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PRINCIPLES OF YACHT DESIGN Other titles of interest Aero-Hydredynamics of Sailing 3x0 edition: © A Marcha} ISBN 0 7136 073 7 Tneorporating many years of research, this book takes Marchaj’s expositions on the design and handling of sailing boats in Satting Theory and Practice a stage further. Clear explanations, culculations, diagrams and photographs help to quantily the many factors which detcrmine the performanee of a sang boat. Tis an international classic in its field. Sail Performance Theory and Practice: © A Marchaj ISBN 0 7136 4123 1 ‘This major work is based on € A Marchaj's Sailing Theory and Practice which, when it \was first published over 30 yoars ago, quickly became a classic in its field. Since then ‘many developments ia sail performance have taken place. Tony Marcha) explains the fuetors that affect sail power and concludes that the Bermudan rig, which dominates the ‘contemporary sailing scene, is by no means the best available. This book marks turning point in modern thinking on the subject. The Propeller Handhook: Daye Gert ISBN 0 7136 5751 0 ‘This clear and easy-to-use handbook is intended as a practical aid for the mechanic, engineer, boathuilder, naval architect or yachtsman and concerns all boats — power and sail, working smd pleasure. Specially devised chats and graphs enable the reader to analyse the speed and powering characteristics of a boat and work out its optimum propeller requirements. Propeller selection und installation is also discussed in detail Boatowners Mechanical and Electricat Manual 2nd edition: Nigel Calder ISBN 0.7136 4291 2 ‘The yachtsman’s complete do-i-yourself manual, Extensively illustrated and very broad in scope, it takes novice and experienced boat owners through minor to major repairs of electrical systems, engines, electronic cquipment, plumbing, pumps, stoves, spars and rigging Boatouners Wiring Manat: Charles Wing ISBN 0 7136 4072 3 A user-friendly, practical manual for all onboard cleetrical projects ~ ftom fixing loose connections to rewiring the entire boat. Simple, clear and abundantly illustrated, itis the key to understanding and customising all aspects of 1 boat's electrical systems. Marine Electrical and Electronics Bible: John C Payne ISBN 0 7136 4110 X ‘The most complete guide in print on how to select, install, troubleshoot, and repair the lectrcal and electronic systems on boats, from batteries to bilge pumps und from radar to refrigerators. The unique format makes information easy to find — it is a nust for professionals who work with electrical and electronic gear, as well as for weekend or long-distance voyagers. PRINCIPLES YACHT DESIGN SECOND EDITION LARS LARSSON and ROLF E ELIASSON A ADLARD COLES NAUTICAL London ‘Second edition published in 2000 by Adlard Coles Nautical, aan imprint of A & C Black (Publishers) Lud 35 Bedford Row, London WCIR 4TH Copyright © Lars Larsson and Rolf E Eliasson 2000 First edition 1994 Reprinted 1996, 1997 Second edition 2000) ISBN 0-7136-5181-4 Al rights reserved. No past of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means ~ eraphic, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying. recording, taping or information storage and retrieval systems — without the prior permission in writing of the publishers A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library, ‘Typeset in Monophoto Times by Tony & Penny Mills, Wrentham, Beccles, Suk, Printed and bound in Great Britain by Hillman Printers (Frome) Ltd CONTENTS Preface to the Second Edition List of Symbols Introduction 1. Design Methodology The design spiral Computer aided design (CAD) 2, Preliminary Considerations Choice of boat-type Intended use Main dimensions Cost Checklist of considerations Checklist for the YD-40 3. Hull Geometry Definitions Lines drawing Tools Work plan Computer aided design of hulls 4. Hydrostaties and Stability Calculation of areas Wetted surface Displacement Centre of buoyancy Water plane area Transverse and longitudinal stability at small angles Transverse stability at large angles of heel Curve of static stability Rolling Influence of waves on the righting moment Stability statistics Assessment of seaworthiness me sow 10 10 ul 13 15 15 16 16 20 2 30 30 32 32 34 38 40 2 44 46 49 52 53 vi Principles of Yacht Design 5. Hull Design Forces and moments on a sailing yacht Resistance components ‘Viscous resistance, basic concepts Frictional resistance Viscous pressure resistance Roughness Wave resistance, basic concepts Influence of hull shape on wave resistance Heel resistance Added resistance in waves Other seakeeping aspects Hull statisties 6. Keel and Rudder Design Flow around a wing Definition of the keel planform Classical wing theory Tip shape Advanced planform design Evaluation of some planform concepts Definition of the section Three useful NACA sections Influence of shape on section characteristics Some practical conclusions regarding section shape Infiuence of deviations from the theoretical section shape Advanced section design Statisties on keel and rudder area The YD-40 7. Sail and Rig Design Flow around sails Planform Sail camber ‘Mast interference Means for reducing mast disturbances Streamlining A practical model for sail and rig aerodynamics Sail statistics 8. Balance Effect of heel Good balance Centre of effort of the underwater body Centre of effort of the sails Lead Rudder balance 56 58 61 64 66 o 83 83 88 90 96 96 99. 100 105 107 U3 15 116 18, 125 128 130 130 132 132 134 139 142 143, 146 147 153, 155 155 157 157 160 162 162 Contents vii 9, Propeller and Engine 164 Resistance in calm and rough weather 165 Propeller characteristics 169 Design of an optimum propeller m Performance of the non-optimum propeller 174 Check of blade area 179 Propeller resistance 181 10, High Speed Hydrodynamies 183 Planing 183 Deadrise 187 Forces on a planing hull 188 Spray rails, stepped bottoms and transom flaps 193 Dynamic stability 197 Alternative propulsion devices 199 ‘An example 200 AL. Rig Construction 205 Definitions and scope of the standard 205 Forces on the shrouds 208 Forces on the stays 212 ‘Comparison between wire and rod 24 Transverse mast stiffness 218 Longitudinal mast stiffness 218 Fractional mast top Boom Spreaders Holes in the mast The YD-40 rig 12, Hull Construction Concepts in structural mechanics Global loads Local hydrostatic loads Local hydrodynamic loads ‘Transverse load distribution Local deformations Forees from the keel Fotees from grounding Forces from the rudder Summary of loadings 13. Materials Glass reinforcement Wet laminates Fatigue Exotic laminates Sandwich 26 227 228 234 234 237 237 239) 241 243 245 250 251 256 256 257 260 viii Principles of Yacht Design Typical sandwich buckling Sandwich bending Sandwich in practice Final remarks 14, Seantling Determination Structure of the ISO Standard Hull definitions Basic laminate Design loads for the bottom Design loads for the topsides Design loads for the decks and bullcheads Design loads for the internals Longitudinal impact distribution factor ‘Area reduction factor Panel calculation Stiffener calculation Spade rudder stock Chainplates and keelbolts Sandwich construction The YD-40 scantlings 15. Layout Generic space requitements Accommodation Deck Tayout 16. Design Evaluation Non-dimensional parameters ‘The Velocity Prediction Program (VPP) Towing tank testing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Appendix 1 Main particulars of the YD-40 Appendix 2 Weight calculation Appendix 3 STIX calculation References Index 263 264 265 267 269 269 272 274 215 280 280 280 280 282, 284 286 287 290 290 293 297 297 298 305 311 312 313, 316 318, PREFACE SECOND EDITION comments and suggestions from interested readers, and we have tried to incorporate as much as possible of this valuable advice in the second edition. One major change has been the inclusion of more material relevant to power boats. Although the emphasis in the book has been on sailing yachts, many power boat enthusiasts have found it interesting and requested more information related to this area, In the new edition we have tried to accomplish this. There is an entirely new chapter on high speed hydrodynamics with special reference to power boats, and in an updated chapter on scantling determination, both types of boats are considered. Since most of the other material is also useful we feel confident that power boat designers and owners may benefit from reading this book. Another important task has been to update the material related to international standards. The ISO/TCI88 Working Group 22 has delivered a final proposal for the seaworthiness of sailing craft between 6m and 24m. This draft, which is most likely to be approved, differs from the one presented in the first edition of the book, and the new approach is described here, with the permission of the chairman, Mr Andrew Blyth. The ISO/TC Working Group 18 dealing with scantlings has not yet arrived at a final proposal, but with the permission of the chairman, Mr Fritz Hartz, their main ideas are included in the updated chapter on scantlings. Previously this chapter was based entirely on the ABS rule. Minor changes and corrections have been made throughout the book and, for clarity, the original chapter on hull construction has been divided into two, one dealing with loads and the other with materials. We would like to express our gratitude to all readers who have taken the time to suggest improvements. In particular we would like to thank the following (in alphabetical order): H Barkla, B Beck, PK Coles, G Dyne, F Eldridge, G Heyman, H Liljenberg, N Newland, P Schwarzel and C Voghera, S= this book was first published we have received many Lars Larsson & Rolf E Eliasson Gothenburg 1999 LIST OF SYMBOLS In general, the symbols used in this book are those recommended by the International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC). However, in the chapters on scantling determination (hull dimensioning) and the Nordie Boat Standard (rig dimensioning) other symbols have been used. This is to simplify the later use of these standards by readers. area, general elongation distance from neutral axis to centre of arca area of propeller disk distance from Ly, to T, distance from Ly to Ts American Bureau of Shipping propeller blade area, developed fore triangle area flange area projected rudder area mainsail area, or midship section area below designed waterline kecl/hull area afi perpendicular aerodynamic driving force aspect ratio and change in aspect ratio, respectively elfective aspect ratio sail area (main + fore triangle) or aerodynamic side force area of water plane ‘maximum section area below designed waterline half beam beam of hull amidships, or centre of buoyancy, hull upright centre of buoyancy, hull heeled boom height above deck distance between centre of buoyancy and gravity metacentric radius maximum beam of hull Taylor thrust coefficient beam of waterline List of Symbols xi chord length, or crown width of stiffener, or compressive strength (see also list of Indices) spreader compression force block coefficient drag coefficient induced drag coefficient diag coefficient at zero angle of attack, or drag coefficient of mast, rig and topsides. viscous (parasitic) drag coéfficient of sails aerodynamic centre of effort skin friction coefficient Computational Fluid Dynamics heel resistance coefiicient Jif coefficient and maximum lift coefficient, respectively rudder lift coefficient hydrodynamic centre of lateral resistance prismatic coefficient, or pressure coefficient residuary resistance coefficient aerodynamic side force coefficient depth of yacht, or drag. or propeller diameter diagonal shrouds core diameter of keelbolt designed waterline modulus of elasticity, ar base of mainsail (OR) compressive modulus of elasticity flexural modulus of elasticity tensile modulus of elasticity average modulus of elasticity flat factor of sails, or flexural strength, or flange width of stiffener, or design head reduction factor dimensioning transverse rig forces freeboard aft freeboard forward horizontal boom force impact force Froude number forward perpendicular udder side force design head reduction factor freeboard at mast vertical boom force fibre reinforced plastic acceleration of gravity, or girth Jength, or ballast weight centre of gravity, or empty weight of yacht ‘metacentric height alass reinforeed plastic righting arm xii Principles of Yacht Design roughness height, or rudder height, or design head, or height of stiffener, or mast height above deck or superstructure to the highest sail-carrying forestay floor height significant wave height distance between rudder bearings heeling arm 3 distance from bottom of rudder to lowest bearing height of fore triangle (IOR), or moment of inertia longitudinal moment of inertia of water plane area International Measurement System International Offshore Rule International Standards Organization transverse moment of inertia of water plane area mass moment of inertia around a transverse axis through G transverse moment of inertia for the mast longitudinal moment of inertia for the mast base of fore triangle (TOR) gyradius in pitch, or aspect ratio factor ‘mast panel factor, or aspect ratio factor mast staying factor mast step factor torque coefficient thrust coeflicient horizontal length of rudder at centre of effort, or long span of panel, or stiffener length ength, general, or length rated, or li floor length panel lengths distance from Ly, to top of aft stay distance from leading edge to centre of effort Jongitudinal centre of buoyancy length overall length between perpendiculars length of waterline mass displacement, mass (general), or mast material factor bending moment, or metacentre hull bending moment floor bending moment floor bending moment, from grounding transverse moment from keel rudder bending moment spreader bending moment rudder force factor Nordic boat standard number of persons on board, or rate of revolutions, or number of floors in way of keel number of keelbolts List of Symbols xiii OF poi SAF SAM SL SM keel bolt offset ‘transverse fractional mast top length Jongitudinal fractional mast top length height of mainsail (OR). or propeller pitch, or load, general dimensioning aft stay load horizontal part of aft stay load vertical part of aft stay load bottom pressure composite property critical load delivered power, or design pressure compression force in deck dimensioning shroud load horizontal part of forestay load dimensioning inner forestay load dimensioning outer forestay load vertical part of forestay load horizontal component of stay forces kee! bolt load tension total kee! bolt load ‘mat property mast pressure dimensioning mast load grounding load torque resistance, general, or reef factor of sails windage added resistance in waves frictional resistance heel resistance righting moment righting moment at 1 deg heel righting moment at 30 deg heel Tighting moment at 90 deg heel Reynolds number Royal Ocean Racing Club residuary resistance nose radius rudder centre of effort, vertical distance from top Royal Yachting Association short span of panel, stiflener spacing length of spreader total triangular sail area sail area, fore triangle (IOR) sail area, mainsail, triangular (LOR) length of spinnaker leech (IOR) section modulus xiv Principles of Yacht Design SM, SMiou floor section modulus hull girder section modulus section modulus to inside of panel section modulus increase in way of keel section modulus to outside of panel spinnaker width (IOR) wetted surface area wetted surface area with ‘c’ indice thickness and maximum thickness, respectively Graft of yacht, or propeller thrust, or tensile strength wave period, or transverse foresail force transverse mainsail force transverse force at foot of mainsail upper boom force core thickness transverse centre of gravity face thickness transverse force at top of mainsail lower shroud force upper shroud force rudder torsional moment time to stop volume displacement, or yacht speed vertical shroud apparent wind speed effective apparent wind speed, yacht heeled vertical centre of buoyancy Velocity Prediction Program yacht speed (m/s) weight displacement, or effective width of panel, or fibre angle fibre content by weight weight of ballast position of neutral axis distance from leading edge to centre of rudderstock ratio of mat in a composite Cartesian coordinates. Origin at FP, X aftwards. Y to starboard, Z vertically upwards deflection distance from keel centre of gravity to Ly, angle of attack, or scale factor aft stay angle to mast forestay angle to mast leeway angle diagonal shroud angle to mast apparent wind angle List of Symbols xv Ye 8 Saar 1 No avu
that important parameters, such as the displacement,
cannot be determined until the lines have been
fixed, This calls for an iterative method. Such a
method is also required in the fairing of the lines.
The problem is to make the lines in one projection
cottespond to smooth lines inthe other two
projections. For an inexperienced draftsman this
problem is a serious one, and many trials may be
needed to produce a smooth hull.

While the preferred sequence of operations may
dlifer slightly Between yacht designers the main steps
should be taken ina certain ard. in the following
Wwe propose a work plan, which has been found
effective in many cases, It should be pointed out that
the plan does not take into account any restrictions
from measurement rules,

Step 1: Fix the main dimensions These should be
ipased on the general considerations discussed in
‘Chapter 2, using information on other yachts of a
similar size, designed fr similar purposes. This way of
working is classical tn naval architecture, where the
evelopment proceeds elatively slowly by evolution
‘of previous designs. itis therefore very important, after
deciding on the size of the yacht, to find as much
information as possible on other similar designs
Drawings of new yachts may be found ia many of the
leading yachting magazines from all over the world.

‘The dimensions to fix at this stage are: length
overall, length ofthe waterline, maximum beam,
drait, displacement, sail area, ballast ratio, prismatic
coefficient and longitudinal centre of buoyancy.
(One ofthe aims ofthis book is to help in the choice
of these parameters and to enable the reader to
evaluate older designs when trying to find the
‘optimum for his own special demands,

Step 2: Draw the profile As pointed out above. this
Step takes much consideration, since the aesthetics
of the yacht are, to a large extent, determined by:
the profile,

Step 3: Draw the midship section The midship
section can bo drawn at this stage, or, allernatively,
‘the maximum section if itis supposed to he much
dilierent. This may occur if the centre of buoyancy
is far ait. The shape of the first section drawn fs
importance determines the character ol the
other sections.








Step 4: Check the displacement To find the hull
displacement calculate (or measure) the submerged
atea ofthe section just drawn and multiply by the
‘waterline length and the prismatic coeicient chosen
forthe hull, From the ballast ratio, the keel mass
‘can be computed and the volume can be found,
dividing by the density ofthe material fabout 7200
kam! for iton and 11 300 kegin® for lead}, Assume
‘hat the rudder displacement is 10% of that of the
keel and add al three volumes. if the displacement
thus obiained is different irom the prescribed ane,
reluth f0 step 3 and change according!

The procedure described is fora fin-keel
yacht, For a hull with an integrated keel, as on more
traditional yachts, the prismatic coeificient usually
includes both the keel and the rudder.


Step 5: Draw the designed waierline One point ator
hear the midship tation is now known, ogether with
the two enc] paints from the profile, so now a fst

aftempt can be mace to draw the designed waterline.

Step 6: Draw stations 3, 7 and the transom The
waterline breadth is now known, as well as the hull
since the gravity force is the mass, m, times the acceleration of gravity,
g (9.81 mis?)

‘There is another important point marked in the figure: the transverse
‘metacentre, M. This is the intersection between the vertical line through
BY and the symmetry plane of the yacht. For small angles of heel this
point may be assumed fixed, which simplifies the calculations
considerably. The distance between G and M, GM, is called the
metacentric height and BM is the metacentric radius. A fundamental
stability formula (which will not be proven here) says that the
metacentrie radius is equal to the ratio of the transverse moment ofFig 4.9 Transverse



Hydrostatics and Stability 4

Tronaverce stably raletions:


#y ( Fundamental stobiity formula) 1.722.)
Ws BB (Gc above B) [1.452 mJ
OF = G-sing (#2 hee! ongte )

(FE = 027 m)

(9279) -

Transverse righting moment: [Nn] |



Upright centre
oF Maoyoney






tia T; and the volume displacement V. Using this formula and some

simple geometric relations the righting moment may be obtained as
explained in Fig 4.9,

Since the stability of the yacht is proportional to GM there are two

principal ways of increasing it. Either G may be lowered or M may be
raised. A low G is found on narrow, heavy yachts with a large ballast
ratio, like the 12 m and other R yachts. They have weight stability.
Modern racing yachts, on the other hand, are wide and shallow, which
raises M. They have form stability.

The method of calculating the longitudinal stability corresponds

exactly to that of the transverse stability. Thus, the restoring moment
when the hull gets 4 trim angle, may be computed from the formulae ofa2

Principles of Yacht Design


Fig 4.10 Longitudinal

‘Transverse stability at
Targe angles of heel


Lengituaines stebitiy relation:

B= E ( Pundomente ect, farmuto 188 mF
w= OBE te ctw B) Pings a
B= ane (0 mm ance)

[8G = 0.27 m]}
Lea 79 7 ‘


“$M = longitudinal motzcontre



Upright contre

oF buoyancy Trimmed contre

‘oF buoyeney

Trim ongle in degrees when moving @ weight with the mose (W)
2 distance (a) lengituding!




Fig 4.10, which correspond to those of the previous figure. There is also
a formula for computing the trim angle obtained when moving a weight
longitudinally on board the yacht.

The calculation of the righting momient at large heel angles is
considerably more complicated than that for small angles. One difficulty
arises from the fact that the positioning of the heeled hull with respect to
the water surface is not known. If the hull is just rotated about theHydrostatics and Stability 43


centreline (at the level of the DWL), the displacement will generally
become too large and a trimming moment will develop. The only way to
overcome this difficulty is by trial and error, ie by trying several attitudes,
varying the sinkage and trim systematically, in order to find a position
where the displacement and LCB correspond to the original ones.

After finding the right attitude a considerable amount of calculation
is needed to find the righting moment, since no simple formulae, like
those for small hee! angles, are available, In practice, these calculations
have seldom been carried out manually even for ships, because before
the computer era naval architects made use of a special instrument,
called an integrator, a development .of the planimeter. Such an
instrument is, however, rarely available to the yacht designer, so we will
propose a slightly more approximate method, which is often accurate
enough. The method is illustrated in Fig 4.11. Special care must be
taken, however, with very beamy yachts with large fore and alt
asymmetry, Such hulls will develop a considerable trim when heeling,
and this effect is not considered here.

To find the attitude of the hull, rotate it first around the centreline at
DWL to the desired angle. Then calculate the displacement V, up to this
waterline located at Z,. This cannot be done, however, without knowing
the shape of the sections on both sides of the symmetry plane, so the
body plan has first to be completed to include both sides of the hull.

Fig 4.11 Procedure to find
the heeled waterline


The displacement V, is bound to be too large, so a new waterline at
Zs has to be found. A first estimate of this line can be made by dividing
the excess displacement by the area of the original DWL. This gives the
approximate distance to the new waterline at Zs, for which the
displacement V,, is also computed. Not even this is likely to be very
accurate, but the final position Z of the waterline can be found by
interpolation or extrapolation to the right V, as explained in the figure.
Tn this way the displacement will be quite accurate, although all effects
of trim are neglected.44

Principles of Yacht Design


Fig 4.12 stability at large

angles of hee!

Curve of statie

Having found the waterline, the “cardboard method’ is used to find
the transverse position of the centre of buoyancy, B’ in Fig 4.12. All
heeled sections below the waterline are cut out in cardboard and glued
together in their correct positions. The centre of gravity can then be
found from the intersection of two lines, obtained using a plumb bob,
as explained above.


metecentre of @ lorge
Movement of matacentre if "= fueleeglc



contr of

ree 7


Knowing B’, the location of the point where the vertical through B’
hils the centre plane Mg can be found, see Fig 4.12. BM may then be
measured from the figure and the remaining formulae for small angles

The curve of static stability represents the righting moment at varying
angles of heel, An example of this is given in Fig 4.13. Since the
‘moment differs from the lever arm only with respect to the constant
Avg, the vertical scale could equally well represent GZ.

For small angles GM is constant and sin © = @ (in radians), so GZ is
proportional to the heel angle, ie GZ = GM - sin ® ~ GM - ®, The
slope of the GZ curve at the origin may thus be obtained by noting
that the tingent should pass through the point GZ = GM for ® = 1
radian, ie at $7.3° -

Another important aspect of the GZ curve is the maximum, which
represents the largest possible righting moment of the hull. Obviously
the yacht will capsize if the heeling moment exceeds this level

OF great interest is the so-called stability range, which is the range of
angles for which a positive righting moment is developed. For larger
angles the hull is stable upside-down,

It is also of interest to note that the area under the RM curve up to