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Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information


Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to
information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities,
in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority,
and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest
to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of
education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the
timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public.

“जान1 का अ+धकार, जी1 का अ+धकार” “प0रा1 को छोड न' 5 तरफ”


Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan Jawaharlal Nehru
“The Right to Information, The Right to Live” “Step Out From the Old to the New”

IS 8062-2 (2006): Code of Practice for Cathodic Protection


of Steel Structures, Part II: Underground Pipelines [MTD
24: Corrosion Protection]

“!ान $ एक न' भारत का +नम-ण”


Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda
“Invent a New India Using Knowledge”

“!ान एक ऐसा खजाना > जो कभी च0राया नहB जा सकता ह”


है”

Bhartṛhari—Nītiśatakam
“Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen”
IS 8062 : 2006

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( 4$(17 TR7efUT )
Indian Standard
CATHODIC PROTECTION OF BURIED PIPELINE/
STRUCTURE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL
GAS, OIL AND LIQUIDS - CODE OF PRACTICE
( First Revision)

ICS 25.220.40 ; 75.200

c BIS 2006
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI I 10002

April 2006 Price Group 9


Corrosion Protection and Finishes Sectional Committee, MTD 24

FOREWORD
This Indian Standard (First Revision) was adopted by the Bureau ofIndian Standards, after the draft finalized by
the Corrosion Protection and Finishes Sectional Committee had been approved by the Metallurgical Engineering
Division Council.
This standard was first published in 1976. This standard has been prepared to serve as a guide for establishing
minimum requirements for the control of external corrosion and underground pipeline/structure.
In this revision , following modifications have been made:
a) Requirement of the following Indian Standards have been merged :
I) IS 8062 (Part I) : 1976 Code of practice for cathodic protection of steel structures: Part I General
principles
2) .IS 8062 (Part 2): 1976 Code of practice for cathodic protection of steel structures: Part 2
Underground pipeline
b) Scope of the standard has been modified by including cathodic protection for pipeline/structure for
transportation of natural gas, oil and liquids keeping in view the present practices being followed in the
country in laying of buried pipeline/structure;
c) New definitions have been included in the terminology clause; and
d) Cathodic protection design surveys and surveys during operation and maintenance have been included.
In the formulation of this standard , assistance has been derived from the following:
ISO 15589 - Part I : 2003 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Cathodic protection of pipeline/structure
transportation systems - Part I : On-land pipeline/structure, issued by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ASTM G 97 : 1997 Standard test method for laboratory evaluation ofmagnesium sacrificial anode
test specimens for underground applications, issued by the American Society
for Testing and Materials
NACE RP 0169 : 2002 Control of external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping
systems, issued by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE),
USA
The composition of the Committee responsible for the formulation of this standard is given in Annex A.
For the purpose of deciding whether particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the fmal value,
observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance
with IS 2 : 1960 ' Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised)'. The number of significant places retained
in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified valve in this standard.
Corrosion Protection and Finishes Sectional Committee, MTD 24

FOREWORD
This Indian Standard (First Revision) was adopted by the BureauofIndian Standards, after the draft finalized by
the Corrosion Protection and Finishes Sectional Committee had been approved by the Metallurgical Engineering
Division Council.
This standard was first published in 1976. This standard has been prepared to serve as a guide for establishing
minimum requirements for the control of external corrosion and underground pipeline/structure.
In this revision , following modifications have been made:
a) Requirement of the following Indian Standards have been merged:
I) IS 8062 (Part I) : 1976 Code of practice for cathodic protection of steel structures: Part 1 General
principles
2) IS 8062 (Part 2): 1976 Code of practice for cathodic protection of steel structures: Part 2
Underground pipeline
b) Scope of the standard has been modified by including cathodic protection for pipeline/structure for
transportation of natural gas, oil and liquids keeping in view the present practices being followed in the
country in laying of buried pipeline/structure;
c) New definitions have been included in the terminology clause; and
d) Cathodic protection design surveys and surveys during operation and maintenance have been included.
In the formulation of this standard, assistance has been derived from the following :
ISO 15589 - Part 1 : 2003 Petroleum and natural gas industries -Cathodic protection ofpipeline/structure
transportation systems - Part I : On-land pipeline/structure, issued by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ASTM G 97 : 1997 Standard test method for laboratory evaluation ofmagnesium sacrificial anode
test specimens for underground applications, issued by the American Society
for Testing and Materials
NACE RP 0169: 2002 Control of external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping
systems , issued by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE),
USA
The composition of the Committee responsible for the formulation of this standard is given in Annex A.
For the purpose of deciding whether particular requirement of this standard is complied with , the final value,
observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance
with IS 2 : 1960 ' Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised) '. The number of significant places retained
in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified valve in this standard.
AMENDMENT NO. 1 AUGUST 2006
TO
IS 8062: 2006 CATHODIC PROTECTION OF
BURIED PIPELINE/STRUCTURE FOR
TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS, OIL AND
LIQUIDS - CODE OF PRACTICE
( Tint Revision)
General - Substitute 'IS 8062 (Part 2) : 2006' for 'IS 8062 : 2006'
wherever it appears in the standard
( First cover and page 1, Title ) - Substitute the following for the
existing:

'CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CAmODIC PROTECTION


OF STEEL STRUCTURE
PART 2 BURRIED PlPEUNElSTRUCTURES FOR
TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS, OIL AND LIQUIDS
( Flnt RevisioII)'
[ Second cover page, Foreword, para 3(a) ] - Substitute the following
for the existing matter:
"a) Some of the requirements of 'IS ao62 (Part 1): 1976 Code of practice
for cathodic protection of steel structure : Part 1 General principles'
have been incorporatedin tbis revision". .
(Sea:Jntl cover page, Foreword, ptI1YJ 3) - Add the following new pml aDa'
'(d)':
'This standaId has been issued in four parts. The other parts are:
IS 8062 (Part 1) : 1976 Code of pl3dice .for cathodic protection of steel
sttucturcs : Part 1 General principles
,
IS 8062 (Part 3) : 1977 Code of practice for cathodic protection of steel
structures: Part 3 Ship's hull
IS 8062 (Part 4) : 1979 Code of pr3ctice for cathodic proteetionof steel
structures : Part 4 Galvanic protection of dockgates, caissons, piers and jetties.'

(M1D24)
Reprosraphy Unit. BIS, New Delhi, Iftdia
'"
IS 8062 : 2006

Indian Standard
CATHODIC PROTECTION OF BURIED PIPELINE/
STRUCTURE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL
GAS, OIL AND LIQUIDS - CODE OF PRACTICE
( First Revision)
I SCOPE 3 TERMINOLOGY
This standard deals with the general principles and For the purpose of this Code the definitions given
requirements of cathodic protection system for below shall apply.
prevention against corrosion of external underground
3.1 Anode - The electrode of an electrochemical
buried surface of metallic high pressure hydrocarbon
corrosioncell at which oxidation occurs. Electrons flow
product pipeline /structure.
away from the anode in the external circuit, which is
This standard is intended to serve as a guide for normally metallic. Corrosion usually occurs and metal
establishing minimum requirements for control of ions enter the electrolyte at the anode.
external corrosion on pipeline/structure system.
3.2 Anodic Area - That part of metallic surface
Corros ion control by a coat ing supplemented with
that acts as the anode of an electrochemical corrosion
cathodic protection should be provided in the design
cell.
and maintained during service life of pipeline/structure
system. Consideration should be given to the 3.3 Anodic Polarization - The change of the
construction of pipel ine/structure in a manner that electrode potential in the noble (positive) direction
facilitates the use of in-line inspection tools. resulting from the flow ofcurrent between the electrode
and electrolyte.
2 REFERENCES
3.4 Backfill- The material which fills up the space
The following standards contain provisions which between a buried anode and the surrounding soil. It
through reference in this text, constitute provision of should have low resistivity, moisture retaining capacity
this standard. At the time of publication, the editions and be capable of increasing the effective area of
indicated were valid. All standards are subject to contact between the anode and the environment.
revision, and parties to agreements based on this 3.5 Bond - A metal piece having very little electrical
standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility resistance for connecting two points on the same or
of applying the most recent editions of the standards different pipeline/structure.
indicated below :
3.6 Cable - One conductor or multiple conductors
Standard Title insulated from one another.
ASTMG97 : Standard test method for laboratory
3.7 Cathode - The electrode of an electrochemical
1997 evaluat ion of magnesium sacrificial
corrosion cell at which reduction occurs .
anode testspecimensfor underground
applications 3.8 Cathodic Area - Area on which the cathodic
IS \0221 : 1982 Code of practice for coating and (protection) current is picked up from an electrolyte.
wrapping of underground mild steel 3.9 Cathodic Disbondment - The destruction of
pipeline/structure adhesion between a coating and the coated surface
IS 15569 Petroleum and natural gas industries caused by products of a cathodic reaction.
_ External coatings for buried or
submerged pipelines used in pipeline 3.10 Cathodic Polarization - The change of
transportation of gas and liquid electrode potential in the electronegative direction
resulting from the flow of current between the
hydrocarbons :
electrolyte and electrode.
(Part I) : 2006 Polyolefin coatings (3-layer pe and
3-layer pp) 3.11 Cathodic Protection - A method of protecting
(Part 2) : 2006 Fusion bonded epoxy coatings a metallic pipeline/structure from corrosion by making
IS 8062 : 2006

a
it cathode so that direct current flows on to the 3.27 Current Density - The currentper unit area of
pipeline /structure from the surrounding electrolytic an electrode surface.
environment. 3.28 Direct Current (d. c.) Decoupling Device - A
3.12 Cell - An electrolytic system consisting of device used in electric circuits which allows the flow
anode and cathode in electric contact with an of a.c. in both directions and stops or substantially
intervening electrolyte . reduces the flow of direct current. The conduction of
current takes place when predetermined threshold
3.13 Closed Hole Deep Ground Bed - An
voltage levels are exceeded.
installation in which the anodes are surrounded by
backfill. 3.29 Deep Ground Bed - One or more anodes
instaIled a minimum of 15 m below earth 's surface
3.14 Coating - Corrosion protective coating consist
for supplying cathodic protection current to an
of various components/layers of a dielectric material
underground/submerged pipeline/structure through
and is applied to a pipeline/structure to isolate it from
soil/water.
its immediate environment and to provide uniformly
high electrical resistance to flow of current between 3.30 Differential Aeration - Unequal access of
pipeline/structure and surrounding electrolyte. oxygen/air to various parts of a pipeline/structure
resulting in local cell action and a consequent corrosion
3.15 Coating Disbondment - The loss of adhesion
of the less aerated parts.
between a coating and the pipe surface .
3.31 Diode - A bipolar semi-conducting device
3.16 Coating System - A coating consists of various
having a low resistance in one direction and a high
components which provide effective electrical
resistance in the other .
insulation of the coated pipeline/structure from its
immediate environment. 3.32 Drainage - Draining of electric Current from a
cathod ically protected/affected pipeline/structure back
3.17 Conductor - A material suitable for carrying
to its source through an external conductor.
an electric current. It may be bare or insulated.
3.18 Continuity Bond - An intentional metallic 3.33 Drainage Bond - A bond to effect drainage of
connection that provides electrical continuity. current.

3.19 Corrosion - The degradation of a material , 3.34 Drainage Test - A test in which direct current
usually a metal or its properties , that results from an is applied usually with temporary anodes and power
electrochemical reaction with its environment. sources to assess the magnitude of current needed to
achieve permanent protection against electrochemical
3.20 Corrosion Potential- The mixed potential of corrosion
a freely corroding pipe/pipeline/structure surface with
reference to an electrode in contact with the electrolyte 3.35 Driving Voltage - Driving voltage is the open
surrounding the pipe/pipeline /structure. circuit potential difference between a pipeline/
structure to be protected (a cathode) and the system
3.21 Corrosion Products - Chemical compound
of anodes which protects it. This voltage does not
produced by the reaction of a corroding metal with its
include the voltage drop in the soil or in the
environment.
connecting load and is the total voltage available for
3.22 Corrosion Rate - The rate at which corrosion establishing a protective circuit. The driving voltage
proceeds . (It is usuaIly expressed as either weight loss in galvanic cells is fixed while that in an impressed
or penetration per unit time). current system is variable.
3.23 Coupling - The association of two or more 3.36 Earth
circuits or systems in such a way that electric energy
may betransferred from one to another. a) The conducting mass of earth or of any
conductor in direct connection therewith;
3.24 Coupon - Representative metal sample of
known surface area used to quantify the effect of b) A connection, whether intentional or
corrosion or the effectiveness of cathodic protection. unintentional , between a conductor and the
earth; and
3.25 Criterion - Standard for assessment of the
c) To connect any conductor with the general
effectiveness of a cathodic protection system.
mass of earth.
3.26 Crossing Point - A point where two or more
3.37 Electrical Isolation - The condition of being
buried or immersed pipeline/structure cross in a
electrically separated from other metallic pipeline/
plan.
structure or the environment.

2
IS 8062 : 2006

3.38 Electrical Survey - Any technique that on a pipeline /structure from an external power source
involves coordinated electrical measurements taken to for providing cathodic protection 10 it.
provide a basis for deduction concerning a particular
3.51 Impressed Current Anode - An anode that
electrochemical condition relating to corrosion or
provides current for cathodic protection by means of
corrosion control.
impressed current.
3.39 Electrode - A conductor of the metallic class
3.52 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection - A
(including carbon) which carries current into or out of
system in which current for cathodic protection is
an electrolyte.
provided by an external source of d.c. power.
3.40 Electrolyte - A chemical substance contain ing
3.53 Impressed Current Station - A station
ions that migrate in an electric field.
containing d.c. power equipment, anode ground bed
3.41 Foreign Pipeline/Structure - Any pipeline/ and other items to provide cathodic protection by
structure that is not intended to be a part of the system means of impressed current.
of interest.
3.54 In-Line Inspection - The inspection of a steel
3.42 Galvanic Anode - The electrode in a galvanic pipeline/structure using an electronic instrument or
couple formed by two dissimilar metals (as applied to tool that travels along the interior of the pipeline/
cathodic protection) in which the galvanic current is structure.
flowing from this electrode into the electrolyte. The
3.55 Instant orr Potential - Pipeline /structure to
galvanic anodes corrode and are designated as
electrolyte potential measured immediately after
sacrificial anodes.
interruption of all sources of applied cathodic
3.43 Galvanic Anode Cathodic Protection - A protection current.
system in which current for cathodic protection of a
3.56 Instant on Potential - Pipeline/structure to
pipeline/structure is supplied by galvanic anodes. As
electrolyte potential measured immediately after
galvanic anodes get consumed in the system is also
switching on all sources of applied cathodic protection
designated as Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection
current.
System.
3.57 Insulating Flanges - Flanges which permit
3.44 Galvanic Cell - A cell consisting of two
mechanical continuity but break the electrical
dissimilar metals in contact with each other in a
continuity.
common electrolyte.
3.58 Interference - Interference is effect of stray
3.45 Galvanic Current - A current passing into or
current on electric parameters including potential of a
out of a pipeline/structure due to a galvanic couple
pipeline/structure.
being established in which the pipeline/structure forms
one of the electrodes. By using less noble metal 3.59 Interference Bond - An intentional metallic
artificial galvanic couples are formed in such a way, connection designed to control the electrical current
that the galvanic current protects a desired pipeline/ flowing between metallic systems.
structure.
3.60 IR Drop - Voltage difference caused between
3.46 Galvanic Series - A list of metals and alloys two points ofsoil/water electrolyte due to flow ofcurrent
arranged according to their corrosion potentials in a
3.61 Isolating Joint - Electrically insulating
given environment.
component such as monoblock insulating joint,
3.47 Ground Bed - A system ofburied or submerged insulating flange, isolating coupling, etc, inserted
galvanic or impressed current anodes for supplying between two lengths of pipeline/structure to prevent
cathodic protection current to ' a pipeline/structure electrical continuity between them .
through electrolyte.
3.62 Line Current - The direct current flowing on
3.48 Grounding Cell - A d.c. decoupling device a pipeline/structure.
containing two or more electrodes, commonly made
3.63 Long-Line Corrosion Activity - Current
of zinc, installed at a fixed spacing and resistively
flowing through the earth between an anodic and a
coupled through a prepared backfill mixture.
cathodic area that returns along an underground
3.49 Holiday - A defect, including pinholes in an metallic pipeline/structure.
otherwise uniform protective coating that exposes the
3.64 Mixed Potential - A potential resulting from
metal to the surrounding earth.
two or more electrochemical reactions occurring
3.50 Impressed Current - A direct current impressed simultaneously on a metal surface.

3
IS 8062 : 2006

3.65 Natural Potential - Pipeline/structure to 3.78 Rectifier - An electrical equipment for


electrolyte potential measured when pipeline/structure converting a.c. from supply mains into d.c.
is completely depolar ized: (i) before the application 3.79 Remedial Bond - A bond between a primary
of cathodic protection. and (ii) after switching off and secondary pipeline/structure to eliminate or reduce
cathodic protection system . corrosion interaction .
3.66 On Potential- Pipeline/structure to electrolyte 3.80 Remote Earth - That part of electrolyte in
potential measured while cathodic protection system which no measurable voltages, caused by current flow,
is continuously operating. occur between any two points.
3.67 Open Hole Deep Ground Bed - An installation
3.81 Resistance Bond - A bond either incorporating
in which the anodes are surrounded only by an aqueous
resistors or of adequate resistance in itself for the
electrolyte.
purpose of limiting current flow.
3.68 Packaged Anode - An anode that when
3.82 Resistivity - Resistance between opposite faces
supplied, is already surrounded by a selected
of a unit cube of a substance usually given for a one-
conductive material backfill.
centimeter cube.
3.69 Pipe-to-Electrolyte Potential - The potential
3.83 Reverse-Current Switch - A device that
difference between the pipe metallic surface and
electrolyte that is measured with reference to an prevents the reversal ofdirect current through a metallic
conductor.
electrode in contact with the electrolyte.
3.70 Pipeline/Structure to Electrolyte Potential- 3.84 Safety Bond - A bond connecting metallic
Potent ial of a pipeline /structure with reference to a enclosure/framework of an electric equipment with
standard reference electrode located as close to the earth to limit the rise of potential above earth in the
pipeline/structure as is practically permissible in the event of a fault.
electrolyte or soil. 3.85 Secondary Pipeline/Structure - A pipeline/
3.71 Polarization - A shift in the potential of an structure not in view when cathodic protection is
electrode resulting from a flow of current between the originally planned, but enters the picture as a result of
electrode and the electrolyte surrounding it. interference.

3.72 Polarization Cell - A d.c. decoupling device 3.86 Shielding - Preventing or diverting the cathodic
consisting of two or more pairs of inert metallic plates protection current from its intended path.
in an aqueous electrolyte.
3.87 Shorted PipelinelStructure Casing - A casing
3.73 Polarized Drainage - A form of electric which is in direct metallic contact with the carrier pipe.
drainage in which the connection between protected!
3.88 Soil Resistivity - A measure ofthe physical and
affected pipeline/structure and source of stray currents
chemical characteristics of soil to conduct electricity
usually d.c. operated traction system of railways
includes a reverse current switch (usually a diode) for expressed in units of ohm-centimetres or ohm-metres.
unidirectional flow of current. 3.89 Sound Engineering Practices - Reasoning
3.74 Polarized Potential- The potential across the exhibited or based on thorough knowledge and
pipeline/structure/electrolyte interface that is the experience, logically valid and having technically
sum of the corrosion potential and the cathodic correc~ premises that demonstrate good judgment or
polarization. sense In the application of science.

3.75 Primary Pipeline/Structure - The basic 3.90 Stray Current - Stray current is the current
pipeline/structure to which cathodic protection is to that is intended to flow in some other circuit and is
be applied, as distinct from a secondary pipeline/ referred to as stray current when it flows in an
structure, on which interference takes place. unintended circuit.

3.76 Protective Current - It is the total current to 3.91 Stray-Current Corrosion - Corrosion
be picked up on the pipeline/structure so that it reaches resulting from stray current transfer between the pipe
protective potential. and electrolyte.

3.77 Protective Potential - The potential of a 3.92 Telluric Current - Current in the earth as a
pipeline/structure with reference to a specified standard result of geomagnetic fluctuations.
reference electrode at which the corrosion rate of the
3:93 .Test Stations - Stations where cables from
metal is insignificant.
plpelme/structure and other devices are terminated to

4
IS 8062 : 2006

facilitate tests/measurement with regard to corrosion 5.2 Electrical Isolation


activity, effect of cathodic protection and other current,
Isolating devices should be installed within pipeline/
performance of connected devices, etc.
structure system where electrical isolation of portions
3.94 Voltage - An electromotive force or a difference of system is required to facilitate the application of
in electrode potentials expressed in volts. external corrosion control. Isolating joints should be
provided at: (a) both extreme ends of pipeline , and
3.95 Wire - A slender rod or filament of drawn
(b) all extreme ends of structure to be protected by a
metal. In practice, the term is also used for smaller
cathodic protection system and should also be
gauge conductors.
considered at following locations :
4 ABBREVIATIONS a) At points where pipeline /structure changes
a.c. - Alternating current ownersh ip such as metering stations. well
heads etc;
CP - Cathodic protection
b) Between cathod ic protected pipel ine /
CSE Copper - Copper sulphate reference
structure;
electrode
I) Non-protected facilities such as
d.c. - Direct current
compressor or pumping station ,
ICCP - Impressed current cathodic protection
2) Other pipel ine/structure with different
TS - Test station external coating/cathodic protection
Yon Instant ON potential system, and
Yoff Instant OFF potential 3) Electric operated MOY and other such
installations connected with safety
5 PIPELINE/STRUCTURE SYSTEM DESIGN
earthing system .
The following requirements should be considered, c) lunction of branch lines. dissimilar metals etc;
while designing the pipeline/structure system, so that d) Between normal pipeline/structure section
cathodic protection system can be implemented and other pipeline/structure section that is;
successfully.
I) Laid in different type of electrolyte, for
5.1 External Corrosion Control example, river crossing, and
2) Subject to interferences due to stray
External corrosion control must be a primary
currents .
consideration during the design of the pipelines/
structure system . Material selection and coatings are e) On both sides of pipeline/structure laid over
the first line of defense against external corrosion. above ground pipeline/structure such as
Cathodic protection is essential for a coated pipeline bridges ;
because perfect coatings are not feasible and all f) Isolating joints shall be protected by using
coatings are subject to deterioration with time. Further, electrical earthing or surge arresters at
coating is not an essential requisite for the application locations where pipeline/structure voltage due
of cathodic protection. Finally cathodic protection can to electric power system or lightening is likely
be applied at any stage during the design life of a to exceed safe limits;
pipeline. g) Internal surface of pipeline/structure on both
sides of insulating joint shall be suitably
5.1.1 Materials and construction practices that create coated for sufficient length to avoid
electrical shielding should not be used on pipeline / interference current corrosion in case of
structure. pipeline/structure transporting conductive
5.1.2 Pipeline/structure should be installed at a fluids;
location where proximity to other pipeline/structure h) Design, materials , dimens ions and
and surface formation will not cause shielding. construction of isolating joints should be in
accordance with specifications;
5.1.3 The depth of the pipeline/structure shall be
j) Design of cathodic protection system should
adequate to have a uniform distribution of cathodic
include permanent facilities for: (a) testing
protection current.
effectiveness of isolating joints, and
5.1.4 When two or more pipelines/structures are (b) bonding of pipeline/structure isolated
running in parallel and in close vicinity, the effect of sections as and where required;
shielding should be avoided by relocating and spacing k) Pipe surfaces on each side of such isolating
the pipeline/structure properly. joint should be protected from contact with

5
IS 8062 : 2006

soil for a distance of at least 50 times pipe 4) Bridge crossing s:


diameter in order to prevent concentrated flow 5) At close vicinity of foreign pipeline
of current from section to section around the anode ground bed; and
insulation. This protection is obtained most f) A test station should be provided at locations
effectively by placing the pipe above ground where the pipeline/structure is connected with:
on suitable supports; however. where such a I) Earth electrodes for safety earthing and!
plan is impracticable . an effective alternative or mitigation of a.c.ld.c . interference,
is to apply extra th ick coating along the
2) Galvanic anodes for cathodic protection ,
requisite length of pipe and also completely
and
encase the isolating joints with the same
coating . Insulating joints should be painted 3) Corrosion coupons.
with a distinct colour for easy identification; 5.4.1 From each test station at least two cables should
and be connected to pipeline/structures. All cables shall
01) Care should be taken to see that the insulated be identified by colour coding or tags .
flanges are not short-circuited by chips of
metal. dirt, etc. In certain cases this is ensured 5.4.2 Test leads from all pipeline/structure (including
by mounting over the flanges, shrouding boxes foreign pipeline/structure) should be terminated at all
and then filling these boxes with bitumen. test stations in case of pipeline/structures are laid in
common right of way.
5.3 Electrical Continuity
5.4.3 Pipeline/structure running parallel in common
Cathodic protected pipeline/structure should be right of way should not be bonded below the ground
electrically continuous for unimpeded flow of current. in the absence of any overriding consideration.
Necessary actions should be taken to ensure electrical Locations ofunderground bonding connections, ifany
continuity by providing permanent bonds across should be properly identified.
mechanical connectors, flange joints etc.
5.4.4 Pennanent test stations with cable connections
5.4 Test Stations to the pipeline/structure should be installed
simultaneously with the pipeline/structure to facilitate
Test stations should be located at intervals along the monitoring of the performance of temporary cathodic
pipeline/structure where they will be conveniently protection .
accessible to the corrosion engineer facilitate testing
ofcathodic protect ion parameters . Such locations may 5.4.5 The spacing between test stations should not
include, but are not limited to the following: exceed I 500 m by considering the requirement of
conducting close interval potential logging survey that
a) Test stations shall be provided on both sides
uses continuous test wire between successive test
of cased crossing , if width of cased crossing
station. In urban or industrial areas , interval should
is more than 20 m;
not be more than I 000 m.
b) Test station shall be provided on both sides
of river/canal, etc, if; 5.4.6 Brazed connections includ ing thermit welding
I) Isolating joints have been provided on processes should not be made within 150 mm of the
both sides or; main butt or longitudinal weld in high tensile steel pipe.
2) Width of river/canal is more than 50 01; The connection should be tested for mechanical
strength and electrical continuity.
3) Pipeline/structure laying conditions
require the special monitoring ofPSP on 5.5 Road and Rail Crossings
both sides of river/water crossing;
c) Crossing of two or more lines; As far as possible, cased crossings should be avo ided
wherever they are not necessary. In India, it is
d) Only one test station shall be provided at
~an~atory to cross railway tracks by using casing. For
Isolatingjoint with facilities for measurement
pipeline/structure crossing under rail/road tracks, etc,
of details for both sides of isolating joint;
an agreement would have to be made with the
e) Installation of a test station should also be concerned authorities.
considered at locations where pipeline passes
through corrosive environment, such as: No long pipeline/structure ca n avoid crossing of roads
I) Stray current areas; and rails. Special precautions are necessarv at such
locations to safeguard the carrier pipe by passing it
2) Valve stations;
~ro~gh an additional oversize pipe termed a 'Casing
3) Current drain p(lint;
pipe . The section of the pipe thus encased in the

6
IS 8062 : 2006

' Cas ing pipe' is termed as a ' Carri er pipe' . Casing pipes 6 PIPELINE/STRUCTURE EXTERNAL
may act as a shield to the flow of cathodic protection COATING
current to the carrier pipes thereby defeating their
The function ofexternal coating is to control corrosion
primary purpose of providing safety.
by isolat ing the external surface of the underground
The section of carrier pipe inside the casing should or submerged pipeline/structure from the environment,
have the best possible standard of coating with as few to reduce cathodic protection current requirements, and
holidays as possible . The carrier pipe should be to improve current distribution . External coatings must
insulated from casing pipe supported by plastic be properly selected and applied and coated pipe should
insulating supports fitted to it at regular intervals. The be carefully handled and installed to fulfil these
carrier pipe inside the casing should be kept dry by functions. The follow ing types ofcoat ings are normall y
use of suitable end-seals and by filling the annulus used for high pressure cross-country underground
between carrier and casing pipe with a suitable pipeline/structure:
insulating material such as wax, concrete slurry or
a) 3-layer polyethylene/polypropylene [see
petroleum jelly. This will prevent future ingress of
IS 15569 (Part I)],
water in the annulus. Proper construction practices for
cased crossings and proper fixing of end seals b) Fusion bonded epoxy [see IS 15569 (Part 2)],
(including use of pressure type end seals) must be and
ensured for preventing problems of electrical shorts c) Coal tar enamel (see IS 10221).
between carriers and casing future ingress of water in
7 CRITERIA FOR CATHODIC PROTECTION
the annulus may be prevented.
External corrosion protection can be achieved at
5.5.1 Effectiveness ofelectric isolation between casing
various levels of cathodic polarization depending on
and carrier pipes should be tested at the time of laying
the environmental conditions. However, in the absence
of pipeline/structure and remedial actions should be
of specific data that demonstrates that adequate
taken simultaneously.
cathodic protection has been achieved one or more of
5.5.2 Corrosion protective coating on external and the following conditions shall apply.
internal surface of casing pipe can reduce magnitude
7.1 A negative (cathodic) potential of at least 850 mY
of current flow between casing and carrier pipes
with the cathodic protection applied. This potential is
through soil/water inside the casing.
measured with respect to a saturated copper/copper
5.6 River Crossings sulphate reference electrode contacting the electrolyte.
Voltage drops other than those across the pipeline/
There are three alternate methods of crossing of rivers
structure-to -electrolyte boundary must be considered
and small streams:
for valid interpretation of this voltage measurement.
a) Submerged crossings, Consideration is understood to mean the application
b) Suspended crossings, and of sound engineering practice in determining the
c) Use of existing road and rail pipe bridges. significance of voltage drops by methods, such as:
For submerged crossings, care should be taken to give a) Measuring or calculating the voltage drop(s);
the submerged section of the pipe the best possible b) Reviewing the historical performance of the
standard of coating with as few holidays as possible. cathodic protection system;
For the other two methods, the pipe should be insulated c) Evaluating the physical and electrical
from the metallic hangers, on which the pipes are characteristics ofthe pipe and its environment;
supported, by using suitable insulating material such and
as neoprene sleeves. This is required only, if the pipe
d) Determining whether or not there is physical
along the crossing is protected cathodically. On account
evidence of corrosion.
of the restrictions imposed by railway authorities,
pipeline/structure over railway bridges are isolated by 7.2 A negative polarized potential of at least 850 mY
installing insulating flanges at both ends ofthe bridge. relative to a saturated copper/copper sulphate reference
It should be noted that the flange towards the bridge electrode.
end should be insulated and not that at the main line
7.3 A minimum of 100 mV of cathodic polarization
end.
between the pipeline/structure surface and a stable
5.6.1 For proper cathodic protection of concrete reference electrode contacting the electrolyte. The
encased/cement weight coated pipeline/structure, format ion or decay ofpolarization can be measured to
rebars of concrete should be electrically isolated from satisfy this criterion . 100 mV Polarization potential
pipeline/structure. criteria should be avoided under following conditions:

7
IS 8062 : 2006

a) Higher operating temperature ; 7.6.1 The hydrogen electrode is taken to be the


standard with reference to which other electrode
b) Electrolyte containing sulphate reducing
potentials are determined . It is inconvenient in practice
bacteria ;
to use hydrogen electrode. Therefore, certain electrodes
c) Pipeline/structure affected by stray currents;
known as reference electrodes are used in potential
and
measurements in the studies of corrosion and cathodic
d) Pipeline/structure connected to/consisting of protection. Potent ials of some usefu I reference
components of different materials. electrodes are given below.
7.4 Special Conditions 7.6.2 Potentials ofreference electrodes with reference
7.4.1 On bare poorly coated pipeline/structure where to standard hydrogen electrode at 25°C :
lone-line corrosion activity is of primary concern,
Sl No. Electrode Pot entials
the "'measurement of a net protective current at
Volts
predetermined current discharge points from the
(I) (2) (3)
electrolyte to the pipe surface, as measured by an earth
current technique, may be sufficient. i) Saturated calomel +0.24
ii) Silver/silver chloride/saturated KCI +0.22
7.4.2 In some situations, such as the presence of iii) Copper/copper sulphate +0.32
su Ifides, anaerobic/aerobic bacteria, elevated iv) Zinc/sea water -0.78
temperatures, acid environments, and dissimilarmetals,
the above criteria may not be sufficient and (-) 950 mV
is to be applied. 8 CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN
OBJECTIVES
7.4.3 To prevent damage to the coating, the limiting
critical potential should not be more negative than 8.1 Major objective of cathodic protection system
-I 200 mV referred to CSE, to avoid the detrimental design includes the following :
effects of hydrogen production and/or a high pH at a) To provide sufficient current to the pipeline/
material surface . structure so that selected criteria of cathodic
protection system is effectively achieved ;
7.5 Other Considerations
b) To minimize interference current on primary
7.5.1 Methods for determining voltage drops should and secondary/foreign pipeline/structure;
be selected and applied using sound engineering c) To provide a design life of anode system
practice . Once determined, the voltage drops may be commensurate with the life of pipeline/
used for correcting future measurements at the same structure;
location, providing cond itions such as pipe and
d) To provide adequate allowance for anticipated
cathodic protection system operating conditions, soil
characteristics and external coating quality remains change in cathodic protection current
similar. requirements with time; and
e) Adequate monitoring facilities to test and
7.5.2 When it is impracticable or considered evaluate cathodic protection system
unnecessary to disconnect all current sources to correct performance.
for voltage drops in the pipeline/structure to electrolyte
potential measurements, sound engineering practices 8.2 Cathodic Protection Design Information
should be used to ensure that adequate cathodic
The following information is useful for designing
protection has been achieved. proper cathodic protection system .
7.5.3 Situations involving stray currents and stray
8.2.t Pipeline/Structure Design and Engineering Details
electrical gradients may exist that require special
analysis . Details of pipeline/structure to be protected:
7.5.4 Where feasible and practicable, in-line inspection a) Material, length, diameter, wall thickness.
of pipeline/structure may be helpful in determining the b) Design/Operating temperature and pressure
presence or absence of pining corrosion damage. and product to be transported.
7.6 Reference Electrode c) Corrosion protective coating .
d) Design life ofpipeline/structure and corrosion
An electrode whose open circuit potential is constant protective coating.
under similar conditions of measurement used to
e) Pipeline/structure route layout drawings
measure the pipeline/structure to electrolyte potential.
including but not limited to insolating joints.

8
IS 8062 : 2006

f) Terminal and intermediate stations: 8.4 Types of Cathodic Protection


I) Road, railway and water crossings, There are two methods of cathodic protection of
2) Cased crossings, underground pipeline/structure, namely:
3) a.c.Id.c. power lines and installations that
a) Sacrificial anode system , and
may cause electric interference,
b) Impressed current system .
4) Possibility of telluric current activity,
5) Foreign pipeline/structure running 8.4.1 Sacrificial (Galvanic) Cathodic Protection System
parallel to and/or crossing the pipeline/ In the sacrificial anode system , sacrificial anodes based
structure, on soil resistivity should be used as given in Table 2.
6) ICCP stations of foreign pipeline/ The pipeline/structure remain in electrical contact
structure, and with the anode in the electrolyte. The performance of
7) Availability of power supply at terminal any anode depends on composition and operating
and intermediate stations. conditions. Sacrificial anodes are limited in current
g) Required design life of (a) CP system for output by the anode to pipe/pipeline/structure driving
current capacity, and (b) anodes. voltage and electrolyte resistivity (see Fig. I) .
h) Type of soil/resistivity and environmental 8.4.1.1 System design shall include calculations for:
conditions.
a) Current requirement,
8.2.2 Field Surveys and Data Collection b) Design life of anodes, and
Details to be collected by field surveys as required for c) Resistance and output Current of anode(s).
design of CP system: 8.4.1.2 Guideline for selection of galvanic anode
a) Existing pipeline/structure - Current drain! cathodic protection system is given under 8.5.1.
Coating resistance test; 8.4.1.3 Guidelines for selection of type of galvanic
b) Soil chemical analysis for ionic and microbiaV anodes , depth and distance between galvanic anode
bacterial loading; and protected pipeline/structure are given in Table 2.
c) Electric resistivity of soil at locations of Guidelines given in this table may not be followed if
anodes; and engineering evaluation or field tests confirm that design
d) Specific details required for investigation and requirements can still be met by a different approach.
mitigation of interference problems. For galvanic anode systems, the following shall apply:
8.2.3 Current Requirement a) The resistivity ofthe soil orthe anode backfill
It is always better to use the protective current shall be sufficiently low for successful
requirement data based on existing pipeline/structure application galvanic anodes;
which are being operated almost in the same type of b) The selected type of anode shall be capable
environment. As a general guidance, protective current of continuously supplying the maximum
densities given in Table 1 for various coatings may be CUrrent demand; and
considered as a requirement for newly coated pipeline/ c) The total mass of anode material shall be
structure. sufficient to supply the required Current for
8.3 Temporary cathodic protection (TCP) is the design life of the system.
recommended when construction period is more than Galvanic anodes shall be marked with the type of
3 months and soil resistivity is less than 100 ohm-m. material (for example trade name), anode mass
While designing TCP the current density should be at (without anode backfill) and melt number. Full
least 50 percent of the values given in Table I. documentation of number, types, mass, dimensions,
chemical analysis and performance data of the anodes
Table 1 Protective Current Density for Newly
shall be provided. The environmental impact of
Coated Pipeline/Structure
galvanic anodes shall be considered.
(Clauses 8.2.3 and 8.3)
Utilization factor for zinc and magnesium anode shall
SI Soil 13 LPEI IFBEI Coal Tar be considered as given below :
No. Resistivity Coated Pipe Coal Pipe Enamel
ohm -m I1Nm l I1 N ml I1 N ml
(2)
Utilization Centre End
(I ) (3) (4) (5)
Factor Connected Connected
i) 10-100 25 50 125
ii) <10 50 70 150 Zinc (Zn) 0.85 0.5
iii) >100 15 25 75 Magnesium (Mg) 0.88 0.6

9
IS 8062 : 2006

Table 2 Sacrificial Anodes


(Clauses 8.4. 1 and 8.4.1.3)

SI Anode Soil Resistivity Distance from Pipe Minimum Depth


No. ohm-m
(I) (2) (3) (4) (5)
i) Zinc (Zn) < 10 2 1.2
ii) Magnesium > 10-45 5 1.2
iii) Ribbon (Mg) > 45-100 0.5 1.2

rasr STATION

t
-
---

~-----------+
PROTECTIVE CURRENT +
+
+
MAGNESIUM
--
FIG. I GALVANIC/SACRIFICIAL ANODE S YSTEM

8.4.1.4 Zinc anodes 8.4.1.5 Magnesium anodes


A typ ical composition of zinc anodes is given in Magnesium anodes shall be performance-tested in
Table 3. accordance with ASTM G 97. The values obtained
from the testing shall be the basis for the design of the
Table 3 Typical Chemical Composition of the system . A typical composition of magnesium anodes
Alloy Used for Zinc Anodes is given in the following Table 4.
SI Ele ment C o mpositi oD of Mass FractioD, Table 4 Typical Chemical Composition of
No. Pereear the Standard Alloy Used for Magnesium Anodes
r
..... ,
Min Max SI Elellleat CompositioD of M ass FrutioD,
(I ) (2 ) (3) (4)
No. Pereeet
.-- .A.-
.... ......

i) Cu 0.005 Min Max


ii) AI 0. 10 0.50 ( I) (2) (3 ) (4)
iii) Fe 0.00 5 i) Cu 0.02
iv) Cd 0.07 ii) AI 5.3 6.7
v) Pb 0.006 iii) Si 0.1
vi) Zn Remainder iv) Fe 0.00 3
v) Mn 0. 15
NOTE - The max imum amoun t of other elements shall be vi) Ni 0.002
0.02 percent (mass fraction) eac h. vii) Zn 2. 5 3 .5
viii ) Mg Remainder
;J ther (; :loys may be used provided the performance in NOTE - The. max imum amount of oth er elements shall be
similarsoils is reliable and documented. 0.005 percent (mass fraction) each.

10
IS 8062 : 2006

Other alloys may be used provided the performance in b) Ground water levels,
similar soils is reliable and documented. c) Any evidence of extreme changes in soil
conditions from season to season ,
8.4.1.6 Anode backfill
d) Nature of the terrain,
Anode backfill for galvanic anodes should consist of a e) Shielding (especially for parallel pipelines).
mixture of gypsum, bentonite clay and sodium and
sulphate. The specific composition of the anode
f) Likelihood of damage due to third party
backfill shall be determined by the need to minimize
intervention.
resistivity and maximize moisture retention.
The basic design shall include a calculation of the
The required composition ofthe anode backfill material
ground bed based upon the most accurate soil resistivity
shall be included in the anode specification. data available .
8.4.2 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System The current output from anodes should be
A direct current impressed on a pipeline/structure from independently adjustable .
an external power source for providing cathodic
8.4.2.2.2 Deep-well ground beds
protection to it. Impressed current system contains d.c.
power equipments, anode ground bed and other related Deep-well ground beds should be considered where :
items. A typical illustration of an impressed current
a)Soil conditions at greater depth are far more
cathodic protection system is shown in Fig. 2.
suitable than at surface,
8.4.2.1 Guidelines for selection of impressed current b) There is a risk of shielding by adjacent
cathodic protection system are given under 8.5.2. pipelines or other buried structures.
System design shall include calculation for: c) Available space for a shallow ground bed is
a) Current requirement, limited, and
b) Zone of protection of lCCP Station, d) There is a risk of interference current being
c) Resistance and design life anode ground bed, generated on adjacent installations.
and The detailed design shall include a procedure for drilling
d) d.c. output voltage and current rating of d.c. the deep well, establishing the resistivity of the soil at
power equipment. various depths, completing the borehole and method of
installing the anodes and conductive backfill .
8.4.2.2 Anode ground beds
The borehole design and construction shall be such
8.4.2.2.1 General that the undesirable transfer ofwater between different
The anode ground beds of an impressed-current CP geological formations and the pollution of underlying
system for cross country pipeline should be either strata is prevented.
remote deep well or remote shallow type. These should Metallic casings should be used for stabilizing the
be designed and located so as to satisfy the following: borehole in the active section of the ground bed . The
a) Mass and material quality shall be suitable metallic casing shall be electrically isolated from any
for the specified design life of the CP system, structures on the surface. Metallic casings only provide
b) Resistance to remote earth of each ground bed temporary borehole stabilization, as the metal will be
shall allow the maximum predicted current consumed by the d.c. current flow .
demand to be met at no more than 70 percent If permanent stabilization is required, non-metallic ,
of the voltage capacity of the d.c . source perforated casings should be used.
during the design life of the CP system . The
calculation shall be carried out for the unused In the calculation of the ground bed resistance, the soil
anode bed at the end of life, and resistivity data corresponding to the depth at the mid-
point of the active length shall be used and the
c) Harmful interference on neighboring buried
possibility of multi-layered soils with significantly
structures shall be avoided .
different soil resistivity considered. ,
In selecting the location and type of ground beds to be
Deep-well ground beds should be provided with
installed , the following local conditions shall be taken
adequate vent pipes to prevent gas blocking between
into account:
anode and the conductive backfill. Vent pipe material
a) Soil conditions and the variation in resistivity shall be manufactured from the non-metallic chlorine-
with depth, resistant material.

11
IS 8062 : 2006

220V SUPPLY

REFERENCE
ELECTRODE
PIPE LINE

~ 100 metre s· s· S·

* DISTANCE AS PER DESIGN

FIG. 2 I MPRESSED CURRENT A NODE S YSTEM

8.4.2.2.3 Shallow ground beds a) High-silicon iron alIoy, including chromium


additions, in soils with high chloride content;
Shallow ground beds should be considered where :
b) Magnetite;
a) Soil resistivities near the surface are far more c) Graphite;
suitable than at the depths of a deep-well d) Mixed-metal-oxide coated titanium;
ground bed. e) Platinized titanium/niobium;
b) There is no risk of shielding by adjacent t) Conductive polymers; and
pipelines or other buried structures. g) Steel.
c) Space is available for a shalIow ground bed.
Alternative materials may be used, if their
d) There is no risk of interference current being
performances relevant to the specific operating
generated on adjacent instalIations. conditions are reliable and documented.
Shallow ground bed anodes shalI be instalIedhorizontalIy The specific material, dimensions and mass shalI deliver
or verticalIy. In either case, the top of the conductive 125percent ofthe required anode current output required
backfill shalI be at least 1.5 m below ground level. for meeting the specified design life of the CP System.
In the calculation ofthe ground bed resistance, the soil A carbonaceous or other conductive backfill material
resistivity da ta corresponding to the centre-line shall be used unless the soil conditions give a satisfactory
(horizontal ground bed) or mid-point (vertical ground ground bed resistance, the soil is homogeneous and
bed) ofthe anodes shall be used and with the possibility uniform consumption of anodes is expected.
of multi -layered soils with significantly different soil
The environmental impact of the dissolution of anode
resistivities considered.
materials and breakdown of the conductive backfill
The detailed design shall include a procedure for the material shall be considered. Utilization factor for
construction of the ground bed and for the installation Mixed Metal Oxide and High Silicon Anodes are as
of the anodes and the conductive backfill. given below:

8.4.3 Impre ssed-Current Anodes and Conductive Utilization Centre End


Backfill Factor Connected Connected
Anode materials should be selected from the folIowing Mixed metal oxide (MMO) 0.80 0.90
list: High silicon 0.80 0.6

12
IS 8062 : 2006

Use of continuous conductive polymer anodes should potential control which shall be linked to a permanent
be considered, particularly for very high resistivity soils reference electrode buried close the pipeline. Reference
surrounding the pipeline. electrodes shall be regularly calibrated.
8.4.4 Sources 0/ Power The potential measuring circuit shall have a maximum
input resistance of 100 mil. The electronic control
A d.c . supply needed for cathodic protection is supplied
system shall have an accurac y of ± 10m V and be
using Transformer Rect ifier Unit (TRU) or Cathodic
provided with adjustable voltage and current-limiting
Protection Power Supply Control Module (CPPSM).
circuits and alarms to protect the pipel ine against
The input source of power for Transformer Rectifier polarization outs ide the established criteria in the event
Unit (TRU) or Cathodic Protection Power Supply that reference electrode fails . A panel-mounted meter
Control Module (CPPSM) is generally state grid. Where should be provided to enable the reading of pipe -to-
state grid power supply is not reliable or available, the soil potential
following power sources are generally used:
8.4.5.3 Automatic current contra!
a) Closed cycled vapour turbo alternator (CCVT),
The d.c. voltage source can be provided with current
b) Thermo electric generator (TEG), control to set output current to the pipeline or the anode
c) Solar power, system.
d) Wind power,
Automatic current control alone shall not be used for
e) Diesel generator, and setting current flow where soil moisture or other
f) Any other reliable source of power. va riatio ns near the p ipeline can cause potential
While selecting the power source for cathodic variations.
protection system, following considerations should be 8.5 Choice of Method for Cathodic Protection
taken into account:
The choice between the two systems of cathodic
a) Reliability, protection, namely, sacrificial anode and impressed
b) Maintenance requirement, current depends on a detailed assessment of the
c) System life, technical and economic factors involved. Generally,
d) Initial cost, sacrificial anode cathodic protection system is used
for temporary protection of pipeline/structure till
e) Type offuel, and
permanent cathodic protection system is commissioned
f) Operating cost. and reliable power supply is arranged . However. the
8.4.5 Current Output Control and Distribution choice between the two systems depends on the
following factors:
The impressed-current output should be controlled by
the output voltage on TRU/CPPSM and corresponding a) Magnitude of current required for cathodic
potentials measured along the pipeline. protection,
b) Electrical resistivity of electrolyte.
8.4.5.1 Current distribution/or multiple pipelines
c) Design life of cathodic protection system,
Where there is more than one pipeline to be cathodically d) Availability and rel iability of power
protected, the current return from the pipelines should availability of space for anode installation.
be independently adjustable. In such cases, the pipelines
e) Requirements of CP system monitoring and
shall be isolated from each other and provided with a
control, and
negative connection to the current source .
f) Future developments.
Res istors should be installed in the negative drains to
balance the current to each of the adjacent pipelines 8.5.1 Galvanic Anode System
individually. Each negative drain shall be provided a) Galvanic anode system is usually provided for:
with a shunt and diode preventing mutual influence of I) Small diameter pipeline/structure or well-
pipelines during on-potential and off-potential coated pipeline/structure requiring small
measurements. current in low resistivity soils, water,
All cables, diodes and current measurement facilities swamps/marshes, and
should be installed in a distribution box. 2) Temporary cathodic protection of
pipeline/structure until permanent
8.4.5.2 Automatic potential control impressed current system is commissioned
The d.c. voltage source can beprovided with automatic and reliable power supply is arranged.

13
IS 8062 : 2006

b) Application of galvanic anode system is a) Physical inspection of all equipment/materials


considered where : on receipt at site to confirm that all equipment!
I) No power for impre ssed current is materials are in accordance w ith despatch
available or available power is not documents/specifications/drawings and have
reliable or ma intenance of electrical not got damaged during transport to site ;
system is not possible, b) Proper storage of equipment to ensure that
2) Application of remote impressed current no damage is caused to equipment/materials
system can not be provided due to during stora ge at site;
limitations of space or other c) Pre-installation inspection/tests/measurements
considerations, to confirm that all equipment/materials are
3) Impressed current system is to be in accordance w ith approved drawings/
supplemented for localized (hot spot ) specifications;
protection, and d) Inspection dur ing/after installation to confirm
4) Application of impressed current system that all equipment/materials are installed
may create unmanageable interference in accordance with approved drawings,
problems for other nearby pipeline/ specifications/procedures and well-accepted
structure. practices; and
e) Pre-commissioning inspection, test/
8.5.2 Impressed Current System
measurements to confirm that ;
a) Impressed current system should be I) AII equipment/materials/installations all
preferably provided for cathodic protection free from physical defects/damages,
of pipel ine/structure unless application of
2) All accessories and devices have been
galvanic anode system is required due to
properly installed and connected,
factors given under preceding sub-clauses and
other overriding considerations; and 3) All cables have been properly installed
and terminated,
b) The following factors should also be taken into
account for sites of impressed current systems: 4) Electric Resistance of all circuits and
Insulation Resistance of all cables are as
1) Availability and reliability of power
required, and
supply and suitable location for
installation of d.c. power equipment; 5) Results of recommended pre-
commissioning tests/measurements for
2) Availability of proper site for installation
all eq u ipme n t/ in sta llat io ns are in
of prospective anode ground bed,
accordance with requ irements for final
keeping in view effects of: (i) electrical
commissioning ofequipment/installation.
resistivity of soil and surface and sub-
soil conditions, and (ii) distance between f) Equipment/Installation Commissioning Tests!
pipeline /structure and remote ground bed measurements in accordance with approved!
on current distribution and performance specified procedures, and
of anode ground bed; and g) CP System commissioning tests/measurements
3) Effects of proposed system on existing in accordance with approved /specified
and future pipeline/structure ofthe owner procedures.
and others and other developments. 9.3 A comprehensive coverage of all activities and
construction pract ices is not feasible within framework
9 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION OF
of this standard. Other sections of this standard also
CATHOmC PROTECTION SYSTEM
include some specific requirements/recommendations
9.1 General for installat ion, testing and commissioning.
All construction and installation works of cathodic
10 ELECTRIC INTERFERENCES
protection systems should be performed in accordance
with approved construction drawings, specifications 10.1 General
and procedures under the surveillance of trained and
Corrosion caused by interference current on buried
competent personnel to verify that all installations are
metallic pipeline/structures differs from other causes
in strict accordance with approved documents and well-
of corrosion, in that the current which causes the
established practices.
corrosion has a source foreign to the affected pipeline/
9.2 The construction and installations works at site structure. Usually , the interfering current is derived
shall include but not limited follow ing activities : from a foreign source, not electrically continuous with

14
IS 8062 : 2006

the affected pipeline/structure , or is drained from the pipeline/structure or installation while the CP
soil by the affected pipeline /structure. Detrimental system is energized.
effects of interference currents occur at locations where
10.2.2 Criteria f or Corrosion Interference
the currents are subsequently discharged from the
affected pipeline/structure to the earth. Positi ve potential changes are liable to accelerate
corrosion. Negative potential changes provide cathodic
Sources of direct current interference are:
protection but excessive negative potential is liable to
a) Constant current sources , such as from CP adversely affect corrosion protective coating . Safety
rectifiers, and of equipment and personnel are endangered if change
b) Fluctuating current sources, such as d.c. of potentials and/or current flow due to interferences
electrified railway systems and transit results in higher than permissible limits for safety of
systems, coal mine haulage systems and equipment and personnel. Therefore necessary actions
pumps, welding machines and direct current are required to be taken for investigation and mitigation
power systems. of interferences in accordance with specified criteria
and recommended practices.
Types of a.c. interference are:
a) Pipeline/Structure to Electrolyte d.c.
a) Short-term interference caused by faults in Potentials
a.c. power systems and electrified railways, Pipeline/structure is considered to be
b) Long-term interference, caused by inductive effectively protected by cathodic protection
or conductive coupling between the pipeline/ system if pipeline/structure to electrolyte
structure and high-voltage lines or electrified potential is within limits specified under 7.
railways, and b) Notwithstanding pipeline/structure to
c) Telluric currents interference. electrolyte d.c. potentials being within limits
for effective cathodic protection, interferences
10.2 Direct Current Interference resulting in more than 50 mV change of d.c.
10.2.1 Measurements pipeline/structure to soil potential. Potentials
should be investigated by owner/s ofaffected
In areas where d.c. interference currents are suspected, pipeline/structure and remedial actions should
one or more of the following should be performed: be taken.
a) Measure pipe-to-soil potentials with recording 10.2.3 Mitigation of d.c. Interference Corrosion
or indicating instruments; Problems
b) Measure current density on coupons; Common methods to be considered in resolving
c) Measure current flowing on the pipeline/ interference problems on pipeline/structures or other
structure with recording or indicating buried structures include:
instruments; and
a) Prevention of pick-up or limitation of flow
d) Measure variations in current output of the
of interfering current through a buried
suspected source of interference current and pipeline/structure,
correlate them with measurements obtained
b) A metallic conductor connected to the return
as above.
(negative) side of the interfering current
The measurements should be carried out for a period source,
of 24 h, or a period which is typical for the suspected c) Counteraction ofthe interfering current effect
interference phenomenon being investigated, to assess by means of increasing the level of CP, and
the time dependence of the interference level. d) Removal or relocation of the interfering
Interference with other buried pipeline/structures or current source .
installations should be measured while the CP system NOTE - Cooperation and exchange of infonnation
is energized. Interference measurements should between owners of pipeline affected by interference is
essential as d.c. interference between pipeline is
generally include following: constantly evolv ing phenomenon .
a) Measure both the foreign pipeline/structure
10.2.3.1 Specific methods to be considered,
and the interfered pipeline/structure pipe-to-
individually or in combination are as follows:
soil potential while the relevant sources ofCP
current that can cause interference are a) Design and installation ofmetallic bonds with
simultaneously interrupted; and a resistor in the metallic bond circuit between
b) Measure the pipe-to-soil potential at the other the affected pipeline or other structures.

15
IS 8062 : 2006

The metallic bond electrically conducts such as coating resistance, diameter, route , and
interference current from an affected pipeline/ locations of isolating joints or isolating flanges and
structure to the interfering pipeline/structure high voltage a.c. system data. This assessment may be
and/or current source; done by a suitable simulation of system conditions. If
b) Application ofuni-directional control devices, the isolating device is bonded across, such that the
such as diodes or reverse current switches; pipeline/structure is electrically continuous with a plant
c) Coating the bare pipe where interference earthing grid, then either the resistance-to-earth of the
current enters the pipeline/structure; grid shall be estimated or the grid itselfshall be part of
the study.
d) Application of additional CP current to the
affected pipeline/structure at those specific For a.c. traction systems, data to be considered are the
locations where the interferingcurrent is being interfering high voltage, operating current, location and
discharged; layout of the high-voltage tower and position of the
e) Adjustment of the current output from wires, route (including the position of the
mutually interfering CP rectifiers; transformers), frequency and electrical characteristics
f) Reduction or elimination of the pick-up of for high-power lines.
interference current by relocation/redesign of Results of test measurements for existing pipeline in
the ground bed such that it is electrically same corridor should be considered for realistic
remote; assessment of a.c. induction.
g) Installing properly located isolating joints in
To determine the a.c. corrosion risk, coupons should
the affected pipeline/structure. Testing at the
be installed where the a.c. influence is expected. They
isolating joint should be done to assure that
should be buried at the pipeline/structure depth and
an interference condition has not then been
have adequate equipment for current measurements.
introduced;
It should also be considered to install additional
h) Improvement in the protective coating on the coupons wh ich can later be removed for visual
interfering structure ; and examination.
j) Installation of isolating shields between the
pipeline/structure and the interferingstructure. The a.c. current density within a coating defect is the
NOTE - While installing isolat ing joints will reduce the
primary determining factor in assessing the a.c .
magnitude of the stray current, it also introduces another corrosion risk. In case of low soil resistivity , high a.c.
current pick-up and discharge location , hence the reason for current densities can be observed.
testing at the isolating joint.
In sections where a.c. voltages are higher than 10 V,
10.3 Alternating Current (a.e.) Interference or where voltages along the pipeline/structure show
10.3.1 General variation to lower values, indicating possible a.c .
discharge , additional measurements should be
The magnitude ofpermanent or short-term iriterference performed on site.
on a pipeline/structure from high-voltage a.c. sources
such as power lines and electrified railways mainly No single measuring technique or criterion for the
depends on: evaluation ofa.c. corrosion risk is recognized to assess
a.c. corrosion .
a) Length of parallel routing,
b) Distance from the pipeline/structure, More specific measurements include:
c) a,c. line voltage level, a) Pipe-to-soil potential,
d) a,c, line current level, b) Current density, and
e) Pipeline/structure coating quality, and c) Current density ratio (a.c. current density
f) Soil resistivity. divided by d.c. current density) .
a.c. interference effects on buried pipeline/structures NOTE - If the a.c. current density on a I()() mm' bare surface
(for example an external test probe) is higher than 30 Aim! (or
can cause safety problems. Possible effects associated
less, in certain conditions), there is a risk of corrosion. Risk of
with a.c . interference to pipeline/structures include corrosion is mainly related to the level of a.c. current density
electric shocks, damage to coating, accelerated compared to the level ofCP current density. Iftbe LC . current
corrosion and damage to insulators. density is too high , the a.c. corrosion cannot be prevented
byCP.
10.3.2 Assessment ofa.c. Induction
a.c. interference can be assessed by taking into 10.3.3 .Limiting a.c. Interferences
consideration data from the affected pipeline/structure The maximum step and touch voltage shall be limited

16
IS 8062 : 2006

in accordance with local or national safety requirements b) Currents of anode circuits at anode junction
. and shall be adhered to at all locations where a person box;
could touch the pipeline/structure. c) Pipeline/structure currents at cathode junction
Protection measures against a.c. corrosion should be box;
achieved through the following measures : d) Input/output/performance parameters of
power supply devices CCVT/BanksITEG/
a) Reduce the induced a.c. voltage ; and
Solar panel; and
b) Increase the CP level so that the positive part
e) Performance parameters of specific devices
of a.c, current can be neglected.
provided for monitoring power supply,
To reduce a.c . voltage, the following methods should remote monitoring/control, etc.
be considered: 11.1.2 Measurements of pipe-to-soil potential should
a) Install pipeline/structure earthing equ ipped be taken monthly at vulnerable points where access is
with suitable devices in order to let d.c. but easy and on quarterly basis at all test points . There
not a.c. flow . A simulation on a computer may be a seasonal variation in potential, which can
might be required to optimize the number, be compensated for by increase/decrease of the
location and resistance-to-earth of the appropriate transformer/rectifier settings. The survey
earthing systems. of test stations should also include at least following
b) Install active earthing-potential-controlled typical tests/measurements at regular intervals:
amplifiers to impress a current into the a) Line current measurements;
pipeline/structure, compensating or reducing b) Anode to soil potential and output current of
the induced voltage. This method should be galvanic anodes of temporary cathodic
applied, if the required reduction of induced protection system;
voltage cannot be achieved by simple
c) V""Na lf pipeline/structure to soil potentials;
earthing. The location of compensation
d) Foreign pipeline/structure to soil potentials
devices shall be carefully considered.
and current through bonding connection, if
c) Add earthing systems to provide potential provided;
equalization at local areas. These earthing
e) Coupon to soil potentials and coupon current;
systems can be constructed using a wide
and
variety of electrodes (galvanized steel, zinc,
magnesium, etc). Some earthing systems can f) Earthing resistance of earth electrodes.
have an adverse effect on the effectiveness 11.2 Where stray current problem exists, more
of the CPo To avoid adverse effects on the frequent checks may be made. Results provided by
CP, the earthing systems should be connected remote monitoring system should be periodically
to the pipeline/structure via appropriate checked against manually recorded data to ensure that
devices, (for example spark gaps, d.c. remote monitoring system is functioning correctly.
decoupling devices, etc).
11.3 Surveys During Operation and Maintenance
Shifting the d.c. voltage level to reach more negative
potential can reduce the a.c. corrosion rate. The pipe- Various specialized survey techniques are available,
to-soil potentials should not be more negative than without requiring any direct access to the pipeline/
those given in 7. structure metal surface, to assess the protective system
adequacy, non-destructively. Usually, each of these
11 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE provides different information although there is some
overlap. The specific requirements of a pipeline/
11.1 Routine for Measurements
structure need be considered while selecting survey
11.1.1 The direct current voltage and current outputs techniques or a combination of surveys.
ofthe transfonner/rectifier and pipe/pipeline/structure
to soil potential at drain points should be monitored at 11.3.1 Close-Interval Potential Survey (CIPS)
least once a fortnight These measurements verify the CIPS can be used to determine the level of CP along
satisfactory operation ofthe transformer rectifiers, the the length ofthe pipeline/structure. It can also indicate
ground beds, and the connecting cables. The survey areas affected by interference and coating defects . The
for monitoring ofperformance CP stations should also pipe-to-soil potential is measured at close intervals
include at least the following: (typically I m) using a high-resistance voltmeter/
a) Permanent reference electrodes to soil microcomputer, a reference electrode and a trailing
cable connected to the pipeline/structure at the nearest
potentials;

17
IS 8062 : 2006

monitoring station. Measurements of potential are the magnetic field to compute pipe current. Where the
plotted versus distance from which features can be protective coating is in good condition, the current will
identified by changes in potential caused by local attenuate at a constant rate, which depends upon
variations in CP current density. The survey may be coating properties. Any significant change in the
carried out with the CP system energized continuously current attenuation rate could indicate a coating defect
(an ' on-potential' survey) or with all transformer- or contact with another pipeline/structure.
rectifiers switching offand on simultaneously with the
aid of synchronized interrupters. 11.3.4 Direct Current Voltage Gradient Survey
(DeVO)
Because a large amount of data is produced, a field
computer or data logger is normally used and the A DCVG survey can be used to locate and establish
information later downloaded to produce plots of the relative size of defects in protective coatings on
pipeline/structure potential versus distance from the buried pipelines . By applying a direct current to the
fixed reference point. pipeline/structure in the same manner as CP, a voltage
gradient is established in the soil due to the passage of
11.3.2 Pearson Survey current to the bare steel at coating defects. Generally,
Pearson surveys locate defects in the protective coating the larger the defect, the greater the current flow and
of a buried pipeline/structure. voltage gradient.
An a.c . voltage is applied between the pipeline/ A current interrupter should be installed at the nearest
structure and remote earth, and the resulting potent ial transformer rectifier or a temporary current source to
difference between two contacts with the soil achieve a significant potential change (approximately
approximately 6 m apart is measured. Two operators 500 mV) on the pipeline/structure.
walk along the route, making the necessary contacts
with the soil , usually via cleated boots . They walk Using a sensitive millivoltmeter, the potential
either in-line directly over the pipeline/structure or difference is measured between two references
side-by-side with one operator over the pipeline/ electrodes (probes) placed at the surface level in the
structure. An increase in the recorded potential soil within the voltage gradient. Defects can be located
difference can indicate a coating defect or a metallic by zero readings corresponding with the probes being
object in close proximity to the pipe. symmetrical either side of the defect. In carrying out
the survey, the operator walks the pipeline route taking
The in-line method is helpful in the initial location of measurements at typically 2 m intervals with the probes
poss ible coating defects, since any increase in potential one in front ofthe other, I m to 2 m apart. The probes
difference (usually determined by an increase in an
are normally held parallel to and directly above the
audio signal) is obtained as each operator passes over
pipeline, enabling the direction of current flow to the
the defect. However, when there is a series of defects
d~fect to be determined. Making transverse readings
close together, and specific information on a particular
WIth one electrode locate at the epicenter ofthe coating
defect is required. the side-by-side method is preferred.
defect, anodic and cathodic characteristics can be
Interpretation of the results obtained is entirely determined.
dependent on the operator, unless recording techniques
are used . 11.4 Faults and Remedies
11.3.3 Current Attenuation Survey (CAl) 11.4.1 Electrical faults may occur in the bodies of the
Current attenuation surveys can be used to locate anode material due to excessive Current. Anode failure
defects in protective coatings of buried pipeline/ may also occur due to a faulty seal on the connection.
structure. The method is similar to the Pearson Survey The anode in question may be located by traversing
technique in that an a.c. voltage is.applied to the pipe, along the ground bed with a voltmeter and two half
but a search coil is used to measure the strength ofthe cells and should be replaced.
magnetic field around the pipe resulting from the a.c.
11.4.2 Cable faults which may occur due to various
signal.
~ason~, namely , mechanical damage, deterioration of
Current attenuation surveys are based on the msulatlOnwhich for positive cable will result in rapid
assumption that when an a.c. signal flows along a deterio~ation of the conductor can be found by
straight conductor (in this case the pipeline/structure), excavation and inspection. The cables should bejointed
it will produce a symmetrical magnetic field around or replaced.
the pipe. The operator uses the electromagnetic
11.4.3. Sudden local changes in the pipe-to-soil
induction to detect and measure the intensity of the
signal using an array of sensing coils carried through
~te~hal readings may be due to many causes, the
pnnclpal of which are: .

18
IS 8062 : 2006

a) Local flooding - Transformer/rectifier 12.2 Danger of Electric Shocks


setting should be readjusted.
Voltages in excess of 50 V d.c. are seldom used for
b) Severe local coating damage or deterioration.
cathodic protection, thus the danger from electrical
The damaged coating should be located
shock is very unlikely. Safety procedures should be
either by visual examination or by use of the
adopted to switch off the cathodic protection or
Pearson holiday detector/CAT survey/
installation of grid earthing while working on the
DCVG survey and bore hole inspection made
pipeline/structure during cutting, tapping, etc. It is
good; and
further advisable to put a temporary bond around the
c) When a casing is short-circuited to the pipe line before starting the work on the line and this bond
the potential on the pipe is expected to be allowed to remain till the job is finished. This bond
relatively less negative, and it could even be should be no less in size than standard welding cable
less negative than the accepted value in or and provided with suitable clamps . Attention should
around the point of short. The current drawn also be paid to the danger of possible harm to life near
from the rectifier system is expected to the ground beds due to the voltage gradient at the
suddenly increase. When this is noted the ends surface of the soil. It should be ensured that:
ofthe casing would then have to be excavated
a) d.c. output of the rectifier transformer should
and the cause of the 'short' found and
not exceed 50 V d.c., and
removed. Where tests indicate that the point
of contact is well back from the end of the b) Leads are fully insulated and protected against
mechanical damage.
casing, the chances are that it cannot be
cleared with any reasonable effort and 12.3 Fault Conditions in Electricity Power Systems
expense by working from the casing ends. To in Relation to Remedial and/or Unintentional Bonds
safeguard the carrier pipe inside such 'non-
clearable' casings, any of the following There is a possible risk in bonding a cathodic protection
system to any metal work associated with the earthing
methods may be adopted:
system of an electricity supply network, especially in
I) To fill the entire annular space between the vicinity of high voltage sub-stations. Therefore,
pipe and casing with a material that will such bonding should not be accepted as a general rule,
stifle any corrosion tendency. Proprietary any exception to it being made by the corrosion
casing compounds (greases containing engineer himself, after competent tests.
chemical inhibitors) or unrefined
petroleum (low in sulphur content) may 12.3.1 Bonds between metal work, associated with an
be used, and electricity power system (for example, cable sheath)
and cathodically protected pipeline/structure, can
2) To install magnesium anodes on both
contribute an element of danger when abnormal
sides of the line at each end of the
conditions occur on the power network. The principal
casing.
danger arises from the possibility of current flow,
12 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS through the bonds, to the protected pipeline/structure,
due to either earth-fault conditions or out-of-balance
12.1 General load currents from the system. This current, together
Safety precautions mentioned under this clause and with the associated voltage rise, may result in electric
all other safety precautions as required for cathodic shock, explosion , fire, overheating and also risk of
protection works and installations in hazardous/non- electrical breakdown of coatings on buried pipeline!
hazardous areas shall be taken to ensure safety of structure. Such hazards should be recognized by
equipment and manpower. the parties installing the bond and any necessary
precautions taken to minimize the possible
12.1.1 Safety precautions for rectifiers, switches and consequence . The rise in temperature of conductors,
cables are the same as for any other electrical joints and accessories is proportional to P t, where 1 is
appliances. the fault current and t its duration. Bonds should be
12.1.2 The lowered potential ofcathodically protected robust enough so that they may withstand, without
stee I pipeline/structure with reference to the distress, the highest value of P t, expected under fault
surroundings means that contact with another steel conditions . For extreme conditions, duplicate bonding
pipeline/structure which will normally be at zero is recommended.
potential may produce a spark. It is recommended, 12.4 Installations in Hazardous Areas
therefore, that every precaution should be taken to
avoid such sparking. 12.4.1 Cathodic protection can introduce hazards in

19
IS 11062 : 2006

are.." lfl ~hl\;h an mllamm..ble mixture of 8M, vapour c) Any requirements for modifications with
ur dU"l (lhilt l1 huardou.' atmosphere J may be present respect to existing pipeline/structure systems
~hlch co u ld be Ignited by an electric MC or spark.. In a such as minimum electrical separation or
cathod ic protection system. 4 'park may be caused by coating repairs;
one or more of the following reasons' d) Calculations of current requirements.
potentialattenuation. electrical resistance and
a) Drsconnectlon of bonds .crOB pipeline/
current output of ground beds;
structure jOllttt;
b) Shan-circuit or isolating joints. fOf example, e) Description of system including a schematic
by tools lying ICrOM I joint Of breakdown due diagram of the proposed CP system ;
to voltage surges on the pipeline/structure f) A list of the estimated number and test
Induced by Iichbung or electrical switching stations;
,urin, g) Any sensitivitiesin the CP system that require
e) Disconnection Of breakage of cable carrying special attention;
cathodIC protection current; and h) A schedule of materials;
d) Connection or disconnection of instruments j) A set of design drawings; and
employed for measuring and test ing of k) A set of installation procedures.
cathodic protection system .
13.1.2 Construction Details and Installation
11.4.1 In locationswheruny o(thc above hazards may
Procedures
arise, the operating pcnonnel should be given suitable
imtructiom and warning notices should be displayed. Full construction details and installation procedures
of the CP system should be documented to ensure that
11....J II should be noted that likelihood of sparking
the system will be installed in accordance with this
11greater with impressed current system than with
standard.
~rilic •• 1 anode system,
These should include:
12.-4." R~"'e"IeJ

As cathodic protection ncces.sit&les the usc of electrical a) Proceduresfor the installation of d.c . voltage
equipment. the following safety precautionsshould be sources, ground beds, cables, test facilities,
laken in hll.lllldous areas: cable connections to the pipeline/structure;
b) Procedures for all tests required to
a) Provide flameproof enclosure of all electrical demonstrate that the quality ofthe installation
equipment. such as junction boxes and lest meets the requirements;
stations in ICcordance with relennt standards.
:ro
vide continuous bonding cables acT05S any
intended break. before il is made, in protccted
c) ~o~struction drawings including but not
limited to plot plans, locations of CP systems
pipeline/'tructure. and test facilities, cable routing, single-line
schematics,wiring diagrams and ground bed
b) Installation or insulating joints. as far as
construction and civil works ; and
possible , in safe anas.
d) Pr~edures to ensure safe systems of work
c) Jump over the imulated flanges with a Surge
dunng the installation and operation of the
diverter, which gives electrical/metallic CP system.
continuity for high voltages but is high
enough to prevent cathodic protection 13.2 Commissioning Documentation
currenu from passing over.
After the s~ccessful commissioning of the CP system,
IJ DOCUMENTATION the follOWing shall be compiled in a commissioning
report
1J.1 [)alp Doc••ntatiott
a) As-built layout drawings of the pipeline/
13,1.1 G~lWra/
structure including neighbouring pipeline!
The basic dcsttpl documentation shall include: structure or systems that are relevant to the
effective CP of the pipeline/structure,
a) Results of any site surveys and soil
in..-estigatioes th.u have been carried out; b) As-built drawings, reports and other details
pertaining to the CP ofthe pipeline/structure,
b) Results ofany Cutmll drainage tests that have
been carried out fOf the retrofitting of CP oe c) Rec~rds of the interference tests (if any)
cldstini pipeline/structure ; catrled out on neighbouring pipeline/
structure,

20
IS~l: 2006

d) The voltage and current at which CP s~ stem dI M,muf:tcturer' s documeruauon,


"as initially set and the \ oltage and current e) A schedule 01 all monuor rng lau lltlClo.
level s necessitated by the results of (he
n Potenual crnens fur the s ~ stcm .
interference tests. The location and type of
interference-current sources (if an~ l, and g) Monltonng plan.
h) MOnltonn~ schedules :lnd requrrementv !lw
e) Records of the pipe-to-soil potentials at all
test stations.
test stations before and after the applicat ion
ofCP. J) Monttorlllg procedures Ior each of the tyfX"s
of monitoring factllllCs Insl;t llcd nil the
13.3 Inspection and Monitoring Documentation pipeline 'str ucture. and
The results of all inspection and monitoring checks k) (;uld('lIne\ lor the \ale operanon "I the (,Jl
shall be recorded and evaluated . They shall be retarned s~ stem
for use as a baseline for future verifications of C I'
13 .~ M.inlrnanct' Records
effectiveness,
l or marntenance of the C I' I"ellilles. the fnll o" In':
13.4 Operating and Mainten.nct' Documentation rnformauon shall be recorded .
An operating and maintenance manual shall he al Repair of rccuficrs and nlher 1.1 ( po"er
prepared to ensure that the CP s~ stem is "ell sources:
documented and that operating and maintenan ce b] Repair or replacement 01 an odes. (on ne(llo",
procedures are available for operators This document and cab le s,
shall consist of:
c) Mamtenance , repair and replacement "I
a) A description of the s) stem and system coating. I\olatinl? devices. le\1 leads and olhe!
components. lest faclhlJcs ~ and
b) Commissioning report. d ) Dra inage st at ron s. cU1nlt and remote
c) As-built drawings. monuor ing equipment

21
IS 8062 : 2006

ANNEXA
(Foreword)
COMMITTEE COMPOSITION
Corrosion Protection and Finishes Sectional Committee, MTD 24

Organization Representativets)

Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi PROF A. K. SHUKLA (Chairman)


Atotech, Gurgaon SHRI ADITYA KUMAR JOSHI
SHRI SANAL KUMAR (Alternate)
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai DR P. K. DE (METALLURGY DIVISION)
SHRI V. K. JAIN (Alternate)
DR M. K. TOTALANI (MATERIAL PROCESSING DIVISION)
SHRI A. K. GROVER (Alternate)
Bharat Electronics Ltd, Ghaziabad/Bangalore SHRI R. C. SETHI
SHRI N. RAVIBHUSHAN (Alternate)
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Hardwar/Tarnil NadulBhopal SHRI D. K. SINGH (Hardwar)
. SHRI R. M. SINGHAL (Alternate)
SHRI R. RANGANATHAN (Tamil Nadu)
SHRI RAJ KUMAR (Bhopal)
Central Building Research Institute: Roorkee ' DR L. K. AGGARWAL
DR K. K. ASTHANA (Alternate)
Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi DR N. PALANASWAMY
Corpotex India Ltd, West Bengal SHRI S. K. ADlDKARI
DR M. SEN (Alternate)
Department of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi' SHRI T. V. BANERJEE
SHRI S. K. KUSHVAHA (Alternate)
Engineers India Ltd, New Delhi DR G. SAHA
SHRI G. V. SWAMY (Alternate)
Fertilizer Plant, SAIL, Rourkela SHRI S. C. DAS
SHRI M. N. Roy (Alternate)
FGP Ltd, Mumbai DR'K. V. RAo
SHRI P. GOPALAKRISHNA (Alternate)
Grauer and Weil (India) Ltd, Mumbai SHRI V. S. KULKARNI
, ,

Gujarat Electricity Board, VadodaralDistrict Khera SHRI J. N. PATEL


SHRI R. R. VISHWAKARMA (Alternate)
HMT Ltd, Bangalore SHRIMATI NIRMALA NAIK
SHRI S. V. S. PRASAD (Alternate)
Indian Explosives Department, District Hooghly SHRI SANDIP KUMAR Roy
Indian Lead Zinc Development Association, New Delhi SmU L. PuGAZHENTHY
SHRI T. THANGARAI (Alternate)
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad SHRI SATISH MAKHIIA
Indian Telephone Industries Ltd, Bangalore SHRI B. SUBBA RAo
SHRI R. RAMEsH (Alternate)
Kalpatru Power Transmission Limited, Gandhinagar SHRI M. C. MEHTA
Kongavi Electronics Pvt Ltd, Bangalore SHRI S. KONGAVI
DR B. S. SURESH (Alternate)
Lloyd Insulations (India) Ltd, New Delhi SHRI K. K. MITRA
SHRI A. K. RASTOGI (Alternate)
L1yods Tar Products Ltd, MumbaiIKolkata SHRI M. S. THUMPY
SHRI U. Roy (Alternate)
MECON Ltd, Ranchi SHRI B. N: MUKHOPADHAYAYA

22
IS 8062 : 2006

Organization Representative(s)

Metallizing Equipment Co Pvt Ltd, Jodhpur SHRI S. C. MODI


SHRI R. GIRISH RAo (Alternate)
Ministry of Defence, DGQA, Ambamath SQAO, QAE (MET)
AQAO, QAE (MET) (Alternale)
Ministry of Railways, RDSO, Lucknow ADDITIONAL EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR (M&C)
DEPUTY DIRECTOR (CHEMICAL) (Alternate)
National Aerospace Laboratory, Bangalore DR (SHRIMATI) INDIRA RAJGOPAL
DR P. K. PARODA (Alternate)
National Metallurgical Lab, Jamshedpur DR T. B. SINGH
DR A. K. BHATTAMISHRA (Alternate)
National Test House (ER), Kolkata DR SUNIL KR. SAHA
SHRI SHER SINGH (Alternate)
Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Dehra Dun SHRI V. K. JAIN
Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Maharashtra SHRI P. F. ANTO
Oil India Ltd, Guwahati SHRI P. P. BOHA
Projects & Development India Ltd (Chemical), Sindri DR K. N. VERMA
Pyrene Rai Metal Treatments Ltd, Mumbai SHRI A. T. PATIL
SHRI H. C. PAPAIYA (Alternate)
Shipping Corporation of India Ltd, Mumbai SHRI A. K. SEN
SHRI N. G. SESAI (Alternate)
Steel Authority of India Ltd, Ranchi DR AMITDAV BHATTACHARYA
Steel Authority of India Ltd, Bhilai DR R. HALDHAR
SHRI D. DASGUPTA (Alternate)
Surface Chern Finishes, Bangalore SHRI P. PARTHASARATHY
Tata Motors Limited, Jamshedpur/Pune SHRI S. S. JUNG BAHADUR
SHRI R. B. LAHOTI (STANDARDIZATION ERC, PUNE)
SHRI A. MAJUMDAR (Alternate)
Tata Consulting Engineers, Mumbai SHRI VINAY V. PARANJAPE
SHRI PARAG P. JOSHI (Alternate)
TATA SSL Ltd, Mumbai SHRI V. C. TRICKUR
SHRI S. V. DESAI (Alternate)
The Tata Iron & Steel Co Ltd, Jamshedpur DR S. K. SEN
SHRI R. N. CHATTOPADHYAYA (Alternate)
Titan Industries Ltd, Hosur SHRI P. ASHOK ANUR
SHRI C. V. S. PRASAD (Alternate)
Vijay Metal Finishers, Bangalore DR H. B. RUDRESH
Zenith Limited, Raigarh SHRI ARUN MEHTA
BIS Directorate General SHRI S. K. GUPTA, Scientist ' F' and Head (MTD)
[Representing Director General (Ex-offiCio)]

Member Secretary
SHRI 1. K. BAKHROO
Scientist 'E' Director (MTD), BIS

Panel on Cathodic Protection of Pipe Line, MTD 24/P-I

GAIL ·India Ltd, New Delhi SHRI NARENDER KUMAR (Convener)


SHRI PARTHA JANA (Alternate)
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd, Noida SHRI UMESH GAUTAM
Corrosion Control System, Mumbai SHRI V. G. KULKARNI
SHiu ANAND KULKARNI (Alternate)
Corrosion Consultant, Noida DR M. B. MISHRA

23
IS 8062 : 2006

Organization Representativets}

Engineers India Ltd (Ell) , New Delhi SHRI S . K. GUPTA


SHRI DEEPAK DilARMARHA (AI/ema/e)
Gujaral Gas Company Ltd. Surat SHRI SADHAN BANERJEE

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (JOCl). NoidalB ijwasan SHRI RA1ENDRA KUMAR
SHRI S . B. CHATrnUEE (Alterna/e)
Oil Ind ia ltd. Noida SHRI I. BHARAU
SHRI P: JAMAL (Alternate)
Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGe). New Delhi REpRESENTATIVE

Relian ce Industries ltd. Navi Mumbai SHRI SANDEEP VYAS


SHRI M. N. BHAGAVAN (AI/ema/e)
SSS Electricals (India) Ltd, Mumbai SHRI R. P. NAGAR
SHRI K. S. SHASIDDHAR (Alternate)

24
Bureau of Indian Standards
BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 to promote
harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and
attending to connected matters in the country.

Copyright
BIS has the copyright of all its publications. No part of these publications may be reproduced in any form
without the prior permission in writing of BIS. This does not preclude the free use, in the course of implementing
the standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, type or grade designations. Enquiries relating to
copyright be addressed to the Director (Publications), BIS.

Review of Indian Standards


Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. Standards are also reviewed
periodically; a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are
needed; if the review indicates that changes are needed, it is taken up for revision. Users of Indian Standards
should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue of
'BIS Catalogue' and 'Standards: Monthly Additions'.
This Indian Standard has been developed from Doc: No. MTD 24 (4675).

Amendments Issued Since Publication

Amend No. Date of Issue Text Affected

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


Headquarters:
Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002
Telephones: 23230131,23233375,23239402 website: www.bis.org.in
~egional Offices: Telephones
Central : Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg {23237617
NEW DELHI 110002 2323 3841
Eastern : 1/14 C.I.T. Scheme VII M, V.I.P. Road, KaI!kurgachi {2337 8499, 23378561
KOLKATA 700054 2337 8626, 2337 9120
Northern : SCO 335-336, Sector 34-A, CHANDIGARH 160022 {2603843
2609285
Southern : C.LT. Campus, IV Cross Road, CHENNAI 600113 {2254 1216,2254 1442
22542519,22542315
Western : Manakalaya, E9 MIDC, Marol, Andheri (East) {2832 9295, 2832 7858
MUMBAI 400093 28327891,28327892
Branches : AHMEDABAD. BANGALORE.BHOPAL. BHUBANESHWAR. COIMBATORE. FARIDABAD.
GHAZIABAD. GUWAHATL HYDERABAD. JAIPUR. KANPUR. LUCKNOW. NAG PUR.
NALAGARH. PATNA. PUNE. RAJKOT. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM. VISAKHAPATNAM.

Printed at Simco Printing Press, Delhi