEAD LOSS IN VENTURIMETER: ___________________________________________________ 79

11.5 ORIFICE METER: ____________________________________________________________ 79


11.5.1 TYPES OF ORIFICE: ______________________________________________________________ 79

11.6 JET OF WATER:_____________________________________________________________ 80

11.7 VENACONTRACTA: __________________________________________________________ 80

11.8 CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE:_________________________________________________ 80

11.9 THEORETICAL DISCHARGE: ___________________________________________________ 81

11.10 ORIFICE METER FLOW RATE: ________________________________________________ 81

11.11 PERCENTAGE FLOW RATE ERROR: ___________________________________________ 81

11.12 HEAD LOSS IN VENTURIMETER: _____________________________________________ 82

11.13 VARIABLE AREA FLOW METER: ______________________________________________ 82


11.13.1 PARTS OF VARIABLE FLOW METER: ________________________________________________ 82

TYPES OF VARIABLE AREA FLOW METER:_______________________________________________ 83


WORKING PRINCIPLE OF VARIABLE AREA FLOW METER: _________________________________________ 83
VARIABLE AREA METER FLOW RATE: _________________________________________________________ 83

PERCENTAGE FLOW RATE ERROR: ____________________________________________________ 83


HEAD LOSS IN VARIABLE AREA FLOW METER: __________________________________________________ 84

11.14 TIMED FLOW RATE: _______________________________________________________ 84

11.15 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS: ________________________________________ 84


11.15.1 FOR PIZOMETER HEAD___________________________________________________________ 84

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11.15.2 FOR TIME FLOW RATE ___________________________________________________________ 84


11.15.3 FOR VARIABLE AREA METER: ______________________________________________________ 85
11.15.4 FOR VENTURIMETER: ____________________________________________________________ 85
11.15.5 FOR ORIFICEMETER:_____________________________________________________________ 85
11.15.6 FOR PERCENTAGE FLOW RATE ERROR : _____________________________________________ 85
11.15.7 _________________________________________________________________________________ 85
11.15.8 FOR HEAD LOSS ________________________________________________________________ 86

11.16 COMMENTS: ____________________________________________________________ 86

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1 EXPERIMENT NO. 01

“TO CARRY OUT LAYOUT OF FLUID MECHANICS LAB.”


1.1 Significance:

The significance to draw the layout plan of fluid mechanics lab is to have an idea about
location of machines in the laboratory and also to get important information about the
machines, so that one can easily use them.

 Fluid Mechanics
It is a branch of physics, which deals with the study of fluid properties and their response
to applied force.

 Fluid In General Terms


It is defined as a substance that can flow or can take shape of container in which it is
kept. For Example: Liquids & Gasses.

 Fluid In Engineering Terms


It is defined as a substance which deform continuously under the action of shear force.

Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gasses, plasmas and to
some extent plastic solids.

1.2 Significance of Fluid Mechanics:

The significance of Fluid Mechanics in the field of Civil Engineering can be described as
follows.

 Fluid mechanics gives us the basic concepts regarding some other subjects of civil
engineering e.g. Advance fluid mechanics, Hydraulics and Irrigation engineering, and
Geotechnical engineering.

 Fluid mechanics helps us to calculate hydro static and hydro dynamic forces used in
design of dams and other hydraulic structures.

 Fluid Mechanics enhances our capabilities while dealing with some operating machines

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like turbines, pumps etc.

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layout

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1.3 Lab Apparatus:

 Hydraulic bench

 Visco meter

 Hydrostatic pressure gauge

 Impact of jet apparatus

 Venturi meter

 Bernoulli’s apparatus

 Orifice apparatus

 Notch apparatus

 Fluid friction apparatus

 Wash hand basin

 Meta centric height

1.3.1 HYDRAULIC BENCH:


The basic hydraulic bench is a simple, mobile, self-contained module that allows a supply
of "hydraulic energy", i.e. an accurately controlled and measurable flow of water.

 Working principle:
The working principle of the hydraulic bench is the use of the load to measure the
resulting discharge (actual discharge) and also take into account the time required by the
water flow from the start of the current until the loaded lever is lifted due to the water
load within the hydraulic bench appliance.

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 Uses and practical applications:


The Volumetric Hydraulic Bench is used in a wide variety of hydraulic experiments and
student projects that include such topics as: Jet trajectory and orifice flow pipe work
energy losses.

Hydraulic Bench

1.3.2 VISCOMETER:
A viscometer (also called viscosity meter) is an instrument used to measure the viscosity
of a fluid. For liquids with viscosities which vary with flow conditions, an instrument
called a rheometer is used. Thus, a rheometer can be considered as a special type of
viscometer. Viscometers only measure less than one flow condition.

 Uses:
Viscometer is used to measurement of viscosity

Viscometer is used to measure speed of an object moving through a liquid

Indicates the liquid’s resistance to flow

 Practical Application:

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A viscometer is an instrument used to measure fluid viscosity and the flow properties of
liquids. In tribology and the study of lubrication, viscosity has often been referred to as
the most important characteristic of a base oil. Viscosity is the measure of a fluid’s
resistance to flow (shear stress) at a given temperature. As flow conditions vary, not all
fluids retain an unchanged viscosity.

Visco Meter

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1.3.3 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE APPARATUS:


An instrument used to measure the hydrostatic pressure of fluid. Hydrostatic pressure is
the pressure that is exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due
to the force of gravity. Hydrostatic pressure increases in proportion to depth measured
from the surface because of the increasing weight of fluid exerting downward force from
above.

 Working principle:
The principle that the hydrostatic pressure due to a liquid is directly proportional to its
depth and hence to the level of its surface.

 Uses and practical applications:


Instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure
meters or pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is a good example, as it uses
the surface area and weight of a column of liquid to both measure and indicates pressure.
Likewise the widely used Bourdon gauge is a mechanical device, which both measures
and indicates and is probably the best known type of gauge.

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Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus

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1.3.4 IMPACT OF JET APPARATUS:


The Impact of a Jet apparatus shows the force produced by a jet of water as it strikes a
flat plate or hemispherical cup. They can then compare this to the momentum flow rate in
the jet.

 Working principle:
To perform experiments, students level the apparatus and zero the weigh beam assembly.
They set the flow from the hydraulic bench to maximum, and measure the jet force. They
reduce the flow from the hydraulic bench in several increments. At each increment they
record the force of the jet on the plate and the flow rate. They then repeat the experiments
for different test plates. Students compare their experimental results to those calculated
from theory, working out graphs of rate of delivery of momentum against force on the
plate.

 Uses and practical applications:


One of the applications of jet impact is used to generate electricity. Impact of
jet is used to rotate the turbine namely Pelton wheel in the generator. The
water jet is applying force tangential to the wheel.

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Impact of Jet Apparatus

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1.3.5 VENTURI METER:


Venturi meters are flow measurement instruments which use a converging section of pipe
to give an increase in the flow velocity and a corresponding pressure drop from which the
flowrate can be deduced. They have been in common use for many years, especially in
the water supply industry.

 Working principle:
Venturi meter is a device used to measure the flow rate or discharge of fluid through a
pipe. Venturimeter is an application of Bernoulli’s equation. Its basic principle is also
depends on the Bernoulli equation i.e. velocity increases pressure decreases.

 Uses:
A Venturi meter is used to measure the flow rate through a tube. It is based on the use of
the Venturi effect, the reduction of fluid pressure that results when a fluid runs through a
constricted section of pipe. It is called after Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746-1822), an
Italian physicist.

Venturi Meter

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1.3.6 BERNOULLI’S APPARATUS:


 Working principle:
I t is a law which states that for a steady flow of a fluid the total energy (combination of
kinetic energy from the velocity of the flow the potential energy from the elevation and
gravity and the pressure energy exerted by a fluid) remains constant along the route. So
when the velocity increases the pressure energy of the fluid decreases to maintain a
constant level of energy.

 Uses and practical applications:


From the energy balance feature of the equation we can say the increase in velocity
results in the drop in the pressure at the outlet of the nozzle. Flow through a Siphon:
Siphon is used to drain a fluid from a reservoir at a higher level to a lower level.

Bernoulli’s Apparatus

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1.3.7 ORIFICE APPARATUS:


An orifice is an opening made in the side or bottom of tank, having a closed perimeter,
through which the fluid may be discharged. ... Orifice and mouthpiece are used to
measure the rate of flow of liquid. The apparatus is designed to measure the co-efficient
of discharge of orifice & mouthpiece.

 Working principle:
The reduction of the cross section of the following stream in passing through the orifice
increases the velocity head at the expense of the pressure head. This reduction in the
pressure between the taps is measured by manometer. Bernoulli’s equation provides a
basis for correlating the increase velocity head with decrease in pressure head.

 Uses:
Orifice and mouthpiece are used to measure the rate of flow of liquid. The apparatus is
designed to measure the co-efficient of discharge of orifice & mouthpiece.

Orifice Apparatus

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1.3.8 NOTCHES APPARATUS:


Notch Apparatus is designed for the study of flow measurement in open channels
using notches & calibration of notches. The set-up consists of an Open Flow Channel,
rectangular in cross-section. Water enters from one end of the channel & at the other end,
a notch is fitted.

 Working principle:
The notch uses the principle of gravitational discharge of water over a triangular or
rectangular opening in a plate. For a given profile size and shape, discharge is a function
of head water at notch. The discharge of the liquid thoroughly depends on the central
vertex angle.

 Uses and Practical applications:


It is used for the measurement of discharge in open channels. In real life applications it is
used for seepage measurement of dam in foundation, inspection and top galleries and toe-
drains in reservoirs. It has limited use in waste water and laboratories. It is a
conventional device.

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Notches Apparatus

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1.3.9 FLUID FRICTION APPARATUS:


Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and
material elements sliding against each other. ... Fluid friction describes
the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other.

 Working principle:
This apparatus is designed to allow the detailed study of the fluid friction head ... The
results and underlying principles are of the greatest importance to . John Nikuradse
extended the work to cover the case of rough pipes and one such pipe.

 Uses and Practical applications:


There are several major applications of the special properties of fluids. The pressure
of fluids can be amplified through the use of hydraulic mechanisms. Changes in pressure
with the velocity of the fluid allow airplanes to fly. Fluids are also used to reduce friction.

Fluid Friction Apparatus

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1.3.10 WASH HAND BASIN:


Basin typically fixed to a wall or on a pedestal, used for washing hand and face.

1.3.11 META CENTRIC HEIGHT:


By means of a pendulum (consisting of a weight suspended 10 a long pointer) the angle
of tilt can be measured on a graduated arc. ... Pendulum and graduated arc are suitably
fixed at the center of the cross bar. A set of weights is supplied with the apparatus.

 Working Principle:
A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. Meta centric height is
the measure of static stability of a floating body. For a floating body to be stable, its meta
center must be above the center of gravity.

 Uses and practical applications:


Each vessel has a mast that is used to measure the angle of list, and an attachment on the
side to hang the jockey weight. A small jockey weight for each vessel. A tank filled with
water deep enough to allow the vessels to float.

Meta Centric Height Apparatus

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1.4 COMMENTS:-

This experiment very helpful for identification of apparatus available in the lab. Lab
Staff tells about the apparatus available in the lab. We have also taken the measurements
and dimension of the lab to draw the layout of the lab according their exact location.

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2 EXPERIMENT NO. 2

“DETERMINATION OF VARIOUS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


OF FLUID”
2.1 Apparatus:

 Tube Type Viscometer.

 Flask.

 Distilled water.

 Stopwatch

2.2 Related Theory:

2.2.1 Density:
Density is defined as mass per unit volume of a material substance. The symbol
of specific weight is “ρ” The formula for density is

𝑀
ρ=
𝑉

where,

ρ=density

M= mass

V =volume

2.2.2 Specific Weight:


The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit volume of a
material. The symbol of specific weight is “γ” (the Greek letter Gamma). It’s formula is
defined as

𝑊
Specific Weight (γ) =
𝑉

Where

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γ = Specific weight

W =weight

V =volume

2.2.3 Specific Volume:


The specific volume of a substance is the ratio of the substance's volume to its mass. It is
the reciprocal of density and an intrinsic property of matter as well. It can be calculated
by the formula as follows

1 𝑉
Specific Volume(υ) = =
ρ M

2.2.4 Specific Gravity:


Specific gravity, also called relative density, ratio of the density of a substance to that of
density of water or ratio of specific weight of substance to the specific weight of water. It
is donated as “S”. It can be calculated from the formula as follows

Density of substance
Specific Gravity(S) =
Density of water

OR
Specific Weight of substance(𝛄)
Specific Gravity(S) = Specific Weight of water(𝛄)

2.2.5 Viscosity:
Viscosity, resistance of a fluid (liquid or gas) to a change in shape, or movement of
neighboring portions relative to one another. Viscosity denotes opposition to flow. Its
symbol is “η”. Its Formula is as follows
η1∗ ρ2∗t2
Viscosity (η2) =
ρ1∗t1

Where

η2 = viscosity of liquid

η1 = viscosity of water

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ρ2 = density of liquid

ρ1 = density of water

t2 = time taken by liquid

t1= time taken by water

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2.2.6 Compressibility:
Compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a
response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.

UNITS
Quantity Symbols
S.I F.P.S C.G.S

Density “ρ” kg/m³ slug/ft³ g/cm³

Specific
“γ” kN/m³ lb/ft dyne/cm³
Weight

Specific
“υ” m³/kg ft³/slug cm³/g
Volume

Specific
“S” No units No units No units
Gravity

Viscosity “η” Ns/m² Slug.s/ft² Dyne-s/cm²

2.2.7 Viscometer:
A viscometer (also called viscometer) is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a
fluid. For liquids with viscosities which vary with flow conditions, an instrument called a
rheometer is used. There are two types of Viscometer which are given below

 Tube Type Viscometer


 U-Shaped Viscometer

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2.3 Procedure:

 Clean and wash viscometer. Then dry it. Insert water in tube B up to approx. half of the
level of bulb. By using suction arrangement on tube A , take level of water above mark C,
and release it. The time duration for level drop from level C to mark D is noted. Now
similarly, take a juice and perform the same experiment as we did with water and note the
readings.

 μ1= Viscosity of water

 μ2=Viscosity of juice

 ρ1= Density of water

 ρ2=Density of juice

 t1= Time for water between C & D

 t2=Time for juice between C & D

2.4 Calculation of Density:

Mass of Mass of Mass of Volume Specific Specific Weight Specific


empty liquid + fluid of liquid Temp volume Density (m*9.81 Weight
No. Of flask flask (m2-m1) in beaker (V/m) (m/V) /1000) ( W/V)
Obs
(m1) (m2) (m) (V)
Celsius m³/kg Kg/m³ KN KN/m³
kg kg kg m³

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1.95×
Water 0.1573 0.3561 0.1988 2 × 10−4 30℃ 1 × 10−3 994 9.75
10−3
9.74 2. 014 ×
Juice 0.2684 0.4737 0.2053 2 × 10−4 30℃ 1026.5 10.07
× 10−4 10−3

2.5 Calculation Of Viscosity:

Kt = 3.41*10-7

Vol. of liquid μ=kt


No
Temp. Time yt
of
˚C cm³ m³ Sec. N-
obs.
sec/m²

2.5 × 2.10 ×
1(w) 30 25 6.32
10−5 10−5

2.5 × 2.75 ×
2(L) 30 25 8.01
10−5 10−5

2.6 Comments:

From this experiment we learnt about the physical properties of fluids and their way to
calculation. Also capable how to calculate density and Viscosity of different fluids.

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3 EXPERIMENT NO. 3

“TO DETERMINE HYDROSTATIC FORCE AND TO


LOCATE THE CENTRE OF PRESSURE.”
3.1 OBJECTIVE

To determine the hydrostatic force which acts on the plane surface immersed in water
when the surface is partially submerged or fully submerged and to determine the position
of the line of the action of the force.

3.2 APPARATUS

It consists of center of pressure of the apparatus, which includes

 Rectangular water tank

 Centre weight

 Hook Guage

 Counter balance arm or weight beam

 Bubble

 Leveling screws

 Toroid (the plane surface to be used) also called quarter circle.

3.3 Related theory

3.3.1 ASSUMPTION
The pressure would be atmospheric pressure. Flow would be gravity flow.

3.3.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE


The resultant force of pressure on any side of submerged plane exerted by the fluid when
they are at rest.

Hydro ------------ Water

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Static ------------- Rest

It is denoted by ( F = 𝛾hcA).

3.3.3 CENTER OF PRESSURE


The point where the hydrostatic force acts.

3.3.4 CENTRE OF AREA


The centre of the submerged plane.

3.3.5 DEPTH OF CENTER OF PRESSURE


Depth of point of application of pressure form water level. And denoted by hp.

3.3.6 DEPTH OF CENTER OF AREA


The vertical distance from free surface of water to the centre of area of
submerged plane and denoted by hc.

3.4 CASE-I:-

3.4.1 For partially submerged,


d<=D.

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C = Centroid

P = Center of pressure

F = 𝛾(d/2)(bd)

Fth = 𝛾(bd)2/2

Hp = hc + Ic/Ahc (Position of C.O.P)

3.4.2 CASE-II
For fully submerged, d>D.

F = 𝛾hcA

F = 𝛾(d-D/2)(bd)

Where D is vertical distance of plane. And d is vertical distance from water level to
bottom of toroid.

3.5 PROCEDURE

 Level the apparatus by using bubble/levelling screws and weight beam.

 Bring the tip of the hook guage up to top free surface water and set the main scale and
vernier scale zero.

 Add water in rectangular tank up to bottom of toroid.

 Let the apparatus no longer in horizontal position by applying sum weights in weighing
pan. Add more water so that the moment generated by hydrostatic force becomes equal to
moment generated by weight.

 Determine D by using hook guage.

 And perform the experiment for case 2 as well.

3.6 DATA FOR CALCULATIONS

Inner radius of toroid =R1=11cm

Outer radius of toroid =R2=21cm

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Depth of plane = d=r2-r1 =10 cm

Width of toroid b = 7.5 cm

Moment arm = x = 31 cm

Specific weight of water = 𝛾 = 62.4 lbs / ft3

3.7 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION

3.7.1 CASE - I PARTIALLY SUBMERGED


W
e
i
g
h
S t %
F
r Mass a F
h h e
. added d D t e
p c x
(m) d h r
p
N e r
o d o
. r
(
W
)

k m
g N m m N N N
g m

4 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
0
0 . 4 . . . . . .
1 .
. 0 3 0 0 0 6 6 7
4
7 4 4 2 1 8 3 6

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7 3 8 4 4 %
7 3

0 0
0 0 9
5 0 . .
0 . . 0 .
0 . 4 0 0
2 . 0 8 . 3
. 0 9 3 2
5 4 5 8 9
9 5 2 4
9 3 %
7 5

0
1 0 0 0 1 1 2
.
0 . . . . . .
1 6
3 1 1 0 0 0 7 6 5
0 8
. 6 4 3 0 5 2
1
9 8 5 4 1 8 %
9

3.7.2 CASE – II FULLY SUBMERGED


Weight
Mass added
added D hp hc Fth Fexp
(m)
(W)

g kg N mm m m N N N

280 0.28 2.8 122 0.122 0.081 0.072 5.475 5.13

300 0.3 3.0 129 0.129 0.086 0.079 6.121 5.56

320 0.32 3.2 134 0.134 0.089 0.082 6.606 6.01

3.8 Questions & Answers:

 Q#1 why we use toroid shape during experiment?

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Answer: Toroid is quarter part of a circle. We use toroid shape to achieve the pascal law
i.e. force are perpendicular to the surface.in toroid forces on curved surface act through
pivot due to this moment around pivot point become zero.

3.9 COMMENTS

In this experiment, we know the exact hydrostatic pressure which acts on surface and also
know the point where pressure exerts.

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4 EXPERIMENT#4

“TO DETERMINE THE METACENTRIC HEIGHT OF A


FLOATING BODY AND TO LOCATE POSITION OF CENTER
OF BUOYANCY AND CENTER OF GRAVITY”
4.1 Objective:

 To determine the experimental value of a metacentric height.

 To investigate the effect of weight placed vertically above the center of gravity on the
stability of a floating body.

4.2 Apparatus:

 A model of ship. (Floating body)

 Water tank.

 Jokey.

4.3 Related Theory:

 Buoyancy:
It is the tendency of fluid to lift up a submerged body. Or the up thrust of fluid on any
submerged body. It does not depend upon the shape of the object. It always acts upward.

 Force of buoyancy (Fb):


It is the resultant upward force or thrust exerted by a fluid on submerged body. It can be
calculated using following mathematical expression.

Fb = γ x V

Where,

Fb = weight of volume of fluid displaced by the body.

γ = specific weight of fluid.

V = volume of water displaced by the body.

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Note: If Fb is greater than weight then body will float and if it is less than weight then it
will sink.

 Archimedes Principle:
It states that “An object immersed in a fluid is acted upward by a force equal to the
weight of volume of fluid displaced by the object”.

 Centre of Buoyancy (B):


It is the point on which force of buoyancy is acting. Center of buoyancy is center of
gravity of volume of liquid displaced by the body.

 Metacenter (M):
Metacenter defines the stability of the floating body. It is the point of intersection of
symmetrical axis of floating body and new line of action of force of buoyancy. Fig.1
gives the position of M, C and B for a body to be in stable condition.

 Metacentric Height (CM) :


It is the distance between center of gravity (C) and metacenter. It is the measure of static
stability of a floating body. A larger metacentric height means greater stability against
overturning. Fig.2 tells us the position of M, C and B in unstable condition.

𝟏
CM ∝
𝐟𝐫𝐞𝐪𝐮𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐲

 Metacentric Radius/ Buoyant Radius:

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It is the distance between metacenter and center of buoyancy.

BoM = I/V

Where,

 I = Second moment of water line area about longitudinal axis.


 V = Volume of fluid displaced by the body.

4.4 Procedure:

 Place the model of ship in water tank.

 Shift the jockey weight to zero position and note the corresponding angle of rotation.

 If it is on zero then it is correct and if not then note the error and its direction.

 Now shift the jockey to either side by 0.5 inches. Note the angle against the reading.

 Now shift the jockey to 1 inch, 2 inch and finally 3 inch and keep noting the
corresponding values of angle.

 Now shift the jockey weight to other side and take similar readings.

 Take the mean of left and right angles and make a table for it.

4.5 Calculation Data:

Weight of Ship Model = 12.5 kg

Length = 20”

Breadth = 10”

Drowned Radius of model = r = 5”

Weight of Jockey= Wo = 0.345kg

Volume = Area x Drowned Radius

𝜋𝑟²
Volume = V = 𝑙 = 0.4545 ft3
2

Specific Weight =62.4lb/ft3

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𝑊
γ water = 𝑉

W = 62.4 x 0.4545 = 28.868 lbs = 12.868 kg

As,

Tan θ = P/b = 1/CM

C.M = 1/tan θ

Position of center of Byouncy = 4r/3𝜋

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4.6 Observation and Calculations

Di Metace
Po
N sp Angle Of displacement ntric
siti
o la Height
on C
ce
of en
O m
Ce ter
f en R
nte Of
t i M
Le r of Gr
O of g ea inches
ft by av
b x h n
ou ity
s (i t
nc
. nc
y
h)

5
5.
5.6 . 2.1
1 1 5 10.291
° 5 22

°

1
11 1 2.1
2 2 1 5.145
° 1° 22
°

1
1
5
16 5. 2.1
3 3 . 3.546
° 7 22
5

°

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4.7 Comments:

After the completion of this experiment we are able how to calculate to Metacentric
height, locating position center of byouncy & Center of gravity. Which is very helpful in
practical like.

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5 EXPERIMENT#5

“TO CHECK THE VALIDITY OF BERNOULLI’S THEOREM


FOR WATER FLOW”
5.1 Objective:

The objective to perform this job is to verify the Bernoulli’s theorem. To check its
validity we have to observe following things that are they fulfilled.

 Dimensional Stable

 Experimental & Theoretically Competency

 Suitable/Accurate Results in Field

5.2 Apparatus:

Following apparatus is required to perform this experiment.

 Hydraulic Bench

 Bernoulli’s Apparatus

 Stopwatch

5.3 Related Theory:

5.3.1 Flow:
Quantity of fluid flowing from the certain area is said to be the flow.” It include some
types with are defined as below

 Flow with respect to time


Means that how much fluid passes from some area in fixed time when the velocity does
not changes. The flow can be steady or non-steady at some point.

 Flow with respect to density,


in this term we observe that either the fluid id compressible or not compressible. When
the fluid is compressible than ∆ρ≠0. But when the fluid is compressible ∆ρ=0.

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 Flow with respect to space,


in this term there are two conditions that whether where the fluid has to flow that space is
either uniform or non-uniform. Fluid parameters changes in this form of flow.

 Flow with respect to Reynolds Number,


As we know Reynolds number is the ratio between viscous force and the gravitational
force. In this form if the ratio is more than 2000 than the flow is turbulent flow and if the
flow is less than 2000 than the flow is laminar flow and if equal to 2000 than flow is
transition. It is not standard values as laminar flow up to 50,000 can be achieved.

5.3.2 Energy:
“Energy is known as ability to do work”. Followings are the types of energy.

 Kinetic energy
That is formed due to motion of any object. Its formula is defined as, K.E = 1/2mv²

 Potential energy
That is gained by any object due to its position. Its formula is defined as, P.E = mgh

5.3.3 Pressure
Is the work done by fluid due to force acting on it or energy possessed by body due to
pressure on it. Its formula is defined as, Pr.E = ρV

5.3.4 Head:
Head is known as energy possessed by body per unit weight”. Similarly, as energy there
are three types of head.

 Kinetic Head = K.E/w = v²/2g

 Potential Head = P.E/w = h

 Pressure Head = PR.E/ɣ = P/ɣ

5.3.5 Hydraulic Grade Line:


It is the imaginary line joining pressure heads or velocity heads”.

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5.4 Procedure:

 The known amount of fluid is taken.

 That fluid is allowed to flow from one side of hydraulic bench and same amount of fluid
is allowed to exit from the other side of hydraulic bench.

 During the entering and exiting of fluid inside hydraulic bench take place the total time
taken by the fluid is calculated through the stopwatch.

 Through the observed and known factors other calculation are made.

5.5 Diagram:

76mm

15.8mm

7.4mm

a b c d

e f

10mm

61mm

40.5mm

Diameter at a = 25mm

Diameter at b = 13.9mm

Diameter at c = 11.8mm

Diameter at d = 10.7mm

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Diameter at e = 10mm

Diameter at f = 25mm

5.6 Observations & Calculations:

Pr.
Vol Time Q=V/t Dia A=ᴫr²
Point Head
m³ (sec) (m³/s) (mm) (m)
(mm)

9.6E-
A 183 0.002 20.94 25 0.00049
05

9.6E-
B 159 0.002 20.94 13.9 0.00015
05

9.6E-
C 147 0.002 20.94 11.8 0.00011
05

9.6E-
D 129 0.002 20.94 10.7 0.00009
05

9.6E-
E 115 0.002 20.94 10 7.8E-05
05

9.6E-
F 180 0.002 20.94 25 0.00049
05

5.7 Assumptions:

 Fluid should be ideal means that viscosity, pressure, surface tension of the fluid is zero.
 Flow of that fluid should be steady.
 The fluid used in the experiment should be steady.

If these assumptions are true than the value of the total head is given as

Total Head = Kinetic head + Potential Head + Pressure head = Constant

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T.H = v²/2g + h + P/ɣ = constant

Total head at section 1 should be equal to the total head at section 2

(v₁)²/2g + h₁ + P₁/ɣ = (v₂)²/2g + h₂ + P₂/ɣ

5.8 Questions & Answers:

 Q#1 why all the evaluation is on one side not the other side?

Answer: Evaluation is only one side because the end where the diameter of tunnel start
decreasing results in the increase of velocity of fluid the other end has no effect on it.

 Q#2 why diameter size of tube from point d to e is decreasing?

Answer: The diameter size is decreasing so that we could check the validity of
Bernoulli’s theorem that when the area decreases does the velocity of fluid increases.

 Q#3 one tunnel is of 14° while the other is 21° so at which side water is more stable?

Answer: Water will be more stable at the end with diameter 21° because it would be easy
for water to flow from the wider tunnel end with higher pressure and velocity.

 Q#4 why we do not use mercury in this experiment?

Answer: We do not use mercury in this experiment because the viscosity of mercury is
much higher than that of water and it was quite difficult for mercury to flow in tunnel.

5.9 Comments:

After the completion of this job we observe the accuracy of Bernoulli’s theorem values
were quite correct which shows that this theorem is valid and provide accurate values.

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6 EXPERIMENT NO 6

TO DETERMINE THE COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF


HORIZONTAL VENTURI-METER AND TO DRAW ITS
CALIBRATION CURVE
6.1 Objective:

The main purpose of this experiment is to determine the coefficient of discharge


of horizontal Venturi-meter and to draw its calibration curve.

6.2 Apparatus:

 Venturi-meter
 Hydraulic Bench
 Stopwatch

6.3 Related Theory:

6.3.1 Manometer:
It is used to determine the pressure in pipe. It has further 2 types:

 Simple manometer
 Differential manometer

6.3.2 Simple Manometer:


It is used to measure the pressure of fluid.

6.3.3 Differential manometer:


It is used to find out the pressure difference between two different fluids.

 Venturi-meter:
It is an apparatus used to measure discharge of a fluid flowing in a pipe. It has 3
types:

 Horizontal Venturimeter
 Vertical Venturimeter
 Inclined Venturimeter

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6.4 Parts of Venturi-meter:

 Convergent cone
 Divergent cone
 Throat cone
 Inlet cone
 Outlet cone

6.5 Principle of Venturi-meter:

The principle of Venturi-meter is based on Bernoulli’s equation, which states that


“For a perfect fluid which is incompressible, the total heads at all the sections of flowing
medium remains constant.”

 Constant ‘K’:
‘K’ is a constant of Venturi-meter and its value depends upon the dimension of
Venturi-meter.

𝑨𝟏 𝑨𝟐 √𝟐𝒚
K=
√𝑨𝟐𝟐 −𝑨𝟐𝟏

 Theoretical Discharge:
The value depends on the assumption of zero losses and can be calculated by
given formula:
𝐾
QTh =
√𝐻
 Actual Discharge:
It is the ratio of volume calculated per unit time.

𝑽𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆
QAct =
𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆
 Co-efficient of Discharge:
It is denoted by Cd
𝑸𝒂𝒄𝒕
Cd =
𝑸𝑻𝒉

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6.6 Procedure:

 A Venturi-meter is placed on Hydraulic Bench


 The inlet of Venturi-meter is connected to Outlet of Hydraulic
Bench allowing water to pass
 The collection of this volume of water is recorded and
piezometer readings are taken.
 QTh and Cd are calculated respectively
 The procedure is repeated to get different readings.

6.7 Observations and Calculations

Pressure Area
Volume Time Q=v/t Dia V=Q/A H Total
Obs. Head =(πd²)/4 V²/2g
(m³) (s) m³/s (m) m/s (m) (m)
(m) (m²)
1 0.183 0.002 20.0 0.000100 0.0250 0.000491 0.204 0.00211 0.218 0.200
2 0.159 0.002 20.0 0.000100 0.0139 0.000152 0.659 0.02213 0.070 0.240
3 0.147 0.002 20.9 0.000096 0.0118 0.000109 0.875 0.03902 0.070 0.256
4 0.124 0.002 20.9 0.000096 0.0107 0.000090 1.064 0.05771 0.095 0.250
5 0.115 0.002 20.9 0.000096 0.0100 0.000079 1.218 0.07564 0.095 0.283
6 0.180 0.002 20.9 0.000096 0.0250 0.000491 0.195 0.00194 0.113 0.290

6.8 Comments:

After the completion of this job we are able to determine the coefficient of discharge of
horizontal Venturi meter which is very helpful in practical life.

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7 EXPERIMENT NO 7

TO DETERMINED THE CO-EFFICENT OF DISCHARGE OF


RECTANGULAR NOTCH
7.1 Objective

To determine the co-efficient of discharge of triangular notch.

7.2 Apparatus

 Hydraulic bench
 Triangular notch
 Stopwatch

7.3 Related Theory:

7.3.1 Notch:
It is a metallic plate having a general shape cut. It is a standard device used to measure
discharge in open channels. Discharge is measured by determining the height H relative
to crest.

TYPES OF NOTCH:
There are 4 types that are generally used

 Rectangular notch
 Triangular notch
 Trapezoidal notch
 Stepped notch

Fig 7. 1 Rectangular notch Fig 7. 2 Triangular Notch

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Fig 7. 3 Trapozodal Notch Fig 7. 4 Stepped Notch

7.3.2 Rectangular Notch:

Fig 7. 5 Rectangular notch


Discharge through Rectangular notch can be calculated using the following formula.

7.3.3 Discharge through a Rectangular notch:


Consider

H = Head of liquid causing flow above the crest of notch.

Area =B.dh

Vth=√2𝑔ℎ

dQth=B.dh√2𝑔ℎ

𝐻 𝐻
∫ 𝑑𝑄𝑡ℎ = ∫ 𝐵. 𝑑ℎ √2𝑔ℎ
0 0

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3 H
h2
𝑄𝑡ℎ = B√2𝑔 | 3 |
2 0

2 3
𝑄𝑡ℎ = B√2𝑔 𝐻 2
3
2 3
𝑄𝑡ℎ = B√2𝑔𝐻 2
3
2
𝑄𝑡ℎ = B√2𝑔𝐻1.5
3

𝑄𝑡ℎ = 𝐾𝑇𝑟. 𝐻1.5


= 𝐾𝑇𝑟. 𝑚1.5
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑚1.5
𝐾𝑇𝑟. =
𝑠𝑒𝑐

7.4 Procedure:

 Fix the notch in the channel of hydraulic bench.


 When the flow is steady, measure the head over the crest by
using hook gauge.
 Measure the dimensions of the notch and apply the contraction
effects to find the effective width.
 Record time for collection of specified volume
 Compute Qact , Qth & Cd
Qact = vol / Time

7.5 Observation and Calculations

volume Qth
Obs Head Time
Krec =Krec*h˄1.5 Qact=V/t Cd=Qact/Qth
No (m) (m³) (s)
(m³/s)

1 0.0195 0.005 21.2 0.1034 0.000281435 0.0002358 0.838


2 0.026 0.005 17 0.1034 0.000433491 0.0002941 0.678
3 0.030 0.005 15 0.1034 0.000537282 0.0003333 0.620

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7.6 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐐𝐚𝐜𝐭 𝐕𝐬 𝐐𝐓𝐇 For RECTANGULAR NOTCH

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7.7 Comments:

After the completion of this job we are able to calculate co-efficient of discharge of
Rectangular notch.

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8 EXPERIMENT NO 8

TO DETERMINED THE CO-EFFICENT OF DISCHARGE OF


TRIANGULAR NOTCH
8.1 Objective

To determine the co-efficient of discharge of triangular notch

8.2 Apparatus

 Hydraulic bench
 Triangular notch
 Stopwatch

8.3 Related Theory:

8.3.1 Notch:
It is a metallic plate having a general shape cut. It is a standard device used to measure
discharge in open channels. Discharge is measured by determining the height H relative
to crest.

TYPES OF NOTCH:
There are 4 types that are generally used

 Rectangular notch
 Triangular notch
 Trapezoidal notch
 Stepped notch

Fig 8. 1 Rectangular notch Fig 8. 2 Triangular Notch

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Fig 8. 3 Trapozodal Notch Fig 8. 4 Stepped Notch

8.4 Triangular Notch:

Fig 8. 5 V-Notch

Discharge through triangular notch can be calculated using the following formula.

8.5 Discharge through a triangular notch:

Consider

θ is control angle (vertex).

H = Head of liquid causing flow above the crest of notch.


𝐵
Ø 2
𝑇𝑎𝑛 =
2 (𝐻 − ℎ)

Ø 𝐵
(𝐻 − ℎ)𝑇𝑎𝑛 =
2 2

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Area =B.dh

Vth=√2𝑔ℎ

dQth=B.dh√2𝑔ℎ

𝐻 ℎ
Ø
∫ 𝑑𝑄𝑡ℎ = [∫ 2(𝐻 − ℎ)𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔ℎ. 𝑑ℎ]
0 𝑜 2

𝐻
Ø
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔 ∫ (𝐻 − ℎ) √ℎ. 𝑑ℎ
2 0

𝐻
Ø
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔 ∫ (𝐻√ℎ − ℎ√ℎ) . 𝑑ℎ
2 0

𝐻
Ø 1 3
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔 ∫ (𝐻ℎ2 − ℎ2 ) . 𝑑ℎ
2 0

3 5 𝑯
Ø 𝐻. ℎ2 ℎ2
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔 | 3 − 5 |
2
2 2 𝟎

3 5
Ø 𝐻. 𝐻 2 𝐻2
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔 3 − 5
2
2 2

5 5
Ø 𝐻2 𝐻2
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔{ 3 − 5 }
2
2 2

Ø 5 1 1
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔𝐻 2 ( 3 − 5 )
2
2 2

Ø 5 2 2
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔{𝐻 2 ( − )}
2 3 5

Ø 5 5 4
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 2𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔{𝐻 2 𝐻 2 ( )}
2 15

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Ø 8 5
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 𝑇𝑎𝑛 √2𝑔 𝐻2
2 15

8 Ø 5
𝑄𝑡ℎ = ( √2𝑔. 𝑇𝑎𝑛 )𝐻 2
15 2
5
𝑄𝑡ℎ = 𝐾𝑇𝑟. 𝐻 2


= 𝐾𝑇𝑟. 𝑚2.5
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑚0.5
𝐾𝑇𝑟. =
𝑠𝑒𝑐

8.6 Procedure:

 Fix the notch in the channel of hydraulic bench.


 When the flow is steady, measure the head over the crest by
using hook gauge.
 Measure the dimensions of the notch and apply the contraction
effects to find the effective width.
 Record time for collection of specified volume
 Compute Qact , Qth & Cd
Qact = vol / Time

8.7 OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS

volume Qth
Obs Head Time
Krec =Krec*h˄2.5 Qact=V/t Cd=Qact/Qth
No (m) (m³) (s)
(m³/s)
1 0.0310 0.003 40.7 1.1778 0.0001993 0.000074 0.3699
2 0.0280 0.003 59.0 1.1778 0.0001284 0.000051 0.3961
3 0.0235 0.003 75.0 1.1778 0.0000997 0.000040 0.4011

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8.7.1 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐐𝐚𝐜𝐭 𝐕𝐬 𝐐𝐓𝐇 For TRIANGULAR NOTCH

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8.8 Comments:

After the completion of this job we are able to calculate co-efficient of discharge of
triangular notch.

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9 EXPERIMENT # 9

TO VERIFYTHE“IMPULSEMOMENTUMPRINCIPLE”FOR A
JET OF WATERSTRIKING ON 45O, 90°&120O DEFLECTORS
AND TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF VELOCITY OF
FLOW ON IMPULSE FORCE OF THE JET FOR VARIOUS
DEFLECTORS.
9.1 Objective:

To verifythe“Impulse Momentum Principle”for a jet of water striking on different types of


deflectors and to investigate the effect of velocity of flow on impulse force of the jet for
various deflectors.

9.2 Apparatus:

 Impact of Jet apparatus with deflectors(45o,90o,120o)


 Hydraulic Bench
 Stop Watch

9.3 Related Theory:

9.3.1 Impulse Momentum Principle


According to impulse momentum principle, the algebraic sum of all the external
forces acting on the control volume of the fluid is equal to the rate of change of
momentum.
𝜟𝑷
∑F= 𝜟𝒕

According to the Newton’s second law of motion:

∑ 𝑭 = ma

‫𝑡𝑑𝑣𝑑 = 𝑎 ؞‬
𝐦𝐝𝐯
∑𝑭 = 𝐝𝐭

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‫𝑚𝑡𝑑 = 𝑀 ؞‬
∑ F =Mdv

‫ ؞‬ρ=𝒎𝒗
m=ρ.v

m/t=ρv/t

M=ρ.Q

∑ F =ρ.Q*dv

∑ F= ρQdv

 ∑ 𝐹 =Algebraic sum of all forces


 m= mass of object
 a= acceleration or rate of change of velocity
 ρ = Density of fluid
 dv =change in velocity
 M= Mass of flow rate
 Q = Discharge of fluid

9.3.2 In the case of Deflector of 45o


The equation becomes

∑ F= ρQdv

- F= ρQ(V2-V1)

- F= ρQ(VCos45°-VCos0°)

- F= ρQ(0.707V-V)

- F= -ρQV(0.29)

𝑭 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟗𝝆𝑸𝑽

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9.3.3 In the case of Deflector of 90o


The equation becomes

∑ F= ρQdv

- F= ρQ(V2-V1)

- F= ρQ(VCos90°-VCos0°)

- F= ρQ(0-V)

- F= -ρQV

𝑭 = 𝝆𝑸𝑽

9.3.4 In the case of Deflector of 120o


The equation becomes

∑ F= ρQdv

- F= ρQ(V2-V1)

- F= ρQ(VCos120°-VCos0°)

- F= ρQ(-0.5V-V)

- F= -ρQV(1.5)

𝐅 = 𝟏. 𝟓 𝛒𝐐𝐕

F= KρQV

K=Constant Depend upon angle

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9.3.5 Impact of Jet Apparatus


Impact of jet apparatus is a very simple apparatus. The photograph of the apparatus with
hydraulic bench is shown in figure.

9.3.6 Parts of Jet Apparatus


 Nozzle
 Valve
 Glass Chamber
 Flat and Curve Plates(Deflectors)
 Weights
 Hydraulic Bench

Fig 9. 1 Impact of Jet Apparatus with


Hydraulic Bench

Impact of jet apparatus directly measures the impulse force of the jet by an equivalent
weight placed in the pan. The direction of axis of the jet is vertical. When a jet of steady
flowing water strikes a solid surface, the water is deflected to flow along the surface.
Unlike the impact of solid bodies there is no rebound and unless the flow is highly
turbulent there will be no splashing. In this experiment, the fluid is assumed as in viscid
fluid hence friction is neglected. Secondly it is assumed that there is no loss because of
shocks.

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9.4 Procedure:

 Level the apparatus


 At zero loads and zero flow rates, adjust the position of the
pointer.
 Switch on the pump
 Place the load of 100g and gradually open the valve till collar
reaches its original position. Note down the time t to collect the
known volume of water.
 Repeat step 3 for 100 g load increments till the valve is
completely opened.
 Switch off the motor of the pump.

9.5 Equations and Calculations:

Consider an equation of straight line where m is a slope and C is the intercept.

Y=mx+c

From graph of log(Fexp) verses Log V,slope of the line is m:

Log(Fexp)=mLog(V)+C Let C=Log(K)

Then the equation becomes:

Log(Fexp)=mLog(V)+Log(K) Log(Fexp)=Log(Vm)K

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9.6 Observations and Calculations:

d = 5 mm

𝜋𝑑2
Area=𝐴 = 4

𝜋.0052
A= = 1.963𝑥10−5 m²
4

Table 9. 1 Deflector for 45,90,120 Degree

For Deflector at 45 °
Obs Mass F (ex)=mg Volume Time (t) F =kρQV
Q=V/t V=Q/A
no (kg) (N) (m³) (s) (N)
1 0.20 1.962 0.003 8.3 0.000361 18.4059 1.929
2 0.30 2.943 0.003 7.3 0.000411 20.92725 2.494
3 0.35 3.434 0.003 7 0.000429 21.82413 2.712

For Deflector at 90 °
Obs Mass F (ex)=mg Volume Time (t) F=kρQV
Q=V/t V=Q/A
no (kg) (N)) (m³) (s) (N)
1 0.20 1.962 0.003 9.11 0.000329 16.76937 5.522
2 0.30 2.943 0.003 8.71 0.000344 17.53949 6.041
3 0.35 3.434 0.003 7.65 0.000392 19.96980 7.831

For Deflector at 120 °


Obs Mass F (ex)=mg Volume Time (t) F=kρQV
Q=V/t V=Q/A
no (kg) (N) (m³) (s) (N)
1 0.20 1.962 0.003 11.5 0.000261 13.28426 5.198
2 0.30 2.943 0.003 9.7 0.000309 15.74937 7.306
3 0.35 3.434 0.003 9.1 0.000330 16.78780 8.302

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9.6.1 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐅𝐞𝐱𝐩𝐞 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐓𝐡𝐞 For 45 degree Deflector

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9.6.2 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐓𝐡𝐞 For 45 degree Deflector

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9.6.3 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐞𝐱𝐩 For 45 degree Deflector

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9.6.4 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐅𝐞𝐱𝐩𝐞 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐓𝐡𝐞 For 90 degree Deflector

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9.6.5 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐓𝐡𝐞 For 90 degree Deflector

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9.6.6 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐞𝐱𝐩 For 90 degree Deflector

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9.6.7 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐅𝐞𝐱𝐩𝐞 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐓𝐡𝐞 For 120 degree Deflector

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9.6.8 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐓𝐡𝐞 For 120 degree Deflector

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9.6.9 𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡 𝐕𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐕𝐬 𝐅𝐞𝐱𝐩 For 120 degree Deflector

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9.7 Comments:

After the completion of this job we observe the we observed that increase of angle force
co efficient value increase.

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10 EXPERIMENT # 10

TO DETERMINE THE HYDRAULIC CO-EFFICIENT OF THE


ORIFICE
10.1 1. Objective:

To find out the following perimeter experimentally.

 Co-efficient of velocity
 Co-efficient of discharge
 Co-efficient of contraction

10.2 Apparatus:

 Hydraulic Bench
 Orifice (dia. 5mm and 8mm)
 Stop Watch
 Measuring Scale
 Hook gauge

10.3 Related theory:

10.3.1 Orifice:
It is an opening on vertical side or at the base of vessel used to measure the discharge
through container or vessel. In common practice orifice is used in vertical sides of
container.

TYPES OF ORIFICE:
There are many types of orifice depending upon shape, size etc.

10.3.2 W.r.t shape:


 Circular Orifice:
Orifice shape is of circular type.

 Rectangular Orifice:
Orifice shape is of rectangular type

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 Square Orifice:
Orifice shape is of square type.

 Triangular Orifice:
Orifice shape is of triangular type.

10.3.3 W.r.t nature:


 Free or open or simple orifice:
In which discharge is freely open to atmosphere.

 Partially sub merged orifice:


In which half of orifice is subjected to atmosphere and other in liquid.

 Fully submerged orifice:


In which orifice discharge is fully submerged in water.

10.3.4 W.r.t edge or shape:


 Bell mouth orifice:
In which sides or opening of orifice is of conical shape.

 Sharp edge orifice:


In which edge are very sharp.

10.3.5 Jet of Water:


It is continuous stream of water flowing out of orifice.

10.3.6 Venacontracta:
It is section of jet of water at which streamlines becomes parallel. It is also known as
minimum section of water; normally it occurs at d/2 distance from the face of orifice.
Where d is the diameter of orifice. At venacontracta velocity is maximum, area is low and
diameter is minimum.

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Fig 10. 1 location of venacontracta.

10.4 Co-efficient of velocity:

It is the ratio of actual velocity of jet at vena contracta to the theoretical velocity. Its
average value is 0.97.

Mathematically, it is given as follows.

𝑉𝑎
𝐶𝑣 =
𝑉𝑡ℎ

10.5 Co-efficient Of Contraction:

It is the ratio of area of jet at venacontracta and actual area of orifice.

Mathematically, it is given as follows.

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑒𝑒𝑛𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎


𝐶𝑐 =
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑒

10.6 Co-efficient Of Discharge:

It is the ratio of actual discharge and theoretical discharge through the orifice.

Mathematically, it is given as follows.

𝑄𝑎
𝐶𝑑 =
𝑄𝑡ℎ

Vth=√2𝑔ℎ

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10.7 Experimental relation b/w Cc, Cd & Cv:

The relationship b/w Cc, Cd and Cv is given as follows.

10.8 Determination of co-efficient of velocity by experiment:

Cv may be found experimentally for an orifice by measuring horizontal and vertical


distance.

Consider a tank containing liquid and an orifice in one of its vertical side. Let

H = Head causing flow

V = Horizontal velocity

Jet of liquid has a horizontal velocity V and it is acted upon by gravity with an
acceleration “g” consider a particle p in the jet if time taken by the particle to flow from
section C−−C to point p then

Torricelli’s Theorem

𝑃1 𝑣1² 𝑃2 𝑣2²
+ + 𝑍1 = + + 𝑍2
𝛶 2𝑔 𝛶 2𝑔

𝑣22
ℎ+0= 0+
2𝑔

𝑣 = √2𝑔ℎ
1
S=vit+2 𝑎𝑡²

1
Y=o.t +2 𝑔𝑡²---------1

S=vt

X=vt

T=x/v
1 𝑋
Y=2 𝑔(𝑉 )²

1 𝑋²
Y=2 𝑔 𝑉²

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𝑔𝑥²
V²= 2𝑦

𝑔𝑥²
𝑉=√
2𝑦

4. PROCEDURE:

 Place the orifice apparatus on the hydraulic bench connect the


inlet of the apparatus to the outlet of hydraulic bench,
 Note the dimensions of the discharge measuring tank, orifice.
 Check that the zero of the scale of the inlet tank is the same level
as the centerline of the mouthpiece or orifice. If not, measure the
difference in elevation and take it as zero error
 Adjust the opening of the inlet valve till the water in the supply
tank becomes steady.
 Note down the head.
 Using the hook gauge arrangement measure the co-ordinates of
the jet in a convenient point.
 Using collecting tank and stop watch setup measure the actual
discharge.
 Repeat the experiment for different inlet valve opening and
tabulate the readings.
 Measure H, X’ and Y
 Compute X, Y, Vact, Vth, Qact, Qth, Cd, Cv and Cc
 We have to find repeat the experiment with 5mm diameter orifice

10.9 Observation and Calculation’s:

Vol X
ob Tim Hea Vth Qth Y Cd Cv Cc
. Qact Vact =Xo
s e (t) d =√2 =ao*√2 =Yo- =Qact/Q =Vact/V =Cd/C
(m³ =V/t =Q/a bs-
no (s) (m) gh gh Yobs th th v
) D/2
0.00 22.3 0.0001 0.23
1 6.848 2.14 0.000042 0.021 0.0083 3.20 3.20 1.000
3 1 3 3
0.00 15.9 0.0001 0.26
2 9.590 2.29 0.000045 0.021 0.006 4.18 4.18 1.000
3 3 9 8
0.00 12.4 0.0002 12.31 0.29
3 2.41 0.000047 0.021 0.0054 5.12 5.12 1.000
3 1 4 0 5
0.00 10.9 0.0002 13.90 0.33
4 2.56 0.000050 0.021 0.0049 5.43 5.43 1.000
3 9 7 1 4

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10.10 Comments:

After the completion of this job we are are able how to calculate relationship different
types of co efficient which is very helpful in practical life.

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11 EXPERIMENT NO 11

TO INVESTIGATE THE OPERATIONS AND


CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE DIFFERENT BASIC TYPES
OF FLOW METERS INCLUDING ACCURACY AND ENERGY
LOSSES
11.1 Objective:

To investigate the operations and characteristics of Venturimeter, orifice meter, and


variable area meter including accuracy and energy losses.

11.2 Apparatus:

 Flow Meter
 Hydraulic Bench
 Stop watch

11.3 Related Theory:

11.3.1 Flow Meter:


Flow meter is a device that indicates flow rate. Different sensors in flow meter include

 Venturimeter
 Orifice meter
 Variable area meter

Fig 11. 1 Flow Meter

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11.3.2 Venturimeter:
It is a standard tube used to measure discharge of fluid flowing in a pipe. It is named after
a scientist named Venture who first used it in 1971

Fig 11. 2 Venturimeter

11.3.3 Parts of Venturimeter:


Venturimeter has following parts:

 Convergent Cone
 Divergent
 Cone
 Throat
 Inlet
 Outlet

11.3.4 Types of Venturimeter:


It has following types.

 Horizontal Venturimeter
 Vertical Venturimeter
 Inclined Venturimeter

11.4 Principle of Venturimeter:

The working principle of venture meter is “Bernoulli’s Principle” and “Equation of


Continuity”. According to these principles, the reduction in diameter leads to increase in

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the pressure and velocity of fluid while the total energy of fluid at any point remains
constant.

 According to Equation of Continuity;

The volume flow rate or discharge remains constant along the two cross-section of pipe.

𝐴1𝑉1=𝐴2𝑉2

 According to Bernoulli’s Equation;

For a perfect fluid which is incompressible, the total head at all the section of a flowing
medium remains constant.

𝑃+12𝜌𝑉2+𝜌𝑔ℎ=𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
OR
𝑍1+𝑃1𝛾+𝑉122𝑔=𝑍2+𝑃2𝛾+𝑉222𝑔

11.4.1 Co-efficient of Discharge:



It is the ratio of actual discharge to the theoretical discharge. It is always less than 1 as
the value of theoretical discharge is always greater than actual discharge. The standard
value of Cd for Venturimeter is 0.98.

𝐶𝑑=𝑄𝑎𝑐𝑡/𝑄𝑡ℎ

 Here,
𝑄𝑡ℎ>𝑄𝑎𝑐𝑡

11.4.2 Actual Discharge:




It is the actual value of discharge obtained during experiment. It can be calculated by
using the following relation:
V
𝑄𝑎𝑐𝑡 = t

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Here,

 V = volume collected
 t = time of collection

11.4.3 Theoretical Discharge:



Theoretical value of discharge is based on the assumptions of zero losses and can be
calculated by the given formula:

𝑄𝑡ℎ=K√H

11.4.4 Constant ‘k’:




K is a constant of Venturimeter and its value depends upon dimension of Venturimeter.
A1A2√HV
𝑘= K=
√A22−a12

11.4.5 Venturimeter Flow Rate:


A1A2√2gΔh
Qv=
√A22−a12

Here,

Cd = 0.98

d1 = 0.03175m

d2 =0.015 m

Δh = h1- h2

11.4.6 Percentage Flow Rate Error:


Percentage flow rate error is the ratio of the flow rate rror to the actual value multiplied
by 100.

It is caculated as:

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𝑄𝑣 − 𝑄𝑡
% 𝑄 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = × 100
𝑄𝑡

11.4.7 Head Loss in Venturimeter:


Head loss or energy loss is due to friction of pipe in which fluid is flowing or viscosity. It
is calculated as:

ℎ𝑣 = ℎ1 − ℎ3

Here,

h1= head at the inlet of Venturimeter

h3 =head at the outlet of Venturimeter

11.5 Orifice Meter:

It is an opening on vertical side or at the base of vessel. These are used to measure the
discharge through container or vessel. In common practice orifice in vertical sides are
used.

11.5.1 Types of Orifice:


There are many types of orifice depending upon shape, size etc.

 With respect to Size:


 Small Orifice
 Large orifice
 With respect to Shape:
 Circular orifice
 Rectangular orifice
 Square orifice
 Triangular orifice
 With respect to Discharge:
 Free or open or simple orifice
 Partially submerged or Submerged orifice
 Fully submerged orifice

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 With respect to Edge or Shape:


 Bell mouth orifice
 Sharp edge orifice

11.6 Jet of Water:

It is continuous stream of water flowing out of orifice.

11.7 Venacontracta:

It is section of jet of water at which streamlines becomes parallel. At venacontracta


velocity is maximum, area is low and diameter is minimum. Normally it occurs at d/2
distance from the face of orifice.

Fig 11. 3 Venacontracta

11.8 Co-efficient of Discharge:

It is the ratio of actual discharge to the theoretical discharge. It is always less than 1 as
the value of theoretical discharge is always greater than actual discharge. The standard
value of Cd for Venturimeter is 0.98.

𝑄𝐴𝑐𝑡
𝐶𝑑 =
𝑄𝑇ℎ

Here, QTh > Q Act

Actual Discharge:

It is the actual value of discharge obtained during experiment. It can be calculated


by using the following relation.

V
QAct =
t

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Here, V = volume collected

t = time of collection

11.9 Theoretical Discharge:

Theoretical value of discharge is based on the assumptions of zero losses and can
be calculated by the given formula:

𝑄𝑇ℎ = 𝑘√ℎ

Constant ‘k’:

K is a constant of Venturimeter and its value depends upon dimension of


Venturimeter.

A1 A2 √2g
𝒌=
√A22 − √A12

11.10 Orifice meter Flow Rate:

𝐶𝑑 𝐴1 𝐴2 √2𝑔∆ℎ
𝑄𝑜 =
√𝐴12 − √𝐴22

Here

Cd = 0.63

d1 = 0.03175m

d2 =0.02 m

∆h = h6- h7

11.11 Percentage Flow Rate Error:

Percentage flow rate error is the ratio of the flow rate rror to the actual value
multiplied by 100. It is calculated as:

Qo − Qt
Percentage flow rate error = × 100
Qt

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11.12 Head Loss in Venturimeter:

Head loss or energy loss is due to friction of pipe in which fluid is flowing or
viscosity. It is calculated as:

𝒉𝒐 = 𝒉𝟔 − 𝒉𝟖

Here,

h6 = head at the inlet of orifice meter

h8 = head at the outlet of orifice meter

11.13 Variable Area Flow Meter:

The variable area flow meter is a reversible differential pressure meter used to
accuraately measure the flow rate of liquids and gases.

Fig 11. 4 Variable Area Flow Meter

11.13.1 Parts of Variable Flow Meter:


It comprises of:

 A tapered glass tube


 A weight float (whose diameter is same as base of glass tube)

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Fig 11. 5 Parts of Variable Area Flow Meter



Types of Variable Area Flow Meter:


Variable area flow meter are of two types;

 Rotameter
Piston type meter

Working Principle of Variable Area Flow Meter:
It measures flow rate by allowing the cross-sectional area the fluid travels through to
vary, causing a measurable effect. At high flow rate, the float rises to increase the area
between the float and a maintains a constant ∆P.

The flow rate is determined from how far the float has risen up the tube which is

measured by graduations on the side of tube.



Variable Area Meter Flow Rate:
This flow meter directly gives the flow rate in lit/min which is represented by. Variable

area flow meter gives maximum value of flow rate because of minimum losses.


Percentage Flow Rate Error:

Percentage flow rate error is the ratio of the flow rate error to the actual value multiplied
by 100.

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Qα − Qt
Percentage flow rate error = × 100
Qt



Head Loss in Variable Area Flow Meter:
Head loss or energy loss is due to friction or viscosity during fluid flow. It is calculated
as:

hα = h4 − h5

Here,

h4 = head at the inlet of variable area flow meter

h5 = head at the outlet of variable area flow meter

11.14 Timed Flow Rate:

volume collected
Qt =
time of collection

11.15 Observations and Calculations:

11.15.1 For Pizometer head

Sr H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8
no (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
1 0.332 0.138 0.262 0.245 0.185 0.184 0.050 0.090
2 0.200 0.184 0.172 0.169 0.152 0.148 0.135 0.115
3 0.300 0.157 0.245 0.230 0.180 0.166 0.072 0.110

11.15.2 For TIME FLOW RATE


Time Flow Rate Qt
Sr. no Volume (m3) Time (sec)
(m3/sec)
1 0.003 9.03 0.000332
2 0.003 34.36 0.0000873
3 0.003 12.22 0.000245

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11.15.3 For Variable Area Meter:


Variable area flow Variable area flow
Sr. no
rate ( Qa) rate (Qa)
1 20 0.000333
2 6 0.0001
3 17 0.000283

11.15.4 For Venturimeter:


d1 A1 d2 A2 Cd Δ𝒉=𝒉𝟏−𝒉𝟐 Qv
Sr no
m m² m m² m m³/s
1 0.03175 0.00007918 0.015 0.00001767 0.98 0.194 0.00034500
2 0.03175 0.00007918 0.015 0.00001767 0.98 0.016 0.00009950
3 0.03175 0.00007918 0.015 0.00001767 0.98 0.143 0.00029300

11.15.5 For Orificemeter:


d1 A1 d2 A2 Cd Δ𝒉=𝒉𝟏−𝒉𝟐 Qv
Sr no
m m² m m² m m³/s
1 0.03175 0.00007918 0.015 0.00001767 0.98 0.194 0.00034500
2 0.03175 0.00007918 0.015 0.00001767 0.98 0.016 0.00009950
3 0.03175 0.00007918 0.015 0.00001767 0.98 0.143 0.00029300

11.15.6 For Percentage Flow Rate Error :


Variable area %age Variable area %age Variable area %age
flow rate error flow rate error flow rate error
Sr no (%=(Qa-Qt)/Qt*100 (%=(Qv-Qt)/Qt*100 (%=(Qo-Qt)/Qt*100
% % %
1 0.3 3.92 5.12
2 14.53 13.94 19.82
3 15.5 19.6 20.82

11.15.7

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11.15.8 For head loss


Variable area head loss Variable area head loss Variable area head loss
Sr no ha=h4-h5 hv=h1-h3 ho=h6-h8
m m m
1 0.06 0.07 0.094
2 0.017 0.028 0.033
3 0.05 0.055 0.066

11.16 Comments:

After the completion of this experiment we are able to investigate the Operations and
Characteristics of Three Different Basic Types of Flow Meters Including Accuracy and
Energy Losses. This is very helpful in practical life.

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