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Basic Communications
I. Electronic Communication Definition
 Communication
It refers to the process of transferring of ideas and information from a sender to a receiver
with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood by both
sender and receiver.

1 Figure 1. Communication Process

 Sender pertains to a person from where the message or information initiates and the
one that encodes and sends it across a channel.
 Message refers to the message being conveyed or the informative, persuasive even
actuative ideas to be transferred to the receiver.
 The Channel, also known as the medium, expresses the message to the receiver either
in words, head-on, or in another mediated manner.
 The Feedback assures that the receiver received and understood the message from the
 Noise refers to interruptions or disturbance in communications that are either external
or internal.
i. External noise refers to noise that comes from our surroundings.
ii. Internal noise refers to noise that comes from within; it is disliked by our
 The Receiver, also known as the decoder, pertains to the target audience of a message
transmitted by the sender.

 Electronic Communication
It refers to the process of transferring, processing, storing, and receiving of information,
usually by using a common protocol.

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1 Figure 2. Electromagnetic Spectrum

 Electromagnetic Spectrum
It refers to an entire range of frequencies and wavelengths that are regulated by the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC).
 Frequency (Hertz – Hz) – number of waves created per second
 Wavelength (Meter – m) – distance of a wave from one (1) point to the corresponding
point on the next wave
o Frequency, wavelength and speed of light are related by the equation:
c = speed of light (3 x 108 m/s)
λ (lambda) = wavelength in meters (m)
f = frequency in Hertz (Hz)

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II. Electronic Communication Components

1 Figure 3. Components of the communication system

 Information Source refers to a device that generates the data.
 Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) is an end instrument used to adapt digital signals from
information source to a format that is more suitable for transmission.
 The transmitter is an electronic device that operates upon encoded data to be transmitted
in such a way that the electromagnetic wave carrying messages or signal is suitable for
transmission is produced.
 Data Communication Equipment (DCE) is an equipment that converts digital signals
and interfaces the data terminal equipment to the analog transmission medium.
 Channel refers to technologies over which information from a transmitter actually
propagates or travels to a particular receiver.
 The receiver is an electronic device that accepts encoded data from the channel and
translates it back into the form of a signal through reversing all operations performed to
it by the transmitter.
 Information Destination refers to a device that consumes the data.
 Noise in the communication is an unwanted and undesired form of signal that interferes
or disturbs the wanted signal. Its types include external noise, which produced and
introduced into the channel, internal noise, which produced and introduced at the
receiver, and miscellaneous noise, which produced by various unusual noise.
 Modulation
 It refers to a process by which communications signal that contains the information is
imprinted onto the carrier signal so that the signal can be conveyed from one (1) place
to another.

III. Modes of Operation

 Transmissions between two (2) machines are characterized according to:
i. the direction of the exchanges
ii. the number of bits sent simultaneously
iii. synchronization between the transmitter and receiver

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1 Figure 4. Simplex Mode

 Simplex Mode – It is a connection wherein data flows in one (1) direction only. This type
is either transmit only or receive only.

1 Figure 5. Half-duplex Mode

 Half-duplex Mode – It is a connection wherein data can flow in both directions, but not

1 Figure 6. Full-duplex Mode

 Full-duplex Mode – It is a connection wherein data simultaneously flows in both directions.

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1 Figure 7. Serial Transmission of 8-bit Data

 Serial transmission – It is a transmission wherein data are sent one (1) bit at a time over the
transmission channel.

1 Figure 8. Simultaneous Transmission of 8-bit Data

 Parallel transmission – It is a transmission wherein a group of bits is sent simultaneously,

but each uses a different channel.

 Synchronization between the Transmitter and Receiver

 Asynchronous Transmission – It is a transmission wherein each character is sent at
irregular intervals in time.
 Synchronous Transmission – It is a transmission method that requires a constant timing
relationship between the sender and the receiver.

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Laura, M. (n.d.). Data transmission. In Quantil.com. Retrieved from
Mintel. (2016). Mobile and broadband provider. Ireland: Mintel

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