100%(4)100% нашли этот документ полезным (4 голоса)

1K просмотров352 страницыNov 26, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF или читайте онлайн в Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

100%(4)100% нашли этот документ полезным (4 голоса)

1K просмотров352 страницыAttribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 352

PRINCIPLES OF
YACHT DESIGNOther titles of interest
Aero-Hydredynamics of Sailing 3x0 edition: © A Marcha}
ISBN 0 7136 073 7
Tneorporating many years of research, this book takes Marchaj’s expositions on the
design and handling of sailing boats in Satting Theory and Practice a stage further. Clear
explanations, culculations, diagrams and photographs help to quantily the many factors
which detcrmine the performanee of a sang boat. Tis an international classic in its field.
Sail Performance Theory and Practice: © A Marchaj
ISBN 0 7136 4123 1
‘This major work is based on € A Marchaj's Sailing Theory and Practice which, when it
\was first published over 30 yoars ago, quickly became a classic in its field. Since then
‘many developments ia sail performance have taken place. Tony Marcha) explains the
fuetors that affect sail power and concludes that the Bermudan rig, which dominates the
‘contemporary sailing scene, is by no means the best available. This book marks
turning point in modern thinking on the subject.
The Propeller Handhook: Daye Gert
ISBN 0 7136 5751 0
‘This clear and easy-to-use handbook is intended as a practical aid for the mechanic,
engineer, boathuilder, naval architect or yachtsman and concerns all boats — power and
sail, working smd pleasure. Specially devised chats and graphs enable the reader to
analyse the speed and powering characteristics of a boat and work out its optimum
propeller requirements. Propeller selection und installation is also discussed in detail
Boatowners Mechanical and Electricat Manual 2nd edition: Nigel Calder
ISBN 0.7136 4291 2
‘The yachtsman’s complete do-i-yourself manual, Extensively illustrated and very broad
in scope, it takes novice and experienced boat owners through minor to major repairs
of electrical systems, engines, electronic cquipment, plumbing, pumps, stoves, spars and
rigging
Boatouners Wiring Manat: Charles Wing
ISBN 0 7136 4072 3
A user-friendly, practical manual for all onboard cleetrical projects ~ ftom fixing loose
connections to rewiring the entire boat. Simple, clear and abundantly illustrated, itis
the key to understanding and customising all aspects of 1 boat's electrical systems.
Marine Electrical and Electronics Bible: John C Payne
ISBN 0 7136 4110 X
‘The most complete guide in print on how to select, install, troubleshoot, and repair the
lectrcal and electronic systems on boats, from batteries to bilge pumps und from radar
to refrigerators. The unique format makes information easy to find — it is a nust for
professionals who work with electrical and electronic gear, as well as for weekend or
long-distance voyagers.PRINCIPLES
YACHT DESIGN
SECOND EDITION
LARS LARSSON and ROLF E ELIASSON
A
ADLARD COLES NAUTICAL
London‘Second edition published in 2000 by Adlard Coles Nautical,
aan imprint of A & C Black (Publishers) Lud
35 Bedford Row, London WCIR 4TH
Copyright © Lars Larsson and Rolf E Eliasson 2000
First edition 1994
Reprinted 1996, 1997
Second edition 2000)
ISBN 0-7136-5181-4
Al rights reserved. No past of this publication may be
reproduced in any form or by any means ~ eraphic,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying. recording,
taping or information storage and retrieval systems —
without the prior permission in writing of the publishers
A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the
British Library,
‘Typeset in Monophoto Times by Tony & Penny Mills,
Wrentham, Beccles, Suk,
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Hillman Printers (Frome) LtdCONTENTS
Preface to the Second Edition
List of Symbols
Introduction
1. Design Methodology
The design spiral
Computer aided design (CAD)
2, Preliminary Considerations
Choice of boat-type
Intended use
Main dimensions
Cost
Checklist of considerations
Checklist for the YD-40
3. Hull Geometry
Definitions
Lines drawing
Tools
Work plan
Computer aided design of hulls
4. Hydrostaties and Stability
Calculation of areas
Wetted surface
Displacement
Centre of buoyancy
Water plane area
Transverse and longitudinal stability at small angles
Transverse stability at large angles of heel
Curve of static stability
Rolling
Influence of waves on the righting moment
Stability statistics
Assessment of seaworthiness
me
sow
10
10
ul
13
15
15
16
16
20
2
30
30
32
32
34
38
40
2
44
46
49
52
53vi
Principles of Yacht Design
5. Hull Design
Forces and moments on a sailing yacht
Resistance components
‘Viscous resistance, basic concepts
Frictional resistance
Viscous pressure resistance
Roughness
Wave resistance, basic concepts
Influence of hull shape on wave resistance
Heel resistance
Added resistance in waves
Other seakeeping aspects
Hull statisties
6. Keel and Rudder Design
Flow around a wing
Definition of the keel planform
Classical wing theory
Tip shape
Advanced planform design
Evaluation of some planform concepts
Definition of the section
Three useful NACA sections
Influence of shape on section characteristics
Some practical conclusions regarding section shape
Infiuence of deviations from the theoretical section shape
Advanced section design
Statisties on keel and rudder area
The YD-40
7. Sail and Rig Design
Flow around sails
Planform
Sail camber
‘Mast interference
Means for reducing mast disturbances
Streamlining
A practical model for sail and rig aerodynamics
Sail statistics
8. Balance
Effect of heel
Good balance
Centre of effort of the underwater body
Centre of effort of the sails
Lead
Rudder balance
56
58
61
64
66
o
83
83
88
90
96
96
99.
100
105
107
U3
15
116
18,
125
128
130
130
132
132
134
139
142
143,
146
147
153,
155
155
157
157
160
162
162Contents vii
9, Propeller and Engine 164
Resistance in calm and rough weather 165
Propeller characteristics 169
Design of an optimum propeller m
Performance of the non-optimum propeller 174
Check of blade area 179
Propeller resistance 181
10, High Speed Hydrodynamies 183
Planing 183
Deadrise 187
Forces on a planing hull 188
Spray rails, stepped bottoms and transom flaps 193
Dynamic stability 197
Alternative propulsion devices 199
‘An example 200
AL. Rig Construction 205
Definitions and scope of the standard 205
Forces on the shrouds 208
Forces on the stays 212
‘Comparison between wire and rod 24
Transverse mast stiffness 218
Longitudinal mast stiffness 218
Fractional mast top
Boom
Spreaders
Holes in the mast
The YD-40 rig
12, Hull Construction
Concepts in structural mechanics
Global loads
Local hydrostatic loads
Local hydrodynamic loads
‘Transverse load distribution
Local deformations
Forees from the keel
Fotees from grounding
Forces from the rudder
Summary of loadings
13. Materials
Glass reinforcement
Wet laminates
Fatigue
Exotic laminates
Sandwich
26
227
228
234
234
237
237
239)
241
243
245
250
251
256
256
257
260viii
Principles of Yacht Design
Typical sandwich buckling
Sandwich bending
Sandwich in practice
Final remarks
14, Seantling Determination
Structure of the ISO Standard
Hull definitions
Basic laminate
Design loads for the bottom
Design loads for the topsides
Design loads for the decks and bullcheads
Design loads for the internals
Longitudinal impact distribution factor
‘Area reduction factor
Panel calculation
Stiffener calculation
Spade rudder stock
Chainplates and keelbolts
Sandwich construction
The YD-40 scantlings
15. Layout
Generic space requitements
Accommodation
Deck Tayout
16. Design Evaluation
Non-dimensional parameters
‘The Velocity Prediction Program (VPP)
Towing tank testing
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Appendix 1
Main particulars of the YD-40
Appendix 2
Weight calculation
Appendix 3
STIX calculation
References
Index
263
264
265
267
269
269
272
274
215
280
280
280
280
282,
284
286
287
290
290
293
297
297
298
305
311
312
313,
316
318,PREFACE
SECOND EDITION
comments and suggestions from interested readers, and we have
tried to incorporate as much as possible of this valuable advice in
the second edition. One major change has been the inclusion of more
material relevant to power boats. Although the emphasis in the book
has been on sailing yachts, many power boat enthusiasts have found it
interesting and requested more information related to this area, In the
new edition we have tried to accomplish this. There is an entirely new
chapter on high speed hydrodynamics with special reference to power
boats, and in an updated chapter on scantling determination, both types
of boats are considered. Since most of the other material is also useful
we feel confident that power boat designers and owners may benefit
from reading this book.
Another important task has been to update the material related to
international standards. The ISO/TCI88 Working Group 22 has
delivered a final proposal for the seaworthiness of sailing craft between
6m and 24m. This draft, which is most likely to be approved, differs
from the one presented in the first edition of the book, and the new
approach is described here, with the permission of the chairman, Mr
Andrew Blyth. The ISO/TC Working Group 18 dealing with scantlings
has not yet arrived at a final proposal, but with the permission of the
chairman, Mr Fritz Hartz, their main ideas are included in the updated
chapter on scantlings. Previously this chapter was based entirely on the
ABS rule.
Minor changes and corrections have been made throughout the book
and, for clarity, the original chapter on hull construction has been
divided into two, one dealing with loads and the other with materials.
We would like to express our gratitude to all readers who have taken
the time to suggest improvements. In particular we would like to thank
the following (in alphabetical order): H Barkla, B Beck, PK Coles,
G Dyne, F Eldridge, G Heyman, H Liljenberg, N Newland, P Schwarzel
and C Voghera,
S= this book was first published we have received many
Lars Larsson & Rolf E Eliasson
Gothenburg 1999LIST OF SYMBOLS
In general, the symbols used in this book are those recommended by
the International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC). However, in the
chapters on scantling determination (hull dimensioning) and the Nordie
Boat Standard (rig dimensioning) other symbols have been used. This is
to simplify the later use of these standards by readers.
area, general
elongation
distance from neutral axis to centre of arca
area of propeller disk
distance from Ly, to T,
distance from Ly to Ts
American Bureau of Shipping
propeller blade area, developed
fore triangle area
flange area
projected rudder area
mainsail area, or midship section area below designed
waterline
kecl/hull area
afi perpendicular
aerodynamic driving force
aspect ratio and change in aspect ratio, respectively
elfective aspect ratio
sail area (main + fore triangle) or aerodynamic side force
area of water plane
‘maximum section area below designed waterline
half beam
beam of hull amidships, or centre of buoyancy, hull
upright
centre of buoyancy, hull heeled
boom height above deck
distance between centre of buoyancy and gravity
metacentric radius
maximum beam of hull
Taylor thrust coefficient
beam of waterlineList of Symbols xi
chord length, or crown width of stiffener, or compressive
strength (see also list of Indices)
spreader compression force
block coefficient
drag coefficient
induced drag coefficient
diag coefficient at zero angle of attack, or drag coefficient
of mast, rig and topsides.
viscous (parasitic) drag coéfficient of sails
aerodynamic centre of effort
skin friction coefficient
Computational Fluid Dynamics
heel resistance coefiicient
Jif coefficient and maximum lift coefficient, respectively
rudder lift coefficient
hydrodynamic centre of lateral resistance
prismatic coefficient, or pressure coefficient
residuary resistance coefficient
aerodynamic side force coefficient
depth of yacht, or drag. or propeller diameter
diagonal shrouds
core diameter of keelbolt
designed waterline
modulus of elasticity, ar base of mainsail (OR)
compressive modulus of elasticity
flexural modulus of elasticity
tensile modulus of elasticity
average modulus of elasticity
flat factor of sails, or flexural strength, or flange width of
stiffener, or design head reduction factor
dimensioning transverse rig forces
freeboard aft
freeboard forward
horizontal boom force
impact force
Froude number
forward perpendicular
udder side force
design head reduction factor
freeboard at mast
vertical boom force
fibre reinforced plastic
acceleration of gravity, or girth Jength, or ballast weight
centre of gravity, or empty weight of yacht
‘metacentric height
alass reinforeed plastic
righting armxii
Principles of Yacht Design
roughness height, or rudder height, or design head, or
height of stiffener, or mast height above deck or
superstructure to the highest sail-carrying forestay
floor height
significant wave height
distance between rudder bearings
heeling arm 3
distance from bottom of rudder to lowest bearing
height of fore triangle (IOR), or moment of inertia
longitudinal moment of inertia of water plane area
International Measurement System
International Offshore Rule
International Standards Organization
transverse moment of inertia of water plane area
mass moment of inertia around a transverse axis through G
transverse moment of inertia for the mast
longitudinal moment of inertia for the mast
base of fore triangle (TOR)
gyradius in pitch, or aspect ratio factor
‘mast panel factor, or aspect ratio factor
mast staying factor
mast step factor
torque coefficient
thrust coeflicient
horizontal length of rudder at centre of effort, or long
span of panel, or stiffener length
ength, general, or length rated, or li
floor length
panel lengths
distance from Ly, to top of aft stay
distance from leading edge to centre of effort
Jongitudinal centre of buoyancy
length overall
length between perpendiculars
length of waterline
mass displacement, mass (general), or mast material factor
bending moment, or metacentre
hull bending moment
floor bending moment
floor bending moment, from grounding
transverse moment from keel
rudder bending moment
spreader bending moment
rudder force factor
Nordic boat standard
number of persons on board, or rate of revolutions, or
number of floors in way of keel
number of keelboltsList of Symbols xiii
OF poi
SAF
SAM
SL
SM
keel bolt offset
‘transverse fractional mast top length
Jongitudinal fractional mast top length
height of mainsail (OR). or propeller pitch, or load,
general
dimensioning aft stay load
horizontal part of aft stay load
vertical part of aft stay load
bottom pressure
composite property
critical load
delivered power, or design pressure
compression force in deck
dimensioning shroud load
horizontal part of forestay load
dimensioning inner forestay load
dimensioning outer forestay load
vertical part of forestay load
horizontal component of stay forces
kee! bolt load tension
total kee! bolt load
‘mat property
mast pressure
dimensioning mast load
grounding load
torque
resistance, general, or reef factor of sails
windage
added resistance in waves
frictional resistance
heel resistance
righting moment
righting moment at 1 deg heel
righting moment at 30 deg heel
Tighting moment at 90 deg heel
Reynolds number
Royal Ocean Racing Club
residuary resistance
nose radius
rudder centre of effort, vertical distance from top
Royal Yachting Association
short span of panel, stiflener spacing
length of spreader
total triangular sail area
sail area, fore triangle (IOR)
sail area, mainsail, triangular (LOR)
length of spinnaker leech (IOR)
section modulusxiv
Principles of Yacht Design
SM,
SMiou
floor section modulus
hull girder section modulus
section modulus to inside of panel
section modulus increase in way of keel
section modulus to outside of panel
spinnaker width (IOR)
wetted surface area
wetted surface area with ‘c’ indice
thickness and maximum thickness, respectively
Graft of yacht, or propeller thrust, or tensile strength
wave period, or transverse foresail force
transverse mainsail force
transverse force at foot of mainsail
upper boom force
core thickness
transverse centre of gravity
face thickness
transverse force at top of mainsail
lower shroud force
upper shroud force
rudder torsional moment
time to stop
volume displacement, or yacht speed
vertical shroud
apparent wind speed
effective apparent wind speed, yacht heeled
vertical centre of buoyancy
Velocity Prediction Program
yacht speed (m/s)
weight displacement, or effective width of panel, or fibre
angle
fibre content by weight
weight of ballast
position of neutral axis
distance from leading edge to centre of rudderstock
ratio of mat in a composite
Cartesian coordinates. Origin at FP, X aftwards. Y to
starboard, Z vertically upwards
deflection
distance from keel centre of gravity to Ly,
angle of attack, or scale factor
aft stay angle to mast
forestay angle to mast
leeway angle
diagonal shroud angle to mast
apparent wind angleList of Symbols xv
Ye
8
Saar
1
No
avu

that important parameters, such as the displacement, cannot be determined until the lines have been fixed, This calls for an iterative method. Such a method is also required in the fairing of the lines. The problem is to make the lines in one projection cottespond to smooth lines inthe other two projections. For an inexperienced draftsman this problem is a serious one, and many trials may be needed to produce a smooth hull. While the preferred sequence of operations may dlifer slightly Between yacht designers the main steps should be taken ina certain ard. in the following Wwe propose a work plan, which has been found effective in many cases, It should be pointed out that the plan does not take into account any restrictions from measurement rules, Step 1: Fix the main dimensions These should be ipased on the general considerations discussed in ‘Chapter 2, using information on other yachts of a similar size, designed fr similar purposes. This way of working is classical tn naval architecture, where the evelopment proceeds elatively slowly by evolution ‘of previous designs. itis therefore very important, after deciding on the size of the yacht, to find as much information as possible on other similar designs Drawings of new yachts may be found ia many of the leading yachting magazines from all over the world. ‘The dimensions to fix at this stage are: length overall, length ofthe waterline, maximum beam, drait, displacement, sail area, ballast ratio, prismatic coefficient and longitudinal centre of buoyancy. (One ofthe aims ofthis book is to help in the choice of these parameters and to enable the reader to evaluate older designs when trying to find the ‘optimum for his own special demands, Step 2: Draw the profile As pointed out above. this Step takes much consideration, since the aesthetics of the yacht are, to a large extent, determined by: the profile, Step 3: Draw the midship section The midship section can bo drawn at this stage, or, allernatively, ‘the maximum section if itis supposed to he much dilierent. This may occur if the centre of buoyancy is far ait. The shape of the first section drawn fs importance determines the character ol the other sections. WORK PLAN Step 4: Check the displacement To find the hull displacement calculate (or measure) the submerged atea ofthe section just drawn and multiply by the ‘waterline length and the prismatic coeicient chosen forthe hull, From the ballast ratio, the keel mass ‘can be computed and the volume can be found, dividing by the density ofthe material fabout 7200 kam! for iton and 11 300 kegin® for lead}, Assume ‘hat the rudder displacement is 10% of that of the keel and add al three volumes. if the displacement thus obiained is different irom the prescribed ane, reluth f0 step 3 and change according! The procedure described is fora fin-keel yacht, For a hull with an integrated keel, as on more traditional yachts, the prismatic coeificient usually includes both the keel and the rudder. Step 5: Draw the designed waierline One point ator hear the midship tation is now known, ogether with the two enc] paints from the profile, so now a fst aftempt can be mace to draw the designed waterline. Step 6: Draw stations 3, 7 and the transom The waterline breadth is now known, as well as the hullGZ, since the gravity force is the mass, m, times the acceleration of gravity, g (9.81 mis?) ‘There is another important point marked in the figure: the transverse ‘metacentre, M. This is the intersection between the vertical line through BY and the symmetry plane of the yacht. For small angles of heel this point may be assumed fixed, which simplifies the calculations considerably. The distance between G and M, GM, is called the metacentric height and BM is the metacentric radius. A fundamental stability formula (which will not be proven here) says that the metacentrie radius is equal to the ratio of the transverse moment ofFig 4.9 Transverse stability Hydrostatics and Stability 4 Tronaverce stably raletions: #y ( Fundamental stobiity formula) 1.722.) Ws BB (Gc above B) [1.452 mJ OF = G-sing (#2 hee! ongte ) (FE = 027 m) (9279) - Transverse righting moment: [Nn] | Upright centre oF Maoyoney tia T; and the volume displacement V. Using this formula and some simple geometric relations the righting moment may be obtained as explained in Fig 4.9, Since the stability of the yacht is proportional to GM there are two principal ways of increasing it. Either G may be lowered or M may be raised. A low G is found on narrow, heavy yachts with a large ballast ratio, like the 12 m and other R yachts. They have weight stability. Modern racing yachts, on the other hand, are wide and shallow, which raises M. They have form stability. The method of calculating the longitudinal stability corresponds exactly to that of the transverse stability. Thus, the restoring moment when the hull gets 4 trim angle, may be computed from the formulae ofa2 Principles of Yacht Design Fig 4.10 Longitudinal stability ‘Transverse stability at Targe angles of heel Lengituaines stebitiy relation: B= E ( Pundomente ect, farmuto 188 mF w= OBE te ctw B) Pings a B= ane (0 mm ance) [8G = 0.27 m]} Lea 79 7 ‘ “$M = longitudinal motzcontre Upright contre oF buoyancy Trimmed contre ‘oF buoyeney Trim ongle in degrees when moving @ weight with the mose (W) 2 distance (a) lengituding! Fig 4.10, which correspond to those of the previous figure. There is also a formula for computing the trim angle obtained when moving a weight longitudinally on board the yacht. The calculation of the righting momient at large heel angles is considerably more complicated than that for small angles. One difficulty arises from the fact that the positioning of the heeled hull with respect to the water surface is not known. If the hull is just rotated about theHydrostatics and Stability 43 centreline (at the level of the DWL), the displacement will generally become too large and a trimming moment will develop. The only way to overcome this difficulty is by trial and error, ie by trying several attitudes, varying the sinkage and trim systematically, in order to find a position where the displacement and LCB correspond to the original ones. After finding the right attitude a considerable amount of calculation is needed to find the righting moment, since no simple formulae, like those for small hee! angles, are available, In practice, these calculations have seldom been carried out manually even for ships, because before the computer era naval architects made use of a special instrument, called an integrator, a development .of the planimeter. Such an instrument is, however, rarely available to the yacht designer, so we will propose a slightly more approximate method, which is often accurate enough. The method is illustrated in Fig 4.11. Special care must be taken, however, with very beamy yachts with large fore and alt asymmetry, Such hulls will develop a considerable trim when heeling, and this effect is not considered here. To find the attitude of the hull, rotate it first around the centreline at DWL to the desired angle. Then calculate the displacement V, up to this waterline located at Z,. This cannot be done, however, without knowing the shape of the sections on both sides of the symmetry plane, so the body plan has first to be completed to include both sides of the hull. Fig 4.11 Procedure to find the heeled waterline The displacement V, is bound to be too large, so a new waterline at Zs has to be found. A first estimate of this line can be made by dividing the excess displacement by the area of the original DWL. This gives the approximate distance to the new waterline at Zs, for which the displacement V,, is also computed. Not even this is likely to be very accurate, but the final position Z of the waterline can be found by interpolation or extrapolation to the right V, as explained in the figure. Tn this way the displacement will be quite accurate, although all effects of trim are neglected.44 Principles of Yacht Design Fig 4.12 stability at large angles of hee! Curve of statie stability Having found the waterline, the “cardboard method’ is used to find the transverse position of the centre of buoyancy, B’ in Fig 4.12. All heeled sections below the waterline are cut out in cardboard and glued together in their correct positions. The centre of gravity can then be found from the intersection of two lines, obtained using a plumb bob, as explained above. metecentre of @ lorge Movement of matacentre if "= fueleeglc contr of some ree 7 Knowing B’, the location of the point where the vertical through B’ hils the centre plane Mg can be found, see Fig 4.12. BM may then be measured from the figure and the remaining formulae for small angles applied. The curve of static stability represents the righting moment at varying angles of heel, An example of this is given in Fig 4.13. Since the ‘moment differs from the lever arm only with respect to the constant Avg, the vertical scale could equally well represent GZ. For small angles GM is constant and sin © = @ (in radians), so GZ is proportional to the heel angle, ie GZ = GM - sin ® ~ GM - ®, The slope of the GZ curve at the origin may thus be obtained by noting that the tingent should pass through the point GZ = GM for ® = 1 radian, ie at $7.3° - Another important aspect of the GZ curve is the maximum, which represents the largest possible righting moment of the hull. Obviously the yacht will capsize if the heeling moment exceeds this level OF great interest is the so-called stability range, which is the range of angles for which a positive righting moment is developed. For larger angles the hull is stable upside-down, It is also of interest to note that the area under the RM curve up to

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.