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European Aviation Safety Agency

Certification Specifications
for
Large Aeroplanes
CS-25

Amendment 1
12 December 2005
CS-25

CONTENTS (general layout)

CS–25

LARGE AEROPLANES

[PREAMBLE]

BOOK 1 – AIRWORTHINESS CODE


SUBPART A – GENERAL
SUBPART B – FLIGHT
SUBPART C – STRUCTURE
SUBPART D – DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
SUBPART E – POWERPLANT
SUBPART F – EQUIPMENT
SUBPART G – OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
SUBPART J – [AUXILIARY POWER UNIT INSTALLATION]
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX F
APPENDIX H – INSTRUCTIONS FOR CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS
APPENDIX I – AUTOMATIC TAKEOFF THRUST CONTROL SYSTEM (ATTCS)
APPENDIX J – EMERGENCY DEMONSTRATION
APPENDIX K – [INTERACTION OF SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURE]
[APPENDIX L]

BOOK 2 – ACCEPTABLE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE (AMC)


INTRODUCTION
AMC – SUBPART B
AMC – SUBPART C
AMC – SUBPART D
AMC – SUBPART E
AMC – SUBPART F
AMC – SUBPART G
AMC – SUBPART J
AMC – APPENDICES
GENERAL AMCs

[Amdt. No.:25/1]

C-1
CS-25

PREAMBLE

CS-25 Amendment 1

The following is a list of paragraphs affected by this amendment.

Contents
• The title of Subpart J is amended (NPA 10/2004)
• The title of Appendix K is amended (NPA 11/2004)
• A new reference to Appendix L is added (NPA 11/2004)

Book 1
Subpart B
• CS 25.251 (a) and (b) Amended (NPA 11/2004)
Subpart C
• CS 25.301(b) Amended (NPA 02/005)
• CS 25.302 Created (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.305 Amended by adding sub-paragraphs (e) and (f) ((NPA
11/2004))
• CS 25.307 Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.341 Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.343(b)(1)(ii) Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.345(c)(2) Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.371 Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.373 (a) Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.391 Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.427 Amended by adding sub-paragraph (d) (NPA 11/2004)
Subpart D
• CS 25.613 Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.621 Replaced (NPA 08/2004)
• CS 25.629 Amended (NPA 11/2004)
Subpart E
• CS 25.901(c) Amended (NPA 13/2004)
• CS 25.933 (a)(1) Amended (NPA 13/2004)
• CS 25.981 Replaced (NPA 10/2004)
• CS 25.1141 (f) Amended (NPA 13/2004)
• CS 25.1189 Amended (NPA 13/2004)
Subpart F
• CS 25.1436(b)(7) Amended to refer to Appendix K (NPA 11/2004)
Subpart G
• CS 25.1517 Amended (NPA 11/2004)
• CS 25.1522 Deleted. (NPA 10/2004)
• CS 25.1583(b)(1) Amended by removing reference to CS 25.1522 (NPA
10/2004)
Subpart J
• Sub-part J Replaced entirely (NPA 10/2004)
• CS 25J1189 Amended by adding reference to AMC 25.1189 (NPA
13/2004

P-1
CS-25

Appendices
• Appendix K Replaced entirely (NPA 11/2004)
• Appendix L Old Appendix K renumbered (NPA 11/2004)

Book 2
Introduction Amended to reflect changes introduced by Amendment 1
AMC - Subpart C
• AMC 25.301(b) Amended (sub-paragraph (b) deleted) and renumbered as
AMC No 1 to CS 25.301(b) (NPA 02/2005)
• AMC No.2 to CS 25.301(b) Created (NPA 02/2005)
• AMC 25.307 Replaced (NPA 11/2004)
• AMC 25.341 Amended (NPA 11/2004)
AMC - Subpart D
• AMC 25.613 Created (NPA 11/2004)
• AMC 25.621 Created (NPA 08/2004)
• AMC 25.621(c) Created (NPA 08/2004)
• AMC 25.621(c)(1) Created (NPA 08/2004)
• AMC 25.629 Created (NPA 11/2004)
AMC - Subpart E
• AMC 25.901(c) Created (NPA 13/2004)
• AMC 25.933 (a)(1) Created (NPA 13/2004)
• AMC 25.981(a) Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25.981(c) Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25.1189 Created (NPA 13/2004)
AMC- Subpart J
• Existing AMC to subpart J Deleted entirely (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25J901(c)(2) Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25J901(c)(4) Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25J943 Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25J955(a)(2)(iii) Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25J991 Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25J1041 Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25J1093(b) Created (NPA 10/2004)
• AMC 25J1195(b) Created (NPA 10/2004)

P-2
CS–25 BOOK 1

EASA Certification Specifications


for
Large Aeroplanes

CS-25
Book 1

Airworthiness Code

1-0-1
CS–25 BOOK 1

SUBPART A – GENERAL

CS 25.1 Applicability
(a) This Airworthiness Code is applicable to
turbine powered Large Aeroplanes.

1–A–1
CS-25 BOOK 1

SUBPART B – FLIGHT

GENERAL maintained within acceptable tolerances of the


critical values during flight testing.
CS 25.20 Scope
(e) If compliance with the flight characteristics
(a) The requirements of this Subpart B apply to requirements is dependent upon a stability
aeroplanes powered with turbine engines – augmentation system or upon any other automatic or
power-operated system, compliance must be shown
(1) Without contingency thrust ratings,
with CS 25.671 and 25.672.
and
(f) In meeting the requirements of CS
(2) For which it is assumed that thrust is
25.105(d), 25.125, 25.233 and 25.237, the wind
not increased following engine failure during
velocity must be measured at a height of 10 metres
take-off except as specified in sub-paragraph (c).
above the surface, or corrected for the difference
between the height at which the wind velocity is
(b) In the absence of an appropriate
measured and the 10-metre height.
investigation of operational implications these
requirements do not necessarily cover –
CS 25.23 Load distribution limits
(1) Automatic landings.
(a) Ranges of weights and centres of gravity
(2) Approaches and landings with
within which the aeroplane may be safely operated
decision heights of less than 60 m (200 ft).
must be established. If a weight and centre of gravity
(3) Operations on unprepared runway combination is allowable only within certain load
surfaces. distribution limits (such as spanwise) that could be
inadvertently exceeded, these limits and the
(c) If the aeroplane is equipped with an engine
corresponding weight and centre of gravity
control system that automatically resets the power or
combinations must be established.
thrust on the operating engine(s) when any engine
fails during take-off, additional requirements (b) The load distribution limits may not exceed
pertaining to aeroplane performance and limitations –
and the functioning and reliability of the system, (1) The selected limits;
contained in Appendix I, must be complied with.
(2) The limits at which the structure is
proven; or
CS 25.21 Proof of compliance
(3) The limits at which compliance with
(a) Each requirement of this Subpart must be each applicable flight requirement of this Subpart
met at each appropriate combination of weight and is shown.
centre of gravity within the range of loading
conditions for which certification is requested. This
CS 25.25 Weight Limits
must be shown –
(a) Maximum weights. Maximum weights
(1) By tests upon an aeroplane of the type
corresponding to the aeroplane operating conditions
for which certification is requested, or by
(such as ramp, ground taxi, take-off, en-route and
calculations based on, and equal in accuracy to,
landing) environmental conditions (such as altitude
the results of testing; and
and temperature), and loading conditions (such as
(2) By systematic investigation of each zero fuel weight, centre of gravity position and
probable combination of weight and centre of weight distribution) must be established so that they
gravity, if compliance cannot be reasonably are not more than –
inferred from combinations investigated.
(1) The highest weight selected by the
(b) Reserved applicant for the particular conditions; or
(c) The controllability, stability, trim, and (2) The highest weight at which
stalling characteristics of the aeroplane must be compliance with each applicable structural
shown for each altitude up to the maximum expected loading and flight requirement is shown.
in operation.
(3) The highest weight at which
(d) Parameters critical for the test being compliance is shown with the noise certification
conducted, such as weight, loading (centre of gravity requirements .
and inertia), airspeed, power, and wind, must be

1-B-1
CS-25 BOOK 1

(b) Minimum weight. The minimum weight (the CS 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch
lowest weight at which compliance with each limits
applicable requirement of this CS–25 is shown) must
(a) The propeller speed and pitch must be
be established so that it is not less than –
limited to values that will ensure –
(1) The lowest weight selected by the
(1) Safe operation under normal operating
applicant;
conditions; and
(2) The design minimum weight (the
(2) Compliance with the performance
lowest weight at which compliance with each
requirements in CS 25.101 to 25.125.
structural loading condition of this CS–25 is
shown); or (b) There must be a propeller speed limiting
means at the governor. It must limit the maximum
(3) The lowest weight at which
possible governed engine speed to a value not
compliance with each applicable flight
exceeding the maximum allowable rpm.
requirement is shown.
(c) The means used to limit the low pitch
position of the propeller blades must be set so that
CS 25.27 Centre of gravity limits
the engine does not exceed 103% of the maximum
The extreme forward and the extreme aft centre of allowable engine rpm or 99% of an approved
gravity limitations must be established for each maximum overspeed, whichever is greater, with –
practicably separable operating condition. No such
(1) The propeller blades at the low pitch
limit may lie beyond –
limit and governor inoperative;
(a) The extremes selected by the applicant;
(2) The aeroplane stationary under
(b) The extremes within which the structure is standard atmospheric conditions with no wind;
proven; or and
(c) The extremes within which compliance with (3) The engines operating at the
each applicable flight requirement is shown. maximum take-off torque limit for turbopropeller
engine-powered aeroplanes.
CS 25.29 Empty weight and corres-
ponding centre of gravity
PERFORMANCE
(a) The empty weight and corresponding centre
of gravity must be determined by weighing the
CS 25.101 General
aeroplane with –
(See AMC 25.101)
(1) Fixed ballast;
(a) Unless otherwise prescribed, aeroplanes
(2) Unusable fuel determined under CS must meet the applicable performance requirements
25.959; and of this Subpart for ambient atmospheric conditions
and still air.
(3) Full operating fluids, including –
(b) The performance, as affected by engine
(i) Oil;
power or thrust, must be based on the following
(ii) Hydraulic fluid; and relative humidities:
(iii) Other fluids required for normal (1) 80%, at and below standard
operation of aeroplane systems, except temperatures; and
potable water, lavatory pre-charge water,
(2) 34%, at and above standard
and fluids intended for injection in the
temperatures plus 10ºC (50ºF).
engine.
Between these two temperatures, the relative
(b) The condition of the aeroplane at the time of
humidity must vary linearly.
determining empty weight must be one that is well
defined and can be easily repeated. (c) The performance must correspond to the
propulsive thrust available under the particular
ambient atmospheric conditions, the particular flight
CS 25.31 Removable ballast
condition, and the relative humidity specified in sub-
Removable ballast may be used in showing paragraph (b) of this paragraph. The available
compliance with the flight requirements of this propulsive thrust must correspond to engine power or
Subpart.

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CS-25 BOOK 1

thrust, not exceeding the approved power or thrust, ⎛ n zw W ⎞


less – ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ is first a maximum during the
⎝ qS ⎠
(1) Installation losses; and manoeuvre prescribed in sub-paragraph
(c) of this paragraph. In addition, when
(2) The power or equivalent thrust
the manoeuvre is limited by a device that
absorbed by the accessories and services
abruptly pushes the nose down at a
appropriate to the particular ambient atmospheric
selected angle of attack (e.g. a stick
conditions and the particular flight condition. (See
pusher), VCLMAX may not be less than the
AMCs No 1 and No 2 to CS 25.101(c).)
speed existing at the instant the device
(d) Unless otherwise prescribed, the applicant operates;
must select the take-off, en-route, approach, and
nzw =Load factor normal to the flight path at
landing configuration for the aeroplane.
VCLMAX;
(e) The aeroplane configurations may vary with
W =Aeroplane gross weight;
weight, altitude, and temperature, to the extent they
are compatible with the operating procedures S =Aerodynamic reference wing area; and
required by sub-paragraph (f) of this paragraph.
q =Dynamic pressure.
(f) Unless otherwise prescribed, in determining
(b) VCLMAX is determined with:
the accelerate-stop distances, take-off flight paths,
take-off distances, and landing distances, changes in (1) Engines idling, or, if that resultant
the aeroplane’s configuration, speed, power, and thrust causes an appreciable decrease in stall
thrust, must be made in accordance with procedures speed, not more than zero thrust at the stall speed;
established by the applicant for operation in service.
(2) Propeller pitch controls (if applicable)
(g) Procedures for the execution of balked in the take-off position;
landings and missed approaches associated with the
(3) The aeroplane in other respects (such
conditions prescribed in CS 25.119 and 25.121(d)
as flaps and landing gear) in the condition existing
must be established.
in the test or performance standard in which VSR
(h) The procedures established under sub- is being used;
paragraphs (f) and (g) of this paragraph must –
(4) The weight used when VSR is being
(1) Be able to be consistently executed in used as a factor to determine compliance with a
service by crews of average skill, required performance standard;
(2) Use methods or devices that are safe (5) The centre of gravity position that
and reliable, and results in the highest value of reference stall
speed; and
(3) Include allowance for any time delays
in the execution of the procedures, that may (6) The aeroplane trimmed for straight
reasonably be expected in service. (See AMC flight at a speed selected by the applicant, but not
25.101(h)(3).) less than 1.13 VSR and not greater than 1.3 VSR.
(i) The accelerate-stop and landing distances (c) Starting from the stabilised trim condition,
prescribed in CS 25.109 and 25.125, respectively, apply the longitudinal control to decelerate the
must be determined with all the aeroplane wheel aeroplane so that the speed reduction does not exceed
brake assemblies at the fully worn limit of their 0.5 m/s2 (one knot per second). (See AMC 25.103(b)
allowable wear range. (See AMC 25.101(i).) and (c)).
(d) In addition to the requirements of sub-
CS 25.103 Stall speed paragraph (a) of this paragraph, when a device that
abruptly pushes the nose down at a selected angle of
(a) The reference stall speed VSR is a calibrated
attack (e.g. a stick pusher) is installed, the reference
airspeed defined by the applicant. VSR may not be
stall speed, VSR, may not be less than 3,7 km/h (2 kt)
less than a 1-g stall speed. VSR is expressed as:
or 2%, whichever is greater, above the speed at
VCLMAX
VSR ≥ which the device operates.
n zw
where –
VCLMAX =Calibrated airspeed obtained when the
loadfactor-corrected lift coefficient

1-B-3
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.105 Take-off (1) 1·13 VSR for –


(a) The take-off speeds described in CS 25.107, (i) Two-engined and three-engined
the accelerate-stop distance described in CS 25.109, turbo-propeller powered aeroplanes; and
the take-off path described in CS 25.111, and the
(ii) Turbojet powered aeroplanes
take-off distance and take-off run described in CS
without provisions for obtaining a
25.113, must be determined –
significant reduction in the one-engine-
(1) At each weight, altitude, and ambient inoperative power-on stall speed;
temperature within the operational limits selected
(2) 1·08 VSR for –
by the applicant; and
(i) Turbo-propeller powered
(2) In the selected configuration for take-
aeroplanes with more than three engines;
off.
and
(b) No take-off made to determine the data
(ii) Turbojet powered aeroplanes
required by this paragraph may require exceptional
with provisions for obtaining a significant
piloting skill or alertness.
reduction in the one-engine-inoperative
(c)The take-off data must be based on: power-on stall speed: and
(1) Smooth, dry and wet, hard-surfaced (3) 1·10 times VMC established under CS
runways; and 25.149.
(2) At the option of the applicant, (c) V2, in terms of calibrated airspeed, must be
grooved or porous friction course wet, hard- selected by the applicant to provide at least the
surfaced runways. gradient of climb required by CS 25.121(b) but may
not be less than –
(d) The take-off data must include, within the
established operational limits of the aeroplane, the (1) V2MIN;
following operational correction factors:
(2) VR plus the speed increment attained
(1) Not more than 50% of nominal wind (in accordance with CS 25.111(c)(2)) before
components along the take-off path opposite to reaching a height of 11 m (35 ft) above the take-
the direction of take-off, and not less than 150% off surface; and
of nominal wind components along the take-off
(3) A speed that provides the
path in the direction of take-off.
manoeuvring capability specified in CS 25.143(g).
(2) Effective runway gradients.
(d) VMU is the calibrated airspeed at and above
which the aeroplane can safely lift off the ground,
and continue the take-off. VMU speeds must be
CS 25.107 Take-off speeds
selected by the applicant throughout the range of
(a) V1 must be established in relation to VEF as thrust-to-weight ratios to be certificated. These
follows: speeds may be established from free air data if these
data are verified by ground take-off tests. (See AMC
(1) VEF is the calibrated airspeed at which
25.107(d).)
the critical engine is assumed to fail. VEF must be
selected by the applicant, but may not be less than (e) VR, in terms of calibrated air speed, must be
VMCG determined under CS 25.149 (e). selected in accordance with the conditions of sub-
paragraphs (1) to (4) of this paragraph:
(2) V1, in terms of calibrated airspeed, is
selected by the applicant; however, V1 may not be (1) VR may not be less than –
less than VEF plus the speed gained with the
(i) V1;
critical engine inoperative during the time interval
between the instant at which the critical engine is (ii) 105% of VMC;
failed, and the instant at which the pilot
(iii) The speed (determined in
recognises and reacts to the engine failure, as
accordance with CS 25.111(c)(2)) that
indicated by the pilot’s initiation of the first
allows reaching V2 before reaching a height
action (e.g. applying brakes, reducing thrust,
of 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface;
deploying speed brakes) to stop the aeroplane
or
during accelerate-stop tests.
(iv) A speed that, if the aeroplane is
(b) V2MIN, in terms of calibrated airspeed, may
rotated at its maximum practicable rate, will
not be less than –
result in a VLOF of not less than-

1-B-4
CS-25 BOOK 1

(A) 110% of VMU in the all- CS 25.109 Accelerate-stop distance


engines-operating condition,
(a) (See AMC 25.109(a) and (b).) The
and 105% of VMU determined
accelerate-stop distance on a dry runway is the
at the thrust-to-weight ratio
greater of the following distances:
corresponding to the one-
engine-inoperative condition; (1) The sum of the distances necessary to –
or
(i) Accelerate the aeroplane from a
(B) If the VMU attitude is limited standing start with all engines operating to
by the geometry of the VEF for take-off from a dry runway;
aeroplane (i.e., tail contact
(ii) Allow the aeroplane to
with the runway), 108% of
accelerate from VEF to the highest speed
VMU in the all-engines-
reached during the rejected take-off,
operating condition and 104%
assuming the critical engine fails at VEF and
of VMU determined at the
the pilot takes the first action to reject the
thrust-to-weight ratio
take-off at the V1 for take-off from a dry
corresponding to the one-
runway; and
engine-inoperative condition.
(See AMC 25.107(e)(1)(iv).) (iii) Come to a full stop on a dry
runway from the speed reached as
(2) For any given set of conditions (such
prescribed in sub-paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this
as weight, configuration, and temperature), a
paragraph; plus
single value of VR, obtained in accordance with
this paragraph, must be used to show compliance (iv) A distance equivalent to
with both the one-engine-inoperative and the all- 2 seconds at the V1 for take-off from a dry
engines-operating take-off provisions. runway.
(3) It must be shown that the one-engine- (2) The sum of the distances necessary to –
inoperative take-off distance, using a rotation (i) Accelerate the aeroplane from a
speed of 9.3 km/h (5 knots) less than VR standing start with all engines operating to
established in accordance with sub-paragraphs the highest speed reached during the
(e)(1) and (2) of this paragraph, does not exceed rejected take-off, assuming the pilot takes
the corresponding one-engine-inoperative take-off the first action to reject the take-off at the
distance using the established VR. The take-off V1 for take-off from a dry runway; and
distances must be determined in accordance with
(ii) With all engines still operating,
CS 25.113(a)(1). (See AMC 25.107(e)(3).)
come to a full stop on a dry runway from
(4) Reasonably expected variations in the speed reached as prescribed in sub-
service from the established take-off procedures paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this paragraph; plus
for the operation of the aeroplane (such as over-
(iii) A distance equivalent to
rotation of the aeroplane and out-of-trim
2 seconds at the V1 for take-off from a dry
conditions) may not result in unsafe flight
runway.
characteristics or in marked increases in the
(b) (See AMC 25.109(a) and (b).) The
scheduled take-off distances established in
accelerate-stop distance on a wet runway is the
accordance with CS 25.113(a). (See AMC No. 1
greater of the following distances:
to CS25.107 (e) (4) and AMC No. 2 to CS25.107
(e) (4).) (1) The accelerate-stop distance on a dry
runway determined in accordance with sub-
(f) VLOF is the calibrated airspeed at which the
paragraph (a) of this paragraph; or
aeroplane first becomes airborne.
(2) The accelerate-stop distance
(g) VFTO, in terms of calibrated airspeed, must
determined in accordance with sub-paragraph (a)
be selected by the applicant to provide at least the
of this paragraph, except that the runway is wet
gradient of climb required by CS 25.121(c), but may
and the corresponding wet runway values of VEF
not less less than –
and V1 are used. In determining the wet runway
(1) 1.18 VSR; and accelerate-stop distance, the stopping force from
the wheel brakes may never exceed:
(2) A speed that provides the
manoeuvring capability specified in CS25.143(g). (i) The wheel brakes stopping force
determined in meeting the requirements of

1-B-5
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.101(i) and sub-paragraph (a) of this coefficient of friction determined in sub-


paragraph; and paragraph (c)(1) of this paragraph must be
multiplied by the efficiency value associated with
(ii) The force resulting from the wet
the type of anti-skid system installed on the
runway braking coefficient of friction
aeroplane:
determined in accordance with sub-
paragraphs (c) or (d) of this paragraph, as Type of anti-skid system Efficiency value
applicable, taking into account the On-off 0⋅30
distribution of the normal load between
Quasi-modulating 0⋅50
braked and unbraked wheels at the most
adverse centre of gravity position approved Fully modulating 0⋅80
for take-off.
(d) At the option of the applicant, a higher wet
(c) The wet runway braking coefficient of runway braking coefficient of friction may be used
friction for a smooth wet runway is defined as a for runway surfaces that have been grooved or
curve of friction coefficient versus ground speed and treated with a porous friction course material. For
must be computed as follows: grooved and porous friction course runways,
(1) The maximum tyre-to-ground wet (1) 70% of the dry runway braking
runway braking coefficient of friction is defined coefficient of friction used to determine the dry
as (see Figure 1): runway accelerate-stop distance; or
where:
(2) (See AMC 25.109(d)(2).) The wet
Tyre Pressure = maximum aeroplane operating runway braking coefficient of friction defined in
tyre pressure (psi) sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph, except that a
specific anti-skid efficiency, if determined, is
µt/gMAX = maximum tyre-to-ground braking appropriate for a grooved or porous friction
coefficient course wet runway and the maximum tyre-to-
V = aeroplane true ground speed (knots); and ground wet runway braking coefficient of friction
is defined as (see Figure 2):
Linear interpolation may be used for tyre pressures
where:
other than those listed.
Tyre Pressure = maximum aeroplane operating
(2) (See AMC 25.109(c)(2) The tyre pressure (psi)
maximum tyre-to-ground wet runway braking µ t/gMAX = maximum tyre-to-ground braking
coefficient of friction must be adjusted to take coefficient
into account the efficiency of the anti-skid system V = aeroplane true ground speed (knots); and
on a wet runway. Anti-skid system operation must Linear interpolation may be used for tyre pressures
be demonstrated by flight testing on a smooth wet other than those listed.
runway and its efficiency must be determined. (e) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (f)(1)
Unless a specific anti-skid system efficiency is of this paragraph, means other than wheel brakes
determined from a quantitative analysis of the may be used to determine the accelerate-stop distance
flight testing on a smooth wet runway, the if that means –
maximum tyre-to-ground wet runway braking

Tyre Pressure (psi) Maximum Braking Coefficient (tyre-to-ground)

( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
50 V
µ t /gMAX = −0 ⋅ 0350 100 V
+ 0 ⋅ 306 100 V + 0 ⋅ 883
− 0 ⋅ 851 100

= −0 ⋅ 0437( 100 ) + 0 ⋅ 320( 100 ) − 0 ⋅ 805( 100 )


3 2
100 µ t /gMAX V V V + 0 ⋅ 804

= −0 ⋅ 0331( 100 ) + 0 ⋅ 252( 100 ) − 0 ⋅ 658( 100 )


3 2
200 µ t /gMAX V V V + 0 ⋅ 692

= −0 ⋅ 0401( 100 ) + 0 ⋅ 263( 100 ) − 0 ⋅ 611( 100 )


3 2
300 µ t /gMAX V V V + 0 ⋅ 614

Figure 1

1-B-6
CS-25 BOOK 1

Tyre Pressure Maximum Braking Coefficient (tyre-to-ground)


psi

( ) − 1⋅ 05( 100 ) + 2 ⋅ 673( 100 ) − 2 ⋅ 683( 100 ) + 0 ⋅ 403( 100 )


5 4 3 2
50 V
µ t /gMAX = 0 ⋅ 147 100 V V V V + 0 ⋅ 859

= 0 ⋅ 1106( 100 ) − 0 ⋅ 813( 100 ) + 2 ⋅ 13( 100 ) − 2 ⋅ 20( 100 ) + 0 ⋅ 317( 100 )
5 4 3 2
100 µ t /gMAX V V V V V + 0 ⋅ 807

= 0 ⋅ 0498( 100 ) − 0 ⋅ 398( 100 ) + 1⋅ 14( 100 ) − 1⋅ 285( 100 ) + 0 ⋅ 140( 100 )
5 4 3 2
200 µ t /gMAX V V V V V + 0.701

= 0 ⋅ 0314( 100 ) − 0 ⋅ 247( 100 ) + 0 ⋅ 703( 100 ) − 0 ⋅ 779( 100 ) − 0 ⋅ 00954( 100 )
5 4 3 2
300 µ t /gMAX V V V V V + 0 ⋅ 614

Figure 2

CS 25.111 Take-off path


(1) Is safe and reliable;
(See AMC 25.111)
(2) Is used so that consistent results can
(a) The take-off path extends from a standing
be expected under normal operating conditions;
start to a point in the take-off at which the aeroplane
and
is 457 m (1500 ft) above the take-off surface, or at
(3) Is such that exceptional skill is not which the transition from the take-off to the en-route
required to control the aeroplane. configuration is completed and VFTO is reached,
whichever point is higher. In addition –
(f) The effects of available reverse thrust –
(1) The take-off path must be based on
(1) Must not be included as an additional
the procedures prescribed in CS 25.101(f);
means of deceleration when determining the
accelerate-stop distance on a dry runway; and (2) The aeroplane must be accelerated on
the ground to VEF, at which point the critical
(2) May be included as an additional
engine must be made inoperative and remain
means of deceleration using recommended reverse
inoperative for the rest of the take-off; and
thrust procedures when determining the
(3) After reaching VEF, the aeroplane
accelerate-stop distance on a wet runway,
must be accelerated to V2.
provided the requirements of sub-paragraph (e) of
this paragraph are met. (See AMC 25.109(f).) (b) During the acceleration to speed V2, the
nose gear may be raised off the ground at a speed not
(g) The landing gear must remain extended
less than VR. However, landing gear retraction may
throughout the accelerate-stop distance.
not be begun until the aeroplane is airborne. (See
(h) If the accelerate-stop distance includes a AMC 25.111(b).)
stopway with surface characteristics substantially
(c) During the take-off path determination in
different from those of the runway, the take-off data
accordance with sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) of this
must include operational correction factors for the
paragraph –
accelerate-stop distance. The correction factors must
account for the particular surface characteristics of (1) The slope of the airborne part of the
the stopway and the variations in these characteristics take-off path must be positive at each point;
with seasonal weather conditions (such as
(2) The aeroplane must reach V2 before it
temperature, rain, snow and ice) within the
is 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface and
established operational limits.
must continue at a speed as close as practical to,
(i) A flight test demonstration of the maximum but not less than V2 until it is 122 m (400 ft)
brake kinetic energy accelerate-stop distance must be above the take-off surface;
conducted with not more than 10% of the allowable
(3) At each point along the take-off path,
brake wear range remaining on each of the aeroplane
starting at the point at which the aeroplane
wheel brakes.
reaches 122 m (400 ft) above the take-off surface,
the available gradient of climb may not be less
than –
(i) 1·2% for two-engined aero-
planes;

1-B-7
CS-25 BOOK 1

(ii) 1·5% for three-engined aero- (b) Take-off distance on a wet runway is the
planes; and greater of –
(iii) 1·7% for four-engined aero- (1) The take-off distance on a dry runway
planes, and determined in accordance with sub-paragraph (a)
of this paragraph; or
(4) Except for gear retraction and
automatic propeller feathering, the aeroplane (2) The horizontal distance along the
configuration may not be changed, and no change take-off path from the start of the take-off to the
in power or thrust that requires action by the pilot point at which the aeroplane is 4,6 m (15 ft) above
may be made, until the aeroplane is 122 m (400 ft) the take-off surface, achieved in a manner
above the take-off surface. consistent with the achievement of V2 before
reaching 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface,
(d) The take-off path must be determined by a
determined under CS 25.111 for a wet runway.
continuous demonstrated take-off or by synthesis
(See AMC 113(a)(2), (b)(2) and (c)(2).)
from segments. If the take-off path is determined by
the segmental method – (c) If the take-off distance does not include a
clearway, the take-off run is equal to the take-off
(1) The segments must be clearly defined
distance. If the take-off distance includes a clearway
and must relate to the distinct changes in the

configuration, power or thrust, and speed;
(1) The take-off run on a dry runway is
(2) The weight of the aeroplane, the
the greater of –
configuration, and the power or thrust must be
constant throughout each segment and must (i) The horizontal distance along
correspond to the most critical condition the take-off path from the start of the take-
prevailing in the segment; off to a point equidistant between the point
at which VLOF is reached and the point at
(3) The flight path must be based on the
which the aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above
aeroplane’s performance without ground effect;
the take-off surface, as determined under CS
and
25.111 for a dry runway; or
(4) The take-off path data must be
(ii) 115% of the horizontal distance
checked by continuous demonstrated take-offs up
along the take-off path, with all engines
to the point at which the aeroplane is out of
operating, from the start of the take-off to a
ground effect and its speed is stabilised, to ensure
point equidistant between the point at which
that the path is conservative to the continuous
VLOF is reached and the point at which the
path.
aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off
The aeroplane is considered to be out of the ground surface, determined by a procedure
effect when it reaches a height equal to its wing span. consistent with CS25.111. (See AMC
25.113(a)(2), (b)(2) and (c)(2).)
(e) Not required for CS–25.
(2) The take-off run on a wet runway is
the greater of –
CS 25.113 Take-off distance and take-
off run (i) The horizontal distance along
the take-off path from the start of the take-
(a) Take-off distance on a dry runway is the
off to the point at which the aeroplane is 4,6
greater of –
m (15 ft) above the take-off surface,
(1) The horizontal distance along the achieved in a manner consistent with the
take-off path from the start of the take-off to the achievement of V2 before reaching 11 m (35
point at which the aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above ft) above the take-off surface, determined
the take-off surface, determined under CS 25.111 under CS 25.111 for a wet runway; or
for a dry runway; or
(ii) 115% of the horizontal distance
(2) 115% of the horizontal distance along along the take-off path, with all engines
the take-off path, with all engines operating, from operating, from the start of the take-off to a
the start of the take-off to the point at which the point equidistant between the point at which
aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off VLOF is reached and the point at which the
surface, as determined by a procedure consistent aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off
with CS25.111. (See AMC 25.113(a)(2), (b)(2) surface, determined by a procedure
and (c)(2).) consistent with CS 25.111. (See AMC
25.113(a)(2).)

1-B-8
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.115 Take-off flight path CS 25.121 Climb: one-engine-


inoperative
(a) The take-off flight path must be considered
(See AMC 25.121)
to begin 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface at the
end of the take-off distance determined in accordance (a) Take-off; landing gear extended. (See AMC
with CS 25.113 (a) or (b) as appropriate for the 25.121(a).) In the critical take-off configuration
runway surface condition. existing along the flight path (between the points at
which the aeroplane reaches VLOF and at which the
(b) The net take-off flight path data must be
landing gear is fully retracted) and in the
determined so that they represent the actual take-off
configuration used in CS 25.111 but without ground
flight paths (determined in accordance with
effect, the steady gradient of climb must be positive
CS25.111 and with sub-paragraph (a) of this
for two-engined aeroplanes, and not less than 0·3%
paragraph) reduced at each point by a gradient of
for three-engined aeroplanes or 0·5% for four-
climb equal to –
engined aeroplanes, at VLOF and with –
(1) 0·8% for two-engined aeroplanes;
(1) The critical engine inoperative and the
(2) 0·9% for three-engined aeroplanes; remaining engines at the power or thrust available
and when retraction of the landing gear is begun in
accordance with CS 25.111 unless there is a more
(3) 1·0% for four-engined aeroplanes.
critical power operating condition existing later
(c) The prescribed reduction in climb gradient along the flight path but before the point at which
may be applied as an equivalent reduction in the landing gear is fully retracted (see AMC
acceleration along that part of the take-off flight path 25.121(a)(1)); and
at which the aeroplane is accelerated in level flight.
(2) The weight equal to the weight
existing when retraction of the landing gear is
CS 25.117 Climb: general begun determined under CS 25.111.
(b) Take-off; landing gear retracted. In the
Compliance with the requirements of CS 25.119 and take-off configuration existing at the point of the
25.121 must be shown at each weight, altitude, and flight path at which the landing gear is fully
ambient temperature within the operational limits retracted, and in the configuration used in CS25.111
established for the aeroplane and with the most but without ground effect, the steady gradient of
unfavourable centre of gravity for each climb may not be less than 2·4% for two-engined
configuration. aeroplanes, 2·7% for three-engined aeroplanes and
3·0% for four-engined aeroplanes, at V2 and with –
CS 25.119 Landing climb: all-engines- (1) The critical engine inoperative, the
operating remaining engines at the take-off power or thrust
available at the time the landing gear is fully
In the landing configuration, the steady gradient of
retracted, determined under CS 25.111, unless
climb may not be less than 3·2%, with –
there is a more critical power operating condition
(a) The engines at the power or thrust that is existing later along the flight path but before the
available 8 seconds after initiation of movement of point where the aeroplane reaches a height of 122
the power or thrust controls from the minimum flight m (400 ft) above the take-off surface (see AMC
idle to the go-around power or thrust setting (see 25.121(b)(1)) ; and
AMC 25.119(a)); and
(2) The weight equal to the weight
(b) A climb speed which is – existing when the aeroplane’s landing gear is fully
retracted, determined under CS 25.111.
(1) Not less than –
(c) Final take-off. In the en-route configuration
(i) 1·08 VSR for aeroplanes with
at the end of the take-off path determined in
four engines on which the application of
accordance with CS 25.111, the steady gradient of
power results in a significant reduction in
climb may not be less than 1·2% for two-engined
stall speed; or
aeroplanes, 1·5% for three-engined aeroplanes, and
(ii) 1·13 VSR for all other 1·7% for four-engined aeroplanes, at VFTO and with –
aeroplanes; (1) The critical engine inoperative and the
remaining engines at the available maximum
(2) Not less than VMCL; and
continuous power or thrust; and
(3) Not greater than VREF.

1-B-9
CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) The weight equal to the weight CS 25.125 Landing


existing at the end of the take-off path,
(a) The horizontal distance necessary to land
determined under CS 25.111.
and to come to a complete stop from a point 15 m (50
(d) Approach. In a configuration corresponding ft) above the landing surface must be determined (for
to the normal all-engines-operating procedure in standard temperatures, at each weight, altitude and
which VSR for this configuration does not exceed wind within the operational limits established by the
110% of the VSR for the related all-engines-operating applicant for the aeroplane) as follows:
landing configuration, the steady gradient of climb
(1) The aeroplane must be in the landing
may not be less than 2·1% for two-engined
configuration.
aeroplanes, 2·4% for three-engined aeroplanes and
2·7% for four-engined aeroplanes, with – (2) A stabilised approach, with a
calibrated airspeed of VREF, must be maintained
(1) The critical engine inoperative, the
down to the 15 m (50 ft) height. VREF may not be
remaining engines at the go-around power or
less than –
thrust setting;
(i) 1.23 VSR0;
(2) The maximum landing weight;
(ii) VMCL established under
(3) A climb speed established in
CS25.149(f); and
connection with normal landing procedures, but
not more than 1·4 VSR; and (iii) A speed that provides the
manoeuvring capability specified in
(4) Landing gear retracted.
CS25.143(g).
(3) Changes in configuration, power or
CS 25.123 En-route flight paths
thrust, and speed, must be made in accordance
(See AMC 25.123)
with the established procedures for service
(a) For the en-route configuration, the flight operation. (See AMC 25.125(a)(3).)
paths prescribed in sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of this
(4) The landing must be made without
paragraph must be determined at each weight,
excessive vertical acceleration, tendency to
altitude, and ambient temperature, within the
bounce, nose over or ground loop.
operating limits established for the aeroplane. The
variation of weight along the flight path, accounting (5) The landings may not require
for the progressive consumption of fuel and oil by exceptional piloting skill or alertness.
the operating engines, may be included in the
(b) The landing distance must be determined on
computation. The flight paths must be determined at
a level, smooth, dry, hard-surfaced runway. (See
any selected speed, with –
AMC 25.125(b).) In addition –
(1) The most unfavourable centre of
(1) The pressures on the wheel braking
gravity;
systems may not exceed those specified by the
(2) The critical engines inoperative; brake manufacturer;
(3) The remaining engines at the available (2) The brakes may not be used so as to
maximum continuous power or thrust; and cause excessive wear of brakes or tyres (see AMC
25.125(b)(2)); and
(4) The means for controlling the engine-
cooling air supply in the position that provides (3) Means other than wheel brakes may
adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. be used if that means –
(b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path (i) Is safe and reliable;
data must represent the actual climb performance
(ii) Is used so that consistent results
diminished by a gradient of climb of 1·1% for two-
can be expected in service; and
engined aeroplanes, 1·4% for three-engined
aeroplanes, and 1·6% for four-engined aeroplanes. (iii) Is such that exceptional skill is
(c) For three- or four-engined aeroplanes, the not required to control the aeroplane.
two-engine-inoperative net flight path data must
(c) Not required for CS–25.
represent the actual climb performance diminished by
a gradient climb of 0·3% for three-engined (d) Not required for CS–25.
aeroplanes and 0·5% for four-engined aeroplanes.
(e) The landing distance data must include
correction factors for not more than 50% of the
nominal wind components along the landing path

1-B-10
CS-25 BOOK 1

opposite to the direction of landing, and not less than Force, in newton (pounds), Pitch Roll Yaw
150% of the nominal wind components along the applied to the control wheel or
landing path in the direction of landing. rudder pedals

(f) If any device is used that depends on the For short term application for 334 222 –
operation of any engine, and if the landing distance pitch and roll control – two (75) (50)
would be noticeably increased when a landing is hands available for control
made with that engine inoperative, the landing
For short term application for 222 111 –
distance must be determined with that engine
pitch and roll control – one (50) (25)
inoperative unless the use of compensating means hand available for control
will result in a landing distance not more than that
with each engine operating. For short term application for – – 667
yaw control (150)
CONTROLLABILITY AND
For long term application 44,5 22 (5) 89
MANOEUVRABILITY
(10) (20)

CS 25.143 General (d) Approved operating procedures or


conventional operating practices must be followed
(a) (See AMC 25.143(a).) The aeroplane must when demonstrating compliance with the control
be safely controllable and manoeuvrable during – force limitations for short term application that are
(1) Take-off; prescribed in sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph.
The aeroplane must be in trim, or as near to being in
(2) Climb;
trim as practical, in the immediately preceding steady
(3) Level flight; flight condition. For the take-off condition, the
aeroplane must be trimmed according to the approved
(4) Descent; and
operating procedures.
(5) Landing.
(e) When demonstrating compliance with the
(b) (See AMC 25.143(b).) It must be possible to control force limitations for long term application
make a smooth transition from one flight condition to that are prescribed in sub-paragraph (c) of this
any other flight condition without exceptional paragraph, the aeroplane must be in trim, or as near
piloting skill, alertness, or strength, and without to being in trim as practical.
danger of exceeding the aeroplane limit-load factor (f) When manoeuvring at a constant airspeed or
under any probable operating conditions, including – Mach number (up to VFC/MFC), the stick forces and
(1) The sudden failure of the critical the gradient of the stick force versus manoeuvring
engine. (See AMC 25.143(b)(1).) load factor must lie within satisfactory limits. The
stick forces must not be so great as to make excessive
(2) For aeroplanes with three or more
demands on the pilot’s strength when manoeuvring
engines, the sudden failure of the second critical
the aeroplane (see AMC No. 1 to CS 25.143 (f)), and
engine when the aeroplane is in the en-route,
must not be so low that the aeroplane can easily be
approach, or landing configuration and is trimmed
overstressed inadvertently. Changes of gradient that
with the critical engine inoperative; and
occur with changes of load factor must not cause
(3) Configuration changes, including undue difficulty in maintaining control of the
deployment or retraction of deceleration devices. aeroplane, and local gradients must not be so low as
to result in a danger of over-controlling. (See AMC
(c) The following table prescribes, for No. 2 to CS 25.143 (f)).
conventional wheel type controls, the maximum
control forces permitted during the testing required (g) (See AMC 25.143(g)). The manoeuvring
by sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph. (See capabilities in a constant speed coordinated turn at
AMC 25.143(c)): forward centre of gravity, as specified in the
following table, must be free of stall warning or other
characteristics that might interfere with normal
manoeuvring.

1-B-11
CS-25 BOOK 1

CONFIGURATION SPEED MANOEUVRING BANK THRUST/POWER


ANGLE IN A SETTING
COORDINATED TURN

TAKE-OFF V2 30° ASYMMETRIC WAT-LIMITED (1)


(2)
TAKE-OFF V2 + xx 40° ALL ENGINES OPERATING CLIMB (3)

EN-ROUTE VFTO 40° ASYMMETRIC WAT-LIMITED (1)

LANDING VREF 40° SYMMETRIC FOR –3° FLIGHT PATH


ANGLE

(1)
A combination of weight, altitude and (2) Repeat sub-paragraph (b)(1) of this
temperature (WAT) such that the thrust or power paragraph except initially extend the wing-flaps
setting produces the minimum climb gradient and then retract them as rapidly as possible. (See
specified in CS 25.121 for the flight condition. AMC 25.145(b)(2) and AMC 25.145(b)(1), (b)(2)
(2) and (b)(3).)
Airspeed approved for all-engines-
operating initial climb.
(3) Repeat sub-paragraph (b)(2) of this
(3)
That thrust or power setting which, in paragraph except at the go-around power or thrust
the event of failure of the critical engine and without setting. (See AMC 25.145(b)(1), (b)(2) and
any crew action to adjust the thrust or power of the (b)(3).)
remaining engines, would result in the thrust or
power specified for the take-off condition at V2, or (4) With power off, wing-flaps retracted
any lesser thrust or power setting that is used for all- and the aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR1, rapidly set
engines-operating initial climb procedures. go-around power or thrust while maintaining the
same airspeed.

CS 25.145 Longitudinal control (5) Repeat sub-paragraph (b)(4) of this


paragraph except with wing-flaps extended.
(a) (See AMC 25.145(a).) It must be possible
at any point between the trim speed prescribed in CS (6) With power off, wing-flaps extended
25.103(b)(6) and stall identification (as defined in CS and the aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR1 obtain and
maintain airspeeds between VSW and either 1·6
25.201(d)), to pitch the nose downward so that the
VSR1, or VFE, whichever is the lower.
acceleration to this selected trim speed is prompt
with – (c) It must be possible, without exceptional
piloting skill, to prevent loss of altitude when
(1) The aeroplane trimmed at the trim
speed prescribed in CS 25.103(b)(6); complete retraction of the high lift devices from any
position is begun during steady, straight, level flight
(2) The landing gear extended; at 1·08 VSR1, for propeller powered aeroplanes or
(3) The wing-flaps (i) retracted and (ii) 1·13 VSR1, for turbo-jet powered aeroplanes, with –
extended; and (1) Simultaneous movement of the power
(4) Power (i) off and (ii) at maximum or thrust controls to the go-around power or thrust
continuous power on the engines. setting;

(b) With the landing gear extended, no change (2) The landing gear extended; and
in trim control, or exertion of more than 222 N (50
(3) The critical combinations of landing
pounds) control force (representative of the
weights and altitudes.
maximum short term force that can be applied readily
by one hand) may be required for the following (d) Revoked
manoeuvres:
(e) (See AMC 25.145(e).) If gated high-lift
(1) With power off, wing-flaps retracted, device control positions are provided, sub-paragraph
and the aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR1, extend the (c) of this paragraph applies to retractions of the
wing-flaps as rapidly as possible while maintaining high-lift devices from any position from the
the airspeed at approximately 30% above the maximum landing position to the first gated position,
reference stall speed existing at each instant between gated positions, and from the last gated
throughout the manoeuvre. (See AMC 25.145(b)(1), position to the fully retracted position. The
(b)(2) and (b)(3).) requirements of sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph
also apply to retractions from each approved landing

1-B-12
CS-25 BOOK 1

position to the control position(s) associated with the (1) The critical engine inoperative and its
high-lift device configuration(s) used to establish the propeller (if applicable) in the minimum drag
go-around procedure(s) from that landing position. In position;
addition, the first gated control position from the (2) The remaining engines at maximum
maximum landing position must correspond with a continuous power;
configuration of the high-lift devices used to
establish a go-around procedure from a landing (3) The most unfavourable centre of
configuration. Each gated control position must gravity;
require a separate and distinct motion of the control (4) Landing gear both retracted and
to pass through the gated position and must have extended;
features to prevent inadvertent movement of the
(5) Wing-flaps in the most favourable
control through the gated position. It must only be
climb position; and
possible to make this separate and distinct motion
once the control has reached the gated position. (6) Maximum take-off weight;
(d) Lateral control; roll capability. With the
CS 25.147 Directional and lateral critical engine inoperative, roll response must allow
control normal manoeuvres. Lateral control must be
sufficient, at the speeds likely to be used with one
(a) Directional control; general. (See AMC engine inoperative, to provide a roll rate necessary
25.147(a).) It must be possible, with the wings level, for safety without excessive control forces or travel.
to yaw into the operative engine and to safely make a (See AMC 25.147(d).)
reasonably sudden change in heading of up to 15º in
the direction of the critical inoperative engine. This (e) Lateral control; aeroplanes with four or
must be shown at 1·3 VSR1, for heading changes up to more engines. Aeroplanes with four or more engines
15º (except that the heading change at which the must be able to make 20º banked turns, with and
rudder pedal force is 667 N (150 lbf) need not be against the inoperative engines, from steady flight at
exceeded), and with – a speed equal to 1·3 VSR1, with maximum continuous
(1) The critical engine inoperative and its power, and with the aeroplane in the configuration
propeller in the minimum drag position; prescribed by sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph.

(2) The power required for level flight at (f) Lateral control; all engines operating. With
1.3 VSR1, but not more than maximum continuous the engines operating, roll response must allow
power; normal manoeuvres (such as recovery from upsets
produced by gusts and the initiation of evasive
(3) The most unfavourable centre of manoeuvres). There must be enough excess lateral
gravity; control in sideslips (up to sideslip angles that might
(4) Landing gear retracted; be required in normal operation), to allow a limited
amount of manoeuvring and to correct for gusts.
(5) Wing-flaps in the approach position; Lateral control must be enough at any speed up to
and VFC/MFC to provide a peak roll rate necessary for
(6) Maximum landing weight. safety, without excessive control forces or travel.
(See AMC 25.147(f).)
(b) Directional control; aeroplanes with four or
more engines. Aeroplanes with four or more engines
must meet the requirements of sub-paragraph (a) of CS 25.149 Minimum control speed
this paragraph except that – (See AMC 25.149)

(1) The two critical engines must be (a) In establishing the minimum control speeds
inoperative with their propellers (if applicable) in required by this paragraph, the method used to
the minimum drag position; simulate critical engine failure must represent the
most critical mode of powerplant failure with respect
(2) Reserved; and
to controllability expected in service.
(3) The wing-flaps must be in the most
(b) VMC is the calibrated airspeed, at which,
favourable climb position.
when the critical engine is suddenly made
inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the
(c) Lateral control; general. It must be possible
aeroplane with that engine still inoperative, and
to make 20º banked turns, with and against the
inoperative engine, from steady flight at a speed maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not
equal to 1·3 VSR1, with – more than 5º.

1-B-13
CS-25 BOOK 1

(c) VMC may not exceed 1·13 VSR with – (2) Maximum available take-off power or
thrust on the operating engines;
(1) Maximum available take-off power or
thrust on the engines; (3) The most unfavourable centre of
gravity;
(2) The most unfavourable centre of
gravity; The aeroplane trimmed for take-off; and
(3) The aeroplane trimmed for take-off; (5) The most unfavourable weight in the
range of take-off weights. (See AMC 25.149(e).)
(4) The maximum sea-level take-off
weight (or any lesser weight necessary to show (f) (See AMC 25.149 (f)) VMCL, the minimum
VMC); control speed during approach and landing with all
engines operating, is the calibrated airspeed at which,
(5) The aeroplane in the most critical
when the critical engine is suddenly made
take-off configuration existing along the flight
inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the
path after the aeroplane becomes airborne, except
aeroplane with that engine still inoperative, and
with the landing gear retracted;
maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not
(6) The aeroplane airborne and the more than 5º. VMCL must be established with –
ground effect negligible; and
(1) The aeroplane in the most critical
(7) If applicable, the propeller of the configuration (or, at the option of the applicant,
inoperative engine – each configuration) for approach and landing with
all engines operating;
(i) Windmilling;
(ii) In the most probable position (2) The most unfavourable centre of
for the specific design of the propeller gravity;
control; or
(3) The aeroplane trimmed for approach
(iii) Feathered, if the aeroplane has
with all engines operating;
an automatic feathering device acceptable
for showing compliance with the climb (4) The most unfavourable weight, or, at
requirements of CS 25.121. the option of the applicant, as a function of
weight;
(d) The rudder forces required to maintain
control at VMC may not exceed 667 N (150 lbf) nor (5) For propeller aeroplanes, the propeller
may it be necessary to reduce power or thrust of the of the inoperative engine in the position it
operative engines. During recovery, the aeroplane achieves without pilot action, assuming the engine
may not assume any dangerous attitude or require fails while at the power or thrust necessary to
exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or strength to maintain a 3 degree approach path angle; and
prevent a heading change of more than 20º.
(6) Go-around power or thrust setting on
(e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the the operating engine(s).
ground, is the calibrated airspeed during the take-off
(g) (See AMC 25.149(g)) For aeroplanes with
run at which, when the critical engine is suddenly
three or more engines, VMCL-2, the minimum control
made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of
speed during approach and landing with one critical
the aeroplane using the rudder control alone (without
engine inoperative, is the calibrated airspeed at
the use of nose-wheel steering), as limited by 667 N
which, when a second critical engine is suddenly
of force (150 lbf), and the lateral control to the extent
made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of
of keeping the wings level to enable the take-off to
the aeroplane with both engines still inoperative, and
be safely continued using normal piloting skill. In the
maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not
determination of VMCG, assuming that the path of the
more than 5º. VMCL-2 must be established with –
aeroplane accelerating with all engines operating is
along the centreline of the runway, its path from the (1) The aeroplane in the most critical
point at which the critical engine is made inoperative configuration (or, at the option of the applicant,
to the point at which recovery to a direction parallel each configuration) for approach and landing with
to the centreline is completed, may not deviate more one critical engine inoperative;
than 9.1 m (30 ft) laterally from the centreline at any
(2) The most unfavourable centre of
point. VMCG must be established, with –
gravity;
(1) The aeroplane in each take-off
(3) The aeroplane trimmed for approach
configuration or, at the option of the applicant, in
with one critical engine inoperative;
the most critical take-off configuration;

1-B-14
CS-25 BOOK 1

(4) The most unfavourable weight, or, at gravity within the relevant operating limitations,
the option of the applicant, as a function of during normally expected conditions of operation
weight; (including operation at any speed from 1·3 VSR1, to
(5) For propeller aeroplanes, the propeller VMO/MMO).
of the more critical engine in the position it (c) Longitudinal trim. The aeroplane must
achieves without pilot action, assuming the engine maintain longitudinal trim during –
fails while at the power or thrust necessary to
maintain a 3 degree approach path angle, and the (1) A climb with maximum continuous
propeller of the other inoperative engine power at a speed not more than 1·3 VSR1, with the
feathered; landing gear retracted, and the wing-flaps (i)
retracted and (ii) in the take-off position;
(6) The power or thrust on the operating
engine(s) necessary to maintain an approach path (2) Either a glide with power off at a
angle of 3º when one critical engine is speed not more than 1·3 VSR1, or an approach
inoperative; and within the normal range of approach speeds
appropriate to the weight and configuration with
(7) The power or thrust on the operating
engine(s) rapidly changed, immediately after the power settings corresponding to a 3º glidepath,
second critical engine is made inoperative, from whichever is the most severe, with the landing
the power or thrust prescribed in sub-paragraph gear extended, the wing-flaps retracted and
(g)(6) of this paragraph to – extended, and with the most unfavourable
combination of centre of gravity position and
(i) Minimum power or thrust; and weight approved for landing; and
(ii) Go-around power or thrust (3) Level flight at any speed from
setting. 1·3 VSR1, to VMO/MMO, with the landing gear and
(h) In demonstrations of VMCL and VMCL-2 – wing-flaps retracted, and from 1·3 VSR1 to VLE
with the landing gear extended.
(1) The rudder force may not exceed 667
N (150 lbf); (d) Longitudinal, directional, and lateral trim.
The aeroplane must maintain longitudinal,
(2) The aeroplane may not exhibit
directional, and lateral trim (and for lateral trim, the
hazardous flight characteristics or require
angle of bank may not exceed 5º) at 1·3 VSR1, during
exceptional piloting skill, alertness or strength;
the climbing flight with –
(3) Lateral control must be sufficient to
roll the aeroplane, from an initial condition of (1) The critical engine inoperative;
steady straight flight, through an angle of 20º in (2) The remaining engines at maximum
the direction necessary to initiate a turn away continuous power; and
from the inoperative engine(s), in not more than 5
seconds (see AMC 25.149(h)(3)); and (3) The landing gear and wing-flaps
retracted.
(4) For propeller aeroplanes, hazardous
flight characteristics must not be exhibited due to (e) Aeroplanes with four or more engines. Each
any propeller position achieved when the engine aeroplane with four or more engines must also
fails or during any likely subsequent movements maintain trim in rectilinear flight with the most
of the engine or propeller controls (see AMC unfavourable centre of gravity and at the climb
25.149 (h)(4)). speed, configuration, and power required by CS
25.123 (a) for the purpose of establishing the en-
route flight path with two engines inoperative.
TRIM

CS 25.161 Trim STABILITY

(a) General. Each aeroplane must meet the trim


requirements of this paragraph after being trimmed, CS 25.171 General
and without further pressure upon, or movement of, The aeroplane must be longitudinally, directionally
either the primary controls or their corresponding and laterally stable in accordance with the provisions
trim controls by the pilot or the automatic pilot. of CS 25.173 to 25.177. In addition, suitable stability
(b) Lateral and directional trim. The aeroplane and control feel (static stability) is required in any
must maintain lateral and directional trim with the condition normally encountered in service, if flight
most adverse lateral displacement of the centre of tests show it is necessary for safe operation.

1-B-15
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.173 Static longitudinal stability (b) Cruise. Static longitudinal stability must be
shown in the cruise condition as follows:
Under the conditions specified in CS 25.175, the
characteristics of the elevator control forces (1) With the landing gear retracted at high
(including friction) must be as follows: speed, the stick force curve must have a stable
slope at all speeds within a range which is the
(a) A pull must be required to obtain and
greater of 15% of the trim speed plus the resulting
maintain speeds below the specified trim speed, and a
free return speed range, or 93 km/h (50 kt) plus
push must be required to obtain and maintain speeds
the resulting free return speed range, above and
above the specified trim speed. This must be shown
below the trim speed (except that the speed range
at any speed that can be obtained except speeds
need not include speeds less than 1·3 VSR1 nor
higher than the landing gear or wing flap operating
speeds greater than VFC/MFC, nor speeds that
limit speeds or VFC/MFC, whichever is appropriate, or
require a stick force of more than 222 N (50 lbf)),
lower than the minimum speed for steady unstalled
with –
flight.
(i) The wing-flaps retracted;
(b) The airspeed must return to within 10% of
(ii) The centre of gravity in the
the original trim speed for the climb, approach and
most adverse position (see CS 25.27);
landing conditions specified in CS 25.175 (a), (c) and
(d), and must return to within 7·5% of the original (iii) The most critical weight
trim speed for the cruising condition specified in CS between the maximum take-off and
25.175 (b), when the control force is slowly released maximum landing weights;
from any speed within the range specified in sub-
(iv) The maximum cruising power
paragraph (a) of this paragraph.
selected by the applicant as an operating
(c) The average gradient of the stable slope of limitation (see CS 25.1521), except that the
the stick force versus speed curve may not be less power need not exceed that required at
than 4 N (1 pound) for each 11,2 km/h (6 kt). (See VMO/MMO; and
AMC 25.173(c).)
(v) The aeroplane trimmed for level
(d) Within the free return speed range specified flight with the power required in sub-
in sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph, it is paragraph (iv) above.
permissible for the aeroplane, without control forces,
(2) With the landing gear retracted at low
to stabilise on speeds above or below the desired trim
speed, the stick force curve must have a stable
speeds if exceptional attention on the part of the pilot
slope at all speeds within a range which is the
is not required to return to and maintain the desired
greater of 15% of the trim speed plus the resulting
trim speed and altitude.
free return speed range, or 93 km/h (50 kt) plus
the resulting free return speed range, above and
CS 25.175 Demonstration of static below the trim speed (except that the speed range
longitudinal stability need not include speeds less than 1·3 VSR1 nor
speeds greater than the minimum speed of the
Static longitudinal stability must be shown as
applicable speed range prescribed in sub-
follows:
paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph, nor speeds that
(a) Climb. The stick force curve must have a require a stick force of more than 222 N (50 lbf)),
stable slope at speeds between 85% and 115% of the with –
speed at which the aeroplane –
(i) Wing-flaps, centre of gravity
(1) Is trimmed with – position, and weight as specified in sub-
paragraph (1) of this paragraph;
(i) Wing-flaps retracted;
(ii) Power required for level flight
(ii) Landing gear retracted;
VMO + 1·3V
SR1
(iii) Maximum take-off weight; and at a speed equal to ; and
2
(iv) The maximum power or thrust
selected by the applicant as an operating (iii) The aeroplane trimmed for level
limitation for use during climb; and flight with the power required in sub-
paragraph (ii) above.
(2) Is trimmed at the speed for best rate-
of-climb except that the speed need not be less (3) With the landing gear extended, the
than 1·3 VSR1. stick force curve must have a stable slope at all
speeds within a range which is the greater of 15%

1-B-16
CS-25 BOOK 1

of the trim speed plus the resulting free return flap position and symmetric power condition, may
speed range or 93 km/h (50 kt) plus the resulting not be negative at any airspeed (except that speeds
free return speed range, above and below the trim higher than VFE need not be considered for wing-
speed (except that the speed range need not flaps extended configurations nor speeds higher than
include speeds less than 1·3 VSR1, nor speeds VLE for landing gear extended configurations) in the
greater than VLE, nor speeds that require a stick following airspeed ranges (see AMC 25.177(b)):
force of more than 222 N (50 lbf)), with – (1) From 1·13 VSR1 to VMO/MMO..
(i) Wing-flap, centre of gravity (2) From VMO/MMO to VFC/MFC, unless
position, and weight as specified in sub- the divergence is –
paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph;
(ii) The maximum cruising power (i) Gradual;
selected by the applicant as an operating (ii) Easily recognisable by the pilot;
limitation, except that the power need not and
exceed that required for level flight at VLE; (iii) Easily controllable by the pilot
and
(c) In straight, steady, sideslips over the range
(iii) The aeroplane trimmed for level of sideslip angles appropriate to the operation of the
flight with the power required in sub- aeroplane, but not less than those obtained with one-
paragraph (ii) above. half of the available rudder control input or a rudder
(c) Approach. The stick force curve must have control force of 801 N (180 lbf) , the aileron and
a stable slope at speeds between VSW, and 1·7 VSR1 rudder control movements and forces must be
with – substantially proportional to the angle of sideslip in a
stable sense; and the factor of proportionality must
(1) Wing-flaps in the approach position; lie between limits found necessary for safe operation
(2) Landing gear retracted; This requirement must be met for the configurations
and speeds specified in sub-paragraph (a) of this
(3) Maximum landing weight; and paragraph. (See AMC 25.177(c).)
(4) The aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR1, (d) For sideslip angles greater than those
with enough power to maintain level flight at this prescribed by sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph, up
speed. to the angle at which full rudder control is used or a
rudder control force of 801 N (180 lbf) is obtained,
(d) Landing. The stick force curve must have a the rudder control forces may not reverse, and
stable slope and the stick force may not exceed 356 increased rudder deflection must be needed for
N (80 lbf) at speeds between VSW, and 1·7 VSR0 with – increased angles of sideslip. Compliance with this
(1) Wing-flaps in the landing position; requirement must be shown using straight, steady
(2) Landing gear extended; sideslips, unless full lateral control input is achieved
before reaching either full rudder control input or a
(3) Maximum landing weight; rudder control force of 801 N (180 lbf) ; a straight,
(4) The aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR0 steady sideslip need not be maintained after
with – achieving full lateral control input. This requirement
must be met at all approved landing gear and wing-
(i) Power or thrust off, and flap positions for the range of operating speeds and
(ii) Power or thrust for level flight. power conditions appropriate to each landing gear
and wing-flap position with all engines operating.
(See AMC 25.177(d).)
CS 25.177 Static directional and
lateral stability CS 25.181 Dynamic stability
(See AMC 25.181)
(a) The static directional stability (as shown by
the tendency to recover from a skid with the rudder (a) Any short period oscillation, not including
free) must be positive for any landing gear and flap combined lateral-directional oscillations, occurring
position and symmetrical power condition, at speeds between 1·13 VSR and maximum allowable speed
from 1·13 VSR1, up to VFE, VLE, or VFC/MFC (as appropriate to the configuration of the aeroplane
appropriate). must be heavily damped with the primary controls –
(b) The static lateral stability (as shown by the (1) Free; and
tendency to raise the low wing in a sideslip with the
(2) In a fixed position.
aileron controls free) for any landing gear and wing-

1-B-17
CS-25 BOOK 1

(b) Any combined lateral-directional Acceptable indications of a stall, occurring either


oscillations (‘Dutch roll’) occurring between 1·13 VSR individually or in combination, are –
and maximum allowable speed appropriate to the
(1) A nose-down pitch that cannot be
configuration of the aeroplane must be positively
readily arrested;
damped with controls free, and must be controllable
with normal use of the primary controls without (2) Buffeting, of a magnitude and severity
requiring exceptional pilot skill. that is a strong and effective deterrent to further
speed reduction; or
(3) The pitch control reaches the aft stop
STALLS
and no further increase in pitch attitude occurs
when the control is held full aft for a short time
CS 25.201 Stall demonstration before recovery is initiated. (See AMC
25.201(d)(3).)
(a) Stalls must be shown in straight flight and
in 30º banked turns with –
(1) Power off; and CS 25.203 Stall characteristics
(See AMC 25.203.)
(2) The power necessary to maintain level
flight at 1·5 VSR1 (where VSR1 corresponds to the (a) It must be possible to produce and to correct
reference stall speed at maximum landing weight roll and yaw by unreversed use of aileron and rudder
with flaps in the approach position and the controls, up to the time the aeroplane is stalled. No
landing gear retracted. (See AMC 25.201(a)(2).) abnormal nose-up pitching may occur. The
longitudinal control force must be positive up to and
(b) In each condition required by sub-paragraph
throughout the stall. In addition, it must be possible
(a) of this paragraph, it must be possible to meet the
to promptly prevent stalling and to recover from a
applicable requirements of CS25.203 with –
stall by normal use of the controls.
(1) Flaps, landing gear and deceleration
devices in any likely combination of positions (b) For level wing stalls, the roll occurring
approved for operation; (See AMC 25.201(b)(1).) between the stall and the completion of the recovery
may not exceed approximately 20º.
(2) Representative weights within the
range for which certification is requested; (c) For turning flight stalls, the action of the
aeroplane after the stall may not be so violent or
(3) The most adverse centre of gravity for
extreme as to make it difficult, with normal piloting
recovery; and
skill, to effect a prompt recovery and to regain
(4) The aeroplane trimmed for straight control of the aeroplane. The maximum bank angle
flight at the speed prescribed in CS 25.103 (b)(6). that occurs during the recovery may not exceed –
(c) The following procedures must be used to (1) Approximately 60º in the original
show compliance with CS 25.203 : direction of the turn, or 30º in the opposite
direction, for deceleration rates up to 0.5 m/s2 (1
(1) Starting at a speed sufficiently above
knot per second); and
the stalling speed to ensure that a steady rate of
speed reduction can be established, apply the (2) Approximately 90º in the original
longitudinal control so that the speed reduction direction of the turn, or 60º in the opposite
does not exceed 0.5 m/s2 (one knot per second) direction, for deceleration rates in excess of 0.5
until the aeroplane is stalled. (See AMC m/s2 (1 knot per second).
25.103(c).)
(2) In addition, for turning flight stalls, CS 25.207 Stall warning
apply the longitudinal control to achieve airspeed
(a) Stall warning with sufficient margin to
deceleration rates up to 5,6 km/h (3 kt) per
prevent inadvertent stalling with the flaps and
second. (See AMC 25.201(c)(2).)
landing gear in any normal position must be clear and
(3) As soon as the aeroplane is stalled, distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight.
recover by normal recovery techniques.
(b) The warning may be furnished either
(d) The aeroplane is considered stalled when through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the
the behaviour of the aeroplane gives the pilot a clear aeroplane or by a device that will give clearly
and distinctive indication of an acceptable nature that distinguishable indications under expected conditions
the aeroplane is stalled. (See AMC 25.201 (d).) of flight. However, a visual stall warning device that
requires the attention of the crew within the cockpit

1-B-18
CS-25 BOOK 1

is not acceptable by itself. If a warning device is (2) If a tail-wheel landing gear is used, it
used, it must provide a warning in each of the must be possible, during the take-off ground run
aeroplane configurations prescribed in sub-paragraph on concrete, to maintain any attitude up to thrust
(a) of this paragraph at the speed prescribed in sub- line level, at 75% of VSR1.
paragraphs (c) and (d) of this paragraph. (See AMC
25.207(b).)
CS 25.233 Directional stability and
(c) When the speed is reduced at rates not
control
exceeding 0.5 m/s2 (one knot per second), stall
warning must begin, in each normal configuration, at (a) There may be no uncontrollable ground-
a speed, VSW, exceeding the speed at which the stall looping tendency in 90º cross winds, up to a wind
is identified in accordance with CS 25.201 (d) by not velocity of 37 km/h (20 kt) or 0·2 VSR0, whichever is
less than 9.3 km/h (five knots) or five percent CAS, greater, except that the wind velocity need not
whichever is greater. Once initiated, stall warning exceed 46 km/h (25 kt) at any speed at which the
must continue until the angle of attack is reduced to aeroplane may be expected to be operated on the
approximately that at which stall warning began. ground. This may be shown while establishing the
(See AMC 25.207(c) and (d)). 90º cross component of wind velocity required by CS
25.237.
(d) In addition to the requirement of sub-
paragraph(c) of this paragraph, when the speed is (b) Aeroplanes must be satisfactorily
reduced at rates not exceeding 0.5 m/s2 (one knot per controllable, without exceptional piloting skill or
second), in straight flight with engines idling and at alertness, in power-off landings at normal landing
the centre-of-gravity position specified in CS speed, without using brakes or engine power to
25.103(b)(5), VSW, in each normal configuration, maintain a straight path. This may be shown during
must exceed VSR by not less than 5.6 km/h (three power-off landings made in conjunction with other
knots) or three percent CAS, whichever is greater. tests.
(See AMC 25.207(c) and (d)).
(c) The aeroplane must have adequate
(e) The stall warning margin must be sufficient directional control during taxying. This may be
to allow the pilot to prevent stalling (as defined in CS shown during taxying prior to take-offs made in
25.201(d)) when recovery is initiated not less than conjunction with other tests.
one second after the onset of stall warning in slow-
down turns with at least 1.5g load factor normal to
CS 25.235 Taxying condition
the flight path and airspeed deceleration rates of at
least 1 m/s2 (2 knots per second), with the flaps and The shock absorbing mechanism may not damage the
landing gear in any normal position, with the structure of the aeroplane when the aeroplane is
aeroplane trimmed for straight flight at a speed of 1.3 taxied on the roughest ground that may reasonably be
VSR, and with the power or thrust necessary to expected in normal operation.
maintain level flight at 1.3 VSR.
(f) Stall warning must also be provided in each CS 25.237 Wind velocities
abnormal configuration of the high lift devices that is
likely to be used in flight following system failures (a) A 90º cross component of wind velocity,
(including all configurations covered by Flight demonstrated to be safe for take-off and landing,
Manual procedures). must be established for dry runways and must be at
least 37 km/h (20 kt) or 0·2 VSR0, whichever is
greater, except that it need not exceed 46 km/h (25
GROUND HANDLING CHARACTERISTICS kt).

CS 25.231 Longitudinal stability and MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS


control
(a) Aeroplanes may have no uncontrollable CS 25.251 Vibration and buffeting
tendency to nose over in any reasonably expected
operating condition or when rebound occurs during [(a) The aeroplane must be demonstrated in
landing or take-off. In addition – flight to be free from any vibration and buffeting that
would prevent continued safe flight in any likely
(1) Wheel brakes must operate smoothly operating condition.
and may not cause any undue tendency to nose
over; and (b) Each part of the aeroplane must be
demonstrated in flight to be free from excessive

1-B-19
CS-25 BOOK 1

vibration under any appropriate speed and power (iii) Buffeting that would impair the
conditions up to VDF/MDF. The maximum speeds pilot’s ability to read the instruments or
shown must be used in establishing the operating control the aeroplane for recovery.
limitations of the aeroplane in accordance with CS
(3) With the aeroplane trimmed at any
25.1505.]
speed up to VMO/MMO, there must be no reversal
(c) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (d) of of the response to control input about any axis at
this paragraph, there may be no buffeting condition, any speed up to VDF/MDF. Any tendency to pitch,
in normal flight, including configuration changes roll, or yaw must be mild and readily controllable,
during cruise, severe enough to interfere with the using normal piloting techniques. When the
control of the aeroplane, to cause excessive fatigue to aeroplane is trimmed at VMO/MMO, the slope of the
the crew, or to cause structural damage. Stall warning elevator control force versus speed curve need not
buffeting within these limits is allowable. be stable at speeds greater than VFC/MFC, but there
must be a push force at all speeds up to VDF/MDF
(d) There may be no perceptible buffeting
and there must be no sudden or excessive
condition in the cruise configuration in straight flight
reduction of elevator control force as VDF/MDF is
at any speed up to VMO/MMO, except that the stall
reached.
warning buffeting is allowable.
(4) Adequate roll capability to assure a
(e) For an aeroplane with MD greater than 0·6
prompt recovery from a lateral upset condition
or with a maximum operating altitude greater than
must be available at any speed up to VDF/MDF.
7620 m (25,000 ft), the positive manoeuvring load
(See AMC 25.253(a)(4).)
factors at which the onset of perceptible buffeting
occurs must be determined with the aeroplane in the (5) Extension of speedbrakes. With the
cruise configuration for the ranges of airspeed or aeroplane trimmed at VMO/MMO, extension of the
Mach number, weight, and altitude for which the speedbrakes over the available range of
aeroplane is to be certificated. The envelopes of load movements of the pilots control, at all speeds
factor, speed, altitude, and weight must provide a above VMO/MMO, but not so high that VDF/MDF
sufficient range of speeds and load factors for normal would be exceeded during the manoeuvre, must
operations. Probable inadvertent excursions beyond not result in:
the boundaries of the buffet onset envelopes may not
(i) An excessive positive load factor when
result in unsafe conditions. (See AMC 25.251(e).)
the pilot does not take action to
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
counteract the effects of extension;
(ii) Buffeting that would impair the pilot’s
CS 25.253 High-speed characteristics
ability to read the instruments or control
(a) Speed increase and recovery the aeroplane for recovery; or
characteristics. The following speed increase and
(iii) A nose-down pitching moment, unless
recovery characteristics must be met:
it is small. (See AMC 25.253(a)(5).)
(1) Operating conditions and character-
(6) Reserved
istics likely to cause inadvertent speed increases
(including upsets in pitch and roll) must be (b) Maximum speed for stability characteristics,
simulated with the aeroplane trimmed at any VFC/MFC. VFC/MFC is the maximum speed at which
likely cruise speed up to VMO/MMO. These the requirements of CS 25.143(f), 25.147(e),
conditions and characteristics include gust upsets, 25.175(b)(1), 25.177(a) through (c ), and 25.181
inadvertent control movements, low stick force must be met with wing-flaps and landing gear
gradient in relation to control friction, passenger retracted. It may not be less than a speed midway
movement, levelling off from climb, and descent between VMO/MMO and VDF/MDF, except that, for
from Mach to air speed limit altitudes. altitudes where Mach Number is the limiting factor,
MFC need not exceed the Mach Number at which
(2) Allowing for pilot reaction time after
effective speed warning occurs.
effective inherent or artificial speed warning
occurs, it must be shown that the aeroplane can be
recovered to a normal attitude and its speed CS 25.255 Out-of-trim characteristics
reduced to VMO/MMO, without – (See AMC 25.255)
(i) Exceptional piloting strength or (a) From an initial condition with the aeroplane
skill; trimmed at cruise speeds up to VMO/MMO, the
aeroplane must have satisfactory manoeuvring
(ii) Exceeding VD/MD, VDF/MDF, or
stability and controllability with the degree of out-of-
the structural limitations; and

1-B-20
CS-25 BOOK 1

trim in both the aeroplane nose-up and nose-down (f) In the out-of-trim condition specified in
directions, which results from the greater of – sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, it must be
possible from an overspeed condition at VDF/MDF, to
(1) A three-second movement of the
produce at least 1·5 g for recovery by applying not
longitudinal trim system at its normal rate for the
more than 556 N (125 lbf) of longitudinal control
particular flight condition with no aerodynamic
force using either the primary longitudinal control
load (or an equivalent degree of trim for
alone or the primary longitudinal control and the
aeroplanes that do not have a power-operated trim
longitudinal trim system. If the longitudinal trim is
system), except as limited by stops in the trim
used to assist in producing the required load factor, it
system, including those required by CS25.655 (b)
must be shown at VDF/MDF that the longitudinal trim
for adjustable stabilisers; or
can be actuated in the aeroplane nose-up direction
(2) The maximum mistrim that can be with the primary surface loaded to correspond to the
sustained by the autopilot while maintaining level least of the following aeroplane nose-up control
flight in the high speed cruising condition. forces:
(b) In the out-of-trim condition specified in (1) The maximum control forces expected
sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, when the normal in service as specified in CS 25.301 and 25.397.
acceleration is varied from + 1 g to the positive and
(2) The control force required to produce
negative values specified in sub-paragraph (c) of this
1·5 g.
paragraph –
(3) The control force corresponding to
(1) The stick force vs. g curve must have
buffeting or other phenomena of such intensity
a positive slope at any speed up to and including
that it is a strong deterrent to further application
VFC/MFC; and
of primary longitudinal control force.
(2) At speeds between VFC/MFC and
VDF/MDF, the direction of the primary longitudinal
control force may not reverse.
(c) Except as provided in sub-paragraphs (d)
and (e) of this paragraph compliance with the
provisions of sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph
must be demonstrated in flight over the acceleration
range –
(1) –1g to 2·5 g; or
(2) 0 g to 2·0 g, and extrapolating by an
acceptable method to – 1 g and 2·5 g.
(d) If the procedure set forth in sub-paragraph
(c)(2) of this paragraph is used to demonstrate
compliance and marginal conditions exist during
flight test with regard to reversal of primary
longitudinal control force, flight tests must be
accomplished from the normal acceleration at which
a marginal condition is found to exist to the
applicable limit specified in sub-paragraph (c)(1) of
this paragraph.
(e) During flight tests required by sub-
paragraph (a) of this paragraph the limit manoeuvring
load factors prescribed in CS25.333 (b) and 25.337,
and the manoeuvring load factors associated with
probable inadvertent excursions beyond the
boundaries of the buffet onset envelopes determined
under CS 25.251 (e), need not be exceeded. In
addition, the entry speeds for flight test
demonstrations at normal acceleration values less
than 1 g must be limited to the extent necessary to
accomplish a recovery without exceeding VDF/MDF.

1-B-21
CS–25 BOOK 1

SUBPART C – STRUCTURE

GENERAL dynamic tests simulating actual load conditions, the


3-second limit does not apply. Static tests conducted
CS 25.301 Loads
to ultimate load must include the ultimate deflections
(a) Strength requirements are specified in terms and ultimate deformation induced by the loading.
of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in When analytical methods are used to show
service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by compliance with the ultimate load strength
prescribed factors of safety). Unless otherwise requirements, it must be shown that –
provided, prescribed loads are limit loads.
(1) The effects of deformation are not
[ (b) Unless otherwise provided the specified air, significant;
ground, and water loads must be placed in
2) The deformations involved are fully
equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item
accounted for in the analysis; or
of mass in the aeroplane. These loads must be
distributed to conservatively approximate or closely (3) The methods and assumptions used
represent actual conditions. (See AMC No. 1 to CS are sufficient to cover the effects of these
25.301(b).) Methods used to determine load deformations.
intensities and distribution must be validated by
(c) Where structural flexibility is such that any
flight load measurement unless the methods used for
rate of load application likely to occur in the
determining those loading conditions are shown to be
operating conditions might produce transient stresses
reliable. (See AMC No. 2 to CS 25.301(b).)]
appreciably higher than those corresponding to static
(c) If deflections under load would significantly loads, the effects of this rate of application must be
change the distribution of external or internal loads, considered.
this redistribution must be taken into account.
[Amdt. No.:25/1] (d) Reserved

[(e) The aeroplane must be designed to


[CS 25.302 Interaction of systems and
withstand any vibration and buffeting that might
structures
occur in any likely operating condition up to VD/MD,
For aeroplanes equipped with systems that affect including stall and probable inadvertent excursions
structural performance, either directly or as a result beyond the boundaries of the buffet onset envelope.
of a failure or malfunction, the influence of these This must be shown by analysis, flight tests, or other
systems and their failure conditions must be taken tests found necessary by the Agency.
into account when showing compliance with the
requirements of Subparts C and D. Appendix K of (f) Unless shown to be extremely improbable,
CS-25 must be used to evaluate the structural the aeroplane must be designed to withstand any
performance of aeroplanes equipped with these forced structural vibration resulting from any failure,
systems.] malfunction or adverse condition in the flight control
[Amdt. No.:25/1] system. These loads must be treated in accordance
with the requirements of CS 25.302.]
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
CS 25.303 Factor of safety
Unless otherwise specified, a factor of safety of 1·5
CS 25.307 Proof of structure
must be applied to the prescribed limit load which
[(See AMC 25.307)
are considered external loads on the structure. When
loading condition is prescribed in terms of ultimate (a) Compliance with the strength and
loads, a factor of safety need not be applied unless deformation requirements of this Subpart must be
otherwise specified. shown for each critical loading condition. Structural
analysis may be used only if the structure conforms
to that for which experience has shown this method
CS 25.305 Strength and deformation
to be reliable. In other cases, substantiating tests
(a) The structure must be able to support limit must be made to load levels that are sufficient to
loads without detrimental permanent deformation. verify structural behaviour up to loads specified in
At any load up to limit loads, the deformation may CS 25.305.]
not interfere with safe operation.
(b) Reserved
(b) The structure must be able to support
(c) Reserved
ultimate loads without failure for at least 3 seconds.
However, when proof of strength is shown by

1-C-1
CS–25 BOOK 1

(d) When static or dynamic tests are used to show FLIGHT MANOEUVRE AND GUST CONDITIONS
compliance with the requirements of CS 25.305 (b) for
CS 25.331 Symmetric manoeuvring
flight structures, appropriate material correction factors
conditions
must be applied to the test results, unless the structure,
or part thereof, being tested has features such that a (a) Procedure. For the analysis of the
number of elements contribute to the total strength of manoeuvring flight conditions specified in sub-
the structure and the failure of one element results in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this paragraph, the
the redistribution of the load through alternate load following provisions apply:
paths.
(1) Where sudden displacement of a
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
control is specified, the assumed rate of control
surface displacement may not be less than the rate
that could be applied by the pilot through the
control system.
FLIGHT LOADS
(2) In determining elevator angles and
CS 25.321 General
chordwise load distribution in the manoeuvring
(a) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the conditions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of this
aerodynamic force component (acting normal to the paragraph, the effect of corresponding pitching
assumed longitudinal axis of the aeroplane) to the velocities must be taken into account. The in-trim
weight of the aeroplane. A positive load factor is and out-of-trim flight conditions specified in CS
one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward with 25.255 must be considered.
respect to the aeroplane.
(b) Manoeuvring balanced conditions.
(b) Considering compressibility effects at each Assuming the aeroplane to be in equilibrium with
speed, compliance with the flight load requirements zero pitching acceleration, the manoeuvring con-
of this Subpart must be shown – ditions A through I on the manoeuvring envelope in
CS 25.333 (b) must be investigated.
(1) At each critical altitude within the
range of altitudes selected by the applicant; (c) Manoeuvring pitching conditions. The
following conditions must be investigated:
(2) At each weight from the design
minimum weight to the design maximum weight (1) Maximum pitch control displacement
appropriate to each particular flight load at VA. The aeroplane is assumed to be flying in
condition; and steady level flight (point A1, CS 25.333 (b)) and
the cockpit pitch control is suddenly moved to
(3) For each required altitude and weight,
obtain extreme nose up pitching acceleration. In
for any practicable distribution of disposable load
defining the tail load, the response of the
within the operating limitations recorded in the
aeroplane must be taken into account. Aeroplane
Aeroplane Flight Manual.
loads which occur subsequent to the time when
(c) Enough points on and within the boundaries normal acceleration at the c.g. exceeds the
of the design envelope must be investigated to ensure positive limit manoeuvring load factor (at point
that the maximum load for each part of the aeroplane A2 in CS.333(b)), or the resulting tailplane normal
structure is obtained. load reaches its maximum, whichever occurs first,
need not be considered.
(d) The significant forces acting on the
aeroplane must be placed in equilibrium in a rational (2) Checked manoeuvre between VA and
or conservative manner. The linear inertia forces VD. Nose up checked pitching manoeuvres must
must be considered in equilibrium with the thrust and be analysed in which the positive limit load
all aerodynamic loads, while the angular (pitching) factor prescribed in CS 25.337 is achieved. As
inertia forces must be considered in equilibrium with a separate condition, nose down checked
thrust and all aerodynamic moments, including pitching manoeuvres must be analysed in which
moments due to loads on components such as tail a limit load factor of 0 is achieved. In defining
surfaces and nacelles. Critical thrust values in the the aeroplane loads the cockpit pitch control
range from zero to maximum continuous thrust must motions described in sub-paragraphs (i), (ii),
be considered. (iii) and (iv) of this paragraph must be used:
(i) The aeroplane is assumed to be
flying in steady level flight at any speed
between VA and VD and the cockpit pitch
control is moved in accordance with the
following formula:

1-C-2
CS–25 BOOK 1

δ(t) = δ1 sin(ωt) for 0 ≤ t ≤ tmax cockpit pitch control motion does not
achieve the prescribed limit load factors
where: then the following cockpit pitch control
δ1 = the maximum available motion must be used:
displacement of the cockpit pitch δ(t) = δ1 sin(ωt) for 0 ≤ t ≤ t1
control in the initial direction, as
limited by the control system δ(t) = δ1 for t1 ≤ t ≤ t2
stops, control surface stops, or by δ(t) = δ1 sin(ω[t + t1 - t2]) for t2 ≤ t ≤ tmax
pilot effort in accordance with
CS 25.397(b); where:
δ(t) = the displacement of the cockpit t1 = π/2ω
pitch control as a function of t2 = t1 + ∆t
time. In the initial direction δ(t)
is limited to δ1. In the reverse tmax = t2 + π/ω;
direction, δ(t) may be truncated ∆t = the minimum period of time
at the maximum available necessary to allow the
displacement of the cockpit pitch prescribed limit load factor to
control as limited by the control be achieved in the initial
system stops, control surface direction, but it need not
stops, or by pilot effort in exceed five seconds (see
accordance with CS 25.397(b); figure below).
tmax = 3π/2ω;
δ1
ω = the circular frequency Cockpit Control
(radians/second) of the control deflection
deflection taken equal to the δ ∆t tmax time
undamped natural frequency of
the short period rigid mode of the t1 t2
aeroplane, with active control
system effects included where
appropriate; but not less than: −δ 1

πV
ω= (iv) In cases where the cockpit pitch
2V A radians per second; control motion may be affected by inputs
from systems (for example, by a stick
where:
pusher that can operate at high load factor
V = the speed of the aeroplane at as well as at 1g) then the effects of those
entry to the manoeuvre. systems must be taken into account.
VA = the design manoeuvring (v) Aeroplane loads that occur
speed prescribed in beyond the following times need not be
CS 25.335(c) considered:
(ii) For nose-up pitching (A) For the nose-up pitching
manoeuvres the complete cockpit pitch manoeuvre, the time at which the
control displacement history may be normal acceleration at the c.g. goes
scaled down in amplitude to the extent below 0g;
just necessary to ensure that the positive
(B) For the nose-down
limit load factor prescribed in CS 25.337
pitching manoeuvre, the time at
is not exceeded. For nose-down pitching
which the normal acceleration at the
manoeuvres the complete cockpit control
c.g. goes above the positive limit
displacement history may be scaled down
load factor prescribed in CS 25.337;
in amplitude to the extent just necessary
to ensure that the normal acceleration at (C) tmax.
the c.g. does not go below 0g.
(iii) In addition, for cases where the
aeroplane response to the specified

1-C-3
CS–25 BOOK 1

CS 25.333 Flight manoeuvring


envelope
(a) General. The strength requirements must be
met at each combination of airspeed and load factor
on and within the boundaries of the representative
manoeuvring envelope (V-n diagram) of sub-
paragraph (b) of this paragraph. This envelope must
also be used in determining the aeroplane structural
operating limitations as specified in CS 25.1501.

(b) Manoeuvring envelope

CS 25.335 Design airspeeds (3) At altitudes where VD is limited by


Mach number, VC may be limited to a selected
The selected design airspeeds are equivalent
Mach number. (See CS 25.1505.)
airspeeds (EAS). Estimated values of VS0 and VS1
must be conservative. (b) Design dive speed, VD. VD must be
selected so that VC/MC is not greater than 0·8 VD/MD,
(a) Design cruising speed, VC. For VC, the
or so that the minimum speed margin between VC/MC
following apply:
and VD/MD is the greater of the following values:
(1) The minimum value of VC must be
(1) From an initial condition of stabilised
sufficiently greater than VB to provide for
flight at VC/MC, the aeroplane is upset, flown for
inadvertent speed increases likely to occur as a
20 seconds along a flight path 7·5º below the
result of severe atmospheric turbulence.
initial path, and then pulled up at a load factor of
(2) Except as provided in sub-paragraph 1·5 g (0·5 g acceleration increment). The speed
25.335(d)(2), VC may not be less than VB + 1·32 increase occurring in this manoeuvre may be
Uref (with Uref as specified in sub-paragraph calculated if reliable or conservative aerodynamic
25.341(a)(5)(i). However, VC need not exceed the data issued. Power as specified in CS 25.175
maximum speed in level flight at maximum (b)(1)(iv) is assumed until the pullup is initiated,
continuous power for the corresponding altitude. at which time power reduction and the use of pilot
controlled drag devices may be assumed;

1-C-4
CS–25 BOOK 1

(2) The minimum speed margin must be 2w


enough to provide for atmospheric variations µ =
ρ cag
(such as horizontal gusts, and penetration of jet
streams and cold fronts) and for instrument errors ρ = density of air (slugs/ft3);
and airframe production variations. These factors
may be considered on a probability basis. The c = mean geometric chord of the wing
margin at altitude where MC is limited by (feet);
compressibility effects must not be less than g = acceleration due to gravity (ft/sec2);
0.07M unless a lower margin is determined using
a rational analysis that includes the effects of any a = slope of the aeroplane normal force
automatic systems. In any case, the margin may coefficient curve, CNA per radian;
not be reduced to less than 0.05M. (See AMC (2) At altitudes where Vc is limited by
25.335(b)(2)) Mach number –
(c) Design manoeuvring speed, VA. For VA, (i) VB may be chosen to provide an
the following apply: optimum margin between low and high
(1) VA may not be less than VS1 n where speed buffet boundaries; and,
– (ii) VB need not be greater than VC.
(i) n is the limit positive (e) Design wing-flap speeds, VF. For VF, the
manoeuvring load factor at VC; and following apply:
(ii) VS1 is the stalling speed with (1) The design wing-flap speed for each
wing-flaps retracted. wing-flap position (established in accordance with
(2) VA and VS must be evaluated at the CS 25.697 (a)) must be sufficiently greater than
design weight and altitude under consideration. the operating speed recommended for the
corresponding stage of flight (including balked
(3) VA need not be more than VC or the landings) to allow for probable variations in
speed at which the positive CNmax curve intersects control of airspeed and for transition from one
the positive manoeuvre load factor line, whichever wing-flap position to another.
is less.
(2) If an automatic wing-flap positioning or
(d) Design speed for maximum gust intensity, load limiting device is used, the speeds and
VB. corresponding wing-flap positions programmed or
(1) VB may not be less than allowed by the device may be used.

1 (3) VF may not be less than –


⎡ K g U ref Vc a ⎤ 2
Vs1 ⎢1 + ⎥ (i) 1·6 VS1 with the wing-flaps in
⎢⎣ 498w ⎥⎦
take-off position at maximum take-off
where – weight;
(ii) 1·8 VS1 with the wing-flaps in
Vsl = the 1-g stalling speed based on CNAmax
with the flaps retracted at the particular weight under approach position at maximum landing
consideration; weight; and
(iii) 1·8 VS0 with the wing-flaps in
CNAmax = the maximum aeroplane normal force
coefficient; landing position at maximum landing
weight.
Vc = design cruise speed (knots equivalent
airspeed); (f) Design drag device speeds, VDD. The
selected design speed for each drag device must be
Uref = the reference gust velocity (feet per sufficiently greater than the speed recommended for
second equivalent airspeed) from CS 25.341(a)(5)(i); the operation of the device to allow for probable
w = average wing loading (pounds per variations in speed control. For drag devices
square foot) at the particular weight intended for use in high speed descents, VDD may not
under consideration. be less than VD. When an automatic drag device
positioning or load limiting means is used, the speeds
.88µ and corresponding drag device positions programmed
Kg =
5.3 + µ or allowed by the automatic means must be used for
design.

1-C-5
CS–25 BOOK 1

CS 25.337 Limit manoeuvring load H = the gust gradient which is the distance
factors (metre) parallel to the aeroplane’s flight
(See AMC 25.337) path for the gust to reach its peak
velocity.
(a) Except where limited by maximum (static)
lift coefficients, the aeroplane is assumed to be (3) A sufficient number of gust gradient
subjected to symmetrical manoeuvres resulting in the distances in the range 9 m (30 feet) to 107 m (350
limit manoeuvring load factors prescribed in this feet) must be investigated to find the critical
paragraph. Pitching velocities appropriate to the response for each load quantity.
corresponding pull-up and steady turn manoeuvres
(4) The design gust velocity must be:
must be taken into account.
(b) The positive limit manoeuvring load factor U ds = U ref Fg H ( 350
) 1
6

‘n’ for any speed up to VD may not be less than 2·1 +


where –
⎛ 24 000 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ except that ‘n’ may not be less than
⎝ W +10 000 ⎠ Uref = the reference gust velocity in equivalent
2·5 and need not be greater than 3·8 – where ‘W’ is airspeed defined in sub-paragraph (a)(5)
the design maximum take-off weight (lb). of this paragraph;
Fg = the flight profile alleviation factor
(c) The negative limit manoeuvring load factor defined in sub-paragraph (a)(6) of this
– paragraph.
(1) May not be less than –1·0 at speeds up
to VC; and (5) The following reference gust
velocities apply:
(2) Must vary linearly with speed from
the value at VC to zero at VD. [(i) At aeroplane speeds between VB
and VC: Positive and negative gusts with
(d) Manoeuvring load factors lower than those reference gust velocities of 17.07 m/s (56.0
specified in this paragraph may be used if the ft/s) EAS must be considered at sea level.
aeroplane has design features that make it impossible The reference gust velocity may be reduced
to exceed these values in flight. linearly from 17.07 m/s (56.0 ft/s) EAS at
sea level to 13.41 m/s (44.0 ft/s) EAS at
4572 m (15 000 ft). The reference gust
CS 25.341 Gust and turbulence loads velocity may be further reduced linearly
[(See AMC 25.341)] from 13.41 m/s (44.0 ft/s) EAS at 4572 m
(a) Discrete Gust Design Criteria. The (15 000 ft) to 6.36 m/s (20.86 ft/sec) EAS at
aeroplane is assumed to be subjected to symmetrical 18288 m (60 000 ft). ]
vertical and lateral gusts in level flight. Limit gust (ii) At the aeroplane design speed
loads must be determined in accordance with the VD: The reference gust velocity must be
following provisions: 0·5 times the value obtained under CS
(1) Loads on each part of the structure 25.341(a)(5)(i).
must be determined by dynamic analysis. The (6) The flight profile alleviation factor,
analysis must take into account unsteady Fg, must be increased linearly from the sea level
aerodynamic characteristics and all significant value to a value of 1.0 at the maximum operating
structural degrees of freedom including rigid body altitude defined in CS 25.1527. At sea level, the
motions. flight profile alleviation factor is determined by
(2) The shape of the gust must be taken as the following equation.
follows:
Fg = 0·5 (Fgz + Fgm)
U ds ⎡ ⎛ π s ⎞⎤
U= ⎢1 − cos⎜ ⎟⎥ for 0 ≤ s ≤ 2H where –
2 ⎣ ⎝ H ⎠⎦
U = 0 for s > 2H Zmo ; Zmo
Fgz = 1 − (Fgz = 1 − )
where – 76200 250 000
s = distance penetrated into the gust (metre
⎛ ⎞
); Fgm= R 2 Tan ⎜⎜ π R 1 ⎟⎟ ;
Uds = the design gust velocity in equivalent ⎝ 4⎠

airspeed specified in sub-paragraph (a) (4) Maximum Landing Weight


R1 = ;
of this paragraph; Maximum Take - off Weight

1-C-6
CS–25 BOOK 1

Maximum Zero Fuel Weight


R2 = ;
Maximum Take - off Weight Where:
Zmo maximum operating altitude (metres (feet)) Ω = reduced frequency, rad/ft; and
defined in CS 25.1527. L = scale of turbulence = 2,500 ft.

(3) The limit turbulence intensities, Uσ, in


(7) When a stability augmentation system
m/s (ft/s) true airspeed required for compliance
is included in the analysis, the effect of any
with this paragraph are:
significant system non-linearities should be
accounted for when deriving limit loads from (i) At aeroplane speeds between VB and
limit gust conditions. VC:
[(b) Continuous Turbulence Design Criteria. The Uσ = Uσref Fg
dynamic response of the aeroplane to vertical and Where:
lateral continuous turbulence must be taken into Uσref is the reference turbulence intensity
account. The dynamic analysis must take into that varies linearly with altitude from 27.43
account unsteady aerodynamic characteristics and all m/s (90 ft/s) (TAS) at sea level to 24.08 m/s
significant structural degrees of freedom including (79 ft/s) (TAS) at 7315 m (24000 ft) and is
rigid body motions. The limit loads must be then constant at 24.08 m/s (79 ft/s) (TAS)
determined for all critical altitudes, weights, and up to the altitude of 18288 m (60000 ft); and
Fg is the flight profile alleviation factor
weight distributions as specified in CS 25.321(b),
and all critical speeds within the ranges indicated in defined in subparagraph (a)(6) of this
subparagraph (b)(3). paragraph;

(ii) At speed VD: Uσ is equal to 1/2 the


(1) Except as provided in subparagraphs
(b)(4) and (b)(5) of this paragraph, the following values obtained under subparagraph (3)(i) of
equation must be used: this paragraph.

(iii) At speeds between VC and VD: Uσ


PL = PL-1g ± Uσ A
is equal to a value obtained by linear
interpolation.
Where:
PL = limit load;
(iv) At all speeds both positive and
PL-1g = steady 1-g load for the condition; negative incremental loads due to
A = ratio of root-mean-square incremental load continuous turbulence must be considered.
for the condition to root-mean-square turbulence
velocity; and (4) When an automatic system affecting the
Uσ = limit turbulence intensity in true airspeed, dynamic response of the aeroplane is included in
specified in subparagraph (b)(3) of this the analysis, the effects of system non-linearities
paragraph. on loads at the limit load level must be taken into
account in a realistic or conservative manner.
(2) Values of A must be determined
according to the following formula: (5) If necessary for the assessment of loads
on aeroplanes with significant non-linearities, it
∞ must be assumed that the turbulence field has a
A= ∫ H(Ω) Φ I ( Ω ) dΩ
2
root-mean-square velocity equal to 40 percent of
0 the Uσ values specified in subparagraph (3). The
Where: value of limit load is that load with the same
H(Ω) = the frequency response function, probability of exceedance in the turbulence field
determined by dynamic analysis, that relates the as A Uσ of the same load quantity in a linear
loads in the aircraft structure to the atmospheric approximated model.
turbulence; and
Φ I(Ω) = normalised power spectral density of (c) Supplementary gust conditions for wing
atmospheric turbulence given by: mounted engines. For aeroplanes equipped with
wing mounted engines, the engine mounts, pylons,
and wing supporting structure must be designed for
8 the maximum response at the nacelle centre of
1+ (1.339ΩL) 2
L 3 gravity derived from the following dynamic gust
Φ I ( Ω) = conditions applied to the aeroplane:
π [1+ (1.339ΩL) 2 ]116

1-C-7
CS–25 BOOK 1

(1) A discrete gust determined in (3) The flutter, deformation, and vibration
accordance with CS 25.341(a) at each angle requirements must also be met with zero fuel.
normal to the flight path, and separately,
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
(2) A pair of discrete gusts, one vertical and
one lateral. The length of each of these gusts CS 25.345 High lift devices
must be independently tuned to the maximum
response in accordance with CS 25.341(a). The (a) If wing-flaps are to be used during take-off,
penetration of the aeroplane in the combined gust approach, or landing, at the design flap speeds
field and the phasing of the vertical and lateral established for these stages of flight under CS
component gusts must be established to develop 25.335 (e) and with the wing-flaps in the
the maximum response to the gust pair. In the corresponding positions, the aeroplane is assumed to
absence of a more rational analysis, the following be subjected to symmetrical manoeuvres and gusts.
formula must be used for each of the maximum The resulting limit loads must correspond to the
engine loads in all six degrees of freedom: conditions determined as follows:
(1) Manoeuvring to a positive limit load
PL = PL-1g ± 0.85 √ (LVi2+LLi2) factor of 2·0; and

Where: (2) Positive and negative gusts of


PL = limit load; 7.62 m/sec (25 ft/sec) EAS acting normal to the
PL-1g = steady 1-g load for the condition; flight path in level flight. Gust loads resulting on
LV = peak incremental response load due to a each part of the structure must be determined by
vertical gust according to CS 25.341(a); and rational analysis. The analysis must take into
LL = peak incremental response load due to a account the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics
lateral gust according to CS 25.341(a).] and rigid body motions of the aircraft. (See AMC
[Amdt. No.:25/1] 25.345(a).) The shape of the gust must be as
described in CS 25.341(a)(2) except that –
Uds = 7.62 m/sec (25 ft/sec) EAS;
CS 25.343 Design fuel and oil loads
H = 12.5 c; and
(a) The disposable load combinations must c = mean geometric chord of the wing (metres
include each fuel and oil load in the range from zero (feet)).
fuel and oil to the selected maximum fuel and oil
load. A structural reserve fuel condition, not (b) The aeroplane must be designed for the
exceeding 45 minutes of fuel under operating conditions prescribed in sub-paragraph (a) of this
conditions in CS 25.1001 (f), may be selected. paragraph except that the aeroplane load factor need
not exceed 1·0, taking into account, as separate
(b) If a structural reserve fuel condition is conditions, the effects of –
selected, it must be used as the minimum fuel weight
condition for showing compliance with the flight (1) Propeller slipstream corresponding to
load requirements as prescribed in this Subpart. In maximum continuous power at the design flap
addition – speeds VF, and with take-off power at not less
than 1·4 times the stalling speed for the particular
(1) The structure must be designed for a flap position and associated maximum weight; and
condition of zero fuel and oil in the wing at limit
loads corresponding to – (2) A head-on gust of 7.62m/sec (25 fps)
velocity (EAS).
(i) A manoeuvring load factor of
+2·25; and (c) If flaps or other high lift devices are to be
used in en-route conditions, and with flaps in the
[(ii) The gust and turbulence appropriate position at speeds up to the flap design
conditions of CS 25.341, but assuming 85% speed chosen for these conditions, the aeroplane is
of the gust velocities prescribed in CS assumed to be subjected to symmetrical manoeuvres
25.341(a)(4) and 85% of the turbulence and gusts within the range determined by –
intensities prescribed in CS 25.341(b)(3).]
(1) Manoeuvring to a positive limit load
(2) Fatigue evaluation of the structure factor as prescribed in CS 25.337 (b); and
must account for any increase in operating
stresses resulting from the design condition of [(2) The vertical gust and turbulence
sub-paragraph (b) (1) of this paragraph; and conditions prescribed in CS 25.341. (See AMC
25.345(c).) ]

1-C-8
CS–25 BOOK 1

(d) The aeroplane must be designed for a CS 25.351 Yaw manoeuvre conditions
manoeuvring load factor of 1.5 g at the maximum
The aeroplane must be designed for loads resulting
take-off weight with the wing-flaps and similar high
from the yaw manoeuvre conditions specified in sub-
lift devices in the landing configurations.
paragraphs (a) through (d) of this paragraph at speeds
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
from VMC to VD. Unbalanced aerodynamic moments
about the centre of gravity must be reacted in a
CS 25.349 Rolling conditions rational or conservative manner considering the
aeroplane inertia forces. In computing the tail loads
The aeroplane must be designed for loads resulting
the yawing velocity may be assumed to be zero.
from the rolling conditions specified in sub-
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph. Unbalanced (a) With the aeroplane in unaccelerated flight at
aerodynamic moments about the centre of gravity zero yaw, it is assumed that the cockpit rudder
must be reacted in a rational or conservative manner, control is suddenly displaced to achieve the resulting
considering the principal masses furnishing the rudder deflection, as limited by:
reacting inertia forces.
(1) the control system or control surface
(a) Manoeuvring. The following conditions, stops; or
speeds, and aileron deflections (except as the
(2) a limit pilot force of 1335 N (300 lbf)
deflections may be limited by pilot effort) must be
from VMC to VA and 890 N (200 lbf) from VC/MC
considered in combination with an aeroplane load
to VD/MD, with a linear variation between VA and
factor of zero and of two-thirds of the positive
VC/MC.
manoeuvring factor used in design. In determining
the required aileron deflections, the torsional (b) With the cockpit rudder control deflected so
flexibility of the wing must be considered in as always to maintain the maximum rudder deflection
accordance with CS 25.301 (b): available within the limitations specified in sub-
paragraph (a) of this paragraph, it is assumed that the
(1) Conditions corresponding to steady
aeroplane yaws to the overswing sideslip angle.
rolling velocities must be investigated. In
addition, conditions corresponding to maximum (c) With the aeroplane yawed to the static
angular acceleration must be investigated for equilibrium sideslip angle, it is assumed that the
aeroplanes with engines or other weight cockpit rudder control is held so as to achieve the
concentrations outboard of the fuselage. For the maximum rudder deflection available within the
angular acceleration conditions, zero rolling limitations specified in sub-paragraph (a) of this
velocity may be assumed in the absence of a paragraph.
rational time history investigation of the
(d) With the aeroplane yawed to the static
manoeuvre.
equilibrium sideslip angle of sub-paragraph (c) of
(2) At VA, a sudden deflection of the this paragraph, it is assumed that the cockpit rudder
aileron to the stop is assumed. control is suddenly returned to neutral.
(3) At VC, the aileron deflection must be
that required to produce a rate of roll not less than SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS
that obtained in sub-paragraph (a) (2) of this
paragraph.
CS 25.361 Engine and APU torque
(4) At VD, the aileron deflection must be
that required to produce a rate of roll not less than (a) Each engine mount and its supporting
one-third of that in sub-paragraph (a) (2) of this structures must be designed for engine torque effects
paragraph. combined with –

(b) Unsymmetrical gusts. The aeroplane is (1) A limit engine torque corresponding
assumed to be subjected to unsymmetrical vertical to take-off power and propeller speed acting
gusts in level flight. The resulting limit loads must simultaneously with 75% of the limit loads from
be determined from either the wing maximum airload flight condition A of CS 25.333 (b);
derived directly from CS 25.341(a), or the wing (2) A limit engine torque as specified in
maximum airload derived indirectly from the vertical sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph acting
load factor calculated from CS 25.341(a). It must be simultaneously with the limit loads from flight
assumed that 100 percent of the wing airload acts on condition A of CS 25.333 (b); and
one side of the aeroplane and 80 percent of the wing
airload acts on the other side. (3) For turbo-propeller installations, in
addition to the conditions specified in sub-

1-C-9
CS–25 BOOK 1

paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this paragraph, a (c) If landings may be made with the
limit engine torque corresponding to take-off compartment pressurised, landing loads must be
power and propeller speed, multiplied by a factor combined with pressure differential loads from zero
accounting for propeller control system up to the maximum allowed during landing.
malfunction, including quick feathering, acting
(d) The aeroplane structure must be strong
simultaneously with 1 g level flight loads. In the
enough to withstand the pressure differential loads
absence of a rational analysis, a factor of 1·6 must
corresponding to the maximum relief valve setting
be used.
multiplied by a factor of 1·33, omitting other loads.
(b) For turbine engines and auxiliary power unit
(e) Any structure, component or part, inside or
installations, the limit torque load imposed by sudden
outside a pressurised compartment, the failure of
stoppage due to malfunction or structural failure
which could interfere with continued safe flight and
(such as a compressor jamming) must be considered
landing, must be designed to withstand the effects of
in the design of engine and auxiliary power unit
a sudden release of pressure through an opening in
mounts and supporting structure. In the absence of
any compartment at any operating altitude resulting
better information a sudden stoppage must be
from each of the following conditions:
assumed to occur in 3 seconds.
(1) The penetration of the compartment by
(c) The limit engine torque to be considered
a portion of an engine following an engine
under sub-paragraph (a) (2) of this paragraph is
disintegration.
obtained by multiplying the mean torque by a factor
of 1·25 for turbo-propeller installations. (2) Any opening in any pressurised
compartment up to the size Ho in square feet;
(d) When applying CS 25.361 (a) to turbo-jet
however, small compartments may be combined
engines, the limit engine torque must be equal to
with an adjacent pressurised compartment and
the maximum accelerating torque for the case
both considered as a single compartment for
considered. (See AMC 25.301 (b).)
openings that cannot reasonably be expected to be
confined to the small compartment. The size Ho
CS 25.363 Side load on engine and must be computed by the following formula:
auxiliary power unit
Ho = PAs
mounts
where,
(a) Each engine and auxiliary power unit mount
Ho = maximum opening in square feet, need
and its supporting structure must be designed for a
not exceed 20 square feet.
limit load factor in a lateral direction, for the side
As
load on the engine and auxiliary power unit mount, at P = + ⋅024
least equal to the maximum load factor obtained in 6240
the yawing conditions but not less than – As = maximum cross sectional area of the
pressurised shell normal to the longitudinal axis,
(1) 1·33; or in square feet; and
(2) One-third of the limit load factor for (3) The maximum opening caused by
flight condition A as prescribed in CS 25.333 (b). aeroplane or equipment failures not shown to be
extremely improbable. (See AMC 25.365 (e).)
(b) The side load prescribed in sub-paragraph
(a) of this paragraph may be assumed to be (f) In complying with sub-paragraph (e) of this
independent of other flight conditions. paragraph, the fail-safe features of the design may be
considered in determining the probability of failure
or penetration and probable size of openings,
CS 25.365 Pressurised compartment provided that possible improper operation of closure
loads devices and inadvertent door openings are also
For aeroplanes with one or more pressurised considered. Furthermore, the resulting differential
compartments the following apply: pressure loads must be combined in a rational and
conservative manner with 1 g level flight loads and
(a) The aeroplane structure must be strong any loads arising from emergency depressurisation
enough to withstand the flight loads combined with conditions. These loads may be considered as
pressure differential loads from zero up to the ultimate conditions; however, any deformation
maximum relief valve setting. associated with these conditions must not interfere
(b) The external pressure distribution in flight, with continued safe flight and landing. The pressure
and stress concentrations and fatigue effects must be relief provided by the intercompartment venting may
accounted for. also be considered.

1-C-10
CS–25 BOOK 1

(g) Bulkheads, floors, and partitions in in CS 25.331(c)(1) must be carried out until the
pressurised compartments for occupants must be positive limit manoeuvring load factor (point A2 in
designed to withstand conditions specified in sub- CS 25.333(b)) is reached.]
paragraph (e) of this paragraph. In addition, [Amdt. No.:25/1]
reasonable design precautions must be taken to
minimise the probability of parts becoming detached
and injuring occupants while in their seats. CS 25.373 Speed control devices
If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag
CS 25.367 Unsymmetrical loads due flaps) are installed for use in en-route conditions:
to engine failure [(a) The aeroplane must be designed for the
(a) The aeroplane must be designed for the symmetrical manoeuvres and gusts prescribed in CS
unsymmetrical loads resulting from the failure of the 25.333, CS 25.337, the yawing manoeuvres in CS
critical engine. Turbo-propeller aeroplanes must be 25.351, and the vertical and lateral gust and
designed for the following conditions in combination turbulence conditions prescribed in CS 25.341(a) and
with a single malfunction of the propeller drag (b) at each setting and the maximum speed associated
limiting system, considering the probable pilot with that setting; and]
corrective action on the flight controls:
(1) At speeds between VMC and VD, the (b) If the device has automatic operating or load
loads resulting from power failure because of fuel limiting features, the aeroplane must be designed for
flow interruption are considered to be limit loads. the manoeuvre and gust conditions prescribed in sub-
(2) At speeds between VMC and VC, the paragraph (a) of this paragraph, at the speeds and
loads resulting from the disconnection of the corresponding device positions that the mechanism
engine compressor from the turbine or from loss allows.
of the turbine blades are considered to be ultimate [Amdt. No.:25/1]
loads.
(3) The time history of the thrust decay CONTROL SURFACE AND SYSTEM LOADS
and drag build-up occurring as a result of the
prescribed engine failures must be substantiated CS 25.391 Control surface loads:
by test or other data applicable to the particular general
engine-propeller combination.
[The control surfaces must be designed for the
(4) The timing and magnitude of the limit loads resulting from the flight conditions in CS
probable pilot corrective action must be 25.331, CS 25.341(a) and (b), CS 25.349 and CS
conservatively estimated, considering the 25.351, considering the requirements for:]
characteristics of the particular engine-propeller-
aeroplane combination. (a) Loads parallel to hinge line, in
CS 25.393;
(b) Pilot corrective action may be assumed to be
initiated at the time maximum yawing velocity is (b) Pilot effort effects, in CS 25.397;
reached, but not earlier than two seconds after the (c) Trim tab effects, in CS 25.407;
engine failure. The magnitude of the corrective
action may be based on the control forces specified (d) Unsymmetrical loads, in CS 25.427; and
in CS 25.397 (b) except that lower forces may be (e) Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, in CS
assumed where it is shown by analysis or test that 25.445.
these forces can control the yaw and roll resulting [Amdt. No.:25/1]
from the prescribed engine failure conditions.

CS 25.371 Gyroscopic loads CS 25.393 Loads parallel to hinge line

[The structure supporting any engine or auxiliary (a) Control surfaces and supporting hinge
power unit must be designed for the loads, including brackets must be designed for inertia loads acting
gyroscopic loads, arising from the conditions parallel to the hinge line. (See AMC 25.393 (a).)
specified in CS 25.331, CS 25.341, CS 25.349, CS (b) In the absence of more rational data, the
25.351, CS 25.473, CS 25.479, and CS 25.481, with inertia loads may be assumed to be equal to KW,
the engine or auxiliary power unit at the maximum where –
rpm appropriate to the condition. For the purposes of
compliance with this paragraph, the pitch manoeuvre (1) K = 24 for vertical surfaces;

1-C-11
CS–25 BOOK 1

(2) K = 12 for horizontal surfaces; and


Maximum Minimum
(3) W = weight of the movable surfaces. Control forces or forces or
torques torques

CS 25.395 Control system Aileron:


Stick 445 N (100 lbf) 178 N (40 lbf)
(a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional and drag Wheel* 356 DNm (80 D 178 DNm (40 D
control systems and their supporting structures must in.lb)** in.lbf)
be designed for loads corresponding to 125% of the
computed hinge moments of the movable control Elevator:
surface in the conditions prescribed in CS 25.391. Stick 1112 N (250 445 N (100 lbf)
(b) The system limit loads of paragraph (a) lbf)
Wheel (symmetrical)
need not exceed the loads that can be produced by
1335N(300 lbf) 445 N(100 lbf)
the pilot (or pilots) and by automatic or power
devices operating the controls.
Wheel 445 N
(c) The loads must not be less than those (unsymmetrical)† (100 lbf)
resulting from application of the minimum forces
prescribed in CS 25.397 (c). Rudder 1335 N (300 578 N
lbf) 130 lbf

*The critical parts of the aileron control system must be


CS 25.397 Control system loads designed for a single tangential force with a limit value equal
(a) General. The maximum and minimum pilot to 1·25 times the couple force determined from these criteria.
forces, specified in sub-paragraph (c) of this
**D = wheel diameter in m (inches)
paragraph, are assumed to act at the appropriate
†The unsymmetrical forces must be applied at one of the
control grips or pads (in a manner simulating flight
normal handgrip points on the periphery of the control
conditions) and to be reacted at the attachment of the
wheel.
control system to the control surface horn.
(b) Pilot effort effects. In the control surface
flight loading condition, the air loads on movable CS 25.399 Dual control system
surfaces and the corresponding deflections need not
(a) Each dual control system must be designed
exceed those that would result in flight from the
for the pilots operating in opposition, using
application of any pilot force within the ranges
individual pilot forces not less than –
specified in sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph.
Two-thirds of the maximum values specified for the (1) 0·75 times those obtained under JAR
aileron and elevator may be used if control surface 25.395; or
hinge moments are based on reliable data. In
(2) The minimum forces specified in CS
applying this criterion, the effects of servo
25.397 (c).
mechanisms, tabs, and automatic pilot systems, must
be considered. (b) The control system must be designed for
pilot forces applied in the same direction, using
(c) Limit pilot forces and torques. The limit
individual pilot forces not less than 0·75 times those
pilot forces and torques are as follows:
obtained under CS 25.395.

CS 25.405 Secondary control system


Secondary controls, such as wheel brake, spoiler, and
tab controls, must be designed for the maximum
forces that a pilot is likely to apply to those controls.
The following values may be used:

1-C-12
CS–25 BOOK 1

PILOT CONTROL FORCE LIMITS (SECONDARY CS 25.415 Ground gust conditions


CONTROLS).
(a) The flight control systems and surfaces
Control Limit pilot forces must be designed for the limit loads generated
when the aircraft is subjected to a horizontal 33.44
Miscellaneous: ⎛ 1+ R⎞ m/sec (65 knots) ground gust from any direction,
*Crank, wheel, or ⎜ ⎟ x 222 N (50 lbf), while taxying with the controls locked and
⎝ 3 ⎠
lever. but not less than 222 N (50 unlocked and while parked with the controls
lbf) nor more than locked.
667 N (150 lbf) (b) The control system and surface loads due
(R = radius). to ground gust may be assumed to be static loads
(Applicable to any angle and the hinge moments H, in Newton metres (foot
within 20º of plane of
pounds), must be computed from the formula:
control).
H = K 1/2ρoV2cS
Twist 15 Nm (133 in.lbf)
where:
Push-pull To be chosen by applicant. K = hinge moment factor for ground gusts derived
*Limited to flap, tab, stabiliser, spoiler, and landing gear
in subparagraph (c) of this paragraph
operation controls. ρo = density of air at sea level = 1.225 (kg/m3)
(0.0023769 (slugs/ft3) = 0.0023769 (lb-sec2/ ft4))
V = 33.44 m/sec (65 knots = 109.71 fps) relative
CS 25.407 Trim tab effects
to the aircraft
The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design S = area of the control surface aft of the hinge line
conditions must be accounted for only where the (m2) (ft2)
surface loads are limited by maximum pilot effort. In
these cases, the tabs are considered to be deflected in c = mean aerodynamic chord of the control surface
the direction that would assist the pilot, and the aft of the hinge line (m) (ft)
deflections are – (c) The hinge moment factor K for ground
(a) For elevator trim tabs, those required to trim gusts must be taken from the following table:
the aeroplane at any point within the positive portion
of the pertinent flight envelope in CS 25.333 (b), Surface K Position of controls
except as limited by the stops; and
(a) Aileron 0.75 Control column locked or
(b) For aileron and rudder trim tabs, those lashed in mid-position.
required to trim the aeroplane in the critical
unsymmetrical power and loading conditions, with (b) Aileron *±0.50 Ailerons at full throw.
appropriate allowance for rigging tolerances. (c) Elevator *±0.75 Elevator full down.
(d) Elevator *±0.75 Elevator full up.
CS 25.409 Tabs
(e) Rudder 0.75 Rudder in neutral.
(a) Trim tabs. Trim tabs must be designed to
withstand loads arising from all likely combinations (f) Rudder 0.75 Rudder at full throw.
of tab setting, primary control position, and
aeroplane speed (obtainable without exceeding the
* A positive value of K indicates a moment tending to depress
flight load conditions prescribed for the aeroplane as
the surface, while a negative value of K indicates a moment
a whole), when the effect of the tab is opposed by
tending to raise the surface.
pilot effort forces up to those specified in CS 25.397
(b). (d) The computed hinge moment of
subparagraph (b) must be used to determine the limit
(b) Balancing tabs. Balancing tabs must be
loads due to ground gust conditions for the control
designed for deflections consistent with the primary
surface. A 1.25 factor on the computed hinge
control surface loading conditions.
moments must be used in calculating limit control
(c) Servo tabs. Servo tabs must be designed system loads.
for deflections consistent with the primary control
(e) Where control system flexibility is such that
surface loading conditions obtainable within the pilot
the rate of load application in the ground gust
manoeuvring effort, considering possible opposition
conditions might produce transient stresses
from the trim tabs.

1-C-13
CS–25 BOOK 1

appreciably higher than those corresponding to static 25.341(a) acting separately on the surface on one
loads, in the absence of a rational analysis an side of the plane of symmetry; and
additional factor of 1.60 must be applied to the
(2) 80% of these loadings acting on the
control system loads of subparagraph (d) to obtain
other side.
limit loads. If a rational analysis is used, the
additional factor must not be less than 1.20. (c) For empennage arrangements where the
horizontal tail surfaces have dihedral angles greater
(f) For the condition of the control locks
than plus or minus 10 degrees, or are supported by
engaged, the control surfaces, the control system
the vertical tail surfaces, the surfaces and the
locks and the parts of the control systems (if any)
supporting structure must be designed for gust
between the surfaces and the locks must be designed
velocities specified in CS 25.341(a) acting in any
to the respective resultant limit loads. Where control
orientation at right angles to the flight path.
locks are not provided then the control surfaces, the
control system stops nearest the surfaces and the [(d) Unsymmetrical loading on the empennage
parts of the control systems (if any) between the arising from buffet conditions of CS 25.305(e) must
surfaces and the stops must be designed to the be taken into account.]
resultant limit loads. If the control system design is [Amdt. No.:25/1]
such as to allow any part of the control system to
impact with the stops due to flexibility, then the
CS 25.445 Outboard fins
resultant impact loads must be taken into account in
deriving the limit loads due to ground gust. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic
influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces,
(g) For the condition of taxying with the control
such as outboard fins and winglets, and their
locks disengaged, the following apply:
supporting aerodynamic surfaces must be taken into
(1) The control surfaces, the control account for all loading conditions including pitch,
system stops nearest the surfaces and the parts of roll and yaw manoeuvres, and gusts as specified in
the control systems (if any) between the surfaces CS 25.341(a) acting at any orientation at right angles
and the stops must be designed to the resultant to the flight path.
limit loads.
(b) To provide for unsymmetrical loading when
(2) The parts of the control systems outboard fins extend above and below the horizontal
between the stops nearest the surfaces and the surface, the critical vertical surface loading (load per
cockpit controls must be designed to the resultant unit area) determined under CS 25.391 must also be
limit loads, except that the parts of the control applied as follows:
system where loads are eventually reacted by the
(1) 100% to the area of the vertical
pilot need not exceed:
surfaces above (or below) the horizontal surface.
(i) The loads corresponding to the
(2) 80% to the area below (or above) the
maximum pilot loads in CS 25.397(c) for
horizontal surface.
each pilot alone; or
(ii) 0.75 times these maximum
loads for each pilot when the pilot forces are CS 25.457 Wing-flaps
applied in the same direction
Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their
supporting structures must be designed for critical
CS 25.427 Unsymmetrical loads loads occurring in the conditions prescribed in CS
(a) In designing the aeroplane for lateral gust, 25.345, accounting for the loads occurring during
yaw manoeuvre and roll manoeuvre conditions, transition from one wing-flap position and airspeed
account must be taken of unsymmetrical loads on the to another.
empennage arising from effects such as slipstream
and aerodynamic interference with the wing, vertical CS 25.459 Special devices
fin and other aerodynamic surfaces.
The loading for special devices using aero-dynamic
(b) The horizontal tail must be assumed to be surfaces (such as slots, slats and spoilers) must be
subjected to unsymmetrical loading conditions determined from test data.
determined as follows:
(1) 100% of the maximum loading from
the symmetrical manoeuvre conditions of CS
25.331 and the vertical gust conditions of CS

1-C-14
CS–25 BOOK 1

GROUND LOADS maximum weight for landing conditions at a


reduced descent velocity).
CS 25.471 General (4) The prescribed descent velocities may
be modified if it is shown that the aeroplane has
(a) Loads and equilibrium. For limit ground
design features that make it impossible to develop
loads –
these velocities.
(1) Limit ground loads obtained under
(b) Aeroplane lift, not exceeding aeroplane
this Subpart are considered to be external forces
weight, may be assumed, unless the presence of
applied to the aeroplane structure; and
systems or procedures significantly affects the lift.
(2) In each specified ground load
(c) The method of analysis of aeroplane and
condition, the external loads must be placed in
landing gear loads must take into account at least the
equilibrium with the linear and angular inertia
following elements:
loads in a rational or conservative manner.
(1) Landing gear dynamic characteristics.
(b) Critical centres of gravity. The critical
centres of gravity within the range for which (2) Spin-up and spring back.
certification is requested must be selected so that the
(3) Rigid body response.
maximum design loads are obtained in each landing
gear element. Fore and aft, vertical, and lateral (4) Structural dynamic response of the
aeroplane centres of gravity must be considered. airframe, if significant.
Lateral displacements of the centre of gravity from
(d) The landing gear dynamic characteristics
the aeroplane centreline which would result in main
must be validated by tests as defined in CS
gear loads not greater than 103% of the critical
25.723(a).
design load for symmetrical loading conditions may
be selected without considering the effects of these (e) The coefficient of friction between the tyres
lateral centre of gravity displacements on the loading and the ground may be established by considering the
of the main gear elements, or on the aeroplane effects of skidding velocity and tyre pressure.
structure provided – However, this coefficient of friction need not be
more than 0·8.
(1) The lateral displacement of the centre
of gravity results from random passenger or cargo
disposition within the fuselage or from random CS 25.477 Landing gear arrangement
unsymmetrical fuel loading or fuel usage; and
CS 25.479 to 25.485 apply to aeroplanes with
(2) Appropriate loading instructions for conventional arrangements of main and nose gears,
random disposable loads are included under the or main and tail gears, when normal operating
provisions of CS 25.1583 (c) (1) to ensure that techniques are used.
the lateral displacement of the centre of gravity is
maintained within these limits.
CS 25.479 Level landing conditions
(c) Landing gear dimension data. Figure 1 of
(a) In the level attitude, the aeroplane is
Appendix A contains the basic landing gear
assumed to contact the ground at forward velocity
dimension data.
components, ranging from VL1 to 1·25 VL2 parallel to
the ground under the conditions prescribed in CS
CS 25.473 Landing load conditions 25.473 with:
and assumptions
(1) VL1 equal to VS0(TAS) at the
(a) For the landing conditions specified in appropriate landing weight and in standard sea-
CS 25.479 to 25.485, the aeroplane is assumed to level conditions; and
contact the ground:
(2) VL2, equal to VS0(TAS) at the
(1) In the attitudes defined in CS 25.479 appropriate landing weight and altitudes in a
and CS 25.481. hot day temperature of 22.8ºC (41ºF) above
standard.
(2) With a limit descent velocity of 3·05
m/sec (10 fps) at the design landing weight (the (3) The effects of increased contact speed
maximum weight for landing conditions at must be investigated if approval of downwind
maximum descent velocity); and landings exceeding 19 km/h (10 knots) is requested.
(3) With a limit descent velocity of 1·83 (b) For the level landing attitude for aeroplanes
m/sec (6 fps) at the design take-off weight (the with tail wheels, the conditions specified in this

1-C-15
CS–25 BOOK 1

paragraph must be investigated with the aeroplane (1) VL1 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the
horizontal reference line horizontal in accordance appropriate landing weight and in standard sea-
with Figure 2 of Appendix A of CS –25. level conditions; and
(c) For the level landing attitude for aeroplanes (2) VL2 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the
with nose wheels, shown in Figure 2 of Appendix A appropriate landing weight and altitudes in a hot-
of CS –25, the conditions specified in this paragraph day temperature of 22.8°C (41ºF) above standard.
must be investigated assuming the following
The combination of vertical and drag components
attitudes:
is considered to be acting at the main wheel axle
(1) An attitude in which the main wheels centreline.
are assumed to contact the ground with the nose
wheel just clear of the ground; and (b) For the tail-down landing condition for
aeroplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels
(2) If reasonably attainable at the
are assumed to contact the ground simultaneously, in
specified descent and forward velocities an
accordance with Figure 3 of Appendix A. Ground
attitude in which the nose and main wheels are
reaction conditions on the tail wheel are assumed to
assumed to contact the ground simultaneously.
act –
(d) In addition to the loading conditions
(1) Vertically; and
prescribed in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, but
with maximum vertical ground reactions calculated (2) Up and aft through the axle at 45º to
from paragraph (a), the following apply: the ground line.
(1) The landing gear and directly (c) For the tail-down landing condition for
affected structure must be designed for the aeroplanes with nose wheels, the aeroplane is
maximum vertical ground reaction combined with assumed to be at an attitude corresponding to either
an aft acting drag component of not less than 25% the stalling angle or the maximum angle allowing
of this maximum vertical ground reaction. clearance with the ground by each part of the
aeroplane other than the main wheels, in accordance
(2) The most severe combination of loads
with Figure 3 of Appendix A, whichever is less.
that are likely to arise during a lateral drift
landing must be taken into account. In absence of
a more rational analysis of this condition, the CS 25.483 One-gear landing
following must be investigated: conditions
(i) A vertical load equal to 75% of For the one-gear landing conditions, the aeroplane is
the maximum ground reaction of CS assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the
25.473(a)(2) must be considered in ground on one main landing gear, in accordance with
combination with a drag and side load of Figure 4 of Appendix A of CS –25. In this attitude –
40% and 25%, respectively, of that vertical
(a) The ground reactions must be the same as
load.
those obtained on that side under CS 25.479(d)(1),
(ii) The shock absorber and tyre and
deflections must be assumed to be 75% of
(b) Each unbalanced external load must be
the deflection corresponding to the
reacted by aeroplane inertia in a rational or
maximum ground reaction of CS
conservative manner.
25.473(a)(2). This load case need not be
considered in combination with flat tyres.
CS 25.485 Side load conditions
(3) The combination of vertical and drag
components is considered to be acting at the In addition to CS 25.479(d)(2) the following
wheel axle centreline. conditions must be considered:
(a) For the side load condition, the aeroplane is
assumed to be in the level attitude with only the main
CS 25.481 Tail-down landing
wheels contacting the ground, in accordance with
conditions
Figure 5 of Appendix A.
(a) In the tail-down attitude, the aeroplane is
(b) Side loads of 0·8 of the vertical reaction (on
assumed to contact the ground at forward velocity
one side) acting inward and 0·6 of the vertical
components, ranging from VL1 to VL2, parallel to the
reaction (on the other side) acting outward must be
ground under the conditions prescribed in CS 25.473
combined with one-half of the maximum vertical
with:
ground reactions obtained in the level landing

1-C-16
CS–25 BOOK 1

conditions. These loads are assumed to be applied at the vertical reaction and applied at the ground
the ground contact point and to be resisted by the contact point of each wheel with brakes. The
inertia of the aeroplane. The drag loads may be following two attitudes, in accordance with Figure 6
assumed to be zero. of Appendix A, must be considered:
(1) The level attitude with the wheels
CS 25.487 Rebound landing condition contacting the ground and the loads distributed
between the main and nose gear. Zero pitching
(a) The landing gear and its supporting
acceleration is assumed.
structure must be investigated for the loads occurring
during rebound of the aeroplane from the landing (2) The level attitude with only the main
surface. gear contacting the ground and with the pitching
moment resisted by angular acceleration.
(b) With the landing gear fully extended and
not in contact with the ground, a load factor of 20·0 (c) A drag reaction lower than that prescribed
must act on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. in this paragraph may be used if it is substantiated
This load factor must act in the direction of motion that an effective drag force of 0·8 times the vertical
of the unsprung weights as they reach their limiting reaction cannot be attained under any likely loading
positions in extending with relation to the sprung condition.
parts of the landing gear.
(d) An aeroplane equipped with a nose gear
must be designed to withstand the loads arising from
CS 25.489 Ground handling the dynamic pitching motion of the aeroplane due to
conditions sudden application of maximum braking force. The
aeroplane is considered to be at design takeoff
Unless otherwise prescribed, the landing gear and
weight with the nose and main gears in contact with
aeroplane structure must be investigated for the
the ground, and with a steady state vertical load
conditions in CS 25.491 to 25.509 with the
factor of 1·0. The steady state nose gear reaction
aeroplane at the design ramp weight (the maximum
must be combined with the maximum incremental
weight for ground handling conditions). No wing lift
nose gear vertical reaction caused by sudden
may be considered. The shock absorbers and tyres
application of maximum braking force as described
may be assumed to be in their static position.
in sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of this paragraph.
(e) In the absence of a more rational analysis,
CS 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing
the nose gear vertical reaction prescribed in sub-
roll
paragraph (d) of this paragraph must be calculated in
Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and accordance with the following formula:
approved weights, the aeroplane structure and WT ⎧ fµAE ⎫
landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not VN = ⎨B + ⎬
A+B⎩ A + B+ µ E⎭
less than those obtained when the aircraft is
operating over the roughest ground that may
Where:
reasonably be expected in normal operation. (See
AMC 25.491.) VN = Nose gear vertical reaction
WT = Design take-off weight
CS 25.493 Braked roll conditions A = Horizontal distance between the c.g. of the
aeroplane and the nose wheel.
(a) An aeroplane with a tail wheel is assumed to B = Horizontal distance between the c.g. of the
be in the level attitude with the load on the main aeroplane and the line joining the centres of
wheels, in accordance with Figure 6 of Appendix A. the main wheels.
The limit vertical load factor is 1·2 at the design E = Vertical height of the c.g. of the aeroplane
landing weight, and 1·0 at the design ramp weight. A above the ground in the 1·0 g static
drag reaction equal to the vertical reaction multiplied condition.
by a coefficient of friction of 0·8, must be combined µ = Coefficient of friction of 0·8.
with the vertical ground reaction and applied at the f = Dynamic response factor; 2·0 is to be used
ground contact point. unless a lower factor is substantiated.
(b) For an aeroplane with a nose wheel, the In the absence of other information, the dynamic
limit vertical load factor is 1·2 at the design landing response factor f may be defined by the equation.
weight, and 1·0 at the design ramp weight. A drag
reaction equal to the vertical reaction, multiplied by a
coefficient of friction of 0·8, must be combined with

1-C-17
CS–25 BOOK 1

⎡ ⎤ (c) If the loads prescribed in sub-paragraph (b)


-πξ
f = 1 + exp ⎢ ⎥ of this paragraph result in a nose gear side load
⎢ 1 - ξ2 ⎥ higher than 0·8 times the vertical nose gear load, the
⎣ ⎦
design nose gear side load may be limited to 0·8
Where: ξ is the critical damping ratio of the rigid times the vertical load, with unbalanced yawing
body pitching mode about the main landing gear moments assumed to be resisted by aeroplane inertia
effective ground contact point. forces.
(d) For other than the nose gear, its attaching
CS 25.495 Turning structure, and the forward fuselage structure the
loading conditions are those prescribed in sub-
In the static position, in accordance with Figure 7 of
paragraph (b) of this paragraph, except that –
Appendix A, the aeroplane is assumed to execute a
steady turn by nose gear steering, or by application (1) A lower drag reaction may be used if
of sufficient differential power, so that the limit load an effective drag force of 0·8 times the vertical
factors applied at the centre of gravity are 1·0 reaction cannot be reached under any likely
vertically and 0·5 laterally. The side ground reaction loading condition; and
of each wheel must be 0·5 of the vertical reaction.
(2) The forward acting load at the centre
of gravity need not exceed the maximum drag
CS 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing reaction on one main gear, determined in
accordance with CS 25.493 (b).
(a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static
load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side (e) With the aeroplane at design ramp weight,
component of equal magnitude, is assumed. and the nose gear in any steerable position, the
combined application of full normal steering torque
(b) If there is a swivel, the tail wheel is
and vertical force equal to 1·33 times the maximum
assumed to be swivelled 90º to the aeroplane
static reaction on the nose gear must be considered in
longitudinal axis with the resultant load passing
designing the nose gear, its attaching structure and
through the axle.
the forward fuselage structure.
(c) If there is a lock, steering device, or shimmy
damper the tail wheel is also assumed to be in the
CS 25.503 Pivoting
trailing position with the side load acting at the
ground contact point. (a) The aeroplane is assumed to pivot about one
side of the main gear with the brakes on that side
locked. The limit vertical load factor must be 1·0
CS 25.499 Nose-wheel yaw and
and the coefficient of friction 0·8.
steering
(b) The aeroplane is assumed to be in static
(a) A vertical load factor of 1·0 at the aeroplane
equilibrium, with the loads being applied at the
centre of gravity, and a side component at the nose
ground contact points, in accordance with Figure 8 of
wheel ground contact equal to 0·8 of the vertical
Appendix A.
ground reaction at that point are assumed.
(b) With the aeroplane assumed to be in static
CS 25.507 Reversed braking
equilibrium with the loads resulting from the use of
brakes on one side of the main landing gear, the nose (a) The aeroplane must be in a three point static
gear, its attaching structure, and the fuselage ground attitude. Horizontal reactions parallel to the
structure forward of the centre of gravity must be ground and directed forward must be applied at the
designed for the following loads: ground contact point of each wheel with brakes. The
limit loads must be equal to 0·55 times the vertical
(1) A vertical load factor at the centre of
load at each wheel or to the load developed by 1·2
gravity of 1·0.
times the nominal maximum static brake torque,
(2) A forward acting load at the aeroplane whichever is less.
centre of gravity of 0·8 times the vertical load on
(b) For aeroplanes with nose wheels, the
one main gear.
pitching moment must be balanced by rotational
(3) Side and vertical loads at the ground inertia.
contact point on the nose gear that are required for
(c) For aeroplanes with tail wheels, the
static equilibrium.
resultant of the ground reactions must pass through
(4) A side load factor at the aeroplane the centre of gravity of the aeroplane.
centre of gravity of zero.

1-C-18
CS–25 BOOK 1

CS 25.509 Towing Loads outboard of the main gear, the drag and side tow load
components specified for the main gear apply.
(a) The towing loads specified in sub-paragraph
Where the specified angle of swivel cannot be
(d) of this paragraph must be considered separately.
reached, the maximum obtainable angle must be
These loads must be applied at the towing fittings
used.
and must act parallel to the ground. In addition –
(c) The towing loads specified in sub-paragraph
(1) A vertical load factor equal to 1·0
(d) of this paragraph must be reacted as follows:
must be considered acting at the centre of gravity;
(1) The side component of the towing
(2) The shock struts and tyres must be in
load at the main gear must be reacted by a side
their static positions; and
force at the static ground line of the wheel to
(3) With WT as the design ramp weight, which the load is applied.
the towing load, FTOW is –
(2) The towing loads at the auxiliary gear
(i) 0.3 W T for WT less than
and the drag components of the towing loads at
30 000 pounds;
the main gear must be reacted as follows:
6WT + 450 000
(ii) for WT (i) A reaction with a maximum
70 value equal to the vertical reaction must be
between 30 000 and 100 000 pounds; and applied at the axle of the wheel to which the
(iii) 0·15 W T for W T over 100 000 load is applied. Enough aeroplane inertia to
pounds. achieve equilibrium must be applied.
(ii) The loads must be reacted by
(b) For towing points not on the landing gear aeroplane inertia.
but near the plane of symmetry of the aeroplane, the
drag and side tow load components specified for the (d) The prescribed towing loads are as specified
auxiliary gear apply. For towing points located in the following Table:

Load
Tow Point Position
Magnitude No. Direction
Main gear 0·75 FTOW per 1 Forward, parallel to drag axis
main gear unit 2 Forward, at 30º to drag axis
3 Aft, parallel to drag axis
4 Aft, at 30º to drag axis
Swivelled forward 5 Forward
1·0 FTOW
6 Aft
Swivelled aft 7 Forward
8 Aft
Auxiliary gear Swivelled 45º from 9 Forward, in plane of wheel
0·5 FTOW
forward 10 Aft, in plane of wheel
Swivelled 45ºfrom 11 Forward, in plane of wheel
aft 12 Aft, in plane of wheel

CS 25.511 Ground load: (2) In determining the total load on a gear


unsymmetrical loads on unit with respect to the provisions of sub-
multiple-wheel units paragraphs (b) through (f) of this paragraph, the
transverse shift in the load centroid, due to
(a) General. Multiple-wheel landing gear
unsymmetrical load distribution on the wheels,
units are assumed to be subjected to the limit ground
may be neglected.
loads prescribed in this Subpart under sub-paragraphs
(b) through (f) of this paragraph. In addition – (b) Distribution of limit loads to wheels; tyres
inflated. The distribution of the limit loads among
(1) A tandem strut gear arrangement is a
the wheels of the landing gear must be established
multiple-wheel unit; and
for each landing, taxying, and ground handling

1-C-19
CS–25 BOOK 1

condition, taking into account the effects of the (e) Taxying and ground handling conditions.
following factors: For one and for two deflated tyres –
(1) The number of wheels and their (1) The applied side or drag load factor,
physical arrangements. For truck type landing or both factors, at the centre of gravity must be
gear units, the effects of any see-saw motion of the most critical value up to 50% and 40%,
the truck during the landing impact must be respectively, of the limit side or drag load factors,
considered in determining the maximum design or both factors, corresponding to the most severe
loads for the fore and aft wheel pairs. condition resulting from consideration of the
prescribed taxying and ground handling
(2) Any differentials in tyre diameters
conditions.
resulting from a combination of manufacturing
tolerances, tyre growth, and tyre wear. A (2) For the braked roll conditions of CS
maximum tyre-diameter differential equal to two- 25.493 (a) and (b) (2), the drag loads on each
thirds of the most unfavourable combination of inflated tyre may not be less than those at each
diameter variations that is obtained when taking tyre for the symmetrical load distribution with no
into account manufacturing tolerances, tyre deflated tyres;
growth and tyre wear, may be assumed.
(3) The vertical load factor at the centre
(3) Any unequal tyre inflation pressure, of gravity must be 60% and 50% respectively, of
assuming the maximum variation to be ±5% of the the factor with no deflated tyres, except that it
nominal tyre inflation pressure. may not be less than 1 g; and
(4) A runway crown of zero and a runway (4) Pivoting need not be considered.
crown having a convex upward shape that may be
(f) Towing conditions. For one and for two
approximated by a slope of 1·5% with the
deflated tyres, the towing load, FTOW, must be 60%
horizontal. Runway crown effects must be
and 50% respectively, of the load prescribed.
considered with the nose gear unit on either slope
of the crown.
CS 25.519 Jacking and tie-down
(5) The aeroplane attitude.
provisions
(6) Any structural deflections.
(a) General. The aeroplane must be designed to
(c) Deflated tyres. The effect of deflated tyres withstand the limit load conditions resulting from the
on the structure must be considered with respect to static ground load conditions of sub-paragraph (b) of
the loading conditions specified in sub-paragraphs this paragraph and, if applicable, sub-paragraph (c)
(d) through (f) of this paragraph, taking into account of this paragraph at the most critical combinations of
the physical arrangement of the gear components. In aeroplane weight and centre of gravity. The
addition – maximum allowable load at each jack pad must be
specified.
(1) The deflation of any one tyre for each
multiple wheel landing gear unit, and the deflation (b) Jacking. The aeroplane must have
of any two critical tyres for each landing gear unit provisions for jacking and must withstand the
using four or more wheels per unit, must be following limit loads when the aeroplane is supported
considered; and on jacks:
(2) The ground reactions must be applied (1) For jacking by the landing gear at the
to the wheels with inflated tyres except that, for maximum ramp weight of the aeroplane, the
multiple-wheel gear units with more than one aeroplane structure must be designed for a vertical
shock strut, a rational distribution of the ground load of 1·33 times the vertical static reaction at
reactions between the deflated and inflated tyres, each jacking point acting singly and in
accounting for the differences in shock strut combination with a horizontal load of 0·33 times
extensions resulting from a deflated tyre, may be the vertical static reaction applied in any
used. direction.
(d) Landing conditions. For one and for two (2) For jacking by other aeroplane
deflated tyres, the applied load to each gear unit is structure at maximum approved jacking weight:
assumed to be 60% and 50%, respectively, of the
(i) The aeroplane structure must be
limit load applied to each gear for each of the
designed for a vertical load of 1·33 times the
prescribed landing conditions. However, for the drift
vertical reaction at each jacking point acting
landing condition of CS 25.485, 100% of the vertical
singly and in combination with a horizontal
load must be applied.

1-C-20
CS–25 BOOK 1

load of 0·33 times the vertical static reaction (iii) Nullify any of the escape
applied in any direction. facilities provided for use after an
emergency landing.
(ii) The jacking pads and local
structure must be designed for a vertical (2) When such positioning is not practical
load of 2·0 times the vertical static reaction (e.g. fuselage mounted engines or auxiliary power
at each jacking point, acting singly and in units) each such item of mass must be restrained
combination with a horizontal load of 0·33 under all loads up to those specified in sub-
times the vertical static reaction applied in paragraph (b)(3) of this paragraph. The local
any direction. attachments for these items should be designed to
withstand 1·33 times the specified loads if these
(c) Tie-down. If tie-down points are provided,
items are subject to severe wear and tear through
the main tie-down points and local structure must
frequent removal (e.g. quick change interior
withstand the limit loads resulting from a 120 km/h
items).
(65-knot) horizontal wind from any direction.
(d) Seats and items of mass (and their
supporting structure) must not deform under any
EMERGENCY LANDING CONDITIONS loads up to those specified in sub-paragraph (b)(3)
of this paragraph in any manner that would impede
subsequent rapid evacuation of occupants. (See
CS 25.561 General
AMC 25.561(d).)
(See AMC 25.561.)
(a) The aeroplane, although it may be damaged
CS 25.562 Emergency landing
in emergency landing conditions on land or water,
dynamic conditions
must be designed as prescribed in this paragraph to
protect each occupant under those conditions. (a) The seat and restraint system in the
aeroplane must be designed as prescribed in this
(b) The structure must be designed to give each
paragraph to protect each occupant during an
occupant every reasonable chance of escaping serious
emergency landing condition when –
injury in a minor crash landing when –
(1) Proper use is made of seats, safety
(1) Proper use is made of seats, belts, and
belts, and shoulder harnesses provided for in the
all other safety design provisions;
design; and
(2) The wheels are retracted (where
(2) The occupant is exposed to loads
applicable); and
resulting from the conditions prescribed in this
(3) The occupant experiences the paragraph.
following ultimate inertia forces acting separately
(b) With the exception of flight deck crew
relative to the surrounding structure:
seats, each seat type design approved for occupancy
(i) Upward, 3·0g must successfully complete dynamic tests or be
demonstrated by rational analysis based on dynamic
(ii) Forward, 9·0g
tests of a similar type seat, in accordance with each
(iii) Sideward, 3·0g on the airframe of the following emergency landing conditions.
and 4·0g on the seats and their attachments The tests must be conducted with an occupant
simulated by a 77kg (170 lb anthropomorphic, test
(iv) Downward, 6·0g
dummy sitting in the normal upright position:
(v) Rearward, 1·5g (See AMC
(1) A change in downward vertical
25.561 (b) (3).)
velocity, (∆v) of not less than 10·7 m/s, (35 ft/s)
(c) For equipment, cargo in the passenger with the aeroplane’s longitudinal axis canted
compartments and any other large masses, the downward 30 degrees with respect to the
following apply: horizontal plane and with the wings level. Peak
floor deceleration must occur in not more than
(1) These items must be positioned so that
0·08 seconds after impact and must reach a
if they break loose they will be unlikely to:
minimum of 14 g.
(i) Cause direct injury to
(2) A change in forward longitudinal
occupants;
velocity (∆v) of not less than 13·4 m/s, (44 ft/s)
(ii) Penetrate fuel tanks or lines or with the aeroplane’s longitudinal axis horizontal
cause fire or explosion hazard by damage to and yawed 10 degrees either right or left,
adjacent systems; or whichever would cause the greatest likelihood of

1-C-21
CS–25 BOOK 1

the upper torso restraint system (where installed) (7) The seat must remain attached at all
moving off the occupant’s shoulder, and with the points of attachment, although the structure may
wings level. Peak floor deceleration must occur in have yielded.
not more than 0·09 seconds after impact and must
(8) Seats must not yield under the tests
reach a minimum of 16 g. Where floor rails or
specified in sub-paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of
floor fittings are used to attach the seating devices
this paragraph to the extent they would impede
to the test fixture, the rails or fittings must be
rapid evacuation of the aeroplane occupants.
misaligned with respect to the adjacent set of rails
or fittings by at least 10 degrees vertically (i.e. out
of parallel) with one rolled 10 degrees. CS 25.563 Structural ditching
provisions
(c) The following performance measures must
not be exceeded during the dynamic tests conducted Structural strength considerations of ditching
in accordance with sub-paragraph (b) of this provisions must be in accordance with CS 25.801
paragraph: (e).
(1) Where upper torso straps are used
tension loads in individual straps must not exceed
FATIGUE EVALUATION
794 kg.(1750lb) If dual straps are used for
restraining the upper torso, the total strap tension
loads must not exceed 907kg (2000 lb)).
CS 25.571 Damage-tolerance and
(2) The maximum compressive load fatigue evaluation of
measured between the pelvis and the lumbar structure
column of the anthropomorphic dummy must not (a) General. An evaluation of the strength,
exceed 680 kg. (1500lb) detail design, and fabrication must show that
catastrophic failure due to fatigue, corrosion, or
(3) The upper torso restraint straps
accidental damage, will be avoided throughout the
(where installed) must remain on the occupant’s
operational life of the aeroplane. This evaluation
shoulder during the impact.
must be conducted in accordance with the provisions
(4) The lap safety belt must remain on the of sub-paragraphs (b) and (e) of this paragraph,
occupant’s pelvis during the impact. except as specified in sub-paragraph (c) of this
paragraph, for each part of the structure which could
(5) Each occupant must be protected from
contribute to a catastrophic failure (such as wing,
serious head injury under the conditions
empennage, control surfaces and their systems, the
prescribed in sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph.
fuselage, engine mounting, landing gear, and their
Where head contact with seats or other structure
related primary attachments). (See AMC 25.571 (a),
can occur, protection must be provided so that the
(b) and (e).) For turbine engine powered aeroplanes,
head impact does not exceed a Head Injury
those parts which could contribute to a catastrophic
Criterion (HIC) of 1000 units. The level of HIC is
failure must also be evaluated under sub-paragraph
defined by the equation –
(d) of this paragraph. In addition, the following
⎧⎪ ⎡ 1 t2 ⎤
2⋅5 ⎫

apply:
HIC = ⎨(t 2 − t 1 ) ⎢
⎪⎩ ⎣ (t 2 − t1 ) ∫ t1
a(t)dt ⎥


⎪⎭ max
(1) Each evaluation required by this
paragraph must include –
Where – (i) The typical loading spectra,
t1 is the initial integration time, temperatures, and humidities expected in
service;
t2 is the final integration time, and
(ii) The identification of principal
a(t) is the total acceleration vs. time curve for the structural elements and detail design points,
head strike, and where the failure of which could cause catastrophic
(t) is in seconds, and (a) is in units of gravity (g). failure of the aeroplane; and

(6) Where leg injuries may result from (iii) An analysis, supported by test
contact with seats or other structure, protection evidence, of the principal structural
must be provided to prevent axially compressive elements and detail design points identified
loads exceeding 1021 kg (2250 lb) in each femur. in sub-paragraph (a) (1) (ii) of this
paragraph.

1-C-22
CS–25 BOOK 1

(2) The service history of aeroplanes of (ii) The maximum value of normal
similar structural design, taking due account of operating differential pressure (including
differences in operating conditions and the expected external aerodynamic pressures
procedures, may be used in the evaluations during 1 g level flight) multiplied by a
required by this paragraph. factor of 1·15 omitting other loads.
(3) Based on the evaluations required by (6) For landing gear and directly-affected
this paragraph, inspections or other procedures airframe structure, the limit ground loading
must be established as necessary to prevent conditions specified in CS 25.473, CS 25.491
catastrophic failure, and must be included in the and CS 25.493.
Airworthiness Limitations Section of the
If significant changes in structural stiffness or
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness required
geometry, or both, follow from a structural failure, or
by CS 25.1529.
partial failure, the effect on damage tolerance must
(b) Damage-tolerance (fail-safe) evaluation. be further investigated. (See AMC 25.571 (b) and
The evaluation must include a determination of the (e).) The residual strength requirements of this sub-
probable locations and modes of damage due to paragraph (b) apply, where the critical damage is not
fatigue, corrosion, or accidental damage. The readily detectable. On the other hand, in the case of
determination must be by analysis supported by test damage which is readily detectable within a short
evidence and (if available) service experience. period, smaller loads than those of sub-paragraphs
Damage at multiple sites due to prior fatigue (b)(1) to (b)(6) inclusive may be used by agreement
exposure must be included where the design is such with the Authority. A probability approach may be
that this type of damage can be expected to occur. used in these latter assessments, substantiating that
The evaluation must incorporate repeated load and catastrophic failure is extremely improbable. (See
static analyses supported by test evidence. The AMC 25.571 (a), (b) and (e) paragraph 2.1.2.)
extent of damage for residual strength evaluation at
(c) Fatigue (safe-life) evaluation. Compliance
any time within the operational life must be
with the damage-tolerance requirements of sub-
consistent with the initial detectability and
paragraph (b) of this paragraph is not required if the
subsequent growth under repeated loads. The
applicant establishes that their application for
residual strength evaluation must show that the
particular structure is impractical. This structure
remaining structure is able to withstand loads
must be shown by analysis, supported by test
(considered as static ultimate loads) corresponding to
evidence, to be able to withstand the repeated loads
the following conditions:
of variable magnitude expected during its service life
(1) The limit symmetrical manoeuvring without detectable cracks. Appropriate safe-life
conditions specified in CS 25.337 up to VC and in scatter factors must be applied.
CS 25.345.
(d) Sonic fatigue strength. It must be shown by
(2) The limit gust conditions specified analysis, supported by test evidence, or by the
in CS 25.341 at the specified speeds up to VC and service history of aeroplanes of similar structural
in CS 25.345. design and sonic excitation environment, that –
(3) The limit rolling conditions specified (1) Sonic fatigue cracks are not probable
in CS 25.349 and the limit unsymmetrical in any part of the flight structure subject to sonic
conditions specified in CS 25.367 and CS excitation; or
25.427(a) through (c), at speeds up to VC.
(2) Catastrophic failure caused by sonic
(4) The limit yaw manoeuvring cracks is not probable assuming that the loads
conditions specified in CS 25.351 at the specified prescribed in sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph
speeds up to VC. are applied to all areas affected by those cracks.
(5) For pressurised cabins, the following (e) Damage-tolerance (discrete source)
conditions: evaluation. The aeroplane must be capable of
successfully completing a flight during which likely
(i) The normal operating
structural damage occurs as a result of –
differential pressure combined with the
expected external aerodynamic pressures (1) Bird impact as specified in CS
applied simultaneously with the flight 25.631;
loading conditions specified in sub-
(2) Reserved
paragraphs (b)(1) to (b)(4) of this paragraph
if they have a significant effect. (3) Reserved

1-C-23
CS–25 BOOK 1

(4) Sudden decompression of


compartments as specified in CS 25.365 (e) and
(f).
The damaged structure must be able to withstand
the static loads (considered as ultimate loads) which
are reasonably expected to occur at the time of the
occurrence and during the completion of the flight.
Dynamic effects on these static loads need not be
considered. Corrective action to be taken by the pilot
following the incident, such as limiting manoeuvres,
avoiding turbulence, and reducing speed, may be
considered. If significant changes in structural
stiffness or geometry, or both, follow from a
structural failure or partial failure, the effect on
damage tolerance must be further investigated. (See
AMC 25.571(a), (b) and (e), paragraph 2.7.2 and
AMC 25.571 (b) and (e).)

LIGHTNING PROTECTION

CS 25.581 Lightning protection


(a) The aeroplane must be protected against
catastrophic effects from lightning. (See CS
25.899 and AMC 25.581.)
(b) For metallic components, compliance with
sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph may be shown by

(1) Bonding the components properly to
the airframe; or
(2) Designing the components so that a
strike will not endanger the aeroplane.
(c) For non-metallic components, compliance
with sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph may be
shown by –
(1) Designing the components to
minimise the effect of a strike; or
(2) Incorporating acceptable means of
diverting the resulting electrical current so as not
to endanger the aeroplane.

1-C-24
CS-25 BOOK 1

SUBPART D – DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

GENERAL not be adversely affected by the environmental


conditions associated with the particular
CS 25.601 General installation.
The aeroplane may not have design features or (c) No self-locking nut may be used on any
details that experience has shown to be hazardous bolt subject to rotation in operation unless a non-
or unreliable. The suitability of each questionable friction locking device is used in addition to the
design detail and part must be established by tests. self-locking device.

CS 25.603 Materials (For Composite Materials CS 25.609 Protection of structure


see AMC No. 1 and No. 2 to 25.603.)
Each part of the structure must (see AMC 25.609)-
The suitability and durability of materials used for
(a) Be suitably protected against deterioration
parts, the failure of which could adversely affect
or loss of strength in service due to any cause,
safety, must –
including –
(a) Be established on the basis of experience
(1) Weathering;
or tests;
(2) Corrosion; and
(b) Conform to approved specifications, that
ensure their having the strength and other properties (3) Abrasion; and
assumed in the design data (See AMC 25.603(b);
(b) Have provisions for ventilation and
and
drainage where necessary for protection.
(c) Take into account the effects of
environmental conditions, such as temperature and
humidity, expected in service. CS 25.611 Accessibility provisions
Means must be provided to allow inspection
(including inspection of principal structural
CS 25.605 Fabrication methods
elements and control systems), replacement of parts
(a) The methods of fabrication used must normally requiring replacement, adjustment, and
produce a consistently sound structure. If a lubrication as necessary for continued
fabrication process (such as gluing, spot welding, or airworthiness. The inspection means for each item
heat treating) requires close control to reach this must be practicable for the inspection interval for
objective, the process must be performed under an the item. Non-destructive inspection aids may be
approved process specification. used to inspect structural elements where it is
impracticable to provide means for direct visual
(b) Each new aircraft fabrication method must
inspection if it is shown that the inspection is
be substantiated by a test programme.
effective and the inspection procedures are
specified in the maintenance manual required by CS
25.1529.
CS 25.607 Fasteners
(See AMC 25.607)
(a) Each removable bolt, screw, nut, pin or [CS 25.613 Material strength properties
other removable fastener must incorporate two and Material Design Values
separate locking devices if – (See AMC 25.613)]
(1) Its loss could preclude continued (a) Material strength properties must be based
flight and landing within the design limitations on enough tests of material meeting approved
of the aeroplane using normal pilot skill and specifications to establish design values on a
strength; or statistical basis.
(2) Its loss could result in reduction in [(b) Material design values must be chosen to
pitch, roll or yaw control capability or response minimise the probability of structural failures due
below that required by Subpart B of this to material variability. Except as provided in sub-
CS–25. paragraphs (e) and (f) of this paragraph, compliance
must be shown by selecting material design values
(b) The fasteners specified in sub-paragraph
(a) of this paragraph and their locking devices may

1-D-1
CS-25 BOOK 1

which assure material strength with the following CS 25.621 Casting factors
probability:] [ (see AMC 25.621.)
(1) Where applied loads are eventually (a) General. For castings used in structural
distributed through a single member within an applications, the factors, tests, and inspections
assembly, the failure of which would result in specified in sub-paragraphs (b) through (d) of
loss of structural integrity of the component, this paragraph must be applied in addition to
99% probability with 95% confidence. those necessary to establish foundry quality
control. The inspections must meet accepted
(2) For redundant structure, in which the
specifications. Sub-paragraphs (c) and (d) of
failure of individual elements would result in
this paragraph apply to any structural castings
applied loads being safely distributed to other
except castings that are pressure tested as parts
load carrying members, 90% probability with
of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not
95% confidence.
support structural loads.
[(c) The effects of environmental conditions,
(b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting
such as temperature and moisture, on material
factors specified in sub-paragraphs (c) and (d)
design values used in an essential component or
of this paragraph:
structure must be considered where these effects are
significant within the aeroplane operating envelope. (1) Need not exceed 1.25 with respect to bearing
stresses regardless of the method of
(d) Reserved
inspection used; and
(e) Greater material design values may be
(2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing
used if a “premium selection” of the material is
surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is
made in which a specimen of each individual item
larger than the applicable casting factor.
is tested before use to determine that the actual
strength properties of that particular item will equal (c) Critical castings. (See AMC 25.621(c))
or exceed those used in design. Each casting whose failure could preclude
continued safe flight and landing of the
(f) Other material design values may be used
aeroplane or could result in serious injury to
if approved by the Agency.]
occupants is considered a critical casting. Each
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
critical casting must have a factor associated
with it for showing compliance with strength
and deformation requirements, and must comply
CS 25.619 Special factors
with the following criteria associated with that
The factor of safety prescribed in CS 25.303 must factor:
be multiplied by the highest pertinent special factor
(1) A casting factor of 1.0 or greater may be
of safety prescribed in CS 25.621 through CS
used, provided that:
25.625 for each part of the structure whose strength
is – (i) It is demonstrated, in the form of process
qualification, proof of product, and
(a) Uncertain.
process monitoring that, for each casting
(b) Likely to deteriorate in service before design and part number, the castings
normal replacement; or produced by each foundry and process
combination have coefficients of
(c) Subject to appreciable variability because
variation of the material properties that
of uncertainties in manufacturing processes or
are equivalent to those of wrought alloy
inspection methods.
products of similar composition. Process
Where the Agency is not satisfied in a specific case monitoring must include testing of
that a special factor is the correct approach to coupons cut from the prolongations of
ensuring the necessary integrity of the parts of the each casting (or each set of castings, if
structure under service conditions, other produced from a single pour into a single
appropriate measures must be taken. mould in a runner system) and, on a
sampling basis, coupons cut from critical
areas of production castings. The
acceptance criteria for the process
monitoring inspections and tests must be
established and included in the process
specifications to ensure the properties of

1-D-2
CS-25 BOOK 1

the production castings are controlled to radiographic, or equivalent,


within levels used in design. inspection methods.
(ii) Each casting receives: (ii) One casting undergoes a static test and is
shown to meet:
(A) Inspection of 100 percent of its
surface, using visual and liquid (A) The strength requirements of CS
penetrant, or equivalent, inspection 25.305(b) at an ultimate load
methods; and corresponding to a casting factor of
1.50; and
(B) Inspection of structurally significant
internal areas and areas where defects (B) The deformation requirements of CS
are likely to occur, using 25.305(a) at a load of 1.15 times the
radiographic, or equivalent, limit load.
inspection methods.
(d) Non-critical castings. For each casting other
(iii)One casting undergoes a static test and is than critical castings, as specified in sub-
shown to meet the strength and paragraph (c) of this paragraph, the following
deformation requirements of apply:
CS 25.305(a) and (b).
(1) A casting factor of 1.0 or greater may be
(see AMC 25.621(c)(1).) used, provided that compliance is shown
with sub-paragraph (c)(1) of this paragraph,
or with the following three conditions:
(2) A casting factor of 1.25 or greater may be
(i) Castings are manufactured to accepted
used, provided that:
specifications that specify the minimum
(i) Each casting receives: mechanical properties of the material in
the casting and provides for
(A) Inspection of 100 percent of its
demonstration of these properties by
surface, using visual and liquid
testing of coupons cut from the castings
penetrant, or equivalent inspection
on a sampling basis.
methods; and
(ii) Each casting receives:
(B) Inspection of structurally significant
internal areas and areas where defects (A) Inspection of 100 percent of its
are likely to occur, using surface, using visual and liquid
radiographic, or equivalent, penetrant, or equivalent, inspection
inspection methods. methods; and
(ii) Three castings undergo static tests and (B) Inspection of structurally significant
are shown to meet: internal areas and areas where defects
are likely to occur, using
(A) The strength requirements of CS
radiographic, or equivalent,
25.305(b) at an ultimate load
inspection methods.
corresponding to a casting factor of
1.25; and (iii)Three sample castings undergo static
tests and are shown to meet the strength
(B) The deformation requirements of CS
and deformation requirements of CS
25.305(a) at a load of 1.15 times the
25.305(a) and (b).
limit load.
(2) A casting factor of 1.25 or greater may be
(3) A casting factor of 1.50 or greater may be
used, provided that each casting receives:
used, provided that:
(i) Inspection of 100 percent of its surface,
(i) Each casting receives:
using visual and liquid penetrant, or
(A) Inspection of 100 percent of its equivalent, inspection methods; and
surface, using visual and liquid
(ii) Inspection of structurally significant
penetrant, or equivalent, inspection
internal areas and areas where defects are
methods; and
likely to occur, using radiographic, or
(B) Inspection of structurally significant equivalent, inspection methods.
internal areas and areas where defects
(3) A casting factor of 1.5 or greater may be
are likely to occur, using
used, provided that each casting receives

1-D-3
CS-25 BOOK 1

inspection of 100 percent of its surface using [CS 25.629 Aeroelastic stability
visual and liquid penetrant, or equivalent, requirements.
inspection methods.
(a) General. The aeroelastic stability evaluations
(4) A casting factor of 2.0 or greater may be required under this paragraph include flutter,
used, provided that each casting receives divergence, control reversal and any undue loss
inspection of 100 percent of its surface using of stability and control as a result of structural
visual inspection methods. deformation. The aeroelastic evaluation must
include whirl modes associated with any
(5) The number of castings per production batch
propeller or rotating device that contributes
to be inspected by non-visual methods in
significant dynamic forces. Compliance with
accordance with sub-paragraphs (d)(2) and
this paragraph must be shown by analyses, tests,
(d)(3) of this paragraph may be reduced
or some combination thereof as found necessary
from 100% when an accepted quality control
by the Agency (see AMC 25.629).
procedure is established.]
(b) Aeroelastic stability envelopes. The aeroplane
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
must be designed to be free from aeroelastic
instability for all configurations and design
CS 25.623 Bearing factors conditions within the aeroelastic stability
envelopes as follows:
(a) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (b) of
(1) For normal conditions without failures,
this paragraph, each part that has clearance (free
malfunctions, or adverse conditions, all
fit), and that is subject to pounding or vibration,
combinations of altitudes and speeds
must have a bearing factor large enough to provide
encompassed by the VD/MD versus altitude
for the effects of normal relative motion.
envelope enlarged at all points by an
(b) No bearing factor need be used for a part increase of 15 percent in equivalent airspeed
for which any larger special factor is prescribed. at constant Mach number and constant
altitude. In addition, a proper margin of
stability must exist at all speeds up to VD/MD
CS 25.625 Fitting factors and, there must be no large and rapid
reduction in stability as VD/MD is
For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join one
approached. The enlarged envelope may be
structural member to another), the following apply:
limited to Mach 1.0 when MD is less than 1.0
(a) For each fitting whose strength is not at all design altitudes; and
proven by limit and ultimate load tests in which
(2) For the conditions described in CS 25.629(d)
actual stress conditions are simulated in the fitting
below, for all approved altitudes, any
and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at
airspeed up to the greater airspeed defined
least 1·15 must be applied to each part of –
by:
(1) The fitting;
(i) The VD/MD envelope determined by CS
(2) The means of attachment; and 25.335(b); or,
(3) The bearing on the joined members. (ii) An altitude-airspeed envelope defined by
a 15 percent increase in equivalent
(b) No fitting factor need be used –
airspeed above VC at constant altitude,
(1) For joints made under approved from sea level to the altitude of the
practices and based on comprehensive test data intersection of 1.15 VC with the
(such as continuous joints in metal plating, extension of the constant cruise Mach
welded joints, and scarf joints in wood); or number line, MC, then a linear variation
in equivalent airspeed to MC +.05 at the
(2) With respect to any bearing surface
altitude of the lowest VC/MC intersection;
for which a larger special factor is used.
then, at higher altitudes, up to the
(c) For each integral fitting, the part must be maximum flight altitude, the boundary
treated as a fitting up to the point at which the defined by a .05 Mach increase in MC at
section properties become typical of the member. constant altitude; and
(d) For each seat, berth, safety belt, and (iii)Failure conditions of certain systems
harness, the fitting factor specified in CS must be treated in accordance with CS
25.785(f)(3) applies. 25.302.

1-D-4
CS-25 BOOK 1

(3) For failure conditions in those systems (ii) A damage tolerance investigation in
covered by CS 25.302, the margins defined accordance with CS 25.571(b) shows that
in Appendix K of CS-25 apply. the maximum extent of damage assumed
for the purpose of residual strength
(c) Balance weights. If balance weights are used, evaluation does not involve complete
their effectiveness and strength, including failure of the structural element.
supporting structure, must be substantiated.
(9) Any damage, failure or malfunction,
(d) Failures, malfunctions, and adverse conditions. considered under CS 25.631, CS 25.671, CS
The failures, malfunctions, and adverse 25.672, and CS 25.1309.
conditions which must be considered in showing
(10)Any other combination of failures,
compliance with this paragraph are:
malfunctions, or adverse conditions not
(1) Any critical fuel loading conditions, not shown to be extremely improbable.
shown to be extremely improbable, which
(e) Flight flutter testing. Full scale flight flutter
may result from mismanagement of fuel.
tests at speeds up to VDF/MDF must be conducted
(2) Any single failure in any flutter damper or for new type designs and for modifications to a
flutter control system. type design unless the modifications have been
shown to have an insignificant effect on the
(3) For aeroplanes not approved for operation in
aeroelastic stability. These tests must
icing conditions, the maximum likely ice
demonstrate that the aeroplane has a proper
accumulation expected as a result of an
margin of damping at all speeds up to VDF/MDF,
inadvertent encounter.
and that there is no large and rapid reduction in
(4) Failure of any single element of the structure damping as VDF/MDF is approached. If a failure,
supporting any engine, independently malfunction, or adverse condition is simulated
mounted propeller shaft, large auxiliary during flight test in showing compliance with
power unit, or large externally mounted sub-paragraph (d) of' this paragraph, the
aerodynamic body (such as an external fuel maximum speed investigated need not exceed
tank). VFC/MFC if it is shown, by correlation of the
flight test data with other test data or analyses,
(5) For aeroplanes with engines that have
that the aeroplane is free from any aeroelastic
propellers or large rotating devices capable
instability at all speeds within the altitude-
of significant dynamic forces, any single
airspeed envelope described in sub-paragraph
failure of the engine structure that would
(b)(2) of this paragraph.]
reduce the rigidity of the rotational axis.
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
(6) The absence of aerodynamic or gyroscopic
forces resulting from the most adverse
combination of feathered propellers or other CS 25.631 Bird strike damage
rotating devices capable of significant
The aeroplane must be designed to assure capability
dynamic forces. In addition, the effect of a
of continued safe flight and landing of the
single feathered propeller or rotating device
aeroplane after impact with a 4 lb bird when the
must be coupled with the failures of sub-
velocity of the aeroplane (relative to the bird along
paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(5) of this
the aeroplane’s flight path) is equal to VC at sea-
paragraph.
level or 0·85 VC at 2438 m (8000 ft), whichever is
(7) Any single propeller or rotating device the more critical. Compliance may be shown by
capable of significant dynamic forces analysis only when based on tests carried out on
rotating at the highest likely overspeed. sufficiently representative structures of similar
design. (See AMC 25.631.)
(8) Any damage or failure condition, required or
selected for investigation by CS 25.571. The
single structural failures described in sub-
paragraphs (d)(4) and(d)(5) of this paragraph
CONTROL SURFACES
need not be considered in showing
compliance with this paragraph if;
CS 25.651 Proof of strength
(i) The structural element could not fail due
(a) Limit load tests of control surfaces are
to discrete source damage resulting from
required. These tests must include the horn or
the conditions described in CS 25.571(e)
fitting to which the control system is attached.
and CS 25.903(d); and

1-D-5
CS-25 BOOK 1

(b) Compliance with the special factors (1) Any single failure not shown to be
requirements of CS 25.619 to 25.625 and 25.657 for extremely improbable, excluding jamming, (for
control surface hinges must be shown by analysis or example, disconnection or failure of mechanical
individual load tests. elements, or structural failure of hydraulic
components, such as actuators, control spool
housing, and valves). (See AMC 25.671(c)(1).)
CS 25.655 Installation
(2) Any combination of failures not
(a) Movable tail surfaces must be installed so shown to be extremely improbable, excluding
that there is no interference between any surfaces jamming (for example, dual electrical or
when one is held in its extreme position and the hydraulic system failures, or any single failure in
others are operated through their full angular combination with any probable hydraulic or
movement. electrical failure).
(b) If an adjustable stabiliser is used, it must (3) Any jam in a control position
have stops that will limit its range of travel to the normally encountered during take-off, climb,
maximum for which the aeroplane is shown to meet cruise, normal turns, descent and landing unless
the trim requirements of CS 25.161. the jam is shown to be extremely improbable, or
can be alleviated. A runaway of a flight control
to an adverse position and jam must be
CS 25.657 Hinges accounted for if such runaway and subsequent
jamming is not extremely improbable.
(a) For control surface hinges, including ball,
roller, and self-lubricated bearing hinges, the (d) The aeroplane must be designed so that it
approved rating of the bearing may not be is controllable if all engines fail. Compliance with
exceeded. For non-standard bearing hinge this requirement may be shown by analysis where
configurations, the rating must be established on the that method has been shown to be reliable.
basis of experience or tests and, in the absence of a
rational investigation, a factor of safety of not less
than 6·67 must be used with respect to the ultimate CS 25.672 Stability augmentation and
bearing strength of the softest material used as a automatic and power-
bearing. operated systems
(b) Hinges must have enough strength and If the functioning of stability augmentation or other
rigidity for loads parallel to the hinge line. automatic or power-operated systems is necessary
to show compliance with the flight characteristics
requirements of this CS-25, such systems must
CONTROL SYSTEMS comply with CS 25.671 and the following:
(a) A warning, which is clearly
CS 25.671 General distinguishable to the pilot under expected flight
conditions without requiring his attention, must be
(a) Each control and control system must
provided for any failure in the stability
operate with the ease, smoothness, and positiveness
augmentation system or in any other automatic or
appropriate to its function. (See AMC 25.671 (a).)
power-operated system, which could result in an
(b) Each element of each flight control system unsafe condition if the pilot were not aware of the
must be designed, or distinctively and permanently failure. Warning systems must not activate the
marked, to minimise the probability of incorrect control systems.
assembly that could result in the malfunctioning of
(b) The design of the stability augmentation
the system. (See AMC 25.671 (b).)
system or of any other automatic or power-operated
(c) The aeroplane must be shown by analysis, system must permit initial counteraction of failures
test, or both, to be capable of continued safe flight of the type specified in CS 25.671 (c) without
and landing after any of the following failures or requiring exceptional pilot skill or strength, by
jamming in the flight control system and surfaces either the deactivation of the system, or a failed
(including trim, lift, drag, and feel systems) within portion thereof, or by overriding the failure by
the normal flight envelope, without requiring movement of the flight controls in the normal sense.
exceptional piloting skill or strength. Probable
(c) It must be shown that after any single
malfunctions must have only minor effects on
failure of the stability augmentation system or any
control system operation and must be capable of
other automatic or power-operated system –
being readily counteracted by the pilot.

1-D-6
CS-25 BOOK 1

(1) The aeroplane is safely controllable CS 25.679 Control system gust locks
when the failure or malfunction occurs at any
(a) There must be a device to prevent damage
speed or altitude within the approved operating
to the control surfaces (including tabs), and to the
limitations that is critical for the type of failure
control system, from gusts striking the aeroplane
being considered. (See AMC 25.672 (c) (1).)
while it is on the ground. If the device, when
(2) The controllability and engaged, prevents normal operation of the control
manoeuvrability requirements of this CS-25 are surfaces by the pilot, it must –
met within a practical operational flight
(1) Automatically disengage when the
envelope (for example, speed, altitude, normal
pilot operates the primary flight controls in a
acceleration, and aeroplane configurations)
normal manner; or
which is described in the Aeroplane Flight
Manual; and (2) Limit the operation of the aeroplane
so that the pilot receives unmistakable warning
(3) The trim, stability, and stall
at the start of take-off. (See AMC 25.679(a)(2).)
characteristics are not impaired below a level
needed to permit continued safe flight and (b) The device must have means to preclude
landing. the possibility of it becoming inadvertently engaged
in flight. (See AMC 25.679(b).)

CS 25.675 Stops
CS 25.681 Limit load static tests
(a) Each control system must have stops that
positively limit the range of motion of each (a) Compliance with the limit load
movable aerodynamic surface controlled by the requirements of this CS–25 must be shown by tests
system. in which –
(1) The direction of the test loads
(b) Each stop must be located so that wear,
produces the most severe loading in the control
slackness, or take-up adjustments will not adversely
system; and
affect the control characteristics of the aeroplane
because of a change in the range of surface travel. (2) Each fitting, pulley, and bracket
used in attaching the system to the main
(c) Each stop must be able to withstand any
structure is included.
loads corresponding to the design conditions for the
control system. (b) Compliance must be shown (by analyses
or individual load tests) with the special factor
requirements for control system joints subject to
CS 25.677 Trim systems angular motion.
(a) Trim controls must be designed to prevent
inadvertent or abrupt operation and to operate in the
CS 25.683 Operation tests
plane, and the sense of motion, of the aeroplane.
(a) It must be shown by operation tests that
(b) There must be means adjacent to the trim
when portions of the control system subject to pilot
control to indicate the direction of the control
effort loads are loaded to 80% of the limit load
movement relative to the aeroplane motion. In
specified for the system and the powered portions
addition, there must be clearly visible means to
of the control system are loaded to the maximum
indicate the position of the trim device with respect
load expected in normal operation, the system is
to the range of adjustment. The indicator must be
free from –
clearly marked with the range within which it has
been demonstrated that take-off is safe for all centre (1) Jamming;
of gravity positions approved for take-off.
(2) Excessive friction; and
(c) Trim control systems must be designed to
(3) Excessive deflection.
prevent creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must
be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately (b) It must be shown by analysis and, where
balanced and shown to be free from flutter. necessary, by tests that in the presence of
deflections of the aeroplane structure due to the
(d) If an irreversible tab control system is
separate application of pitch, roll and yaw limit
used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the
manoeuvre loads, the control system, when loaded
irreversible unit to the aeroplane structure must
to obtain these limit loads and operated within its
consist of a rigid connection.

1-D-7
CS-25 BOOK 1

operational range of deflections can be exercised (e) Turnbuckles must be attached to parts
about all control axes and remain free from- having angular motion in a manner that will
positively prevent binding throughout the range of
(1) Jamming;
travel.
(2) Excessive friction;
(f) There must be provisions for visual
(3) Disconnection, and inspection of fairleads, pulleys, terminals, and
turnbuckles.
(4) Any form of permanent damage.
(c) It must be shown that under vibration
loads in the normal flight and ground operating CS 25.693 Joints
conditions, no hazard can result from interference
Control system joints (in push-pull systems) that
or contact with adjacent elements.
are subject to angular motion, except those in ball
and roller bearing systems must have a special
factor of safety of not less than 3·33 with respect to
CS 25.685 Control system details
the ultimate bearing strength of the softest material
(a) Each detail of each control system must be used as a bearing. This factor may be reduced to
designed and installed to prevent jamming, chafing, 2·0 for joints in cable control systems. For ball or
and interference from cargo, passengers, loose roller bearings, the approved ratings, may not be
objects or the freezing of moisture. (See AMC exceeded.
25.685 (a).)
(b) There must be means in the cockpit to
CS 25.697 Lift and drag devices,
prevent the entry of foreign objects into places
controls
where they would jam the system.
(a) Each lift device control must be designed
(c) There must be means to prevent the
so that the pilots can place the device in any take-
slapping of cables or tubes against other parts.
off, en-route, approach, or landing position
(d) CS 25.689 and CS 25.693 apply to cable established under CS 25.101(d). Lift and drag
systems and joints. devices must maintain the selected positions, except
for movement produced by an automatic
positioning or load limiting device, without further
CS 25.689 Cable systems attention by the pilots.
(a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, (b) Each lift and drag device control must be
splice, and pulley must be approved. In addition – designed and located to make inadvertent operation
improbable. Lift and drag devices intended for
(1) No cable smaller than 3.2 mm (0·125
ground operation only must have means to prevent
inch) diameter may be used in the aileron,
the inadvertent operation of their controls in flight
elevator, or rudder systems; and
if that operation could be hazardous.
(2) Each cable system must be designed
(c) The rate of motion of the surfaces in
so that there will be no hazardous change in
response to the operation of the control and the
cable tension throughout the range of travel
characteristics of the automatic positioning or load
under operating conditions and temperature
limiting device must give satisfactory flight and
variations.
performance characteristics under steady or
(b) Each kind and size of pulley must changing conditions of airspeed, engine power, and
correspond to the cable with which it is used. aeroplane attitude.
Pulleys and sprockets must have closely fitted
(d) The lift device control must be designed to
guards to prevent the cables and chains from being
retract the surfaces from the fully extended
displaced or fouled. Each pulley must lie in the
position, during steady flight at maximum
plane passing through the cable so that the cable
continuous engine power at any speed below VF +
does not rub against the pulley flange.
17 km/hr (9·0 knots).
(c) Fairleads must be installed so that they do
not cause a change in cable direction of more than
three degrees. CS 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator
(d) Clevis pins subject to load or motion and (a) There must be means to indicate to the
retained only by cotter pins may not be used in the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having
control system. a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its

1-D-8
CS-25 BOOK 1

position. In addition, an indication of aeroplane is in a configuration, including any of the


unsymmetrical operation or other malfunction in the following that would not allow a safe take-off:
lift or drag device systems must be provided when
(1) The wing-flaps or leading edge
such indication is necessary to enable the pilots to
devices are not within the approved range of
prevent or counteract an unsafe flight or ground
take-off positions.
condition, considering the effects on flight
characteristics and performance. (2) Wing spoilers (except lateral control
spoilers meeting the requirements of CS 25.671),
(b) There must be means to indicate to the
speed brakes, or longitudinal trim devices are in
pilots the take-off, en-route, approach, and landing
a position that would not allow a safe take-off.
lift device positions.
(3) The parking brake is unreleased.
(c) If any extension of the lift and drag device
beyond the landing position is possible, the control (b) The aural warning required by sub-
must be clearly marked to identify this range of paragraph (a) of this paragraph must continue until
extension. –
(1) The take-off configuration is
changed to allow a safe take-off;
CS 25.701 Flap and slat interconnection
(2) Action is taken by the pilot to
(a) Unless the aeroplane has safe flight
terminate the take-off roll;
characteristics with the flaps or slats retracted on
one side and extended on the other, the motion of (3) The aeroplane is rotated for take-off;
flaps or slats on opposite sides of the plane of or
symmetry must be synchronised by a mechanical
(4) The warning is manually silenced by
interconnection or approved equivalent means.
the pilot. The means to silence the warning must
(b) If a wing-flap or slat interconnection or not be readily available to the flight crew such
equivalent means is used, it must be designed to that it could be operated instinctively,
account for the applicable unsymmetrical loads, inadvertently, or by habitual reflexive action.
including those resulting from flight with the Before each take-off, the warning must be
engines on one side of the plane of symmetry rearmed automatically, or manually if the
inoperative and the remaining engines at take-off absence of automatic rearming is clear and
power. unmistakable.
(c) The means used to activate the system
(c) For aeroplanes with flaps or slats that are
must function properly for all authorised take-off
not subjected to slipstream conditions, the structure
power settings and procedures, and throughout the
must be designed for the loads imposed when the
ranges of take-off weights, altitudes, and
wing-flaps or slats on one side are carrying the
temperatures for which certification is requested.
most severe load occurring in the prescribed
symmetrical conditions and those on the other side
are carrying not more than 80% of that load.
LANDING GEAR
(d) The interconnection must be designed for
the loads resulting when interconnected flap or slat
CS 25.721 General
surfaces on one side of the plane of symmetry are
jammed and immovable while the surfaces on the (a) The main landing gear system must be
other side are free to move and the full power of the designed so that if it fails due to overloads during
surface actuating system is applied. (See AMC take-off and landing (assuming the overloads to act
25.701(d).) in the upward and aft directions), the failure mode
is not likely to cause –
(1) For aeroplanes that have a passenger
CS 25.703 Take-off warning system
seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of
(See AMC 25.703)
nine seats or less, the spillage of enough fuel
A take-off warning system must be installed and from any fuel system in the fuselage to
must meet the following requirements: constitute a fire hazard; and
(a) The system must provide to the pilots an (2) For aeroplanes that have a passenger
aural warning that is automatically activated during seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of
the initial portion of the take-off roll if the 10 seats or more, the spillage of enough fuel

1-D-9
CS-25 BOOK 1

from any part of the fuel system to constitute a (1) The landing gear retracting
fire hazard. mechanism, wheel well doors, and supporting
structure, must be designed for –
(b) Each aeroplane that has a passenger
seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of 10 (i) The loads occurring in the
or more must be designed so that with the aeroplane flight conditions when the gear is in the
under control it can be landed on a paved runway retracted position;
with any one or more landing gear legs not
(ii) The combination of friction
extended without sustaining a structural component
loads, inertia loads, brake torque loads, air
failure that is likely to cause the spillage of enough
loads, and gyroscopic loads resulting from
fuel to constitute a fire hazard.
the wheels rotating at a peripheral speed
(c) Compliance with the provisions of this equal to 1·23 VSR (with the flaps in take-
paragraph may be shown by analysis or tests, or off position at design take-off weight),
both. occurring during retraction and extension
at any airspeed up to 1·5 VSR1 with the
wing-flaps in the approach position at
CS 25.723 Shock absorption tests (See design landing weight, and
AMC 25.723)
(iii) Any load factor up to those
(a) The analytical representation of the specified in CS 25.345 (a) for the wing-
landing gear dynamic characteristics that is used in flaps extended condition.
determining the landing loads must be validated by
(2) Unless there are other means to
energy absorption tests. A range of tests must be
decelerate the aeroplane in flight at this speed,
conducted to ensure that the analytical
the landing gear, the retracting mechanism, and
representation is valid for the design conditions
the aeroplane structure (including wheel well
specified in CS 25.473.
doors) must be designed to withstand the flight
(1) The configurations subjected to loads occurring with the landing gear in the
energy absorption tests at limit design conditions extended position at any speed up to 0·67 VC.
must include at least the design landing weight
(3) Landing gear doors, their operating
or the design takeoff weight, whichever
mechanism, and their supporting structures must
produces the greater value of landing impact
be designed for the yawing manoeuvres
energy.
prescribed for the aeroplane in addition to the
(2) The test attitude of the landing gear conditions of airspeed and load factor prescribed
unit and the application of appropriate drag in sub-paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this
loads during the test must simulate the aeroplane paragraph.
landing conditions in a manner consistent with
(b) Landing gear lock. There must be positive
the development of rational or conservative limit
means to keep the landing gear extended in flight
loads.
and on the ground. There must be positive means
(b) The landing gear may not fail in a test, to keep the landing gear and doors in the correct
demonstrating its reserve energy absorption retracted position in flight, unless it can be shown
capacity, simulating a descent velocity of 3.7 m/s that lowering of the landing gear or doors, or flight
(12 fps) at design landing weight, assuming with the landing gear or doors extended, at any
aeroplane lift not greater than the aeroplane weight speed, is not hazardous.
acting during the landing impact.
(c) Emergency operation. There must be an
(c) In lieu of the tests prescribed in this emergency means for extending the landing gear in
paragraph, changes in previously approved design the event of –
weights and minor changes in design may be
(1) Any reasonably probable failure in
substantiated by analyses based on previous tests
the normal retraction system; or
conducted on the same basic landing gear system
that has similar energy absorption characteristics. (2) The failure of any single source of
hydraulic, electric, or equivalent energy supply.
(d) Operation test. The proper functioning of
CS 25.729 Retracting mechanism the retracting mechanism must be shown by
operation tests.
(a) General. For aeroplanes with retractable
landing gear, the following apply: (e) Position indicator and warning device.
(See AMC 25.729 (e).) If a retractable landing gear

1-D-10
CS-25 BOOK 1

is used, there must be a landing gear position CS 25.731 Wheels


indicator easily visible to the pilot or to the
(a) Each main and nose wheel must be
appropriate crew members (as well as necessary
approved.
devices to actuate the indicator) to indicate without
ambiguity that the retractable units and their (b) The maximum static load rating of each
associated doors are secured in the extended (or wheel may not be less than the corresponding static
retracted) position. The means must be designed as ground reaction with –
follows:
(1) Design maximum weight; and
(1) If switches are used, they must be
(2) Critical centre of gravity.
located and coupled to the landing gear
mechanical systems in a manner that prevents an (c) The maximum limit load rating of each
erroneous indication of ‘down and locked’ if the wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial
landing gear is not in a fully extended position, limit load determined under the applicable ground
or of ‘up and locked’ if the landing gear is not in load requirements of this CS–25.
the fully retracted position. The switches may
(d) Overpressure burst prevention. Means must
be located where they are operated by the actual
be provided in each wheel to prevent wheel failure
landing gear locking latch or device.
and tyre burst that may result from excessive
(2) The flight crew must be given an pressurisation of the wheel and tyre assembly.
aural warning that functions continuously, or is
periodically repeated, if a landing is attempted (e) Braked wheels. Each braked wheel must
when the landing gear is not locked down. meet the applicable requirements of CS 25.735.
(3) The warning must be given in
sufficient time to allow the landing gear to be
locked down or a go-around to be made. CS 25.733 Tyres
(4) There must not be a manual shut-off (a) When a landing gear axle is fitted with a
means readily available to the flight crew for the single wheel and tyre assembly, the wheel must be
warning required by sub-paragraph (e)(2) of this fitted with a suitable tyre of proper fit with a speed
paragraph such that it could be operated rating approved by the Agency that is not exceeded
instinctively, inadvertently or by habitual under critical conditions, and with a load rating
reflexive action. approved by the Agency that is not exceeded under

(5) The system used to generate the
aural warning must be designed to minimise (1) The loads on the main wheel tyre,
false or inappropriate alerts. corresponding to the most critical combination
of aeroplane weight (up to the maximum weight)
(6) Failures of systems used to inhibit
and centre of gravity position; and
the landing gear aural warning, that would
prevent the warning system from operating, must (2) The loads corresponding to the
be improbable. ground reactions in sub-paragraph (b) of this
paragraph, on the nose-wheel tyre, except as
(7) A clear indication or warning must
provided in sub-paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of
be provided whenever the landing gear position
this paragraph.
is not consistent with the landing gear selector
lever position. (b) The applicable ground reactions for nose-
wheel tyres are as follows:
(f) Protection of equipment on landing gear
and in wheel wells. Equipment that is essential to (1) The static ground reaction for the
the safe operation of the aeroplane and that is tyre corresponding to the most critical
located on the landing gear and in wheel wells must combination of aeroplane weight (up to
be protected from the damaging effects of – maximum ramp weight) and centre of gravity
position with a force of 1·0 g acting downward
(1) A bursting tyre, (see AMC 25.729
at the centre of gravity. This load may not
(f));
exceed the load rating of the tyre.
(2) A loose tyre tread unless it is shown
(2) The ground reaction of the tyre
that a loose tyre tread cannot cause damage; and
corresponding to the most critical combination
(3) Possible wheel brake temperatures of aeroplane weight (up to maximum landing
(see AMC 25.729 (f)). weight) and centre of gravity position combined
with forces of 1·0 g downward and 0·31 g

1-D-11
CS-25 BOOK 1

forward acting at the centre of gravity. The CS 25.735 Brakes and braking systems
reactions in this case must be distributed to the (See AMC 25.735)
nose and main wheels by the principles of
static’s with a drag reaction equal to 0·31 times (a) Approval. Each assembly consisting of a
the vertical load at each wheel with brakes wheel(s) and brake(s) must be approved.
capable of producing this ground reaction. This
nose tyre load may not exceed 1·5 times the load (b) Brake system capability. The brake system,
rating of the tyre. associated systems and components must be
designed and constructed so that:
(3) The ground reaction of the tyre
corresponding to the most critical combination
(1) If any electrical, pneumatic,
of aeroplane weight (up to maximum ramp
hydraulic, or mechanical connecting or
weight) and centre of gravity position combined
transmitting element fails, or if any single
with forces of 1·0 g downward and 0·20 g
source of hydraulic or other brake operating
forward acting at the centre of gravity. The
energy supply is lost, it is possible to bring the
reactions in this case must be distributed to the
aeroplane to rest with a braked roll stopping
nose and main wheels by the principles of
distance of not more than two times that
static’s with a drag reaction equal to 0·20 times
obtained in determining the landing distance as
the vertical load at each wheel with brakes
prescribed in CS 25.125.
capable of producing this ground reaction. This
nose tyre load may not exceed 1·5 times the load
(2) Fluid lost from a brake hydraulic
rating of the tyre.
system following a failure in, or in the vicinity
(c) When a landing gear axle is fitted with of, the brakes is insufficient to cause or support
more than one wheel and tyre assembly, such as a hazardous fire on the ground or in flight.
dual or dual-tandem, each wheel must be fitted with
a suitable tyre of proper fit with a speed rating (c) Brake controls. The brake controls must be
approved by the Agency that is not exceeded under designed and constructed so that:
critical conditions, and with a load rating approved
by the Agency that is not exceeded by – (1) Excessive control force is not
required for their operation.
(1) The loads on each main wheel tyre,
corresponding to the most critical combination
(2) If an automatic braking system is
of aeroplane weight (up to maximum weight)
installed, means are provided to:
and centre of gravity position, when multiplied
by a factor of 1·07; and
(i) Arm and disarm the system, and
(2) Loads specified in sub-paragraphs
(a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this paragraph (ii) Allow the pilot(s) to override
on each nose-wheel tyre. the system by use of manual braking.
(d) Each tyre installed on a retractable landing
(d) Parking brake. The aeroplane must have a
gear system must, at the maximum size of the tyre
parking brake control that, when selected on, will,
type expected in service, have a clearance to
without further attention, prevent the aeroplane
surrounding structure and systems that is adequate
from rolling on a dry and level paved runway when
to prevent unintended contact between the tyre and
the most adverse combination of maximum thrust
any part of the structure or systems.
on one engine and up to maximum ground idle
(e) For an aeroplane with a maximum thrust on any, or all, other engine(s) is applied. The
certificated take-off weight of more than 34019 kg control must be suitably located or be adequately
(75 000 pounds), tyres mounted on braked wheels protected to prevent inadvertent operation. There
must be inflated with dry nitrogen or other gases must be indication in the cockpit when the parking
shown to be inert so that the gas mixture in the tyre brake is not fully released.
does not contain oxygen in excess of 5% by
volume, unless it can be shown that the tyre liner (e) Anti-skid system. If an anti-skid system is
material will not produce a volatile gas when installed:
heated, or that means are provided to prevent tyre
temperatures from reaching unsafe levels. (1) It must operate satisfactorily over the
range of expected runway conditions, without
external adjustment.

1-D-12
CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) It must, at all times, have priority minutes, it must be demonstrated that for at least 5
over the automatic braking system, if installed. minutes from application of the parking brake, no
condition occurs (or has occurred during the stop),
(f) Kinetic energy capacity— including fire associated with the tyre or wheel and
brake assembly, that could prejudice the safe and
(1) Design landing stop. The design- complete evacuation of the aeroplane.
landing stop is an operational landing stop at
maximum landing weight. The design landing (h) Stored energy systems. An indication to
stop brake kinetic energy absorption the flight crew of the usable stored energy must be
requirement of each wheel, brake, and tyre provided if a stored energy system is used to show
assembly must be determined. It must be compliance with sub-paragraph (b)(1) of this
substantiated by dynamometer testing that the paragraph. The available stored energy must be
wheel, brake and tyre assembly is capable of sufficient for:
absorbing not less than this level of kinetic
energy throughout the defined wear range of the (1) At least 6 full applications of the
brake. The energy absorption rate derived from brakes when an anti-skid system is not
the aeroplane manufacturer’s braking operating; and
requirements must be achieved. The mean
deceleration must not be less than 3.1 m/s2 (10 (2) Bringing the aeroplane to a complete
fps2). stop when an anti-skid system is operating,
under all runway surface conditions for which
(2) Maximum kinetic energy accelerate- the aeroplane is certificated.
stop. The maximum kinetic energy accelerate-
stop is a rejected take-off for the most critical (i) Brake wear indicators. Means must be
combination of aeroplane landing weight and provided for each brake assembly to indicate when
speed. The accelerate-stop brake kinetic energy the heat sink is worn to the permissible limit. The
absorption requirement of each wheel, brake, means must be reliable and readily visible.
and tyre assembly must be determined. It must
be substantiated by dynamometer testing that (j) Over-temperature burst prevention. Means
the wheel brake and tyre assembly is capable of must be provided in each braked wheel to prevent a
absorbing not less than this level of kinetic wheel failure, a tyre burst, or both, that may result
energy throughout the defined wear range of the from elevated brake temperatures. Additionally, all
brake. The energy absorption rate derived from wheels must meet the requirements of CS
the aeroplane's braking requirements must be 25.731(d).
achieved. The mean deceleration must not be
less than 1.8 m/s2 (6 fps2). (k) Compatibility. Compatibility of the wheel
and brake assemblies with the aeroplane and its
(3) Most severe landing stop. The most systems must be substantiated.
severe landing stop is a stop at the most critical
combination of aeroplane landing weight and
speed. The most severe landing stop brake
CS 25.745 Nose-wheel steering
kinetic energy absorption requirement of each
wheel, brake, and tyre assembly must be
(a) The nose-wheel steering system, unless it
determined. It must be substantiated by
is restricted in use to low-speed manoeuvring, must
dynamometer testing that, at the declared fully
be so designed that exceptional skill is not required
worn limit(s) of the brake heat sink, the wheel,
for its use during take-off and landing, including
brake and tyre assembly is capable of absorbing
the case of cross-wind, and in the event of sudden
not less than this level of kinetic energy. The
power-unit failure at any stage during the take-off
most severe landing stop need not be considered
run. This must be shown by tests. (See AMC
for extremely improbable failure conditions or if
25.745 (a).)
the maximum kinetic energy accelerate-stop
energy is more severe.
(b) It must be shown that, in any practical
circumstances, movement of the pilot’s steering
(g) Brake condition after high kinetic energy
control (including movement during retraction or
dynamometer stop(s). Following the high kinetic
extension or after retraction of the landing gear)
energy stop demonstration(s) required by sub-
cannot interfere with the correct retraction or
paragraph (f) of this paragraph, with the parking
extension of the landing gear.
brake promptly and fully applied for at least 3

1-D-13
CS-25 BOOK 1

(c) Under failure conditions the system must crewmembers nor passengers require use of the
comply with CS 25.1309 (b), (c) and (d). The flight deck door in order to reach the emergency
arrangement of the system must be such that no exits provided for them; and
single failure will result in a nose-wheel position,
(b) Means must be provided to enable flight-
which will lead to a Hazardous Effect. Where
crew members to directly enter the passenger
reliance is placed on nose-wheel steering in
compartment from the pilot compartment if the
showing compliance with CS 25.233, the nose-
cockpit door becomes jammed.
wheel steering system must be shown to comply
with CS 25.1309. (See AMC 25.745 (c).) (c) There must be an emergency means to
enable a crewmember to enter the pilot
(d) The design of the attachment for towing
compartment in the event that the flight crew
the aeroplane on the ground must be such as to
becomes incapacitated.
preclude damage to the steering system.
(e) Unless the nose-wheel, when lowered, is
automatically in the fore-and-aft attitude successful CS 25.773 Pilot compartment view
landings must be demonstrated with the nose-wheel
(a) Non-precipitation conditions. For non-
initially in all possible off-centre positions.
precipitation conditions, the following apply:
PERSONNEL AND CARGO (1) Each pilot compartment must be
ACCOMMODATIONS arranged to give the pilots a sufficiently
extensive, clear, and undistorted view, to enable
CS 25.771 Pilot compartment them to safely perform any manoeuvres within
the operating limitations of the aeroplane,
(a) Each pilot compartment and its equipment
including taxiing, take-off, approach and
must allow the minimum flight crew (established
landing.
under CS 25.1523) to perform their duties without
unreasonable concentration or fatigue. (2) Each pilot compartment must be free
of glare and reflection that could interfere with
(b) The primary controls listed in CS 25.779
the normal duties of the minimum flight crew
(a), excluding cables and control rods, must be
(established under CS 25.1523). This must be
located with respect to the propellers so that no
shown in day and night flight tests under non-
member of the minimum flight crew (established
precipitation conditions.
under CS 25.1523), or part of the controls, lies in
the region between the plane of rotation of any (b) Precipitation conditions. For precipitation
inboard propeller and the surface generated by a conditions, the following apply:
line passing through the centre of the propeller hub
(1) The aeroplane must have a means to
making an angle of 5º forward or aft of the plane of
maintain a clear portion of the windshield during
rotation of the propeller.
precipitation conditions, sufficient for both
(c) If provision is made for a second pilot, the pilots to have a sufficiently extensive view along
aeroplane must be controllable with equal safety the flight path in normal flight attitudes of the
from either pilot seat. aeroplane. This means must be designed to
function, without continuous attention on the
(d) The pilot compartment must be
part of the crew, in –
constructed so that, when flying in rain or snow, it
will not leak in a manner that will distract the crew (i) Heavy rain at speeds up to 1·5
or harm the structure. VSR1, with lift and drag devices retracted;
and
(e) Vibration and noise characteristics of
cockpit equipment may not interfere with safe (ii) The icing conditions specified
operation of the aeroplane. in CS 25.1419 if certification with ice
protection provisions is requested. (See
AMC 25.773(b)(1)(ii).)
CS 25.772 Pilot compartment doors
(2) No single failure of the systems used
For an aeroplane that has a lockable door to provide the view required by sub-paragraph
installed between the pilot compartment and the (b)(1) of this paragraph must cause the loss of
passenger compartment: - that view by both pilots in the specified
precipitation conditions.
(a) For aeroplanes with passenger seating
configuration of 20 seats or more, the emergency (3) The first pilot must have –
exit configuration must be designed so that neither

1-D-14
CS-25 BOOK 1

(i) A window that is openable the danger to the pilots from flying windshield
under the conditions prescribed in sub- fragments due to bird impact. This must be shown
paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph when for each transparent pane in the cockpit that –
the cabin is not pressurised, provides the
(1) Appears in the front view of the
view specified in that paragraph, and gives
aeroplane;
sufficient protection from the elements
against impairment of the pilot’s vision; or (2) Is inclined 15º or more to the
longitudinal axis of the aeroplane; and
(ii) An alternative means to
maintain a clear view under the conditions (3) Has any part of the pane located
specified in sub-paragraph (b)(1) of this where its fragmentation will constitute a hazard
paragraph, considering the probable to the pilots.
damage due to a severe hail encounter.
(d) The design of windshields and windows in
(4) The openable window specified in pressurised aeroplanes must be based on factors
sub-paragraph (b)(3) of this paragraph need not peculiar to high altitude operation, including the
be provided if it is shown that an area of the effects of continuous and cyclic pressurisation
transparent surface will remain clear sufficient loadings, the inherent characteristics of the material
for at least one pilot to land the aeroplane safely used, and the effects of temperatures and
in the event of - temperature differentials. The windshield and
window panels must be capable of withstanding the
(i) Any system failure or combination
maximum cabin pressure differential loads
of failures, which is not, Extremely Improbable
combined with critical aerodynamic pressure and
under the precipitation conditions specified in sub-
temperature effects after any single failure in the
paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph.
installation or associated systems. It may be
(ii) An encounter with hail, birds, or assumed that, after a single failure that is obvious to
insects. the flight crew (established under CS 25.1523), the
cabin pressure differential is reduced from the
(c) Internal windshield and window fogging.
maximum, in accordance with appropriate operating
The aeroplane must have a means to prevent
limitations, to allow continued safe flight of the
fogging to the internal portions of the windshield
aeroplane with a cabin pressure altitude of not more
and window panels over an area which would
than 4572m (15 000 ft) (see AMC 25.775 (d)).
provide the visibility specified in sub-paragraph (a)
of this paragraph under all internal and external (e) The windshield panels in front of the pilots
ambient conditions, including precipitation must be arranged so that, assuming the loss of
conditions, in which the aeroplane is intended to be vision through any one panel, one or more panels
operated. remain available for use by a pilot seated at a pilot
station to permit continued safe flight and landing.
(d) Fixed markers or other guides must be
installed at each pilot station to enable the pilots to
position themselves in their seats for an optimum
CS 25.777 Cockpit controls
combination of outside visibility and instrument
scan. If lighted markers or guides are used they (a) Each cockpit control must be located to
must comply with the requirements specified in CS provide convenient operation and to prevent
25.1381. confusion and inadvertent operation.
(b) The direction of movement of cockpit
controls must meet the requirements of CS 25.779.
CS 25.775 Windshields and windows
Wherever practicable, the sense of motion involved
(a) Internal panes must be made of non- in the operation of other controls must correspond
splintering material. to the sense of the effect of the operation upon the
aeroplane or upon the part operated. Controls of a
(b) Windshield panes directly in front of the
variable nature using a rotary motion must move
pilots in the normal conduct of their duties, and the
clockwise from the off position, through an
supporting structures for these panes, must
increasing range, to the full on position.
withstand, without penetration, the bird impact
conditions specified in CS 25.631. (c) The controls must be located and arranged,
with respect to the pilots' seats, so that there is full
(c) Unless it can be shown by analysis or tests
and unrestricted movement of each control without
that the probability of occurrence of a critical
interference from the cockpit structure or the
windshield fragmentation condition is of a low
clothing of the minimum flight crew (established
order, the aeroplane must have a means to minimise

1-D-15
CS-25 BOOK 1

under CS 25.1523) when any member of this flight auxiliary lift rearward for flaps down
crew from 1.58 m (5ft 2 inches) to 1·91 m (6ft 3 devices)
inches) in height, is seated with the seat belt and
shoulder harness (if provided) fastened. Trim tabs (or Rotate to produce similar
equivalent) rotation of the aeroplane about
(d) Identical powerplant controls for each
an axis parallel to the axis of
engine must be located to prevent confusion as to
the control
the engines they control.
(e) Wing-flap controls and other auxiliary lift (b) Powerplant and auxiliary controls –
device controls must be located on top of the
(1) Powerplant.
pedestal, aft of the throttles, centrally or to the right
of the pedestal centre line, and not less than 25 cm
Controls Motion and effect
(10 inches) aft of the landing gear control.
(f) The landing gear control must be located Power or Forward to increase forward
forward of the throttles and must be operable by thrust thrust and rearward to increase
each pilot when seated with seat belt and shoulder rearward thrust
harness (if provided) fastened.
Propellers Forward to increase rpm
(g) Control knobs must be shaped in
accordance with CS 25.781. In addition, the knobs
(2) Auxiliary.
must be of the same colour and this colour must
contrast with the colour of control knobs for other
Controls Motion and effect
purposes and the surrounding cockpit.
(h) If a flight engineer is required as part of Landing gear Down to extend
the minimum flight crew (established under CS
25.1523), the aeroplane must have a flight engineer
station located and arranged so that the flight-crew CS 25.781 Cockpit control knob shape
members can perform their functions efficiently and
Cockpit control knobs must conform to the
without interfering with each other.
general shapes (but not necessarily the exact sizes
or specific proportions) in the following figure:
CS 25.779 Motion and effect of cockpit
controls
Cockpit controls must be designed so that they
operate in accordance with the following movement
and actuation:
(a) Aerodynamic controls –
(1) Primary.

Controls Motion and effect

Aileron Right (clockwise) for right


wing down

Elevator Rearward for nose up

Rudder Right pedal forward for nose


right

(2) Secondary.

Controls Motion and effect

Flaps (or Forward for wing-flaps up;

1-D-16
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.783 Doors
(e) There must be provision for direct visual
(a) Each cabin must have at least one easily inspection of the locking mechanism to determine if
accessible external door. external doors, for which the initial opening
movement is not inward (including passenger, crew,
(b) There must be a means to lock and
service, and cargo doors), are fully closed and
safeguard each external door against opening in
locked. The provision must be discernible under
flight (either inadvertently by persons or as a result
operational lighting conditions by appropriate crew
of mechanical failure or failure of a single
members using a flashlight or equivalent lighting
structural element either during or after closure).
source. In addition there must be a visual warning
Each external door must be openable from both the
means to signal the appropriate flight-crew
inside and the outside, even though persons may be
members if any external door is not fully closed and
crowded against the door on the inside of the
locked. The means must be designed such that any
aeroplane. Inward opening doors may be used if
failure or combination of failures that would result
there are means to prevent occupants from
in an erroneous closed and locked indication is
crowding against the door to an extent that would
improbable for doors for which the initial opening
interfere with the opening of the door. The means
movement is not inward.
of opening must be simple and obvious and must be
arranged and marked so that it can be readily (f) External doors must have provisions to
located and operated, even in darkness. Auxiliary prevent the initiation of pressurisation of the
locking devices may be used. aeroplane to an unsafe level if the door is not fully
closed and locked. In addition, it must be shown by
(c) Each external door must be reasonably
safety analysis that inadvertent opening is
free from jamming as a result of fuselage
extremely improbable.
deformation in a minor crash.
(g) Cargo and service doors not suitable for
(d) Each external door must be located where
use as emergency exits need only meet sub-
persons using them will not be endangered by the
paragraphs (e) and (f) of this paragraph and be
propeller when appropriate operating procedures
safeguarded against opening in flight as a result of
are used.
mechanical failure or failure of a single structural
element.

1-D-17
CS-25 BOOK 1

(h) Each passenger entry door in the side of (1) A shoulder harness that will prevent
the fuselage must qualify as a Type A, Type I, or the head from contacting any injurious object.
Type II passenger emergency exit and must meet
(2) The elimination of any injurious
the requirements of CS 25.807 to 25.813 that apply
object within striking radius of the head.
to that type of passenger emergency exit.
(3) An energy absorbing rest that will
(i) If an integral stair is installed in a
support the arms, shoulders, head and spine.
passenger entry door that is qualified as a passenger
emergency exit, the stair must be designed so that (e) Each berth must be designed so that the
under the following conditions the effectiveness of forward part has a padded end board, canvas
passenger emergency egress will not be impaired: diaphragm, or equivalent means, that can withstand
the static load reaction of the occupant when
(1) The door, integral stair, and
subjected to the forward inertia force specified in
operating mechanism have been subjected to the
CS 25.561. Berths must be free from corners and
inertia forces specified in CS 25.561(b)(3),
protuberances likely to cause injury to a person
acting separately relative to the surrounding
occupying the berth during emergency conditions.
structure.
(f) Each seat or berth, and its supporting
(2) The aeroplane is in the normal
structure, and each safety belt or harness and its
ground attitude and in each of the attitudes
anchorage must be designed for an occupant weight
corresponding to collapse of one or more legs of
of 77 kg (170 pounds), considering the maximum
the landing gear.
load factors, inertia forces, and reactions among the
(j) All lavatory doors must be designed to occupant, seat, safety belt, and harness for each
preclude anyone from becoming trapped inside the relevant flight and ground load condition (including
lavatory, and if a locking mechanism is installed, it the emergency landing conditions prescribed in CS
must be capable of being unlocked from the outside 25.561). In addition –
without the aid of special tools.
(1) The structural analysis and testing of
the seats, berths, and their supporting structures
may be determined by assuming that the critical
CS 25.785 Seats, berths, safety belts
load in the forward, sideward, downward,
and harnesses
upward, and rearward directions (as determined
(a) A seat (or berth for a non-ambulant from the prescribed flight, ground, and
person) must be provided for each occupant who emergency landing conditions) acts separately or
has reached his or her second birthday. using selected combinations of loads if the
required strength in each specified direction is
(b) Each seat, berth, safety belt, harness, and
substantiated. The forward load factor need not
adjacent part of the aeroplane at each station
be applied to safety belts for berths.
designated as occupiable during take-off and
landing must be designed so that a person making (2) Each pilot seat must be designed for
proper use of these facilities will not suffer serious the reactions resulting from the application of
injury in an emergency landing as a result of the the pilot forces prescribed in CS 25.395.
inertia forces specified in CS 25.561 and CS
(3) For the determination of the strength
25.562.
of the local attachments (see AMC 25.561(c)) of
(c) Each seat or berth must be approved. –
(d) Each occupant of a seat (see AMC (i) Each seat to the structure; and
25.785(d)) that makes more than an 18-degree angle
(ii) Each belt or harness to the seat
with the vertical plane containing the aeroplane
or structure; a multiplication factor of 1·33
centreline must be protected from head injury by a
instead of the fitting factor as defined in
safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will
CS 25.625 should be used for the inertia
support the arms, shoulders, head and spine, or by a
forces specified in CS 25.561. (For the
safety belt and shoulder harness that will prevent
lateral forces according to CS 25.561(b)(3)
the head from contacting any injurious object.
1·33 times 3·0 g should be used.)
Each occupant of any other seat must be protected
from head injury by a safety belt and, as (g) Each crewmember seat at a flight-deck
appropriate to the type, location, and angle of station must have a shoulder harness. These seats
facing of each seat, by one or more of the must meet the strength requirements of sub-
following: paragraph (f) of this paragraph, except that where a
seat forms part of the load path, the safety belt or

1-D-18
CS-25 BOOK 1

shoulder harness attachments need only be proved CS 25.787 Stowage compartments


to be not less strong than the actual strength of the
(a) Each compartment for the stowage of
seat. (See AMC 25.785 (g).)
cargo, baggage, carry-on articles and equipment
(h) Each seat located in the passenger (such as life rafts) and any other stowage
compartment and designated for use during take-off compartment must be designed for its placarded
and landing by a cabin crewmember required by the maximum weight of contents and for the critical
Operating Rules must be – load distribution at the appropriate maximum load
factors corresponding to the specified flight and
(1) Near a required floor level
ground load conditions and, where the breaking
emergency exit, except that another location is
loose of the contents of such compartments could–
acceptable if the emergency egress of passengers
would be enhanced with that location. A cabin (1) Cause direct injury to occupants;
crewmember seat must be located adjacent to
(2) Penetrate fuel tanks or lines or cause
each Type A emergency exit. Other cabin
fire or explosion hazard by damage to adjacent
crewmember seats must be evenly distributed
systems; or
among the required floor level emergency exits
to the extent feasible. (3) Nullify any of the escape facilities
provided for use after an emergency landing, to
(2) To the extent possible, without
the emergency landing conditions of CS 25.561
compromising proximity to a required floor level
(b) (3).
emergency exit, located to provide a direct view
of the cabin area for which the cabin If the aeroplane has a passenger-seating
crewmember is responsible. configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 seats or
more, each stowage compartment in the passenger
(3) Positioned so that the seat will not
cabin, except for under seat and overhead
interfere with the use of a passageway or exit
compartments for passenger convenience, must be
when the seat is not in use.
completely enclosed.
(4) Located to minimise the probability
(b) There must be a means to prevent the
that occupants would suffer injury by being
contents in the compartments from becoming a
struck by items dislodged from service areas,
hazard by shifting, under the loads specified in sub-
stowage compartments, or service equipment.
paragraph (a) of this paragraph. (See AMC 25.787
(5) Either forward or rearward facing (b).)
with an energy absorbing rest that is designed to
(c) If cargo compartment lamps are installed,
support the arms, shoulders, head and spine.
each lamp must be installed so as to prevent contact
(6) Equipped with a restraint system between lamp bulb and cargo.
consisting of a combined safety belt and
shoulder harness unit with a single point release.
There must be means to secure each restraint CS 25.789 Retention of items of mass in
system when not in use to prevent interference passenger and crew
with rapid egress in an emergency. compartments and galleys
(i) Each safety belt must be equipped with a (a) Means must be provided to prevent each
metal-to-metal latching device. item of mass (that is part of the aeroplane type
design) in a passenger or crew compartment or
(j) If the seat backs do not provide a firm
galley from becoming a hazard by shifting under
handhold, there must be a handgrip or rail along
the appropriate maximum load factors
each aisle to enable persons to steady themselves
corresponding to the specified flight and ground
while using the aisles in moderately rough air.
load conditions, and to the emergency landing
(k) Each projecting object that would injure conditions of CS 25.561(b).
persons seated or moving about the aeroplane in
(b) Each interphone restraint system must be
normal flight must be padded.
designed so that when subjected to the load factors
(l) Each forward observer’s seat required by specified in CS 25.561 (b)(3), the interphone will
the operating rules must be shown to be suitable for remain in its stowed position.
use in conducting the necessary en-route
inspections.

1-D-19
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.791 Passenger information signs tensile load on the knob or handle (See AMC
and placards 25.795(a)(1)), and
(See AMC 25.791)
(2) Resist penetration by small arms fire
(a) If smoking is to be prohibited, there must
and fragmentation devices by meeting the
be at least one placard so stating that is legible to
following projectile definitions and projectile
each person seated in the cabin. If smoking is to be
speeds (See AMC 25.795(a)(2)).
allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated
from the passenger compartment, there must be at
(i) Demonstration Projectile #1. A
least one sign notifying when smoking is
9 mm full metal jacket, round nose (FMJ
prohibited. Signs, which notify when smoking is
RN) bullet with nominal mass of 8.0 g
prohibited, must be installed so as to be operable
(124 grain) and reference velocity 436 m/s
from either pilot’s seat and, when illuminated, must
(1,430 ft/s)
be legible under all probable conditions of cabin
illumination to each person seated in the cabin.
(ii) Demonstration Projectile #2. A
(b) Signs that notify when seat belts should be .44 Magnum, jacketed hollow point (JHP)
fastened and that are installed to comply with the bullet with nominal mass of 15.6 g (240
Operating Rules must be installed so as to be grain) and reference velocity 436 m/s
operable from either pilot’s seat and, when (1,430 ft/s)
illuminated, must be legible under all probable
conditions of cabin illumination to each person
seated in the cabin.
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS
(c) A placard must be located on or adjacent
to the door of each receptacle used for the disposal
of flammable waste materials to indicate that use of CS 25.801 Ditching
the receptacle for disposal of cigarettes, etc., is
(a) If certification with ditching provisions is
prohibited.
requested, the aeroplane must meet the
(d) Lavatories must have ‘No Smoking’ or requirements of this paragraph and CS 25.807(e),
‘No Smoking in Lavatory’ placards positioned 25.1411 and 25.1415(a).
adjacent to each ashtray. The placards must have
(b) Each practicable design measure,
red letters at least 13 mm (0·5 inches) high on a
compatible with the general characteristics of the
white background of at least 25 mm (1·0 inches)
aeroplane, must be taken to minimise the
high. (A No Smoking symbol may be included on
probability that in an emergency landing on water,
the placard.)
the behaviour of the aeroplane would cause
(e) Symbols that clearly express the intent of immediate injury to the occupants or would make it
the sign or placard may be used in lieu of letters. impossible for them to escape.
(c) The probable behaviour of the aeroplane in
a water landing must be investigated by model tests
CS 25.793 Floor surfaces
or by comparison with aeroplanes of similar
The floor surface of all areas, which are likely to configuration for which the ditching characteristics
become wet in service, must have slip resistant are known. Scoops, wing-flaps, projections, and
properties. any other factor likely to affect the hydrodynamic
characteristics of the aeroplane, must be considered.
(d) It must be shown that, under reasonably
CS 25.795 Security considerations.
probable water conditions, the flotation time and
(see AMC 25.795)
trim of the aeroplane will allow the occupants to
leave the aeroplane and enter the life rafts required
(a) Protection of flightdeck. If a secure
by CS 25.1415. If compliance with this provision
flightdeck door is required by operating rules, the
is shown by buoyancy and trim computations,
door installation must be designed to:
appropriate allowances must be made for probable
structural damage and leakage. If the aeroplane has
(1) Resist forcible intrusion by
fuel tanks (with fuel jettisoning provisions) that can
unauthorized persons and be capable of
reasonably be expected to withstand a ditching
withstanding impacts of 300 Joules (221.3 foot-
without leakage, the jettisonable volume of fuel
pounds) at the critical locations on the door, as
may be considered as buoyancy volume.
well as a 1113 Newton (250 pound) constant

1-D-20
CS-25 BOOK 1

(e) Unless the effects of the collapse of with a step-up inside the aeroplane of not more
external doors and windows are accounted for in than 51 cm (20 inches). If the exit is located
the investigation of the probable behaviour of the over the wing, the step-down outside the
aeroplane in a water landing (as prescribed in sub- aeroplane may not exceed 69 cm (27 inches).
paragraphs (c) and (d) of this paragraph), the (4) Type IV. This type is a rectangular
external doors and windows must be designed to opening of not less than 48 cm (19 inches) wide
withstand the probable maximum local pressures. by 66 cm (26 inches) high, with corner radii not
greater than one-third the width of the exit,
located over the wing, with a step-up inside the
CS 25.803 Emergency evacuation aeroplane of not more than 74 cm (29 inches)
(See AMC 25.803) and a step-down outside the aeroplane of not
more than 91 cm (36 inches).
(a) Each crew and passenger area must have
emergency means to allow rapid evacuation in (5) Ventral. This type is an exit from
crash landings, with the landing gear extended as the passenger compartment through the pressure
well as with the landing gear retracted, considering shell and the bottom fuselage skin. The
the possibility of the aeroplane being on fire. dimensions and physical configuration of this
type of exit must allow at least the same
(b) Reserved.
rate of egress as a Type I exit with the
(c) For aeroplanes having a seating capacity aeroplane in the normal ground attitude, with
of more than 44 passengers, it must be shown that landing gear extended.
the maximum seating capacity, including the
(6) Tail cone. This type is an aft exit
number of crew members required by the operating
from the passenger compartment through the
rules for which certification is requested, can be
pressure shell and through an openable cone of
evacuated from the aeroplane to the ground under
the fuselage aft of the pressure shell. The means
simulated emergency conditions within 90 seconds.
of opening the tail cone must be simple and
Compliance with this requirement must be shown
obvious and must employ a single operation.
by actual demonstration using the test criteria
outlined in Appendix J of this CS–25 unless the (7) Type A. This type is a floor level
Agency find that a combination of analysis and exit with a rectangular opening of not less than
testing will provide data equivalent to that which 1.07 m (42 inches) wide by 1·83 m (72 inches)
would be obtained by actual demonstration. high with corner radii not greater than one-sixth
of the width of the exit.
(b) Step down distance. Step down distance,
CS 25.807 Emergency exits
as used in this paragraph, means the actual distance
(See AMC to 25.807 and
between the bottom of the required opening and a
25.813 and AMC 25.807)
usable foot hold, extending out from the fuselage,
(a) Type. For the purpose of this CS–25, the that is large enough to be effective without
types of exits are defined as follows: searching by sight or feel.
(1) Type I. This type is a floor level exit (c) Over-sized exits. Openings larger than
with a rectangular opening of not less than 61 those specified in this paragraph, whether or not of
cm (24 inches) wide by 1·22 m (48 inches) high, rectangular shape, may be used if the specified
with corner radii not greater than one-third the rectangular opening can be inscribed within the
width of the exit. opening and the base of the inscribed rectangular
opening meets the specified step-up and step-down
(2) Type II. This type is a rectangular
heights.
opening of not less than 51 cm (20 inches) wide
by 1.12 m (44 inches) high, with corner radii not (d) Passenger emergency exits. (See AMC
greater than one-third the width of the exit. 25.807 (d). Except as provided in sub-paragraphs
Type II exits must be floor level exits unless (d)(3) to (7) of this paragraph, the minimum
located over the wing, in which case they may number and type of passenger emergency exits is as
not have a step-up inside the aeroplane of more follows:
than 25 cm (10 inches) nor a step-down outside
(1) For passenger seating configurations
the aeroplane of more than 43 cm (17inches).
of 1 to 299 seats –
(3) Type III. This type is a rectangular
opening of not less than 51 cm (20 inches) wide
by 91 cm (36 inches) high, with corner radii not
greater than one-third the width of the exit, and

1-D-21
CS-25 BOOK 1

Passenger seating
Emergency exits for each side of the shell which is at least equivalent to a Type
configuration III emergency exit with respect to
fuselage
(crew member
dimensions, step-up and step-down
seats not
Type I Type II Type III Type IV distance, and with the top of the opening
included)
not less than 1.42 m (56 inches) from the
1 to 9 1
passenger compartment floor,
10 to 19 1 15 additional passenger seats.
20 to 39 1 1
(4) For aeroplanes on which the vertical
40 to 79 1 1 location of the wing does not allow the
80 to 109 1 2 installation of over-wing exits, an exit of at least
the dimensions of a Type III exit must be
110 to 139 2 1
installed instead of each Type IV exit required
140 to 179 2 2 by sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph.
(5) An alternate emergency exit
Additional exits are required for passenger seating configuration may be approved in lieu of that
configurations greater than 179 seats in accordance specified in sub-paragraph (d)(1) or (2) of this
with the following table: paragraph provided the overall evacuation
capability is shown to be equal to or greater than
Additional emergency exits Increase in passenger seating
(each side of fuselage) configuration allowed that of the specified emergency exit
configuration.
Type A 110
(6) The following must also meet the
Type I 45 applicable emergency exit requirements of CS
Type II 40 25.809 to 25.813:
Type III 35 (i) Each emergency exit in the
passenger compartment in excess of the
(2) For passenger seating configurations minimum number of required emergency
greater than 299 seats, each emergency exit in exits.
the side of the fuselage must be either a Type A
or a Type I. A passenger seating configuration (ii) Any other floor level door or
of 110 seats is allowed for each pair of Type A exit that is accessible from the passenger
exits and a passenger seating configuration of 45 compartment and is as large or larger than
seats is allowed for each pair of Type I exits. a Type II exit, but less than 1·17 m
(46 inches) wide.
(3) If a passenger ventral or tail cone
exit is installed and that exit provides at least the (iii) Any other passenger ventral or
same rate of egress as a Type III exit with the tail cone exit.
aeroplane in the most adverse exit opening (7) For an aeroplane that is required to
condition that would result from the collapse of have more than one passenger emergency exit
one or more legs of the landing gear, an increase for each side of the fuselage, no passenger
in the passenger seating configuration beyond emergency exit must be more than 18·3 m (60
the limits specified in sub-paragraph (d)(1) or feet) from any adjacent passenger emergency
(2) of this paragraph may be allowed as follows: exit on the same side of the same deck of the
(i) For a ventral exit, 12 addi- fuselage, as measured parallel to the aeroplane’s
tional passenger seats. longitudinal axis between the nearest exit edges.

(ii) For a tail cone exit (e) Ditching emergency exits for passengers.
incorporating a floor level opening of not Ditching emergency exits must be provided in
less than 51 cm (20 inches) wide by 1·52 accordance with the following requirements
m (60 inches) high, with corner radii not whether or not certification with ditching
greater than one-third the width of the exit, provisions is requested:
in the pressure shell and incorporating an (1) For aeroplanes that have a passenger
approved assist means in accordance with seating configuration of nine seats or less,
CS 25.809(h), 25 additional passenger excluding pilots seats, one exit above the
seats. waterline in each side of the aeroplane, meeting
(iii) For a tail cone exit at least the dimensions of a Type IV exit.
incorporating an opening in the pressure

1-D-22
CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) For aeroplanes that have a passenger corresponding to collapse of one or more legs of
seating configuration of 10 seats or more, the landing gear; and
excluding pilots seats, one exit above the
(2) Within 10 seconds measured from
waterline in a side of the aeroplane, meeting at
the time when the opening means is actuated to
least the dimensions of a Type III exit for each
the time when the exit is fully opened.
unit (or part of a unit) of 35 passenger seats, but
no less than two such exits in the passenger (c) The means of opening emergency exits
cabin, with one on each side of the aeroplane. must be simple and obvious and may not require
The passenger seat/exit ratio may be increased exceptional effort. Internal exit opening means
through the use of larger exits, or other means, involving sequence operations (such as operation of
provided it is shown that the evacuation two handles or latches or the release of safety
capability during ditching has been improved catches) may be used for flight crew emergency
accordingly. exits if it can be reasonably established that these
means are simple and obvious to crewmembers
(3) If it is impractical to locate side
trained in their use.
exits above the waterline, the side exits must be
replaced by an equal number of readily (d) If a single power-boost or single power-
accessible overhead hatches of not less than the operated system is the primary system for operating
dimensions of a Type III exit, except that for more than one exit in an emergency, each exit must
aeroplanes with a passenger configuration of 35 be capable of meeting the requirements of sub-
seats or less, excluding pilots seats, the two paragraph (b) of this paragraph in the event of
required Type III side exits need be replaced by failure of the primary system. Manual operation of
only one overhead hatch. the exit (after failure of the primary system) is
acceptable.
(f) Flight crew emergency exits. For
aeroplanes in which the proximity of passenger (e) Each emergency exit must be shown by
emergency exits to the flight crew area does not tests, or by a combination of analysis and tests, to
offer a convenient and readily accessible means of meet the requirements of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c)
evacuation of the flight crew, and for all aeroplanes of this paragraph.
having a passenger seating capacity greater than 20,
(f) There must be a means to lock each
flight crew exits must be located in the flight crew
emergency exit and to safeguard against its opening
area. Such exits must be of sufficient size and so
in flight, either inadvertently by persons or as a
located as to permit rapid evacuation by the crew.
result of mechanical failure. In addition, there must
One exit must be provided on each side of the
be a means for direct visual inspection of the
aeroplane; or, alternatively, a top hatch must be
locking mechanism by crewmembers to determine
provided. Each exit must encompass an
that each emergency exit, for which the initial
unobstructed rectangular opening of at least 48 by
opening movement is outward, is fully locked.
51 cm (19 by 20 inches) unless satisfactory exit
utility can be demonstrated by a typical (g) There must be provisions to minimise the
crewmember. probability of jamming of the emergency exits
resulting from fuselage deformation in a minor
crash landing.
CS 25.809 Emergency exit arrangement
(a) Each emergency exit, including a flight
CS 25.810 Emergency egress assist
crew emergency exit, must be a movable door or
means and escape routes
hatch in the external walls of the fuselage, allowing
unobstructed opening to the outside. (a) Each non-over-wing landplane emergency
exit more than 1.8 m (6 feet) from the ground with
(b) Each emergency exit must be openable
the aeroplane on the ground and the landing gear
from the inside and the outside except that sliding
extended and each non-over-wing Type A exit must
window emergency exits in the flight crew area
have an approved means to assist the occupants in
need not be openable from the outside if other
descending to the ground.
approved exits are convenient and readily
accessible to the flight crew area. Each emergency (1) The assisting means for each
exit must be capable of being opened, when there is passenger emergency exit must be a self-
no fuselage deformation – supporting slide or equivalent; and, in the case
of a Type A exit, it must be capable of carrying
(1) With the aeroplane in the normal
simultaneously two parallel lines of evacuees.
ground attitude and in each of the attitudes

1-D-23
CS-25 BOOK 1

In addition, the assisting means must be (i) Attached to the fuselage


designed to meet the following requirements. structure at or above the top of the
emergency exit opening, or, for a device at
(i) It must be automatically
a pilot’s emergency exit window, at
deployed and deployment must begin
another approved location if the stowed
during the interval between the time the
device, or its attachment, would reduce the
exit opening means is actuated from inside
pilot’s view in flight.
the aeroplane and the time the exit is fully
opened. However, each passenger (ii) Able (with its attachment) to
emergency exit which is also a passenger withstand a 1779 N (400-lbf) static load.
entrance door or a service door must be
(b) Assist means from the cabin to the wing
provided with means to prevent
are required for each Type A exit located above the
deployment of the assisting means when it
wing and having a step-down unless the exit
is opened from either the inside or the
without an assist means can be shown to have a rate
outside under non-emergency conditions
of passenger egress at least equal to that of the
for normal use.
same type of non-over-wing exit. If an assist means
(ii) It must be automatically is required, it must be automatically deployed and
erected within 10 seconds after automatically erected, concurrent with the opening
deployment is begun. of the exit and self-supporting within 10 seconds.
(iii) It must be of such length after (c) An escape route must be established from
full deployment that the lower end is self- each over-wing emergency exit, and (except for
supporting on the ground and provides flap surfaces suitable as slides) covered with a slip
safe evacuation of occupants to the ground resistant surface. Except where a means for
after collapse of one or more legs of the channelling the flow of evacuees is provided –
landing gear.
(1) The escape route must be at least
(iv) It must have the capability, in 1·07 m (42 inches) wide at Type A passenger
46 km/hr (25-knot) winds directed from emergency exits and must be at least 61 cm (2
the most critical angle, to deploy and, with feet) wide at all other passenger emergency
the assistance of only one person, to exits, and
remain usable after full deployment to
(2) The escape route surface must have
evacuate occupants safely to the ground.
a reflectance of at least 80%, and must be
(v) For each system installation defined by markings with a surface-to-marking
(mock-up or aeroplane installed), five contrast ratio of at least 5:1. (See AMC 25.810
consecutive deployment and inflation tests (c) (2).)
must be conducted (per exit) without
(d) If the place on the aeroplane structure at
failure, and at least three tests of each such
which the escape route required in sub-paragraph
five-test series must be conducted using a
(c) of this paragraph terminates, is more than 1·8 m
single representative sample of the device.
(6 feet) from the ground with the aeroplane on the
The sample devices must be deployed and
ground and the landing gear extended, means to
inflated by the system’s primary means
reach the ground must be provided to assist
after being subjected to the inertia forces
evacuees who have used the escape route. If the
specified in CS 25.561(b). If any part of
escape route is over a flap, the height of the
the system fails or does not function
terminal edge must be measured with the flap in the
properly during the required tests, the
take-off or landing position, whichever is higher
cause of the failure or malfunction must be
from the ground. The assisting means must be
corrected by positive means and after that,
usable and self-supporting with one or more landing
the full series of five consecutive
gear legs collapsed and under a 46 km/hr (25-knot)
deployment and inflation tests must be
wind directed from the most critical angle. The
conducted without failure.
assisting means provided for each escape route
(2) The assisting means for flight crew leading from a Type A emergency exit must be
emergency exits may be a rope or any other capable of carrying simultaneously two parallel
means demonstrated to be suitable for the lines of evacuees. For other than Type A exits, the
purpose. If the assisting means is a rope, or an assist means must be capable of carrying
approved device equivalent to a rope, it must simultaneously as many parallel lines of evacuees
be– as there are required escape routes.

1-D-24
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.811 Emergency exit marking released by motion of a handle, must be marked


by a red arrow with a shaft at least 19 mm (0.75
(a) Each passenger emergency exit, its means
inches) wide, adjacent to the handle, that
of access, and its means of opening must be
indicates the full extent and direction of the
conspicuously marked.
unlocking motion required. The word OPEN
(b) The identity and location of each must be horizontally situated adjacent to the
passenger emergency exit must be recognisable arrowhead and must be in red capital letters at
from a distance equal to the width of the cabin. least 25 mm (1 inch) high. The arrow and word
OPEN must be located on a background, which
(c) Means must be provided to assist the
provides adequate contrast. (See AMC 25.811
occupants in locating the exits in conditions of
(e) (4).)
dense smoke.
(f) Each emergency exit that is required to be
(d) The location of each passenger emergency
openable from the outside, and its means of
exit must be indicated by a sign visible to occupants
opening, must be marked on the outside of the
approaching along the main passenger aisle (or
aeroplane. In addition, the following apply:
aisles). There must be –
(1) The outside marking for each
(1) A passenger emergency exit locator
passenger emergency exit in the side of the
sign above the aisle (or aisles) near each
fuselage must include a 51 mm (2 inch) coloured
passenger emergency exit, or at another
band outlining the exit.
overhead location if it is more practical because
of low headroom, except that one sign may serve (2) Each outside marking including the
more than one exit if each exit can be seen band must have colour contrast to be readily
readily from the sign; distinguishable from the surrounding fuselage
surface. The contrast must be such that if the
(2) A passenger emergency exit marking
reflectance of the darker colour is 15% or less,
sign next to each passenger emergency exit,
the reflectance of the lighter colour must be at
except that one sign may serve two such exits if
least 45%. ‘Reflectance’ is the ratio of the
they both can be seen readily from the sign; and
luminous flux reflected by a body to the
(3) A sign on each bulkhead or divider luminous flux it receives. When the reflectance
that prevents fore and aft vision along the of the darker colour is greater than 15%, at least
passenger cabin to indicate emergency exits a 30% difference between its reflectance and the
beyond and obscured by the bulkhead or divider, reflectance of the lighter colour must be
except that if this is not possible the sign may be provided.
placed at another appropriate location.
(3) In the case of exits other than those
(e) The location of the operating handle and in the side of the fuselage, such as ventral or tail
instructions for opening exits from the inside of the cone exits, the external means of opening,
aeroplane must be shown in the following manner: including instructions if applicable, must be
conspicuously marked in red, or bright chrome
(1) Each passenger emergency exit must
yellow if the background colour is such that red
have, on or near the exit, a marking that is
is inconspicuous. When the opening means is
readable from a distance of 76 cm (30 inches).
located on only one side of the fuselage, a
(2) Each passenger emergency exit conspicuous marking to that effect must be
operating handle and the cover removal provided on the other side.
instructions, if the operating handle is covered,
(g) Each sign required by sub-paragraph (d) of
must –
this paragraph may use the word ‘exit’ in its legend
(i) Be self-illuminated with an in place of the term ‘emergency exit’.
initial brightness of at least 0.51
candela/m2 (160 microlamberts), or
CS 25.812 Emergency lighting
(ii) Be conspicuously located and
(See AMC 25.812)
well illuminated by the emergency lighting
even in conditions of occupant crowding at (a) An emergency lighting system,
the exit. independent of the main lighting system, must be
installed. However, the sources of general cabin
(3) Reserved
illumination may be common to both the emergency
(4) All Type II and larger passenger and the main lighting systems if the power supply
emergency exits with a locking mechanism to the emergency lighting system is independent of

1-D-25
CS-25 BOOK 1

the power supply to the main lighting system. The (c) General illumination in the passenger
emergency lighting system must include- cabin must be provided so that when measured
along the centreline of main passenger aisle(s), and
(1) Illuminated emergency exit marking
cross aisle(s) between main aisles, at seat armrest
and locating signs, sources of general cabin
height and at 1.02 m (40-inch) intervals, the
illumination, interior lighting in emergency exit
average illumination is not less than 0.5 lux (0.05
areas, and floor proximity escape path marking.
foot candle) and the illumination at each 1.02 m
(2) Exterior emergency lighting. (40-inch) interval is not less than 0.1 lux (0.01 foot
candle). A main passenger aisle(s) is considered to
(b) Emergency exit signs –
extend along the fuselage from the most forward
(1) For aeroplanes that have a passenger emergency exit or cabin occupant seat,
passenger-seating configuration, excluding pilot whichever is farther forward, to the most rearward
seats, of 10 seats or more must meet the passenger emergency exit or cabin occupant seat,
following requirements: whichever is farther aft.
(i) Each passenger emergency (d) The floor of the passageway leading to
exit locator sign required by CS 25.811 each floor-level passenger emergency exit, between
(d)(1) and each passenger emergency exit the main aisles and the exit openings, must be
marking sign required by CS 25.811(d)(2) provided with illumination that is not less than 0.2
must have red letters at least 38 mm (1·5 lux (0.02 foot candle) measured along a line that is
inches) high on an illuminated white within 15 cm (6 inches) of and parallel to the floor
background, and must have an area of at and is centred on the passenger evacuation path.
least 135 cm2 (21 square inches) excluding
(e) Floor proximity emergency escape path
the letters. The lighted background-to-
marking must provide emergency evacuation
letter contrast must be at least 10:1. The
guidance for passengers when all sources of
letter height to stroke-width ratio may not
illumination more than 1.2 m (4 ft) above the cabin
be more than 7:1 nor less than 6:1. These
aisle floor are totally obscured. In the dark of the
signs must be internally electrically
night, the floor proximity emergency escape path
illuminated with a background brightness
marking must enable each passenger to –
of at least 86 candela/m2 (25 foot
lamberts) and a high-to-low background (1) After leaving the passenger seat,
contrast no greater than 3:1. visually identify the emergency escape path
along the cabin aisle floor to the first exits or
(ii) Each passenger emergency
pair of exits forward and aft of the seat; and
exit sign required by CS 25.811(d)(3) must
have red letters at least 38 mm (1·5 inches) (2) Readily identify each exit from the
high on a white background having an area emergency escape path by reference only to
of at least 135 cm2 (21 square inches) markings and visual features not more than
excluding the letters. These signs must be 1.2 m (4 ft) above the cabin floor.
internally electrically illuminated or self-
(f) Except for sub-systems provided in
illuminated by other than electrical means
accordance with sub-paragraph (h) of this
and must have an initial brightness of at
paragraph that serve no more than one assist means,
least 1.27 candela/m2 (400 microlamberts).
are independent of the aeroplane’s main emergency
The colours may be reversed in the case of
lighting system, and are automatically activated
a sign that is self-illuminated by other than
when the assist means is erected, the emergency
electrical means.
lighting system must be designed as follows:
(2) For aeroplanes that have a passenger
(1) The lights must be operable
seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 9
manually from the flight crew station and from a
seats or less, that are required by CS 25.811
point in the passenger compartment that is
(d)(1), (2), and (3) must have red letters at least
readily accessible to a normal cabin
25 mm (1 inch) high on a white background at
crewmember seat.
least 51 mm (2 inches) high. These signs may
be internally electrically illuminated, or self- (2) There must be a flight crew warning
illuminated by other than electrical means, with light, which illuminates when power is on in the
an initial brightness of at least 0.51 candela/m2 aeroplane and the emergency lighting control
(160 microlamberts). The colours may be device is not armed.
reversed in the case of a sign that is self-
(3) The cockpit control device must
illuminated by other than electrical means.
have an ‘on’, ‘off’ and ‘armed’ position so that

1-D-26
CS-25 BOOK 1

when armed in the cockpit or turned on at either established escape route would normally make
the cockpit or cabin crew member station the first contact with the ground, with the aeroplane
lights will either light or remain lighted upon in each of the attitudes corresponding to the
interruption (except an interruption caused by a collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear.
transverse vertical separation of the fuselage
(2) If the emergency lighting sub-system
during crash landing) of the aeroplane’s normal
illuminating the assist means serves no other
electric power. There must be a means to
assist means, is independent of the aeroplane’s
safeguard against inadvertent operation of the
main emergency lighting system, and is
control device from the ‘armed’ or ‘on’
automatically activated when the assist means is
positions.
erected, the lighting provisions –
(g) Exterior emergency lighting must be
(i) May not be adversely affected
provided as follows:
by stowage; and
(1) At each overwing emergency exit
(ii) Must provide illumination of
the illumination must be –
not less than 0.3 lux (0.03 foot candle)
(i) Not less than 0.3 lux (0.03 (measured normal to the direction of the
foot candle) (measured normal to the incident light) at the ground end of the
direction of the incident light) on a 0.186 erected assist means where an evacuee
m2 (two-square-foot) area where an would normally make first contact with the
evacuee is likely to make his first step ground, with the aeroplane in each of the
outside the cabin; attitudes corresponding to the collapse of
one or more legs of the landing gear.
(ii) Not less than 0.5 lux (0.05
foot candle) (measured normal to the (i) The energy supply to each emergency
direction of the incident light) along the lighting unit must provide the required level of
30% of the slip-resistant portion of the illumination for at least 10 minutes at the critical
escape route required in CS 25.810(c) that ambient conditions after emergency landing.
is farthest from the exit for the minimum
(j) If storage batteries are used as the energy
required width of the escape route; and
supply for the emergency lighting system, they may
(iii) Not less than 0.3 lux (0.03 be recharged from the aeroplane’s main electric
foot candle) on the ground surface with the power system: Provided, that the charging circuit is
landing gear extended (measured normal designed to preclude inadvertent battery discharge
to the direction of the incident light) where into charging circuit faults.
an evacuee using the established escape
(k) Components of the emergency lighting
route would normally make first contact
system, including batteries, wiring relays, lamps,
with the ground.
and switches must be capable of normal operation
(2) At each non-overwing emergency after having been subjected to the inertia forces
exit not required by CS 25.809 (f) to have listed in CS 25.561 (b).
descent assist means the illumination must be
(l) The emergency lighting system must be
not less than 0.3 lux (0.03 foot candle)
designed so that after any single transverse vertical
(measured normal to the direction of the incident
separation of the fuselage during crash landing –
light) on the ground surface with the landing
gear extended where an evacuee is likely to (1) Not more than 25% of all
make his first contact with the ground outside electrically illuminated emergency lights
the cabin. required by this paragraph are rendered
inoperative, in addition to the lights that are
(h) The means required in CS 25.810 (a) (1)
directly damaged by the separation;
and (d) to assist the occupants in descending to the
ground must be illuminated so that the erected (2) Each electrically illuminated exit
assist means is visible from the aeroplane. In sign required under CS 25.811 (d) (2) remains
addition – operative exclusive of those that are directly
damaged by the separation; and
(1) If the assist means is illuminated by
exterior emergency lighting, it must provide (3) At least one required exterior
illumination of not less than 0.3 lux (0.03 foot emergency light for each side of the aeroplane
candle) (measured normal to the direction of the remains operative exclusive of those that are
incident light) at the ground end of the erected directly damaged by the separation.
assist means where an evacuee using the

1-D-27
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.813 Emergency exit access be no interference in opening the exit by seats,


(See AMC to 25.807 and berths, or other protrusions (including seatbacks
25.813) in any position) for a distance from that exit not
less than the width of the narrowest passenger
Each required emergency exit must be accessible to
seat installed on the aeroplane.
the passengers and located where it will afford an
effective means of evacuation. Emergency exit (2) For aeroplanes that have a passenger
distribution must be as uniform as practical, taking seating configuration, excluding pilot’s seats, of
passenger distribution into account; however, the 19 or less, there may be minor obstructions in
size and location of exits on both sides of the cabin this region, if there are compensating factors to
need not be symmetrical. If only one floor level maintain the effectiveness of the exit.
exit per side is prescribed, and the aeroplane does
(d) If it is necessary to pass through a
not have a tail cone or ventral emergency exit, the
passageway between passenger compartments to
floor level exit must be in the rearward part of the
reach any required emergency exit from any seat in
passenger compartment, unless another location
the passenger cabin, the passageway must be
affords a more effective means of passenger
unobstructed. However, curtains may be used if
evacuation. Where more than one floor level exit
they allow free entry through the passageway.
per side is prescribed, at least one floor level exit
per side must be located near each end of the cabin, (e) No door may be installed in any partition
except that this provision does not apply to between passenger compartments.
combination cargo/passenger configuration. In
(f) If it is necessary to pass through a
addition –
doorway separating the passenger cabin from other
(a) There must be a passageway leading from areas to reach any required emergency exit from
each main aisle to each Type I, Type II, or Type A any passenger seat, the door must have a means to
emergency exit and between individual passenger latch it in open position. The latching means must
areas. If two or more main aisles are provided, be able to withstand the loads imposed upon it
there must be a cross aisle leading directly to each when the door is subjected to the ultimate inertia
passageway between the exit and the nearest main forces, relative to the surrounding structure, listed
aisle. Each passageway leading to a Type A exit in CS 25.561 (b).
must be unobstructed and at least 91 cm (36 inches)
wide. Other passageways and cross aisles must be
unobstructed and at least 51 cm (20 inches) wide. CS 25.815 Width of aisle
Unless there are two or more main aisles, each (See AMC 25.815)
Type A exit must be located so that there is
The passenger aisle width at any point between
passenger flow along the main aisle to that exit
seats must equal or exceed the values in the
from both the forward and aft directions.
following table:
(b) Adequate space to allow crew-member(s)
to assist in the evacuation of passengers must be
provided as follows: Minimum passenger aisle
width (cm (inches))
(1) The assist space must not reduce the Passenger seating Less than 64 cm
unobstructed width of the passageway below capacity 64 cm (25
that required for the exit. (25 inches) inches)
from floor and more
(2) For each Type A exit, assist space from
must be provided at each side of the exit floor
regardless of whether the exit is covered by CS 10 or less 30 (12)* 38 (15)
25.810(a).
11 to 19 30 (12) 51 (20)
(3) For any other type exit that is 20 or more 38 (15) 51 (20)
covered by CS 25.810(a), space must at least be
provided at one side of the passageway. * A narrower width not less than 23 cm (9 inches) may be
approved when substantiated by tests found necessary by the
(c) There must be access from each aisle to
Agency.
each Type III or Type IV exit, and –
(1) For aeroplanes that have a passenger
seating configuration, excluding pilot’s seats, of
20 or more, the projected opening of the exit
provided may not be obstructed and there must

1-D-28
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.817 Maximum number of seats CS 25.785 (d) and must be able to withstand
abreast maximum flight loads when occupied.
On aeroplanes having only one passenger aisle, no (g) For each powered lift system installed
more than 3 seats abreast may be placed on each between a lower deck service compartment and the
side of the aisle in any one row. main deck for the carriage of persons or equipment,
or both, the system must meet the following
requirements:
CS 25.819 Lower deck service
(1) Each lift control switch outside the
compartments (including
lift, except emergency stop buttons, must be
galleys)
designed to prevent the activation of the lift if
For aeroplanes with a service compartment located the lift door, or the hatch required by sub-
below the main deck, which may be occupied paragraph (g) (3) of this paragraph, or both are
during the taxi or flight but not during take-off or open.
landing, the following apply:
(2) An emergency stop button, that
(a) There must be at least two emergency when activated will immediately stop the lift,
evacuation routes, one at each end of each lower must be installed within the lift and at each
deck service compartment or two having sufficient entrance to the lift.
separation within each compartment, which could (3) There must be a hatch capable of
be used by each occupant of the lower deck service being used for evacuating persons from the lift
compartment to rapidly evacuate to the main deck that is openable from inside and outside the lift
under normal and emergency lighting conditions. without tools, with the lift in any position.
The routes must provide for the evacuation of
incapacitated persons, with assistance. The use of
the evacuation routes may not be dependent on any VENTILATION AND HEATING
powered device. The routes must be designed to
minimise the possibility of blockage, which might CS 25.831 Ventilation
result from fire, mechanical or structural failure, or (a) Each passenger and crew compartment
persons standing on top of or against the escape must be ventilated and each crew compartment
routes. In the event the aeroplane’s main power must have enough fresh air (but not less than
system or compartment main lighting system should 0.28 m3/min. (10 cubic ft per minute) per
fail, emergency illumination for each lower deck crewmember) to enable crewmembers to perform
service compartment must be automatically their duties without undue discomfort or fatigue.
provided. (See AMC 25.831 (a).)
(b) There must be a means for two-way voice (b) Crew and passenger compartment air must
communication between the flight deck and each be free from harmful or hazardous concentrations of
lower deck service compartment, which remains gases or vapours. In meeting this requirement, the
available following loss of normal electrical power following apply:
generating system.
(1) Carbon monoxide concentrations in
(c) There must be an aural emergency alarm excess of one part in 20 000 parts of air are
system, audible during normal and emergency considered hazardous. For test purposes, any
conditions, to enable crew members on the flight acceptable carbon monoxide detection method
deck and at each required floor level emergency may be used.
exit to alert occupants of each lower deck service
compartment of an emergency situation. (2) Carbon dioxide concentration during
flight must be shown not to exceed 0·5% by
(d) There must be a means, readily detectable volume (sea level equivalent) in compartments
by occupants of each lower deck service normally occupied by passengers or
compartment that indicates when seat belts should crewmembers. For the purpose of this sub-
be fastened. paragraph, “sea level equivalent” refers to
(e) If a public address system is installed in conditions of 25° C (77° F) and 1 013·2 hPa
the aeroplane, speakers must be provided in each (760 millimetres of mercury) pressure.
lower deck service compartment. (c) There must be provisions made to ensure
(f) For each occupant permitted in a lower that the conditions prescribed in sub-paragraph (b)
deck service compartment, there must be a forward of this paragraph are met after reasonably probable
or aft facing seat, which meets the requirements of failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating,

1-D-29
CS-25 BOOK 1

heating, pressurisation or other systems and and 1 013·2 hPa (760 millimetres of mercury)
equipment. (See AMC 25.831 (c).) pressure.
(d) If accumulation of hazardous quantities of (c) Compliance with this paragraph must be
smoke in the cockpit area is reasonably probable, shown by analysis or tests based on aeroplane
smoke evacuation must be readily accomplished, operational procedures and performance limitations,
starting with full pressurisation and without de- that demonstrated that either –
pressurising beyond safe limits.
(1) The aeroplane cannot be operated at an
(e) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (f) of altitude which would result in cabin ozone
this paragraph, means must be provided to enable concentrations exceeding the limits prescribed
the occupants of the following compartments and by sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph; or
areas to control the temperature and quantity of
(2) The aeroplane ventilation system,
ventilating air supplied to their compartment or area
including any ozone control equipment, will
independently of the temperature and quantity of air
maintain cabin ozone concentrations at or below
supplied to other compartments and areas:
the limits prescribed by sub-paragraph (a) of this
(1) The flight-crew compartment. paragraph.
(2) Crew-member compartments and
areas other than the flight-crew compartment
CS 25.833 Combustion heating systems
unless the crewmember compartment or area is
ventilated by air interchange with other Combustion heaters must be approved.
compartments or areas under all operating
conditions.
(f) Means to enable the flight crew to control PRESSURISATION
the temperature and quantity of ventilating air
supplied to the flight-crew compartment CS 25.841 Pressurised cabins
independently of the temperature and quantity of
(a) Pressurised cabins and compartments to be
ventilating air supplied to other compartments are
occupied must be equipped to provide a cabin
not required if all of the following conditions are
pressure altitude of not more than 2438 m (8000 ft)
met:
(1) The total volume of the flight-crew at the maximum operating altitude of the aeroplane
and passenger compartments is 22.65m3 (800 under normal operating conditions. If certification
cubic ft) or less. for operation over 7620 m (25 000 ft) is requested,
the aeroplane must be able to maintain a cabin
(2) The air inlets and passages for air to pressure altitude of not more than 4572 m (15 000
flow between flight-crew and passenger ft) in the event of any reasonably probable failure
compartments are arrange to provide or malfunction in the pressurisation system.
compartment temperatures within 2.8°C (5ºF) of
each other and adequate ventilation to occupants (b) Pressurised cabins must have at least the
in both compartments. following valves, controls, and indicators for
controlling cabin pressure:
(3) The temperature and ventilation
(1) Two pressure relief values to
controls are accessible to the flight crew.
automatically limit the positive pressure
differential to a predetermined valve at the
maximum rate of flow delivered by the pressure
CS 25.832 Cabin ozone concentration source. The combined capacity of the relief
valves must be large enough so that the failure
(a) The aeroplane cabin ozone concentration
of any one valve would not cause an appreciable
during flight must be shown not to exceed –
rise in the pressure differential. The pressure
(1) 0·25 parts per million by volume, sea differential is positive when the internal pressure
level equivalent, at any time above flight level is greater than the external.
320; and
(2) Two reverse pressure differential
(2) 0·1 parts per million by volume, sea relief valves (or their equivalents) to
level equivalent, time-weighted average during automatically prevent a negative pressure
any 3-hour interval above flight level 270. differential that would damage the structure. One
valve is enough, however, if it is of a design that
(b) For the purpose of this paragraph, “sea level
reasonably precludes it’s malfunctioning.
equivalent” refers to conditions of 25° C (77° F)

1-D-30
CS-25 BOOK 1

(3) A means by which the pressure up to the maximum altitude for which
differential can be rapidly equalised. certification is requested.
(4) An automatic or manual regulator (3) Flight tests, to show the performance
for controlling the intake or exhaust airflow, or of the pressure supply, pressure and flow
both, for maintaining the required internal regulators, indicators, and warning signals, in
pressures and airflow rates. steady and stepped climbs and descents at rates
corresponding to the maximum attainable within
(5) Instruments at the pilot or flight
the operating limitations of the aeroplane, up to
engineer station to show the pressure
the maximum altitude for which certification is
differential, the cabin pressure altitude, and the
requested.
rate of change of the cabin pressure altitude.
(4) Tests of each door and emergency
(6) Warning indication at the pilot or
exit, to show that they operate properly after
flight engineer station to indicate when the safe
being subjected to the flight tests prescribed in
or pre-set pressure differential and cabin
sub-paragraph (b)(3) of this paragraph.
pressure altitude limits are exceeded.
Appropriate warning markings on the cabin
pressure differential indicator meet the warning
requirement for pressure differential limits and FIRE PROTECTION
an aural or visual signal (in addition to cabin
altitude indicating means) meets the warning CS 25.851 Fire extinguishers
requirement for cabin pressure altitude limits if
(a) Hand fire extinguishers. (See AMC 25.851
it warns the flight crew when the cabin pressure
(a).)
altitude exceeds 3048 m (10 000 ft).
(1) The following minimum number of
(7) A warning placard at the pilot or
hand fire extinguishers must be conveniently
flight engineer station if the structure is not
located and evenly distributed in passenger
designed for pressure differentials up to the
compartments. (See AMC 25.851 (a)(1).):
maximum relief valve setting in combination
with landing loads. Passenger capacity Number of
(8) The pressure sensors necessary to extinguishers
meet the requirements of sub-paragraphs (b)(5)
7 to 30........................ 1
and (b)(6) of this paragraph and CS 25.1447 (c), 31 to 60........................ 2
must be located and the sensing system designed 61 to 200...................... 3
so that, in the event of loss of cabin pressure in 201 to 300...................... 4
any passenger or crew compartment (including 301 to 400...................... 5
401 to 500...................... 6
upper and lower lobe galleys), the warning and
501 to 600...................... 7
automatic presentation devices, required by 601 to 700...................... 8
those provisions, will be actuated without any
delay that would significantly increase the
(2) At least one hand fire extinguisher
hazards resulting from decompression.
must be conveniently located in the pilot
compartment (see AMC 25.851 (a)(2)).
CS 25.843 Tests for pressurised cabins (3) At least one readily accessible hand
fire extinguisher must be available for use in
(a) Strength test. The complete pressurised
each Class A or Class B cargo or baggage
cabin, including doors, windows, and valves, must
compartment and in each Class E cargo or
be tested as a pressure vessel for the pressure
baggage compartment that is accessible to
differential specified in CS 25.365 (d).
crewmembers in flight.
(b) Functional tests. The following functional
(4) At least one hand fire extinguisher
tests must be performed:
must be located in, or readily accessible for use
(1) Tests of the functioning and capacity in, each galley located above or below the
of the positive and negative pressure differential passenger compartment.
valves, and of the emergency release valve, to
(5) Each hand fire extinguisher must be
simulate the effects of closed regulator valves.
approved.
(2) Tests of the pressurisation system to
(6) At least one of the required fire
show proper functioning under each possible
extinguishers located in the passenger
condition of pressure, temperature, and moisture,

1-D-31
CS-25 BOOK 1

compartment of an aeroplane with a passenger (d) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (e) of


capacity of at least 31 and not more than 60, and this paragraph, the following interior components
at least two of the fire extinguishers located in of aeroplanes with passenger capacities of 20 or
the passenger compartment of an aeroplane with more must also meet the test requirements of parts
a passenger capacity of 61 or more must contain IV and V of appendix F, or other approved
Halon 1211 (bromochlorodifluoromethane, equivalent method, in addition to the flammability
CBrC1F2), or equivalent, as the extinguishing requirements prescribed in sub-paragraph (a) of this
agent. The type of extinguishing agent used in paragraph:
any other extinguisher required by this (1) Interior ceiling and wall panels,
paragraph must be appropriate for the kinds of other than lighting lenses and windows;
fires likely to occur where used.
(2) Partitions, other than transparent
(7) The quantity of extinguishing agent panels needed to enhance cabin safety;
used in each extinguisher required by this
(3) Galley structure, including exposed
paragraph must be appropriate for the kinds of
surfaces of stowed carts and standard containers
fires likely to occur where used.
and the cavity walls that are exposed when a full
(8) Each extinguisher intended for use complement of such carts or containers is not
in a personnel compartment must be designed to carried; and
minimise the hazard of toxic gas concentration.
(4) Large cabinets and cabin stowage
(b) Built-in fire extinguishers. If a built-in compartments, other than underseat stowage
fire extinguisher is provided – compartments for stowing small items such as
magazines and maps.
(1) Each built-in fire extinguishing
system must be installed so that – (e) The interiors of compartments, such as
pilot compartments, galleys, lavatories, crew rest
(i) No extinguishing agent likely
quarters, cabinets and stowage compartments, need
to enter personnel compartments will be
not meet the standards of sub-paragraph (d) of this
hazardous to the occupants; and
paragraph, provided the interiors of such
(ii) No discharge of the compartments are isolated from the main passenger
extinguisher can cause structural damage. cabin by doors or equivalent means that would
normally be closed during an emergency landing
(2) The capacity of each required built-
condition.
in fire extinguishing system must be adequate
for any fire likely to occur in the compartment (f) Smoking is not to be allowed in lavatories.
where used, considering the volume of the If smoking is to be allowed in any other
compartment and the ventilation rate. compartment occupied by the crew or passengers,
an adequate number of self-contained, removable
ashtrays must be provided for all seated occupants.
CS 25.853 Compartment interiors
(g) Regardless of whether smoking is allowed
(See AMC 25.853)
in any other part of the aeroplane, lavatories must
For each compartment occupied by the crew or have self-contained removable ashtrays located
passengers, the following apply: conspicuously both inside and outside each
lavatory. One ashtray located outside a lavatory
(a) Materials (including finishes or decorative
door may serve more than one lavatory door if the
surfaces applied to the materials) must meet the
ashtray can be seen readily from the cabin side of
applicable test criteria prescribed in Part I of
each lavatory door served.
Appendix F or other approved equivalent methods,
regardless of the passenger capacity of the (h) Each receptacle used for the disposal of
aeroplane. flammable waste material must be fully enclosed,
constructed of at least fire resistant materials, and
(b) Reserved
must contain fires likely to occur in it under normal
(c) In addition to meeting the requirements of use. The ability of the receptacle to contain those
sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, seat cushions, fires under all probable conditions of wear,
except those on flight crewmember seats, must meet misalignment, and ventilation expected in service
the test requirements of part II of appendix F, or must be demonstrated by test.
other equivalent methods, regardless of the
passenger capacity of the aeroplane.

1-D-32
CS-25 BOOK 1

CS 25.854 Lavatory fire protection (h) Flight tests must be conducted to show
compliance with the provisions of CS 25.857
For aeroplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or
concerning –
more –
(1) Compartment accessibility;
(a) Each lavatory must be equipped with a
smoke detector system or equivalent that provides a (2) The entry of hazardous quantities of
warning light in the cockpit, or provides a warning smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments
light or audible warning in the passenger cabin that occupied by the crew or passengers; and
would be readily detected by a cabin crew member;
(3) The dissipation of the extinguishing
and
agent in Class C compartments.
(b) Each lavatory must be equipped with a
(i) During the above tests, it must be shown
built-in fire extinguisher for each disposal
that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire
receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located
detectors in any compartment would occur as a
within the lavatory. The extinguisher must be
result of fire contained in any other compartment,
designed to discharge automatically into each
either during or after extinguishment, unless the
disposal receptacle upon occurrence of a fire in that
extinguishing system floods each such compartment
receptacle.
simultaneously.

CS 25.855 Cargo or baggage


CS 25.857 Cargo compartment
compartments
classification
For each cargo or baggage compartment not (See AMC 25.857)
occupied by crew or passengers, the following
(a) Class A. A Class A cargo or baggage
apply:
compartment is one in which –
(a) The compartment must meet one of the
(1) The presence of a fire would be
class requirements of CS 25.857.
easily discovered by a crew member while at his
(b) Class B through Class E cargo or baggage station; and
compartments, as defined in CS 25.857, must have
(2) Each part of the compartment is
a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but
easily accessible in flight.
may be attached to) the aeroplane structure.
(b) Class B. (See AMC 25.857(b).) A Class
(c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class
B cargo or baggage compartment is one in which –
C and D compartments must meet the test
requirements of Part III of Appendix F or other (1) There is sufficient access in flight to
approved equivalent methods. enable a crewmember to effectively reach any
part of the compartment with the contents of a
(d) All other materials used in the
hand fire extinguisher;
construction of the cargo or baggage compartment
must meet the applicable test criteria prescribed in (2) When the access provisions are
Part I of Appendix F, or other approved equivalent being used no hazardous quantity of smoke,
methods. flames or extinguishing agent will enter any
compartment occupied by the crew or
(e) No compartment may contain any controls,
passengers; and
wiring, lines, equipment, or accessories whose
damage or failure would affect safe operation, (3) There is a separate approved smoke
unless those items are protected so that– detector or fire detector system to give warning
to the pilot or flight engineer station.
(1) They cannot be damaged by the
movement of cargo in the compartment; and (c) Class C. A Class C cargo or baggage
compartment is one not meeting the requirements
(2) Their breakage or failure will not
for either a Class A or B compartment but in
create a fire hazard.
which–
(f) There must be means to prevent cargo or
(1) There is a separate approved smoke
baggage from interfering with the functioning of
detector or fire detector system to give warning
the fire protective features of the compartment.
at the pilot or flight engineer station;
(g) Sources of heat within the compartment
must be shielded and insulated to prevent igniting
the cargo or baggage.

1-D-33
CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) There is an approved built-in fire- (5) The required crew emergency exits
extinguishing or suppression system controllable are accessible under any cargo loading
from the cockpit. condition.
(3) There are means to exclude
hazardous quantities of smoke, flames, or
CS 25.858 Cargo compartment fire
extinguishing agent, from any compartment
detection systems
occupied by the crew or passengers; and
If certification with cargo compartment fire
(4) There are means to control
detection provisions is requested, the following
ventilation and draughts within the compartment
must be met for each cargo compartment with those
so that the extinguishing agent used can control
provisions:
any fire that may start within the compartment.
(a) The detection system must provide a
(d) Class D. (See AMC 25.857 (d).) A Class
visual indication to the flight crew within one
D cargo or baggage compartment is one in which –
minute after the start of a fire.
(1) A fire occurring in it will be
(b) The system must be capable of detecting a
completely confined without endangering the
fire at a temperature significantly below that at
safety of the aeroplane or the occupants;
which the structural integrity of the aeroplane is
(2) There are means to exclude substantially decreased.
hazardous quantities of smoke, flames, or other
(c) There must be means to allow the crew to
noxious gases, from any compartment occupied
check in flight, the functioning of each fire detector
by the crew or passengers;
circuit.
(3) Ventilation and draughts are
(d) The effectiveness of the detection system
controlled within each compartment so that any
must be shown for all approved operating
fire likely to occur in the compartment will not
configurations and conditions.
progress beyond safe limits;
(4) Reserved.
CS 25.859 Combustion heater fire
(5) Consideration is given to the effect
protection
of heat within the compartment on adjacent
critical parts of the aeroplane. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The
following combustion heater fire zones must be
(6) The compartment volume does not
protected from fire in accordance with the
exceed 28.32 m3 (1000 cubic ft).
applicable provisions of CS 25.1181 to 25.1191 and
For compartments of 14.16 m3 (500 cubic ft) or 25.1195 to 25.1203:
less, an airflow of 42.48 m3/hr (1500 cubic ft per
(1) The region surrounding the heater, if
hour) is acceptable.
this region contains any flammable fluid system
(e) Class E. A Class E cargo compartment is components (excluding the heater fuel system)
one on aeroplanes used only for the carriage of that could –
cargo and in which – (i) Be damaged by heater
(1) Reserved. malfunctioning; or

(2) There is a separate approved smoke (ii) Allow flammable fluids or


or fire detector system to give warning at the vapours to reach the heater in case of
pilot or flight engineer station; leakage.

(3) There are means to shut off the (2) The region surrounding the heater, if
ventilating airflow to, or within, the the heater fuel system has fittings that, if they
compartment, and the controls for these means leaked, would allow fuel or vapours to enter this
are accessible to the flight crew in the crew region.
compartment; (3) The part of the ventilating air
(4) There are means to exclude passage that surrounds the combustion chamber.
However, no fire extinguishment is required in
hazardous quantities of smoke, flames, or
cabin ventilating air passages.
noxious gases, from the flight-crew
compartment; and

1-D-34
CS-25 BOOK 1

(b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air (2) The means of complying with sub-
duct passing through any fire zone must be paragraph (e) (1) of this paragraph for any
fireproof. In addition – individual heater must –
(1) Unless isolation is provided by (i) Be independent of components
fireproof valves or by equally effective means, serving any other heater whose heat output
the ventilating air duct downstream of each is essential for safe operation; and
heater must be fireproof for a distance great
enough to ensure that any fire originating in the (ii) Keep the heater off until
heater can be contained in the duct; and restarted by the crew.

(2) Each part of any ventilating duct (3) There must be means to warn the
passing through any region having a flammable crew when any heater whose heat output is
fluid system must be constructed or isolated essential for safe operation has been shut off by
from that system so that the malfunctioning of the automatic means prescribed in sub-paragraph
any component of that system cannot introduce (e) (1) of this paragraph.
flammable fluids or vapours into the ventilating
(f) Air intakes. Each combustion and
airstream.
ventilating air intake must be located so that no
(c) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion flammable fluids or vapours can enter the heater
air duct must be fireproof for a distance great system under any operating condition –
enough to prevent damage from backfiring or
(1) During normal operation; or
reverse flame propagation. In addition –
(2) As a result of the malfunctioning of
(1) No combustion air duct may have a
any other component.
common opening with the ventilating airstream
unless flames from backfires or reverse burning (g) Heater exhaust. Heater exhaust systems
cannot enter the ventilating airstream under any must meet the provisions of CS 25.1121 and
operating condition, including reverse flow or 25.1123. In addition, there must be provisions in
malfunctioning of the heater or its associated the design of the heater exhaust system to safely
components; and expel the products of combustion to prevent the
occurrence of –
(2) No combustion air duct may restrict
the prompt relief of any backfire that, if so (1) Fuel leakage from the exhaust to
restricted, could cause heater failure. surrounding compartments;

(d) Heater controls; general. Provision must (2) Exhaust gas impingement on
be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of surrounding equipment or structure;
water or ice on or in any heater control component, (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the
control system tubing, or safety control. exhaust, if the exhaust is in a compartment
(e) Heater safety controls. For each containing flammable fluid lines; and
combustion heater there must be the following (4) Restriction by the exhaust of the
safety control means: prompt relief of backfires that, if so restricted,
(1) Means independent of the could cause heater failure.
components provided for the normal continuous (h) Heater fuel systems. Each heater fuel
control of air temperature, airflow, and fuel flow system must meet each powerplant fuel system
must be provided, for each heater, to requirement affecting safe heater operation. Each
automatically shut off the ignition and fuel heater fuel system component within the ventilating
supply to that heater at a point remote from that airstream must be protected by shrouds so that no
heater when any of the following occurs: leakage from those components can enter the
ventilating airstream.
(i) The heat exchanger
temperature exceeds safe limits. (i) Drains. There must be means to safely
drain fuel that might accumulate within the
(ii) The ventilating air temperature combustion chamber or the heater exchanger. In
exceeds safe limits. addition –
(iii) The combustion airflow (1) Each part of any drain that operates
becomes inadequate for safe operation. at high temperatures must be protected in the
(iv) The ventilating airflow same manner as heater exhausts; and
becomes inadequate for safe operation.

1-D-35
CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) Each drain must be protected from CS 25.867 Fire protection: other
hazardous ice accumulation under any operating components
conditions.
(a) Surfaces to the rear of the nacelles, within
one nacelle diameter of the nacelle centreline, must
be constructed of materials at least equivalent in
CS 25.863 Flammable fluid fire
resistance to fire as aluminium alloy in dimensions
protection
appropriate for the purpose for which they are used.
(a) In each area where flammable fluids or
(b) Sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph does
vapours might escape by leakage of a fluid system,
not apply to tail surfaces to the rear of the nacelles
there must be means to minimise the probability of
that could not be readily affected by heat, flames,
ignition of the fluids and vapours, and the resultant
or sparks coming from a designated fire zone or
hazards if ignition does occur. (See AMC 25.863
engine compartment of any nacelle.
(a).)
(b) Compliance with sub-paragraph (a) of this
paragraph must be shown by analysis or tests, and CS 25.869 Fire protection: systems
the following factors must be considered.
(a) Electrical system components:
(1) Possible sources and paths of fluid
(1) Components of the electrical system
leakage, and means of detecting leakage.
must meet the applicable fire and smoke
(2) Flammability characteristics of protection requirements of CS 25.831(c) and CS
fluids, including effects of any combustible or 25.863. (See AMC 25.869 (a)(1).)
absorbing materials.
(2) Electrical cables, terminals, and
(3) Possible ignition sources, including equipment in designated fire zones, that are used
electrical faults, overheating of equipment, and during emergency procedures, must be at least
malfunctioning of protective devices. fire resistant.
(4) Means available for controlling or (3) Main power cables (including
extinguishing a fire, such as stopping flow of generator cables) in the fuselage must be
fluids, shutting down equipment, fireproof designed to allow a reasonable degree of
containment, or use of extinguishing agents. deformation and stretching without failure and
must be –
(5) Ability of aeroplane components that
are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire (i) Isolated from flammable fluid
and heat. lines; or
(c) If action by the flight crew is required to (ii) Shrouded by means of
prevent or counteract a fluid fire (e.g. equipment electrically insulated, flexible conduit, or
shutdown or actuation of a fire extinguisher) quick equivalent, which is in addition to the
acting means must be provided to alert the crew. normal cable insulation.
(d) Each area where flammable fluids or (4) Insulation on electrical wire and
vapours might escape by leakage of a fluid system electrical cable installed in any area of the
must be identified and defined. aeroplane must be self-extinguishing when
tested in accordance with the applicable portions
of Part I, Appendix F.
CS 25.865 Fire protection of flight
(b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on
controls, engine mounts, and
the discharge side of the pump that might contain
other flight structure
flammable vapours or fluids must meet the
Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and requirements of CS 25.1183 if the line or fitting is
other flight structures located in designated fire in a designated fire zone. Other vacuum air
zones or in adjacent areas which would be systems components in designated fire zones must
subjected to the effects of fire in the fire zone must be at least fire resistant.
be constructed of fireproof material or shielded so
(c) (See AMC 25.869(c).) Oxygen equipment
that they are capable of withstanding the effects of
and lines must –
fire.
(1) Not be located in any designated fire
zone.

1-D-36
CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) Be protected from heat that may be


generated in, or escape from, any designated fire
zone, and
(3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen
cannot cause ignition of grease, fluid, or vapour
accumulations that are present in normal
operation or as a result of failure or malfunction
of any system.

MISCELLANEOUS

CS 25.871 Levelling means


There must be means for determining when the
aeroplane is in a level position on the ground.

CS 25.875 Reinforcement near


propellers
(a) Each part of the aeroplane near the
propeller tips must be strong and stiff enough to
withstand the effects of the induced vibration and
of ice thrown from the propeller.
(b) No window may be near the propeller tips
unless it can withstand the most severe ice impact
likely to occur.

CS 25.899 Electrical bonding and


protection against static
electricity
(See AMC 25.899)
(a) Electrical bonding and protection against
static electricity must be designed to minimise
accumulation of electrostatic charge, which would
cause:

(1) Human injury from electrical shock,

(2) Ignition of flammable vapours, or

(3) Interference with installed electrical /


electronic equipment.

(b) Compliance with sub-paragraph (a) of this


paragraph may be shown by

(1) Bonding the components properly to


the airframe or

(2) Incorporating other acceptable means


to dissipate the static charge so as not to
endanger the aeroplane, personnel or operation
of the installed electrical/electronic systems.

1-D-37
CS–25 BOOK 1

SUBPART E – POWERPLANT

GENERAL ingestion service history in similar installation


locations which has not resulted in any unsafe
CS 25.901 Installation condition.
(a) For the purpose of this CS–25 the (b) Engine isolation. The powerplants must
aeroplane powerplant installation includes each be arranged and isolated from each other to allow
component that – operation, in at least one configuration, so that the
failure or malfunction of any engine, or of any
(1) Is necessary for propulsion;
system that can affect the engine, will not –
(2) Affects the control of the major
(1) Prevent the continued safe operation
propulsive units; or
of the remaining engines; or
(3) Affects the safety of the major
(2) Require immediate action by any
propulsive units between normal inspections or
crew member for continued safe operation.
overhauls.
(c) Control of engine rotation. There must
(b) For each powerplant –
be means for stopping the rotation of any engine
(1) The installation must comply with – individually in flight, except that, for turbine
engine installations, the means for stopping the
(i) The installation instructions
rotation of any engine need be provided only
provided under CS–E20 (d) and (e); and
where continued rotation could jeopardise the
(ii) The applicable provisions of safety of the aeroplane. Each component of the
this Subpart (see also AMC stopping system on the engine side of the firewall
25.901(b)(1)(ii)). that might be exposed to fire must be at least fire
resistant. If hydraulic propeller feathering systems
(2) The components of the installation
are used for this purpose, the feathering lines must
must be constructed, arranged, and installed so
be at least fire-resistant under the operating
as to ensure their continued safe operation
conditions that may be expected to exist during
between normal inspections or overhauls. (See
feathering.
AMC 25.901 (b)(2).)
(d) Turbine engine installations. For turbine
(3) The installation must be accessible
engine installations –
for necessary inspections and maintenance; and
(1) Design precautions must be taken to
(4) The major components of the
minimise the hazards to the aeroplane in the
installation must be electrically bonded to the
event of an engine rotor failure or of a fire
other parts of the aeroplane. (See AMC
originating within the engine which burns
25.901(b)(4).)
through the engine case. (See AMC
[ (c) The powerplant installation must comply 25.903(d)(1) and AMC 20-128A.)
with CS 25.1309, except that the effects of the
(2) The powerplant systems associated
following need not comply with CS 25.1309(b):
with engine control devices, systems, and
(1) Engine case burn through or rupture; instrumentation, must be designed to give
reasonable assurance that those engine
(2) Uncontained engine rotor failure; and
operating limitations that adversely affect
(3) Propeller debris release. turbine rotor structural integrity will not be
exceeded in service.
(See AMC 25.901(c))]
(e) Restart capability.
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
(1) Means to restart any engine in flight
must be provided.
CS 25.903 Engines
(2) An altitude and airspeed envelope
(a) Engine type certification. must be established for in-flight engine
restarting, and each engine must have a restart
(1) reserved
capability within that envelope. (See AMC
(2) Any engine not certificated to CS–E 25.903(e)(2).)
must be shown to comply with CS–E 790 and
(3) For turbine engine powered
CS–E 800 or be shown to have a foreign object
aeroplanes, if the minimum windmilling speed

1–E–1
CS–25 BOOK 1

of the engines, following the in-flight shut- (a) Ground clearance. There must be a
down of all engines, is insufficient to provide clearance of at least 18 cm (7 inches) (for each
the necessary electrical power for engine aeroplane with nose wheel landing gear) or (23 cm
ignition, a power source independent of the 9 inches (for each aeroplane with tail-wheel
engine-driven electrical power generating landing gear) between each propeller and the
system must be provided to permit in-flight ground with the landing gear statically deflected
engine ignition for restarting. and in the level take-off, or taxying attitude,
whichever is most critical. In addition, there must
be positive clearance between the propeller and
CS 25.904 Automatic Takeoff Thrust the ground when in the level take-off attitude with
Control System (ATTCS) the critical tyre(s) completely deflated and the
corresponding landing gear strut bottomed.
Aeroplanes equipped with an engine power
control system that automatically resets the power (b) Reserved.
or thrust on the operating engine(s) when any
(c) Structural clearance. There must be –
engine fails during the takeoff must comply with
the requirements of Appendix I. (1) At least 25 mm (1·0 inche) radial
clearance between the blade tips and the
aeroplane structure, plus any additional radial
CS 25.905 Propellers clearance necessary to prevent harmful
vibration;
(a) reserved
(2) At least 13 mm (0·5 inches)
(b) Engine power and propeller shaft
longitudinal clearance between propeller blades
rotational speed may not exceed the limits for
or cuffs and stationary parts of the aeroplane;
which the propeller is certificated. (See CS–P 80.)
and
(c) Each component of the propeller blade
(3) Positive clearance between other
pitch control system must meet the requirements
rotating parts of the propeller or spinner and
of CS–P 200.
stationary parts of the aeroplane.
(d) Design precautions must be taken to
minimise the hazards to the aeroplane in the event
CS 25.929 Propeller de-icing
a propeller blade fails or is released by a hub
failure. The hazards which must be considered (a) For aeroplanes intended for use where
include damage to structure and critical systems icing may be expected, there must be a means to
due to impact of a failed or released blade and the prevent or remove hazardous ice accumulation on
unbalance created by such failure or release. (See propellers or on accessories where ice
AMC 25.905 (d).) accumulation would jeopardise engine perfor-
mance.
CS 25.907 Propeller vibration (b) If combustible fluid is used for propeller
(See CS–P 190.) de-icing, CS 25.1181 to CS 25.1185 and CS
25.1189 apply.
(a) The magnitude of the propeller blade
vibration stresses under any normal condition of
operation must be determined by actual CS 25.933 Reversing systems
measurement or by comparison with similar
(a) For turbojet reversing systems:
installations for which these measurements have
been made. [ (1) Each system intended for ground operation
only must be designed so that either:
(b) The determined vibration stresses may not
exceed values that have been shown to be safe for (i) The aeroplane can be shown to be
continuous operation. capable of continued safe flight and
landing during and after any thrust
reversal in flight; or
CS 25.925 Propeller clearance
(ii) It can be demonstrated that in-flight
Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, thrust reversal is extremely improbable
propeller clearances with the aeroplane at and does not result from a single failure
maximum weight, with the most adverse centre of or malfunction.
gravity, and with the propeller in the most adverse
(See AMC 25.933(a)(1))]
pitch position, may not be less than the following:

1–E–2
CS–25 BOOK 1

(2) Each system intended for in-flight use propeller drag in excess of that for which the
must be designed so that no unsafe condition aeroplane was designed under CS 25.367. Failure
will result during normal operation of the of structural elements of the drag limiting systems
system, or from any failure (or reasonably need not be considered if the probability of this
likely combination of failures) of the kind of failure is extremely remote.
reversing system, under any anticipated
condition of operation of the aeroplane
CS 25.939 Turbine engine operating
including ground operation. Failure of
characteristics
structural elements need not be considered if
(See AMC 25.939)
the probability of this kind of failure is
extremely remote. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics
must be investigated in flight to determine that no
(3) Each system must have means to
adverse characteristics (such as stall, surge, or
prevent the engine from producing more than
flame-out) are present, to a hazardous degree,
idle thrust when the reversing system
during normal and emergency operation within the
malfunctions, except that it may produce any
range of operation limitations of the aeroplane and
greater forward thrust that is shown to allow
of the engine. (See AMC 25.939 (a).)
directional control to be maintained, with
aerodynamic means alone, under the most (b) Reserved.
critical reversing condition expected in
(c) The turbine engine air inlet system may
operation.
not, as a result of air flow distortion during normal
(b) For propeller reversing systems - operation, cause vibration harmful to the engine.
(See AMC 25.939 (c).)
(1) Each system intended for ground
operation only must be designed so that no
single failure (or reasonably likely combination
CS 25.941 Inlet, engine, and exhaust
of failures) or malfunction of the system will
compatibility
result in unwanted reverse thrust under any
expected operating condition. Failure of For aeroplanes using variable inlet or exhaust
structural elements need not be considered if system geometry, or both –
this kind of failure is extremely remote.
(a) The system comprised of the inlet, engine
(2) Compliance with this paragraph may (including thrust augmentation systems, if
be shown by failure analysis or testing, or both, incorporated), and exhaust must be shown to
for propeller systems that allow propeller function properly under all operating conditions
blades to move from the flight low-pitch for which approval is sought, including all engine
position to a position that is substantially less rotating speeds and power settings, and engine
than that at the normal flight low-pitch inlet and exhaust configurations;
position. The analysis may include or be
(b) The dynamic effects of the operation of
supported by the analysis made to show
these (including consideration of probable
compliance with the requirements of CS-P 70
malfunctions) upon the aerodynamic control of the
for the propeller and associated installation
aeroplane may not result in any condition that
components.
would require exceptional skill, alertness, or
[Amdt. No.:25/1] strength on the part of the pilot to avoid exceeding
an operational or structural limitation of the
aeroplane; and
CS 25.934 Turbo-jet engine thrust
(c) In showing compliance with sub-
reverser system tests
paragraph (b) of this paragraph, the pilot strength
Thrust reversers installed on turbo-jet engines required may not exceed the limits set forth in CS
must meet the requirements of CS–E 890. 25.143(c) subject to the conditions set forth in
sub-paragraphs (d) and (e) of CS 25.143.
CS 25.937 Turbo-propeller-drag limiting
systems
CS 25.943 Negative acceleration
Turbo-propeller powered aeroplane propeller-drag
No hazardous malfunction of an engine or any
limiting systems must be designed so that no
component or system associated with the
single failure or malfunction of any of the systems
powerplant may occur when the aeroplane is
during normal or emergency operation results in
operated at the negative accelerations within the

1–E–3
CS–25 BOOK 1

flight envelopes prescribed in CS 25.333. This FUEL SYSTEM


must be shown for the greatest duration expected
for the acceleration. (See also CS 25.1315.)
CS 25.951 General
(a) Each fuel system must be constructed and
CS 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation arranged to ensure a flow of fuel at a rate and
system pressure established for proper engine functioning
under each likely operating condition, including
(a) General. Each fluid injection system must
any manoeuvre for which certification is requested
provide a flow of fluid at the rate and pressure
and during which the engine is permitted to be in
established for proper engine functioning under
operation.
each intended operating condition. If the fluid can
freeze, fluid freezing may not damage the (b) Each fuel system must be arranged so that
aeroplane or adversely affect aeroplane any air which is introduced into the system will
performance. not result in –
(b) Fluid tanks. Each augmentation system (1) Reserved.
fluid tank must meet the following requirements:
(2) Flameout.
(1) Each tank must be able to withstand
(c) Each fuel system must be capable of
without failure the vibration, inertia, fluid, and
sustained operation throughout its flow and
structural loads that it may be subjected to in
pressure range with fuel initially saturated with
operation.
water at 26,7ºC (80ºF) and having 0.20 cm3 (0·75
(2) The tanks as mounted in the cc) of free water per liter (US gallon) added and
aeroplane must be able to withstand without cooled to the most critical condition for icing
failure or leakage an internal pressure 1·5 times likely to be encountered in operation.
the maximum operating pressure.
(3) If a vent is provided, the venting
CS 25.952 Fuel system analysis and test
must be effective under all normal flight
conditions. (a) Proper fuel system functioning under all
probable operating conditions must be shown by
(4) Reserved.
analysis and those tests found necessary by the
(5) Each tank must have an expansion Agency. Tests, if required, must be made using the
space of not less than 2% of the tank capacity. aeroplane fuel system or a test article that
It must be impossible to fill the expansion reproduces the operating characteristics of the
space inadvertently with the aeroplane in the portion of the fuel system to be tested.
normal ground attitude.
(b) The likely failure of any heat exchanger
(c) Augmentation system drains must be using fuel as one of its fluids may not result in a
designed and located in accordance with CS hazardous condition.
25.1455 if –
(1) The augmentation system fluid is
CS 25.953 Fuel system independence
subject to freezing; and
Each fuel system must meet the requirements of
(2) The fluid may be drained in flight or
CS 25.903(b) by –
during ground operation.
(a) Allowing the supply of fuel to each engine
(d) The augmentation liquid tank capacity
through a system independent of each part of the
available for the use of each engine must be large
system supplying fuel to any other engine; or
enough to allow operation of the aeroplane under
the approved procedures for the use of liquid- (b) Any other acceptable method.
augmented power. The computation of liquid
consumption must be based on the maximum
approved rate appropriate for the desired engine CS 25.954 Fuel system lightning
output and must include the effect of temperature protection
on engine performance as well as any other factors
The fuel system must be designed and arranged to
that might vary the amount of liquid required.
prevent the ignition of fuel vapour within the
system (see AMC 25.581, AMC 25.899 and AMC
25.954) by –

1–E–4
CS–25 BOOK 1

(a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a CS 25.959 Unusable fuel supply
high probability of stroke attachment;
The unusable fuel quantity for each fuel tank and
(b) Swept lightning strokes to areas where its fuel system components must be established at
swept strokes are highly probable; and not less than the quantity at which the first
evidence of engine malfunction occurs under the
(c) Corona and streamering at fuel vent
most adverse fuel feed condition for all intended
outlets.
operations and flight manoeuvres involving fuel
feeding from that tank. Fuel system component
failures need not be considered.
CS 25.955 Fuel flow
(a) Each fuel system must provide at least
100% of the fuel flow required under each CS 25.961 Fuel system hot weather
intended operating condition and manoeuvre. operation
Compliance must be shown as follows:
(a) The fuel system must perform
(1) Fuel must be delivered to each satisfactorily in hot weather operation. This must
engine at a pressure within the limits specified be shown by showing that the fuel system from the
in the engine type certificate. tank outlets to each engine is pressurised, under
all intended operations, so as to prevent vapour
(2) The quantity of fuel in the tank may
formation, or must be shown by climbing from the
not exceed the amount established as the
altitude of the airport elected by the applicant to
unusable fuel supply for that tank under the
the maximum altitude established as an operating
requirements of CS 25.959 plus that necessary
limitation under CS 25.1527. If a climb test is
to show compliance with this paragraph.
elected, there may be no evidence of vapour lock
(3) Each main pump must be used that or other malfunctioning during the climb test
is necessary for each operating condition and conducted under the following conditions:
attitude for which compliance with this
(1) Reserved.
paragraph is shown, and the appropriate
emergency pump must be substituted for each (2) For turbine engine powered
main pump so used. aeroplanes, the engines must operate at take-off
power for the time interval selected for
(4) If there is a fuel flowmeter, it must
showing the take-off flight path, and at
be blocked and the fuel must flow through the
maximum continuous power for the rest of the
meter or its bypass. (See AMC 25.955(a)(4).)
climb.
(b) If an engine can be supplied with fuel
(3) The weight of the aeroplane must be
from more than one tank, the fuel system must –
the weight with full fuel tanks, minimum crew,
(1) Reserved. and the ballast necessary to maintain the centre
of gravity within allowable limits.
(2) For each engine, in addition to
having appropriate manual switching (4) The climb airspeed may not exceed –
capability, be designed to prevent interruption
(i) Reserved.
of fuel flow to that engine, without attention by
the flight crew, when any tank supplying fuel to (ii) The maximum airspeed
that engine is depleted of usable fuel during established for climbing from take-off to
normal operation, and any other tank, that the maximum operating altitude.
normally supplies fuel to that engine alone,
(5) The fuel temperature must be at
contains usable fuel.
least 43.3ºC (110ºF).
(b) The test prescribed in sub-paragraph (a)
CS 25.957 Flow between interconnected of this paragraph may be performed in flight or on
tanks the ground under closely simulated flight
conditions. If a flight test is performed in weather
If fuel can be pumped from one tank to another in
cold enough to interfere with the proper conduct
flight, the fuel tank vents and the fuel transfer
of the test, the fuel tank surfaces, fuel lines, and
system must be designed so that no structural
other fuel system parts subject to cold air must be
damage to the tanks can occur because of over-
insulated to simulate, insofar as practicable, flight
filling.
in hot weather.

1–E–5
CS–25 BOOK 1

CS 25.963 Fuel tanks: general (1) An internal pressure of 24 kPa (3·5


psi).
(a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand,
without failure, the vibration, inertia, fluid and (2) 125% of the maximum air pressure
structural loads that it may be subjected to in developed in the tank from ram effect.
operation. (See AMC 25.963 (a).)
(3) Fluid pressures developed during
(b) Flexible fuel tank liners must be approved maximum limit accelerations, and deflections,
or must be shown to be suitable for the particular of the aeroplane with a full tank.
application.
(4) Fluid pressures developed during
(c) Integral fuel tanks must have facilities for the most adverse combination of aeroplane roll
interior inspection and repair. and fuel load.
(d) Fuel tanks must, so far as it is practicable, (b) Each metallic tank with large unsupported
be designed, located and installed so that no fuel is or unstiffened flat surfaces, whose failure or
released in or near the fuselage or near the engines deformation could cause fuel leakage, must be
in quantities sufficient to start a serious fire in able to withstand the following test, or its
otherwise survivable crash conditions. (See also equivalent, without leakage or excessive
AMC 25.963(d).) deformation of the tank walls:
(e) Fuel tanks within the fuselage contour (1) Each complete tank assembly and
must be able to resist rupture, and to retain fuel, its supports must be vibration tested while
under the inertia forces prescribed for the mounted to simulate the actual installation.
emergency landing conditions in CS 25.561. In
(2) Except as specified in sub-
addition, these tanks must be in a protected
paragraph (b)(4) of this paragraph, the tank
position so that exposure of the tanks to scraping
assembly must be vibrated for 25 hours at an
action with the ground is unlikely.
amplitude of not less than 0.8 mm (1/32 of an
(f) For pressurised fuel tanks, a means with inch) (unless another amplitude is
failsafe features must be provided to prevent the substantiated) while two-thirds filled with
build-up of an excessive pressure difference water or other suitable test fluid.
between the inside and the outside of the tank.
(3) The test frequency of vibration must
(g) Fuel tank access covers must comply with be as follows:
the following criteria in order to avoid loss of
(i) If no frequency of vibration
hazardous quantities of fuel:
resulting from any rpm within the normal
(1) All covers located in an area where operating range of engine speeds is
experience or analysis indicates a strike is critical, the test frequency of vibration
likely, must be shown by analysis or tests to must be 2 000 cycles per minute.
minimise penetration and deformation by tyre
(ii) If only one frequency of
fragments, low energy engine debris, or other
vibration resulting from any rpm within
likely debris.
the normal operating range of engine
(2) Reserved speeds is critical, that frequency of
vibration must be the test frequency.
(See AMC 25.963 (g).)
(iii) If more than one frequency of
vibration resulting from any rpm within
CS 25.965 Fuel tank tests the normal operating range of engine
speeds is critical, the most critical of
(a) It must be shown by tests that the fuel
these frequencies must be the test
tanks, as mounted in the aeroplane can withstand,
frequency.
without failure or leakage, the more critical of the
pressures resulting from the conditions specified (4) Under sub-paragraph (b)(3) (ii) and
in sub-paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this paragraph. (iii) of this paragraph, the time of test must be
In addition it must be shown by either analysis or adjusted to accomplish the same number of
tests, (see AMC 25.965(a)) that tank surfaces vibration cycles that would be accomplished in
subjected to more critical pressures resulting from 25 hours at the frequency specified in sub-
the conditions of sub-paragraphs (a)(3) and (4) of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this paragraph.
this paragraph, are able to withstand the following
(5) During the test, the tank assembly
pressures:
must be rocked at the rate of 16 to 20 complete

1–E–6
CS–25 BOOK 1

cycles per minute, through an angle of 15º on (d) No engine nacelle skin immediately
both sides of the horizontal (30º total), about behind a major air outlet from the engine
the most critical axis, for 25 hours. If motion compartment may act as the wall of an integral
about more than one axis is likely to be critical, tank.
the tank must be rocked about each critical axis
(e) Each fuel tank must be isolated from
for 12·5 hours.
personnel compartments by a fumeproof and
(c) Except where satisfactory operating fuelproof enclosure.
experience with a similar tank in a similar
installation is shown, non-metallic tanks must
withstand the test specified in sub-paragraph CS 25.969 Fuel tank expansion space
(b)(5) of this paragraph, with fuel at a temperature
Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of
of 43.3ºC (110ºF). During this test, a
not less than 2% of the tank capacity. It must be
representative specimen of the tank must be
impossible to fill the expansion space
installed in a supporting structure simulating the
inadvertently with the aeroplane in the normal
installation in the aeroplane.
ground attitude. For pressure fuelling systems,
(d) For pressurised fuel tanks, it must be compliance with this paragraph may be shown
shown by analysis or tests that the fuel tanks can with the means provided to comply with CS
withstand the maximum pressure likely to occur 25.979(b).
on the ground or in flight.

CS 25.971 Fuel tank sump


CS 25.967 Fuel tank installations
(a) Each fuel tank must have a sump with an
(a) Each fuel tank must be supported so that effective capacity, in the normal ground attitude,
tank loads (resulting from the weight of the fuel in of not less than the greater of 0·10% of the tank
the tanks) are not concentrated on unsupported capacity or one-quarter of a litre unless operating
tank surfaces. In addition – limitations are established to ensure that the
accumulation of water in service will not exceed
(1) There must be pads, if necessary, to
the sump capacity.
prevent chafing between the tank and its
supports; (b) Each fuel tank must allow drainage of any
hazardous quantity of water from any part of the
(2) Padding must be non-absorbent or
tank to its sump with the aeroplane in the ground
treated to prevent the absorption of fluids;
attitude.
(3) If a flexible tank liner is used, it
(c) Each fuel tank sump must have an
must be supported so that it is not required to
accessible drain that –
withstand fluid loads (see AMC 25.967(a)(3));
and (1) Allows complete drainage of the
sump on the ground;
(4) Each interior surface of the tank
compartment must be smooth and free of (2) Discharges clear of each part of the
projections that could cause wear of the liner aeroplane; and
unless –
(3) Has manual or automatic means for
(i) Provisions are made for positive locking in the closed position.
protection of the liner at these points; or
(ii) That construction of the liner
CS 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection
itself provides that protection.
Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the
(b) Spaces adjacent to tank surfaces must be
entrance of fuel into any part of the aeroplane
ventilated to avoid fume accumulation due to
other than the tank itself. In addition –
minor leakage. If the tank is in a sealed
compartment, ventilation may be limited to drain (a) Reserved
holes large enough to prevent excessive pressure
(b) Each recessed filler connection that can
resulting from altitude changes.
retain any appreciable quantity of fuel must have a
(c) The location of each tank must meet the drain that discharges clear of each part of the
requirements of CS 25.1185(a). aeroplane;

1–E–7
CS–25 BOOK 1

(c) Each filler cap must provide a fuel-tight (c) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet
seal; and strainer must be at least five times the area of the
outlet line.
(d) Each fuel filling point must have a
provision for electrically bonding the aeroplane to (d) The diameter of each strainer must be at
ground fuelling equipment. least that of the fuel tank outlet.
(e) Each finger strainer must be accessible
for inspection and cleaning.
CS 25.975 Fuel tank vents
(a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be
vented from the top part of the expansion space so CS 25.979 Pressure fuelling system
that venting is effective under any normal flight
For pressure fuelling systems, the following apply:
condition. In addition –
(a) Each pressure fuelling system fuel
(1) Each vent must be arranged to avoid
manifold connection must have means to prevent
stoppage by dirt or ice formation;
the escape of hazardous quantities of fuel from the
(2) The vent arrangement must prevent system if the fuel entry valve fails.
siphoning of fuel during normal operation;
(b) An automatic shut-off means must be
(3) The venting capacity and vent provided to prevent the quantity of fuel in each
pressure levels must maintain acceptable tank from exceeding the maximum quantity
differences of pressure between the interior and approved for that tank. This means must –
exterior of the tank, during –
(1) Allow checking for proper shut-off
(i) Normal flight operation; operation before each fuelling of the tank; and
(ii) Maximum rate of ascent and (2) Provide indication, at each fuelling
descent; and station, of failure of the shut-off means to stop
the fuel flow at the maximum quantity
(iii) Refuelling and defuelling
approved for that tank.
(where applicable);
(c) A means must be provided to prevent
(4) Airspaces of tanks with
damage to the fuel system in the event of failure
interconnected outlets must be interconnected;
of the automatic shut-off means prescribed in sub-
(5) There may be no point in any vent paragraph (b) of this paragraph.
line where moisture can accumulate with the
(d) The aeroplane pressure fuelling system
aeroplane in the ground attitude or the level
(not including fuel tanks and fuel tank vents) must
flight attitude, unless drainage is provided; and
withstand an ultimate load that is 2·0 times the
(6) No vent or drainage provision may load arising from the maximum pressures,
end at any point – including surge, that is likely to occur during
fuelling. The maximum surge pressure must be
(i) Where the discharge of fuel
established with any combination of tank valves
from the vent outlet would constitute a
being either intentionally or inadvertently closed.
fire hazard; or
(See AMC 25.979 (d).)
(ii) From which fumes could enter
(e) The aeroplane defuelling system (not
personnel compartments.
including fuel tanks and fuel tank vents) must
withstand an ultimate load that is 2·0 times the
load arising from the maximum permissible
CS 25.977 Fuel tank outlet
defuelling pressure (positive or negative) at the
(a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel aeroplane fuelling connection.
tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer
must –
[CS 25.981 Fuel tank ignition prevention.
(1) Reserved.
(a) No ignition source may be present at each point
(2) Prevent the passage of any object
in the fuel tank or fuel tank system where
that could restrict fuel flow or damage any fuel
catastrophic failure could occur due to ignition of
system component. fuel or vapours. This must be shown by:
(b) Reserved.

1–E–8
CS–25 BOOK 1

(1) Determining the highest temperature allowing (c) Each flexible connection in fuel lines that
a safe margin below the lowest expected may be under pressure and subject to axial loading
auto-ignition temperature of the fuel in the must use flexible hose assemblies .
fuel tanks.
(d) Flexible hose must be approved or must
(2) Demonstrating that no temperature at each be shown to be suitable for the particular
place inside each fuel tank where fuel application.
ignition is possible will exceed the (e) No flexible hose that might be adversely
temperature determined under sub-paragraph affected by exposure to high temperatures may be
(a)(1) of this paragraph. This must be verified used where excessive temperatures will exist
under all probable operating, failure, and during operation or after engine shut-down.
malfunction conditions of each component
whose operation, failure, or malfunction (f) Each fuel line within the fuselage must be
could increase the temperature inside the designed and installed to allow a reasonable
tank. degree of deformation and stretching without
leakage.
(3) Demonstrating that an ignition source does
not result from each single failure and from
all combinations of failures not shown to be CS 25.994 Fuel system components
Extremely Improbable as per 25.1309. (See (See AMC 25.994)
AMC 25.981(a))
Fuel system components in an engine nacelle or in
the fuselage must be protected from damage which
(b) Reserved.
could result in spillage of enough fuel to constitute
a fire hazard as a result of a wheels-up landing on
(c) Design precautions must be taken to achieve
a paved runway.
conditions within the fuel tanks which reduce the
likelihood of flammable vapours. (See AMC
25.981(c)).]
CS 25.995 Fuel valves
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
In addition to the requirements of CS 25.1189 for
shut-off means, each fuel valve must –
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
(a) Reserved.
(b) Be supported so that no loads resulting
CS 25.991 Fuel pumps
from their operation or from accelerated flight
(a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for conditions are transmitted to the lines attached to
proper engine operation, or required to meet the the valve.
fuel system requirements of this Subpart (other
than those in sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph),
is a main pump. For each main pump, provision CS 25.997 Fuel strainer or filter
must be made to allow the bypass of each positive
There must be a fuel strainer or filter between
displacement fuel pump approved as part of the
the fuel tank outlet and the inlet of either the fuel
engine.
metering device or an engine driven positive
(b) Emergency pumps. There must be displacement pump, whichever is nearer the fuel
emergency pumps or another main pump to feed tank outlet. This fuel strainer or filter must –
each engine immediately after failure of any main
(a) Be accessible for draining and cleaning
pump.
and must incorporate a screen or element which is
easily removable;
CS 25.993 Fuel system lines and fittings (b) Have a sediment trap and drain except
that it need not have a drain if the strainer or filter
(a) Each fuel line must be installed and
is easily removable for drain purposes;
supported to prevent excessive vibration and to
withstand loads due to fuel pressure and (c) Be mounted so that its weight is not
accelerated flight conditions. supported by the connecting lines or by the inlet
or outlet connections of the strainer or filter itself,
(b) Each fuel line connected to components
unless adequate strength margins under all loading
of the aeroplane between which relative motion
conditions are provided in the lines and
could exist must have provisions for flexibility.
connections; and

1–E–9
CS–25 BOOK 1

(d) Have the capacity (with respect to (1) A power-off glide at 1·3 VSR1;
operating limitations established for the engine) to
(2) A climb at the one-engine
ensure that engine fuel system functioning is not
inoperative best rate-of-climb speed, with the
impaired, with the fuel contaminated to a degree
critical engine inoperative and the remaining
(with respect to particle size and density) that is
engines at maximum continuous power; and
greater than that established for the engine in CS–
E. (3) Level flight at 1·3 VSR1, if the
results of the tests in the condition specified in
sub-paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this paragraph
CS 25.999 Fuel systems drains show that this condition could be critical.
(a) Drainage of the fuel system must be (d) During the flight tests prescribed in sub-
accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel paragraph (c) of this paragraph, it must be shown
tank sump drains. that –
(1) The fuel jettisoning system and its
(b) Each drain required by sub-paragraph (a)
operation are free from fire hazard;
of this paragraph must –
(2) The fuel discharges clear of any part
(1) Discharge clear of all parts of the
of the aeroplane;
aeroplane;
(3) Fuel or fumes do not enter any parts
(2) Have manual or automatic means
of the aeroplane;
for positive locking in the closed position; and
(4) The jettisoning operation does not
(3) Have a drain valve –
adversely affect the controllability of the
(i) That is readily accessible and aeroplane.
which can be easily opened and closed;
(e) Reserved.
and
(f) Means must be provided to prevent
(ii) That is either located or
jettisoning the fuel in the tanks used for take-off
protected to prevent fuel spillage in the
and landing below the level allowing climb from
event of a landing with landing gear
sea level to 3048 m (10 000 ft) and thereafter
retracted.
allowing 45 minutes cruise at a speed for
maximum range. However, if there is an auxiliary
control independent of the main jettisoning
CS 25.1001 Fuel jettisoning system
control, the system may be designed to jettison the
(a) A fuel jettisoning system must be remaining fuel by means of the auxiliary
installed on each aeroplane unless it is shown that jettisoning control.
the aeroplane meets the climb requirements of CS
(g) The fuel jettisoning valve must be
25.119 and 25.121(d) at maximum take-off
designed to allow flight personnel to close the
weight, less the actual or computed weight of fuel
valve during any part of the jettisoning operation.
necessary for a 15-minute flight comprised of a
take-off, go-around, and landing at the airport of (h) Unless it is shown that using any means
departure with the aeroplane configuration, speed, (including flaps, slots and slats) for changing the
power, and thrust the same as that used in meeting airflow across or around the wings does not
the applicable take-off, approach, and landing adversely affect fuel jettisoning, there must be a
climb performance requirements of this CS–25. placard, adjacent to the jettisoning control, to
warn flight-crew members against jettisoning fuel
(b) If a fuel jettisoning system is required it
while the means that change the airflow are being
must be capable of jettisoning enough fuel within
used.
15 minutes, starting with the weight given in sub-
paragraph (a) of this paragraph, to enable the (i) The fuel jettisoning system must be
aeroplane to meet the climb requirements of CS designed so that any reasonably probable single
25.119 and 25.121(d), assuming that the fuel is malfunction in the system will not result in a
jettisoned under the conditions, except weight, hazardous condition due to unsymmetrical
found least favourable during the flight tests jettisoning of, or inability to jettison, fuel.
prescribed in sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph.
(c) Fuel jettisoning must be demonstrated
beginning at maximum take-off weight with wing-
flaps and landing gear up and in –

1–E–10
CS–25 BOOK 1

OIL SYSTEM outlet of each oil tank, unless the external portion
of the oil system (including the oil tank supports)
is fireproof.
CS 25.1011 General
(f) Flexible oil tank liners. Each flexible oil
(a) Each engine must have an independent oil
tank liner must be approved or must be shown to
system that can supply it with an appropriate
be suitable for the particular application.
quantity of oil at a temperature not above that safe
for continuous operation.
(b) The usable oil capacity may not be less CS 25.1015 Oil tank tests
than the product of the endurance of the aeroplane
Each oil tank must be designed and installed so
under critical operating conditions and the
that –
approved maximum allowable oil consumption of
the engine under the same conditions, plus a (a) It can withstand, without failure, each
suitable margin to ensure system circulation. vibration, inertia, and fluid load that it may be
subjected to in operation; and
(b) It meets the provisions of CS 25.965,
CS 25.1013 Oil tanks
except –
(a) Installation. Each oil tank installation
(1) The test pressure –
must meet the requirements of CS 25.967.
(i) For pressurised tanks used
(b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion
with a turbine engine, may not be less
space must be provided as follows:
than 34 kPa (5 psi) plus the maximum
(1) Each oil tank must have an operating pressure of the tank instead of
expansion space of not less than 10% of the the pressure specified in CS 25.965(a);
tank capacity. and
(2) Each reserve oil tank not directly (ii) For all other tanks, may not be
connected to any engine may have an less than 34 kPa (5 psi) instead of the
expansion space of not less than 2% of the tank pressure specified in CS 25.965(a); and
capacity.
(2) The test fluid must be oil at 121ºC
(3) It must be impossible to fill the (250ºF) instead of the fluid specified in CS
expansion space inadvertently with the 25.965(c).
aeroplane in the normal ground attitude.
(c) Filler connection. Each recessed oil tank
CS 25.1017 Oil lines and fittings
filler connection that can retain any appreciable
quantity of oil must have a drain that discharges (a) Each oil line must meet the requirements
clear of each part of the aeroplane. In addition of CS 25.993 and each oil line and fitting in any
each oil tank filler cap must provide an oil-tight designated fire zone must meet the requirements
seal. of CS 25.1183.
(d) Vent. Oil tanks must be vented as follows: (b) Breather lines must be arranged so that –
(1) Each oil tank must be vented from (1) Condensed water vapour that might
the top part of the expansion space so that freeze and obstruct the line cannot accumulate
venting is effective under any normal flight at any point;
condition.
(2) The breather discharge does not
(2) Oil tank vents must be arranged so constitute a fire hazard if foaming occurs or
that condensed water vapour that might freeze causes emitted oil to strike the pilot’s wind-
and obstruct the line cannot accumulate at any shield; and
point.
(3) The breather does not discharge into
(e) Outlet. There must be means to prevent the engine air induction system.
entrance into the tank itself, or into the tank outlet,
of any object that might obstruct the flow of oil
through the system. No oil tank outlet may be CS 25.1019 Oil strainer or filter
enclosed by any screen or guard that would reduce
(a) Each turbine engine installation must
the flow of oil below a safe value at any operating
incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which
temperature. There must be a shut-off valve at the

1–E–11
CS–25 BOOK 1

all of the engine oil flows and which meets the CS 25.1025 Oil valves
following requirements:
(a) Each oil shut-off must meet the
(1) Each oil strainer or filter that has a requirements of CS 25.1189.
bypass, must be constructed and installed so
(b) The closing of oil shut-off means may not
that oil will flow at the normal rate through the
prevent propeller feathering.
rest of the system with the strainer or filter
completely blocked. (c) Each oil valve must have positive stops or
suitable index provisions in the ‘on’ and ‘off’
(2) The oil strainer or filter must have
positions and must be supported so that no loads
the capacity (with respect to operating
resulting from its operation or from accelerated
limitations established for the engine) to ensure
flight conditions are transmitted to the lines
that engine oil system functioning is not
attached to the valve.
impaired when the oil is contaminated to a
degree (with respect to particle size and
density) that is greater than that established for
CS 25.1027 Propeller feathering system
the engine under CS–E.
(See AMC 25.1027.)
(3) The oil strainer or filter, unless it is
(a) If the propeller feathering system depends
installed at an oil tank outlet, must incorporate
on engine oil, there must be means to trap an
an indicator that will indicate contamination
amount of oil in the tank if the supply becomes
before it reaches the capacity established in
depleted due to failure of any part of the
accordance with sub-paragraph (a) (2) of this
lubricating system other than the tank itself.
paragraph.
(b) The amount of trapped oil must be
(4) The bypass of a strainer or filter
enough to accomplish the feathering operation and
must be constructed and installed so that the
must be available only to the feathering pump.
release of collected contaminants is minimised
(See AMC 25.1027 (b).)
by appropriate location of the bypass to ensure
that collected contaminants are not in the (c) The ability of the system to accomplish
bypass flow path. feathering with the trapped oil must be shown.
This may be done on the ground using an auxiliary
(5) An oil strainer or filter that has no
source of oil for lubricating the engine during
bypass, except one that is installed at an oil
operation.
tank outlet, must have a means to connect it to
the warning system required in CS (d) Provision must be made to prevent sludge
25.1305(c)(7). or other foreign matter from affecting the safe
operation of the propeller feathering system.

CS 25.1021 Oil system drains


COOLING
A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe
drainage of the oil system. Each drain must –
CS 25.1041 General
(a) Be accessible; and
The powerplant cooling provisions must be able to
(b) Have manual or automatic means for
maintain the temperatures of powerplant
positive locking in the closed position.
components, and engine fluids, within the
temperature limits established for these components
and fluids, under ground and flight operating
CS 25.1023 Oil radiators
conditions, and after normal engine shutdown.
(a) Each oil radiator must be able to
withstand, without failure, any vibration, inertia,
and oil pressure load to which it would be CS 25.1043 Cooling tests
subjected in operation.
(a) General. Compliance with CS 25.1041
(b) Each oil radiator air duct must be located must be shown by tests, under critical ground and
so that, in case of fire, flames coming from normal flight operating conditions. For these tests, the
openings of the engine nacelle cannot impinge following apply:
directly upon the radiator.
(1) If the tests are conducted under
conditions deviating from the maximum
ambient atmospheric temperature, the recorded

1–E–12
CS–25 BOOK 1

power-plant temperatures must be corrected (c) Cooling tests for each stage of flight must
under sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph. be continued until –
(2) No corrected temperatures (1) The component and engine fluid
determined under sub-paragraph (1) of this temperatures stabilise;
paragraph may exceed established limits.
(2) The stage of flight is completed; or
(3) Reserved.
(3) An operating limitation is reached.
(b) Maximum ambient atmospheric
temperature. A maximum ambient atmospheric
temperature corresponding to sea level conditions
of at least 37.8ºC (100ºF) must be established. The AIR INTAKE SYSTEM
assumed temperature lapse rate is 6.6ºC per
thousand meter (3·6ºF per thousand feet) of
CS 25.1091 Air intake
altitude above sea level until a temperature of
-56.5ºC (–69·7ºF) is reached, above which altitude (a) The air intake system for each engine
the temperature is considered at -56.5ºC (–69·7ºF). must supply –
However, for winterization installations, the
(1) The air required by that engine
applicant may select a maximum ambient
under each operating condition for which
atmospheric temperature corresponding to sea-
certification is requested; and
level conditions of less than 37.8ºC (100ºF).
(2) The air for proper fuel metering and
(c) Correction factor. Unless a more rational
mixture distribution with the air intake system
correction applies, temperatures of engine fluids
valves in any position.
and powerplant components for which temperature
limits are established, must be corrected by adding (b) Reserved.
to them the difference between the maximum
(c) Air intakes may not open within the
ambient atmospheric temperature and the
cowling, unless that part of the cowling is isolated
temperature of the ambient air at the time of the
from the engine accessory section by means of a
first occurrence of the maximum component or
fireproof diaphragm.
fluid temperature recorded during the cooling test.
(d) (1) There must be means to prevent
hazardous quantities of fuel leakage or overflow
CS 25.1045 Cooling test procedures from drains, vents, or other components of
flammable fluid systems from entering the engine
(a) Compliance with CS 25.1041 must be
air intake system; and
shown for the take-off, climb, en-route, and
landing stages of flight that correspond to the (2) The aeroplane must be designed to
applicable performance requirements. The cooling prevent water or slush on the runway, taxiway,
tests must be conducted with the aeroplane in the or other airport operating surfaces from being
configuration, and operating under the conditions, directed into the engine air intake ducts in
that are critical relative to cooling during each hazardous quantities, and the air intake ducts
stage of flight. For the cooling tests, a temperature must be located or protected so as to minimise
is ‘stabilised’ when its rate of change is less than the ingestion of foreign matter during take-off,
1ºC (2ºF) per minute. landing and taxying. (See AMC 25.1091
(d)(2).)
(b) Temperatures must be stabilised under the
conditions from which entry is made into each stage (e) If the engine air intake system contains
of flight being investigated, unless the entry parts or components that could be damaged by
condition normally is not one during which foreign objects entering the air intake, it must be
component and engine fluid temperatures would shown by tests or, if appropriate, by analysis that
stabilise (in which case, operation through the full the air intake system design can withstand the
entry condition must be conducted before entry into foreign object ingestion test conditions of CS–E
the stage of flight being investigated in order to 790 and CS–E 800 without failure of parts or
allow temperatures to reach their natural levels at the components that could create a hazard. (See AMC
time of entry). The take-off cooling test must be 25.1091(e).)
preceded by a period during which the powerplant
component and engine fluid temperatures are
stabilised with the engines at ground idle.

1–E–13
CS–25 BOOK 1

CS 25.1093 Air intake system de-icing and (a) Each exhaust system must ensure safe
anti-icing provisions disposal of exhaust gases without fire hazard or
carbon monoxide contamination in any personnel
(a) Reserved.
compartment. For test purposes, any acceptable
carbon monoxide detection method may be used to
(b) Turbine engines
show the absence of carbon monoxide. (See AMC
(1) Each turbine engine must operate 25.1121(a).)
throughout the flight power range of the engine
(b) Each exhaust system part with a surface
(including idling), without the accumulation of
ice on the engine, inlet system components, or hot enough to ignite flammable fluids or vapours
airframe components that would adversely must be located or shielded so that leakage from
affect engine operation or cause a serious loss any system carrying flammable fluids or vapours
of power or thrust (see AMC 25.1093 (b).) – will not result in a fire caused by impingement of
the fluids or vapours on any part of the exhaust
(i) Under the icing conditions system including shields for the exhaust system.
specified in Appendix C. (See AMC 25.1121(b).)
(ii) Reserved (c) Each component that hot exhaust gases
(2) Each engine must idle for 30 could strike, or that could be subjected to high
minutes on the ground, with the air bleed temperatures from exhaust system parts, must be
available for engine icing protection at its fireproof. All exhaust system components must be
critical condition, without adverse effect, in an separated by fireproof shields from adjacent parts
atmosphere that is at a temperature between – of the aeroplane that are outside the engine
9º and –1ºC (15º and 30ºF) and has a liquid compartment.
water content not less than 0·3 grams per cubic (d) No exhaust gases may discharge so as to
metre in the form of drops having a mean cause a fire hazard with respect to any flammable
effective diameter not less than 20 microns, fluid vent or drain.
followed by a momentary operation at take-off
power or thrust. During the 30 minutes of idle (e) No exhaust gases may discharge where
operation, the engine may be run up they will cause a glare seriously affecting pilot
periodically to a moderate power or thrust vision at night.
setting. (f) Each exhaust system component must be
ventilated to prevent points of excessively high
temperature.
CS 25.1103 Air intake system ducts and air
duct systems (g) Each exhaust shroud must be ventilated or
insulated to avoid, during normal operation, a
(a) Reserved. temperature high enough to ignite any flammable
(b) Each air intake system must be – fluids or vapours external to the shroud.

(1) Strong enough to prevent structural


failure resulting from engine surging; and CS 25.1123 Exhaust piping
(2) Fire-resistant if it is in any fire zone for For powerplant installations, the following apply:
which a fire extinguishing system is required.
(a) Exhaust piping must be heat and
(c) Each duct connected to components corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to
between which relative motion could exist must prevent failure due to expansion by operating
have means for flexibility. temperatures.
(d) For bleed air systems no hazard may (b) Piping must be supported to withstand
result if a duct rupture or failure occurs at any any vibration and inertia loads to which it would
point between the engine port and the aeroplane be subjected in operation; and
unit served by the bleed air. (See AMC 25.1103
(d).) (c) Piping connected to components between
EXHAUST SYSTEM which relative motion could exist must have
means for flexibility.

CS 25.1121 General
For powerplant installations the following apply:

1–E–14
CS–25 BOOK 1

POWERPLANT CONTROLS AND (c) Each power and thrust control must
ACCESSORIES provide a positive and immediately responsive
means of controlling its engine.
CS 25.1141 Powerplant controls: general (d) For each fluid injection (other than fuel)
system and its controls not provided and approved
Each powerplant control must be located,
as part of the engine, the flow of the injection
arranged, and designed under CS 25.777 to 25.781
fluid must be adequately controlled.
and marked under CS 25.1555. In addition, it must
meet the following requirements: (e) If a power or thrust control incorporates a
fuel shut-off feature, the control must have a
(a) Each control must be located so that it
means to prevent the inadvertent movement of the
cannot be inadvertently operated by persons
control into the shut-off position. The means must
entering, leaving, or moving normally in, the

cockpit.
(1) Have a positive lock or stop at the
(b) Each flexible control must be approved or
idle position; and
must be shown to be suitable for the particular
application. (2) Require a separate and distinct
operation to place the control in the shut-off
(c) Each control must have sufficient strength
position.
and rigidity to withstand operating loads without
failure and without excessive deflection.
(d) Each control must be able to maintain any CS 25.1145 Ignition switches
set position without constant attention by flight-
(a) Ignition switches must control each
crew members and without creep due to control
engine ignition circuit on each engine.
loads or vibration.
(b) There must be means to quickly shut off
(e) The portion of each powerplant control
all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a
located in a designated fire zone that is required to
master ignition control.
be operated in the event of fire must be at least fire
resistant. (See CS 25.903(c).) (c) Each group of ignition switches except
ignition switches for turbine engines for which
[ (f) For Powerplant valve controls located in the
continuous ignition is not required, and each
flight deck there must be a means:
master ignition control must have a means to
(1) for the flightcrew to select each prevent its inadvertent operation.
intended position or function of the
valve; and
(2) to indicate to the flightcrew: CS 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch
controls
(i) the selected position or function of
the valve; and (a) There must be a separate propeller speed
and pitch control for each propeller.
(ii) when the valve has not responded as
intended to the selected position or (b) The controls must be grouped and
function.] arranged to allow –
[Amdt. No.:25/1] (1) Separate control of each propeller;
and
(2) Simultaneous control of all
CS 25.1143 Engine controls
propellers.
(a) There must be a separate power or thrust
(c) The controls must allow synchronisation
control for each engine.
of all propellers.
(b) Power and thrust controls must be
(d) The propeller speed and pitch controls
arranged to allow –
must be to the right of, and at least 25 mm (one
(1) Separate control of each engine; and inch) below, the pilot’s throttle controls.
(2) Simultaneous control of all engines.
CS 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls

1–E–15
CS–25 BOOK 1

(a) There must be a separate propeller control may be near any fire extinguisher control
feathering control for each propeller. The control or other control used to combat fire.
must have means to prevent its inadvertent
operation.
CS 25.1163 Powerplant accessories
(b) If feathering is accomplished by
movement of the propeller pitch or speed control (a) Each engine-mounted accessory must –
lever, there must be means to prevent the
(1) Be approved for mounting on the
inadvertent movement of this lever to the
engine involved;
feathering position during normal operation.
(2) Use the provisions on the engine for
mounting; and
CS 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller
(3) Be sealed to prevent contamination
pitch settings below the flight
of the engine oil system and the accessory
regime
system.
Each control for selecting propeller pitch
(b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or
settings below the flight regime (reverse thrust for
sparking must be installed to minimise the
turbo-jet powered aeroplanes) must have the
following: probability of contact with any flammable fluids
or vapours that might be present in a free state.
(a) A positive lock or stop which requires a
separate and distinct operation by the flight crew (c) If continued rotation of an engine-driven
to displace the control from the flight regime cabin supercharger or of any remote accessory
(forward thrust regime for turbo-jet powered driven by the engine is hazardous if
aeroplanes), and it must only be possible to make malfunctioning occurs, there must be means to
this separate and distinct operation once the prevent rotation without interfering with the
control has reached the flight idle position. continued operation of the engine.

(b) A means to prevent both inadvertent and


intentional selection or activation of propeller CS 25.1165 Engine ignition systems
pitch settings below the flight regime (reverse
thrust for turbo-jet powered aeroplanes) when out (a) Each battery ignition system must be
of the approved in-flight operating envelope for supplemented by a generator that is automatically
that function, and override of that means is available as an alternate source of electrical
prohibited. energy to allow continued engine operation if any
battery becomes depleted.
(c) A reliability, such that the loss of the
means required by sub-paragraph (b) above is (b) The capacity of batteries and generators
remote. must be large enough to meet the simultaneous
demands of the engine ignition system and the
(d) A caution provided to the flight crew
greatest demands of any electrical system
when the means required by sub-paragraph (b)
above is lost. components that draw electrical energy from the
same source.
(e) A caution provided to the flight crew
when a cockpit control is displaced from the flight (c) The design of the engine ignition system
regime (forward thrust regime for turbo-jet must account for –
powered aeroplanes) into a position to select (1) The condition of an inoperative
propeller pitch settings below the flight regime generator;
(reverse thrust for turbo-jet powered aeroplanes)
outside the approved in-flight operating envelope. (2) The condition of a completely
This caution need not be provided if the means depleted battery with the generator running at
required by sub-paragraph (b) is a mechanical its normal operating speed; and
baulk that prevents movement of the control. (3) The condition of a completely
depleted battery with the generator operating at
CS 25.1161 Fuel jettisoning system
idling speed, if there is only one battery.
controls (d) Reserved.
Each fuel jettisoning system control must have (e) No ground wire for any engine may be
guards to prevent inadvertent operation. No routed through a fire zone of another engine

1–E–16
CS–25 BOOK 1

unless each part of that wire within that zone is (7) Combustor, turbine, and tailpipe
fireproof. sections of turbine engine installations that
contain lines or components carrying
(f) Each ignition system must be independent
flammable fluids or gases.
of any electrical circuit not used for assisting,
controlling, or analysing the operation of that (b) Each designated fire zone must meet the
system. requirements of CS 25.863, 25.867, 25.869, and
25.1185 to 25.1203
(g) There must be means to warn appropriate
flight-crew members if the malfunctioning of any
part of the electrical system is causing the
CS 25.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls,
continuous discharge of any battery necessary for
and engine pod attaching
engine ignition.
structures containing
(h) Each engine ignition system of a turbine flammable fluid lines
powered aeroplane must be considered an
(a) Each nacelle area immediately behind the
essential electrical load.
firewall, and each portion of any engine pod
attaching structure containing flammable fluid
lines, must meet each requirement of CS 25.1103
CS 25.1167 Accessory gearboxes
(b), 25.1165 (e), 25.1183, 25.1185 (c), 21.1187,
For aeroplanes equipped with an accessory 25.1189 and 25.1195 to 25.1203, including those
gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine concerning designated fire zones. However,
– engine pod attaching structures need not contain
fire detection or extinguishing means.
(a) The engine with gearbox and connecting
transmissions and shafts attached must be (b) For each area covered by sub-paragraph
subjected to the test specified in CS–E 160 and (a) of this paragraph that contains a retractable
CS–E 740, as applicable. landing gear, compliance with that sub-paragraph
need only be shown with the landing gear
(b) The accessory gearbox must meet the
retracted.
requirements of CS–E 80 and CS–E 590, as
applicable; and
(c) Possible misalignments and torsional CS 25.1183 Flammable fluid-carrying
loadings of the gearbox, transmission, and shaft components
system, expected to result under normal operating
(a) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (b)
conditions must be evaluated.
of this paragraph, each line, fitting, and other
component carrying flammable fluid in any area
subject to engine fire conditions, and each
POWERPLANT FIRE PROTECTION
component which conveys or contains flammable
fluid in a designated fire zone must be fire
CS 25.1181 Designated fire zones: regions resistant, except that flammable fluid tanks and
included supports in a designated fire zone must be
(See AMC 25.1181.) fireproof or be enclosed by a fireproof shield
unless damage by fire to any non-fireproof part
(a) Designated fire zones are –
will not cause leakage or spillage of flammable
(1) The engine power section; fluid. Components must be shielded or located to
safeguard against the ignition of leaking
(2) The engine accessory section;
flammable fluid.
(3) Any complete powerplant
(b) Sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph does
compartment in which no isolation is provided
not apply to –
between the engine power section and the
engine accessory section; (1) Lines, fittings and components
which are already approved as part of a type
(4) Reserved.
certificated engine; and
(5) Any fuel-burning heater and other
(2) Vent and drain lines, and their
combustion equipment installation described in
fittings, whose failure will not result in, or add
CS 25.859;
to, a fire hazard.
(6) The compressor and accessory
sections of turbine engines; and

1–E–17
CS–25 BOOK 1

(c) All components, including ducts, within a allow the crew to shut-off sources of forced
designated fire zone must be fireproof if, when ventilation to any fire zone except the engine
exposed to or damaged by fire, they could – power section of the nacelle and the combustion
heater ventilating air ducts.
(1) Result in fire spreading to other
regions of the aeroplane, or
(2) Cause unintentional operation of, or CS 25.1189 Shut-off means
inability to operate, essential services or [ (See AMC 25.1189.)]
equipment.
(a) Each engine installation and each fire
zone specified in CS 25.1181 (a)(5) must have a
means to shut off or otherwise prevent hazardous
CS 25.1185 Flammable fluids
quantities of fuel, oil, de-icer, and other
(a) No tank or reservoir that is a part of a flammable fluids, from flowing into, within, or
system containing flammable fluids or gases may through any designated fire zone, except that shut-
be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid off means are not required for –
contained, the design of the system, the materials
(1) Lines, fittings, and components
used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all
forming an integral part of an engine; and
connections, lines and controls provide a degree of
safety equal to that which would exist if the tank (2) Oil systems in which all compo-
or reservoir were outside such a zone. nents of the system in a designated fire zone,
including the oil tanks, are fireproof or located
(b) There must be at least 13 mm (0·5 inches)
in areas not subject to engine fire conditions.
of clear airspace between each tank or reservoir
and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated (b) The closing of any fuel shut-off valve for
fire zone. any engine may not make fuel unavailable to the
remaining engines.
(c) Absorbent materials close to flammable
fluid system components that might leak must be (c) Operation of any shut-off means may not
covered or treated to prevent the absorption of interfere with the later emergency operation of
hazardous quantities of fluids. other equipment, such as the means for feathering
the propeller.
(d) Each flammable fluid shut-off means and
CS 25.1187 Drainage and ventilation of fire
control must be fireproof or must be located and
zones
protected so that any fire in a fire zone will not
(a) There must be complete drainage of each affect its operation.
part of each designated fire zone to minimise the
(e) No hazardous quantity of flammable fluid
hazards resulting from failure or malfunctioning
may drain into any designated fire zone after shut-
of any component containing flammable fluids.
off.
The drainage means must be –
(f) There must be means to guard against
(1) Effective under conditions expected
inadvertent operation of the shut-off means and to
to prevail when drainage is needed; and
make it possible for the crew to reopen the shut-
(2) Arranged so that no discharge fluid off means in flight after it has been closed.
will cause an additional fire hazard.
(g) Each tank-to-engine shut-off valve must
(b) Each designated fire zone must be be located so that the operation of the valve will
ventilated to prevent the accumulation of not be affected by powerplant or engine mount
flammable vapours. structural failure.
(c) No ventilation opening may be where it (h) Each shut-off valve must have a means to
would allow the entry of flammable fluids, relieve excessive pressure accumulation unless a
vapours, or flame from other zones. means for pressure relief is otherwise provided in
the system.
(d) Each ventilation means must be arranged
so that no discharged vapours will cause an [Amdt. No.:25/1]
additional fire hazard.
(e) Unless the extinguishing agent capacity
and rate of discharge are based on maximum air
flow through a zone, there must be a means to

1–E–18
CS–25 BOOK 1

CS 25.1191 Firewalls CS 25.1195 Fire-extinguisher systems


(a) Each engine, fuel-burning heater, other (a) Except for combustor, turbine, and tail
combustion equipment intended for operation in pipe sections of turbine engine installations that
flight, and the combustion, turbine, and tailpipe contain lines or components carrying flammable
sections of turbine engines, must be isolated from fluids or gases for which it is shown that a fire
the rest of the aeroplane by firewalls, shrouds, or originating in these sections can be controlled,
equivalent means. there must be a fire extinguisher system serving
each designated fire zone.
(b) Each firewall and shroud must be –
(b) The fire-extinguishing system, the
(1) Fireproof;
quantity of the extinguishing agent, the rate of
(2) Constructed so that no hazardous discharge, and the discharge distribution must be
quantity of air, fluid, or flame can pass from the adequate to extinguish fires. It must be shown by
compartment to other parts of the aeroplane; either actual or simulated flight tests that under
critical airflow conditions in flight the discharge
(3) Constructed so that each opening is
of the extinguishing agent in each designated fire
sealed with close fitting fireproof grommets,
zone specified in sub-paragraph (a) of this
bushings, or firewall fittings; and
paragraph will provide an agent concentration
(4) Protected against corrosion. capable of extinguishing fires in that zone and of
minimising the probability of re-ignition. An
individual ‘one-shot’ system may be used for fuel
CS 25.1193 Cowling and nacelle skin burning heaters, and other combustion equipment.
For each other designated fire zone, two
(a) Each cowling must be constructed and
discharges must be provided each of which
supported so that it can resist any vibration,
produces adequate agent concentration. (See AMC
inertia, and air load to which it may be subjected
25.1195 (b).)
in operation.
(c) The fire-extinguishing system for a
(b) Cowling must meet the drainage and
nacelle must be able to simultaneously protect
ventilation requirements of CS 25.1187.
each zone of the nacelle for which protection is
(c) On aeroplanes with a diaphragm isolating provided.
the engine power section from the engine
accessory section, each part of the accessory
section cowling subject to flame in case of fire in CS 25.1197 Fire-extinguishing agents
the engine power section of the powerplant must–
(a) Fire-extinguishing agents must –
(1) Be fireproof; and
(1) Be capable of extinguishing flames
(2) Meet the requirements of CS emanating from any burning of fluids or other
25.1191. combustible materials in the area protected by
the fire extinguishing system; and
(d) Each part of the cowling subject to high
temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system (2) Have thermal stability over the
parts or exhaust gas impingement must be temperature range likely to be experienced in
fireproof. the compartment in which they are stored.
(e) Each aeroplane must – (b) If any toxic extinguishing agent is used,
provisions must be made to prevent harmful
(1) Be designed and constructed so that
concentrations of fluid or fluid vapours (from
no fire originating in any fire zone can enter,
leakage during normal operation of the aeroplane
either through openings or by burning through
or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher
external skin, any other zone or region where it
on the ground or in flight) from entering any
would create additional hazards;
personnel compartment, even though a defect may
(2) Meet sub-paragraph (e)(1) of this exist in the extinguishing system. This must be
paragraph with the landing gear retracted (if shown by test except for built-in carbon dioxide
applicable); and fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems
for which –
(3) Have fireproof skin in areas subject
to flame if a fire starts in the engine power or (1) 2.3 kg (five pounds) or less of
accessory sections. carbon dioxide will be discharged, under

1–E–19
CS–25 BOOK 1

established fire control procedures, into any (b) Each fire detector system must be
fuselage compartment; or constructed and installed so that –
(2) There is protective breathing (1) It will withstand the vibration,
equipment for each flight-crew member on inertia, and other loads to which it may be
flight deck duty. subjected in operation;
(2) There is a means to warn the crew
in the event that the sensor or associated wiring
CS 25.1199 Extinguishing agent containers
within a designated fire zone is severed at one
(a) Each extinguishing agent container must point, unless the system continues to function
have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the as a satisfactory detection system after the
container by excessive internal pressures. severing; and
(b) The discharge end of each discharge line (3) There is a means to warn the crew
from a pressure relief connection must be located in the event of a short circuit in the sensor or
so that discharge of the fire extinguishing agent associated wiring within a designated fire zone,
would not damage the aeroplane. The line must unless the system continues to function as a
also be located or protected to prevent clogging satisfactory detection system after the short
caused by ice or other foreign matter. circuit.
(c) There must be a means for each fire (c) No fire or overheat detector may be
extinguishing agent container to indicate that the affected by any oil, water, other fluids, or fumes
container has discharged or that the charging that might be present.
pressure is below the established minimum
(d) There must be means to allow the crew to
necessary for proper functioning.
check, in flight, the functioning of each fire or
(d) The temperature of each container must overheat detector electric circuit.
be maintained, under intended operating
(e) Wiring and other components of each fire
conditions, to prevent the pressure in the container
or overheat detector system in a fire zone must be
from –
at least fire-resistant.
(1) Falling below that necessary to
(f) No fire or overheat detector system
provide an adequate rate of discharge; or
component for any fire zone may pass through
(2) Rising high enough to cause another fire zone, unless –
premature discharge.
(1) It is protected against the possibility
(e) If a pyrotechnic capsule is used to of false warnings resulting from fires in zones
discharge the extinguishing agent, each container through which it passes; or
must be installed so that temperature conditions
(2) Each zone involved is
will not cause hazardous deterioration of the
simultaneously protected by the same detector
pyrotechnic capsule.
and extinguishing system.
(g) Each fire detector system must be
CS 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system constructed so that when it is in the configuration
materials for installation it will not exceed the alarm
activation time approved for the detectors using
(a) No material in any fire extinguishing
the response time criteria specified in the
system may react chemically with any
appropriate European Technical Standard Order
extinguishing agent so as to create a hazard.
for the detector.
(b) Each system component in an engine
compartment must be fireproof.
CS 25.1207 Compliance
Unless otherwise specified, compliance with the
CS 25.1203 Fire-detector system
requirements of CS 25.1181 to 25.1203 must be
(a) There must be approved, quick acting fire shown by a full scale fire test or by one or more of
or overheat detectors in each designated fire zone, the following methods:
and in the combustion, turbine, and tailpipe
(a) Tests of similar powerplant
sections of turbine engine installations, in numbers
configurations;
and locations ensuring prompt detection of fire in
those zones. (b) Tests of components;

1–E–20
CS–25 BOOK 1

(c) Service experience of aeroplanes with


similar powerplant configurations;
(d) Analysis.

1–E–21
CS–25 BOOK 1

SUBPART F – EQUIPMENT

GENERAL failure of the electrical generating system, and is


installed in accordance with CS 25.1321 (a).
(5) A bank and pitch indicator (gyro-
CS 25.1301 Function and installation
scopically stabilised). (See AMC 25.1303 (b)(5).)
(See AMC 25.1301)
(6) A direction indicator (gyroscopically
Each item of installed equipment must – stabilised, magnetic or non-magnetic).
(a) Be of a kind and design appropriate to its (c) The following flight and navigation
intended function; instruments are required as prescribed in this
paragraph:
(b) Be labelled as to its identification, function,
or operating limitations, or any applicable (1) A speed warning device which must
combination of these factors. (See AMC give effective aural warning (differing
25.1301(b).) distinctively from aural warnings used for other
purposes) to the pilots whenever the speed
(c) Be installed according to limitations
exceeds VMO plus 11.1 km/h (6 knots) or MMO +
specified for that equipment; and
0·01. The upper limit of the production tolerance
for the warning device may not exceed the
prescribed warning speed. (See AMC 25.1303
CS 25.1303 Flight and navigation
(c)(1).)
instruments
(2) A mach meter is required at each pilot
(a) The following flight and navigation
station for aeroplanes with compressibility
instruments must be installed so that the instrument is
limitations not otherwise indicated to the pilot by
visible from each pilot station:
the airspeed indicating system required under sub-
(1) A free-air temperature indicator or an paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph.
air-temperature indicator which provides
indications that are convertible to free-air
temperature.
CS 25.1305 Powerplant instruments
(2) A clock displaying hours, minutes,
The following are required powerplant instruments:
and seconds with a sweep-second pointer or
digital presentation. (a) For all aeroplanes
(3) A direction indicator (non-stabilised (1) A fuel pressure warning means for
magnetic compass). each engine, or a master warning means for all
engines with provision for isolating the individual
(b) The following flight and navigation
warning means from the master warning means.
instruments must be installed at each pilot station:
(2) A fuel quantity indicator for each fuel
(1) An airspeed indicator. If airspeed
tank.
limitations vary with altitude, the indicator must
have a maximum allowable airspeed indicator (3) An oil quantity indicator for each oil
showing the variation of VMO with altitude. tank.
(2) An altimeter (sensitive). (4) An oil pressure indicator for each
independent pressure oil system of each engine.
(3) A rate-of-climb indicator (vertical
speed). (5) An oil pressure warning means for
each engine, or a master warning means for all
(4) A gyroscopic rate of turn indicator
engines with provision for isolating the individual
combined with an integral slip-skid indicator
warning means from the master warning means.
(turn-and-bank indicator) except that only a slip-
skid indicator is required on aeroplanes with a (6) An oil temperature indicator for each
third attitude instrument system usable through engine.
flight attitudes of 360º of pitch and roll, which is
(7) Fire-warning devices that provide
powered from a source independent of the
visual and audible warning.
electrical generating system and continues reliable
operation for a minimum of 30 minutes after total

1–F–1
CS–25 BOOK 1

(8) An augmentation liquid quantity (i) Is not in the selected position,


indicator (appropriate for the manner in which the and
liquid is to be used in operation) for each tank.
(ii) Is in the reverse thrust position,
(b) Reserved. for each engine using a thrust-reversing
device.
(c) For turbine engine-powered aeroplanes. In
addition to the powerplant instruments required by (3) An indicator to indicate rotor system
sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, the following unbalance.
powerplant instruments are required:
(e) For turbo-propeller-powered aeroplanes.
(1) A gas temperature indicator for each In addition to the powerplant instruments required by
engine. sub-paragraphs (a) and (c) of this paragraph, the
following powerplant instruments are required:
(2) A fuel flow meter indicator for each
engine. (1) A torque indicator for each engine.
(3) A tachometer (to indicate the speed of (2) Position indicating means to indicate
the rotors with established limiting speeds) for to the flight crew when the propeller blade angle
each engine. is below the flight low pitch position, for each
propeller.
(4) A means to indicate, to the flight
crew, the operation of each engine starter that can (3) Reserved
be operated continuously but that is neither
(f) For aeroplanes equipped with fluid systems
designed for continuous operation nor designed to
(other than fuel) for thrust or power augmentation, an
prevent hazard if it failed.
approved means must be provided to indicate the
(5) An indicator to indicate the proper functioning of that system to the flight crew.
functioning of the powerplant ice protection
system for each engine.
CS 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment
(6) An indicator for the fuel strainer or
filter required by CS 25.997 to indicate the The following is required miscellaneous equipment:
occurrence of contamination of the strainer or
(a) Reserved
filter before it reaches the capacity established in
accordance with CS 25.997(d). (b) Two or more independent sources of
electrical energy.
(7) A warning means for the oil strainer
or filter required by CS 25.1019, if it has no (c) Electrical protective devices, as prescribed
bypass, to warn the pilot of the occurrence of in this CS–25.
contamination of the strainer or filter screen
(d) Two systems for two-way radio
before it reaches the capacity established in
communications, with controls for each accessible
accordance with CS 25.1019(a)(2).
from each pilot station, designed and installed so that
(8) An indicator to indicate the proper failure of one system will not preclude operation of
functioning of any heater used to prevent ice the other system. The use of a common antenna
clogging of fuel system components. system is acceptable if adequate reliability is shown.
(d) For turbo-jet engine-powered aeroplanes. (e) Two systems for radio navigation, with
In addition to the powerplant instruments required by controls for each accessible from each pilot station,
sub-paragraphs (a) and (c) of this paragraph, the designed and installed so that failure of one system
following powerplant instruments are required: will not preclude operation of the other system. The
use of a common antenna system is acceptable if
(1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a
adequate reliability is shown.
parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the
pilot. The indication must be based on the direct
measurement of thrust or of the parameters that CS 25.1309 Equipment, systems and
are directly related to thrust. The indicator must installations
indicate a change in thrust resulting from any (See AMC 25.1309)
engine malfunction, damage or deterioration. (See
The requirements of this paragraph, except as
AMC 25.1305 (d)(1).)
identified below, are applicable, in addition to
(2) A position indicating means to specific design requirements of CS-25, to any
indicate to the flight crew when the thrust equipment or system as installed in the aeroplane.
reversing device – Although this paragraph does not apply to the

1–F–2
CS–25 BOOK 1

performance and flight characteristic requirements of power loads in probable operating combinations and
Subpart B and the structural requirements of for probable durations (see AMC 25.1310(a)):
Subparts C and D, it does apply to any system on
(1) Loads connected to the system with the
which compliance with any of those requirements is
system functioning normally.
dependent. Certain single failures or jams covered
by CS 25.671(c)(1) and CS 25.671(c)(3) are excepted (2) Essential loads, after failure of any one
from the requirements of CS 25.1309(b)(1)(ii). prime mover, power converter, or energy storage
Certain single failures covered by CS 25.735(b) are device.
excepted from the requirements of CS 25.1309(b).
(3) Essential loads after failure of -
The failure effects covered by CS 25.810(a)(1)(v)
and CSCS 25.812 are excepted from the requirements (i) Any one engine on two-engine
of CS 25.1309(b). The requirements of CS aeroplanes; and
25.1309(b) apply to powerplant installations as
(ii) Any two engines on three-or-
specified in CS 25.901(c).
more engine aeroplanes.
(a) The aeroplane equipment and systems must
(4) Essential loads for which an alternate
be designed and installed so that:
source of power is required, after any failure or
(1) Those required for type certification or malfunction in any one-power supply system,
by operating rules, or whose improper distribution system, or other utilisation system.
functioning would reduce safety, perform as
(b) In determining compliance with sub-
intended under the aeroplane operating and
paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this paragraph, the
environmental conditions.
power loads may be assumed to be reduced under a
(2) Other equipment and systems are not a monitoring procedure consistent with safety in the
source of danger in themselves and do not kinds of operation authorised. Loads not required in
adversely affect the proper functioning of those controlled flight need not be considered for the two-
covered by sub-paragraph (a)(1) of this engine-inoperative condition on aeroplanes with
paragraph. three or more engines.
(b) The aeroplane systems and associated
components, considered separately and in relation to
CS 25.1315 Negative acceleration
other systems, must be designed so that -
No hazardous malfunction may occur as a result of
(1) Any catastrophic failure condition
the aeroplane being operated at the negative
(i) is extremely improbable; and accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed
in CS 25.333. This must be shown for the greatest
(ii) does not result from a single
duration expected for the acceleration. (See also
failure; and
AMC 25.1315.)
(2) Any hazardous failure condition is
extremely remote; and
CS 25.1316 System lightning
(3) Any major failure condition is remote. protection
(c) Information concerning unsafe system (a) For functions whose failure would
operating conditions must be provided to the crew to contribute to or cause a condition that would prevent
enable them to take appropriate corrective action. A the continued safe flight and landing of the
warning indication must be provided if immediate aeroplane, each electrical and electronic system that
corrective action is required. Systems and controls, performs these functions must be designed and
including indications and annunciations must be installed to ensure that the operation and operational
designed to minimise crew errors, which could create capabilities of the systems to perform these functions
additional hazards. are not adversely affected when the aeroplane is
exposed to lightning.
CS 25.1310 Power source capacity and (b) For functions whose failure would
distribution contribute to or cause a condition that would reduce
the capability of the aeroplane or the ability of the
(a) Each installation whose functioning is
flight crew to cope with adverse operating
required for type certification or by operating rules
conditions, each electrical and electronic system that
and that requires a power supply is an "essential
performs these functions must be designed and
load" on the power supply. The power sources and
installed to ensure that these functions can be
the system must be able to supply the following

1–F–3
CS–25 BOOK 1

recovered in a timely manner after the aeroplane is (4) The instrument that most effectively
exposed to lightning. indicates direction of flight must be adjacent to
and directly below the instrument in the top centre
(c) Compliance with the lightning protection
position.
criteria prescribed in sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) of
this paragraph must be shown for exposure to a (c) Required powerplant instruments must be
severe lightning environment. The aeroplane must be closely grouped on the instrument panel. In addition
designed for and it must be verified that aircraft –
electrical/electronic systems are protected against the
(1) The location of identical powerplant
effects of lightning by:
instruments for the engines must prevent
(1) Determining the lightning strike zones confusion as to which engine each instrument
for the aeroplane; relates; and
(2) Establishing the external lightning (2) Powerplant instruments vital to the
environment for the zones; safe operation of the aeroplane must be plainly
visible to the appropriate crewmembers.
(3) Establishing the internal environment;
(d) Instrument panel vibration may not damage
(4) Identifying all the electrical and
or impair the accuracy of any instrument.
electronic systems that are subject to the
requirements of this paragraph, and their locations (e) If a visual indicator is provided to indicate
on or within the aeroplane; malfunction of an instrument, it must be effective
under all probable cockpit lighting conditions.
(5) Establishing the susceptibility of the
systems to the internal and external lightning
environment;
CS 25.1322 Warning, caution, and
(6) Designing protection; and advisory lights
(See AMC 25.1322)
(7) Verifying that the protection is
adequate. If warning, caution, or advisory lights are installed in
the cockpit, they must, unless otherwise approved by
the Agency, be –
INSTRUMENTS: INSTALLATION
(a) Red, for warning lights (lights indicating a
hazard, which may require immediate corrective
CS 25.1321 Arrangement and visibility action);
(a) Each flight, navigation, and powerplant (b) Amber, for caution lights (lights indicating
instrument for use by any pilot must be plainly the possible need for future corrective action);
visible to him from his station with the minimum
(c) Green, for safe operation lights; and
practicable deviation from his normal position and
line of vision when he is looking forward along the (d) Any other colour, including white, for lights
flight path. not described in sub-paragraphs (a) to (c) of this
paragraph, provided the colour differs sufficiently
(b) The flight instruments required by CS
from the colours prescribed in sub-paragraphs (a) to
25.1303 must be grouped on the instrument panel and
(c) of this paragraph to avoid possible confusion.
centred as nearly as practicable about the vertical
plane of the pilot’s forward vision. In addition –
(1) The instrument that most effectively CS 25.1323 Airspeed indicating system
indicates attitude must be on the panel in the top
For each airspeed indicating system, the
centre position;
following apply:
(2) The instrument that most effectively
(a) Each airspeed indicating instrument must be
indicates airspeed must be adjacent to and directly
approved and must be calibrated to indicate true
to the left of the instrument in the top centre
airspeed (at sea-level with a standard atmosphere)
position;
with a minimum practicable instrument calibration
(3) The instrument that most effectively error when the corresponding pitot and static
indicates altitude must be adjacent to and directly pressures are applied.
to the right of the instrument in the top centre
(b) Each system must be calibrated to determine
position; and
the system error (that is, the relation between IAS
and CAS) in flight and during the accelerated take-

1–F–4
CS–25 BOOK 1

off ground run. The ground run calibration must be CS 25.1325 Static pressure systems
determined –
(a) Each instrument with static air case
(1) From 0·8 of the minimum value of V1, connections must be vented to the outside
to the maximum value of V2, considering the atmosphere through an appropriate piping system.
approved ranges of altitude and weight; and
(b) Each static port must be designed and
(2) With the wing-flaps and power located in such manner that static pressure system
settings corresponding to the values determined performance is least affected by airflow variation, or
in the establishment of the take-off path under CS by moisture or other foreign matter, and that the
25.111 assuming that the critical engine fails at correlation between air pressure in the static pressure
the minimum value of V1. system and true ambient atmospheric static pressure
is not changed when the aeroplane is exposed to the
(c) The airspeed error of the installation, continuous and intermittent maximum icing
excluding the airspeed indicator instrument conditions defined in Appendix C. (See AMC to
calibration error, may not exceed 3% or five knots, 25.1323 (i) and 25.1325(b).)
whichever is greater, throughout the speed range,
(c) The design and installation of the static
from –
pressure system must be such that –
(1) VMO to 1·23 VSR1 with wing-flaps
(1) Positive drainage of moisture is
retracted; and
provided; chafing of the tubing and excessive
(2) 1·23 VSR0 to VFE with wing-flaps in the distortion or restriction at bends in the tubing is
landing position. avoided; and the materials used are durable,
(d) From 1·23 VSR to the speed at which stall suitable for the purpose intended, and protected
warning begins, the IAS must change perceptibly against corrosion; and
with CAS and in the same sense, and at speeds below
(2) It is airtight except for the port into
stall warning speed the IAS must not change in an
the atmosphere. A proof test must be conducted
incorrect sense. (See AMC 25.1323 (d).)
to demonstrate the integrity of the static pressure
(e) From VMO to VMO + 2 (VDF – VMO) the IAS system in the following manner:
3
must change perceptibly with CAS and in the same (i) Unpressurised aeroplanes.
sense, and at higher speeds up to VDF the IAS must Evacuate the static pressure system to a
not change in an incorrect sense. (See AMC 25.1323 pressure differential of approximately 33.86
(e)) HPa, (1 inch of mercury) or to a reading on
(f) There must be no indication of air-speed the altimeter, 305 m (1 000 ft) above the
that would cause undue difficulty to the pilot during aeroplane elevation at the time of the test.
the take-off between the initiation of rotation and the Without additional pumping for a period of
achievement of a steady climbing condition. 1 minute, the loss of indicated altitude must
not exceed 30 m (100 ft) on the altimeter.
(g) The effects of airspeed indicating system (ii) Pressurised aeroplanes.
lag may not introduce significant takeoff indicated Evacuate the static pressure system until
airspeed bias, or significant errors in takeoff or pressure differential equivalent to the
accelerate-stop distances. maximum cabin pressure differential for
(h) Each system must be arranged, so far as which the aeroplane is type certificated is
practicable, to prevent malfunction or serious error achieved. Without additional pumping for a
due to the entry of moisture, dirt, or other substances. period of 1 minute, the loss of indicated
(See AMC 25.1323 (h).) altitude must not exceed 2% of the
equivalent altitude of the maximum cabin
(i) Each system must have a heated pitot tube differential pressure or 30 m (100 ft),
or an equivalent means of preventing malfunction whichever is greater.
due to icing. (See AMC to 25.1323 (i) and
25.1325(b).) (d) Each pressure altimeter must be approved
and must be calibrated to indicate pressure altitude in
(j) Where duplicate airspeed indicators are a standard atmosphere, with a minimum practicable
required, their respective pitot tubes must be far calibration error when the corresponding static
enough apart to avoid damage to both tubes in a pressures are applied.
collision with a bird.
(e) Each system must be designed and installed so
that the error in indicated pressure altitude, at sea-level,
with a standard atmosphere, excluding instrument

1–F–5
CS–25 BOOK 1

calibration error, does not result in an error of more CS 25.1327 Direction Indicator
than ±9 m (±30 ft) per 185 km/hr (100 knots) speed for (See AMC 25.1327)
the appropriate configuration in the speed range (a) Each magnetic direction indicator must be
between 1·23 VSR0 with wing-flaps extended and installed so that its accuracy is not excessively
1·7 VSR1 with wing-flaps retracted. However, the error affected by the aeroplane’s vibration or magnetic
need not be less than ±9 m (±30 ft). fields.
(b) The magnetic direction indicator required
(f) If an altimeter system is fitted with a device
by CS 25.1303(a)(3) may not have a deviation, after
that provides corrections to the altimeter indication,
compensation, in normal level flight, greater than 10
the device must be designed and installed in such
degrees on any heading.
manner that it can be bypassed when it malfunctions,
(c) Direction indicators required by CS
unless an alternate altimeter system is provided.
25.1303(b)(6) must have an accuracy adequate for
Each correction device must be fitted with a means
the safe operation of the aeroplane.
for indicating the occurrence of reasonably probable
malfunctions, including power failure, to the flight
crew. The indicating means must be effective for
CS 25.1329 Automatic pilot system
any cockpit lighting condition likely to occur.
(See AMC 25.1329.)
(g) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (h) of
(a) Each automatic pilot system must be
this paragraph, if the static pressure system
approved and must be designed so that the automatic
incorporates both a primary and an alternate static
pilot can be quickly and positively disengaged by the
pressure source, the means for selecting one or the
pilots to prevent it from interfering with their control
other source must be designed so that –
of the aeroplane.
(1) When either source is selected, the
other is blocked off; and (b) Unless there is automatic synchronisation,
each system must have a means to readily indicate to
(2) Both sources cannot be blocked off
the pilot the alignment of the actuating device in
simultaneously.
relation to the control system it operates.
(h) For un-pressurised aeroplanes, sub-
(c) Each manually operated control for the
paragraph (g)(1) of this paragraph does not apply if it
system must be readily accessible to the pilots.
can be demonstrated that the static pressure system
calibration, when either static pressure source is (d) Quick release (emergency) controls must be
selected, is not changed by the other static pressure on both control wheels, on the side of each wheel
source being open or blocked. opposite the throttles.
(e) Attitude controls must operate in the plane
and sense of motion specified in CS 25.777 (b) and
CS 25.1326 Pitot heat indication
25.779 (a) for cockpit controls. The direction of
systems
motion must be plainly indicated on, or adjacent to,
If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed, each control.
an indication system must be provided to indicate to
(f) The system must be designed and adjusted
the flight crew when that pitot heating system is not
so that, within the range of adjustment available to
operating. The indication system must comply with
the human pilot, it cannot produce hazardous loads
the following requirements:
on the aeroplane, or create hazardous deviations in
(a) The indication provided must incorporate an the flight path, under any condition of flight
amber light that is in clear view of a flight-crew appropriate to its use, either during normal operation,
member. or in the event of a malfunction, assuming that
corrective action begins within a reasonable period of
(b) The indication provided must be designed to
time.
alert the flight crew if either of the following
conditions exist: (g) If the automatic pilot integrates signals from
auxiliary controls or furnishes signals for operation
(1) The pitot heating system is switched
of other equipment, there must be positive interlocks
‘off’.
and sequencing of engagement to prevent improper
(2) The pitot heating system is switched operation. Protection against adverse interaction of
‘on’ and any pitot tube heating element is integrated components, resulting from a malfunction,
inoperative. is also required.
(h) Means must be provided to indicate to the
flight crew the current mode of operation and any

1–F–6
CS–25 BOOK 1

modes armed by the pilot. Selector switch position is to assure control of the aeroplane in airspeed,
not acceptable as a means of indication. altitude, direction and attitude by one of the pilots
without additional flight crew action after any single
(i) A warning must be provided to each pilot in
failure or combination of failures that is not assessed
the event of automatic or manual disengagement of
to be extremely improbable (see AMC 25.1333 (b));
the automatic pilot. (See CS 25.1322 and AMC
and
25.1322.)
(c) Additional instruments, systems, or
equipment may not be connected to the operating
CS 25.1331 Instruments using a power systems for the instruments required by CS 25.1303
supply (b), unless provisions are made to ensure the
continued normal functioning of the required
(a) For each instrument required by CS 25.1303
instruments in the event of any malfunction of the
(b) that uses a power supply, the following apply:
additional instruments, systems, or equipment which
(1) Each instrument must have a visual
is not shown to be extremely improbable.
means integral with the instrument, to indicate
when power adequate to sustain proper instrument
performance is not being supplied. The power
CS 25.1335 Flight director systems
must be measured at or near the point where it
enters the instruments. For electric instruments, Means must be provided to indicate to the flight crew
the power is considered to be adequate when the the current mode of operation and any modes armed
voltage is within approved limits. by the pilot. Selector switch position is not
acceptable as a means of indication.
(2) Each instrument must, in the event of
the failure of one power source, be supplied by
another power source. This may be accomplished
CS 25.1337 Powerplant instruments
automatically or by manual means. The failure of
one power source must not affect the same (a) Instruments and instrument lines
instrument of both pilot stations.
(1) Each powerplant instrument line must
(3) If an instrument presenting flight meet the requirements of CS 25.993 and CS
and/or navigation data receives information from 25.1183.
sources external to that instrument and loss of that
(2) Each line carrying flammable fluids
in