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Meaning and Definitions of Transfer of Training:

It is common belief that training in one subject is transferred to another

subject. If we study mathematics, the logical reasoning developed in
solving complex mathematical problems is so developed that it is utilised
in other situation.

It is again generally said that study of science develops scientific spirit, the
teaching of grammar develops discipline of mind, music develops aesthetic
sense and cricket develops sportsmanship in every walk of life.

All these common beliefs are subject of scientific discussion. In case these
beliefs are correct, many of our educational practices are sound. Then we
say that transfer of training takes place from one subject to another. Thus
if the training in one act is transferred to another, we say transfer has
taken place.

“Transfer of training is concerned with the question of whether or not the
learning of material A-say Mathematics – aids, hinders or does not affect
the subsequent learning of material B – say Physics or Chemistry.

W.B. Kolesnik:
“Transfer is the application of carry over the knowledge’s, skills, habits,
attitudes or other responses from the situation in which they are initially
acquired to some other situation.”

“Transfer is generalization for it is extension of ideas to a new field.”

Hilgard Atkinson Atkinson:

(Introduction to Psychology)” The influence that learning one task, may
have on the subsequent learning of another is called transfer of learning.”

Guthrie & Others:“Transfer may be defined as a process of extending and

applying behaviour.”
Types of Transfer:
On the basis of magnitude or quality, it is of three types-positive, zero and

Positive Transfer:
In this case, the past learning of one subject or activity facilitates the
learning of another subject or activity. A sportsman playing football plays
volley-ball as nicely. A bus-driver can drive a truck also equally efficiently.

Zero Transfer:
In this case, the learning of one subject does help the learning of another.
There may be zero transfer between language and mathematics.

Negative Transfer:
Herein learning of one task makes the learning of a second task harder.
Learning shorthand by Danton method may cause interference in
subsequent learning by Pitman method. The negative transfer is also called
habit interferences.

One form of positive transfer is bilateral transfer or cross-transfer. Practice

in using right hand while handling a machine in the factory may help
handling by the left hand.
Cognitive Theory

Cognitive Theory is a modern theory as compared to the alternative

theories of the transfer of training.

According to this theory, the pace and the effectiveness of the process
of transferring the training can greatly be increased by focusing on the
individuals’ mental models, retention of information and comprehension.

Moreover, the main point that makes it to perceived differently from other
transfer theories is its extreme level applicability under, almost, all kinds
of situations.

You can get an idea of the application of the cognitive theory by thinking
about recent integrations of the training process to that of the mental
tasks and assignments.

This is done so that learner employees can become able to learn the
primary concepts of the training program through experiencing the
mental problems that they are going to solve in their chosen way.

It is a more recent theory compared to alternative theories of training

transfer is based on the assumption that focus on individual’s mental
models, comprehension and retention of information is a matter of
significant importance in terms of increasing the levels of training
A popular example for the use of cognitive approach in training
programs relates to the integration of mental tasks and challenges with
the training process, so that program participants learn the core
principles of the training program though solving those mental tasks and
challenges. A high level of applicability of cognitive theory to all types of
training programs is the main advantage of the theory.