Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

Global dealer learning

320/320GC/323 Next Generation


Hydraulic Excavators
Travel Hydraulic System
Module 6 - Text Reference

SERV2110-01

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2017 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -2- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Safety Briefing��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
Learning outcomes������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4
INTRODUCTION������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
TRAVEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS ON MAIN CONTROL VALVE��������������������������������������������� 7
TRAVEL SPEED SWITCH AND TRAVEL ALARM MUTE SWITCH�������������������������������������������� 9
LOWER TRAVEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10
TRAVEL MOTOR COMPONENTS���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11
FINAL DRIVE���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13
MACHINE TRAVEL ORIENTATION������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 14
TRAVEL SYSTEM OPERATION����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16
TRAVEL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - FORWARD HIGH SPEED��������������������������������������������������� 18
AUTOMATIC TRAVEL SPEED CHANGE FUNCTION�������������������������������������������������������������� 20
STRAIGHT TRAVEL OPERATION�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21
Travel Motor Operation������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23
Travel Motor Parking Brake Operation - ENGAGED��������������������������������������������� 26
Travel Motor Parking Brake Operation - RELEASED�������������������������������������������� 28
Travel Motor Displacement Change Valve Operation - LOW SPEED��������������� 29
Travel Motor Displacement Change Valve Operation - HIGH SPEED�������������� 31
Counterbalance Valve Operation - LEVEL TRAVEL - FORWARD���������������������������� 33
Counterbalance Valve Operation - DOWNHILL SLOPE TRAVEL���������������������������� 35
Counterbalance Valve Operation - STOP FROM FORWARD TRAVEL�������������������� 37
Learning Outcomes Review������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -3- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

Safety Briefing
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
Safety Briefing

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -4- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completion of this Hydraulic Excavators Travel


Hydraulic System module, participants will be able to:
• Locate and identify the components, service points, and
adjustment points of the travel hydraulic system during a
lab exercise.
• Using the appropriate service information and tooling;
test, adjust, and calibrate the travel hydraulic system
during a lab exercise.
• Identify the correct operation of the travel hydraulic
system on a post assessment.

• Learning outcomes Learning outcomes

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -5- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

TRAVEL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Bucket
Cylinder
(13)
Left Travel Right Travel
Boom Swing Motor
Motor Motor
Stick Cylinders (8)
(10) (9)
Cylinder (11)
Swivel
(12) (14)

Main Control Valve (7)

Cooling Main
Engine
& Return Hydraulic
(1)
System Pumps (2)
(3)
Travel
Levers/Pedals Primary Machine
(6) ECM (5)

Hydraulic Oil Tank (4)

5
INTRODUCTION

• Identify the main components of The travel hydraulic system is similar to the previous machines, but is now
the travel system. controlled by the new electro-hydraulic main control valve. An electronic signal from
the travel levers/pedals has replaced the pilot signal. The travel motor is almost
identical to the previous model machines except dampeners have been added to
the travel motors.

The travel hydraulic system uses two bidirectional, two-speed right and left
motors (9 and 10), which propel the final drives and the attached track sprockets.

The main hydraulic pumps (2) supply oil to the main control valve (7) for travel
motor operation. Two control valve spools in the main control valve direct the pump
oil flow to the travel motors. A straight travel valve spool is also contained in the
main control valve, which redirects pump oil flow when straight travel is activated.

Like the other hydraulic function operator controls in the cab, movement of the
travel levers/pedals (6) sends a signal to the Primary Machine ECM (5), which
sends a corresponding signal to the appropriate travel pilot solenoid valve on the
main control valve. The solenoid valves send pilot oil to move the travel spools in
the main control valve.

The swivel (14) is the rotary connection for all travel system hydraulic oil lines
between the rotating upper structure and the stationary lower structure.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -6- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

A two-speed travel feature can be enabled or disabled using the travel speed
control switch in the cab. The travel speed control switch signals the Primary
Machine ECM, which sends a current to the travel speed solenoid located on the
main control valve.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -7- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

2
1
3
4

6 5
7

8
9

7
TRAVEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS ON MAIN CONTROL VALVE

• Identify and explain the function Major travel system components located on the main hydraulic control valve are:
of the travel system components • Left travel spool (1): This spool receives pilot pressure oil at the bottom of
on the main control valve. the spool to move the spool toward the TRAVEL FORWARD direction, which
allows high pressure pump supply oil to flow to the left travel motor and rotate
the left motor in the forward direction. Oil at the top of the spool moves the
spool toward the TRAVEL REVERSE direction, which allows high pressure
pump supply oil to flow to the left travel motor and rotate the left motor in the
reverse direction.
• Straight travel spool (2): Ensures that pump No. 1 oil is sent to both travel
spools and all other hydraulic functions receive oil from pump No. 2 when
straight travel is requested.
• Right travel control valve (3): This spool receives pilot pressure oil at
the bottom of the spool to move the spool toward the TRAVEL FORWARD
direction, which allows high pressure pump supply oil to flow to the right travel
motor and rotate the right motor in the forward direction. Oil at the top of the
spool moves the spool toward the TRAVEL REVERSE direction, which allows
high pressure pump supply oil to flow to the right travel motor and rotate the
right motor in the reverse direction.
• Right travel reverse solenoid (4): When energized by the Primary Machine
ECM, directs pilot oil to the top of the right travel spool during a TRAVEL
REVERSE operation.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -8- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

• Straight travel solenoid (5): When energized by the Primary Machine ECM,
directs pilot oil to the top of the straight travel spool during a STRAIGHT
TRAVEL operation.
• Left travel reverse solenoid (6): When energized by the Primary Machine
ECM, directs pilot oil to the top of the left travel spool during a TRAVEL
REVERSE operation.
• Travel speed solenoid (7): When energized by the Primary Machine ECM,
directs pilot oil to the displacement change valve in each travel motor.
• Right travel forward solenoid (8): When energized by the Primary Machine
ECM, directs pilot oil to the bottom of the right travel spool during a TRAVEL
FORWARD operation.
• Left travel forward solenoid (9): When energized by the Primary Machine
ECM, directs pilot oil to the bottom of the left travel spool during a TRAVEL
FORWARD operation.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -9- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

2
1

9
TRAVEL SPEED SWITCH AND TRAVEL ALARM MUTE SWITCH

• Identify the travel speed switch When the travel speed switch (1) is pressed, the travel speed is toggled between
and travel alarm mute switch. low speed travel mode and the auto (two) speed travel mode.
• When the rabbit indicator light is lit, the Auto Travel Speed Mode is ENABLED.
• When the tortoise indicator light is lit, the Low Speed Travel Mode is
ENABLED.

Auto travel speed mode causes the Primary Machine ECM to energize the travel
speed solenoid, which sends pilot oil to the travel motors’ displacement change
valves when the pump load is low during travel. The displacement change valves
move the motor swashplates to minimum angle, which causes the travel (track)
speed to increase.

If the pump pressure sensors indicate the hydraulic load is too high, the Primary
Machine ECM will de-energize the travel speed solenoid, reverting back to the
lower travel speed.

Each time a travel pedal or lever is moved, the exterior travel alarm is activated.
The travel alarm mute switch (2) will silence the alarm. The travel alarm mute
switch must be pressed every time travel is commanded.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -10- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

2
3

4
10
LOWER TRAVEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

• Identify the lower travel system The swivel (1) is the rotary hydraulic connection between the main hydraulic control
components. valve and the right travel motor assembly (3) and left travel motor assembly (2).
The travel motor assemblies transfer rotational output to the final drive (4) attached
to each motor. The final drives reduce the speed, but increase the torque through a
mechanical triple planetary gear reduction system.

High pressure supply oil to the travel motors and return oil from the travel motors
is directed through the hydraulic connections in the swivel when the travel control
valves are activated.

Pilot supply oil to the travel motor change displacement valves and case drain oil
from both travel motors is also directed through the swivel.

The swivel allows the upper structure to independently rotate above the
undercarriage, maintaining the hydraulic connections for the oil in each circuit.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -11- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

1 5 2
3

6
7
4

11
TRAVEL MOTOR COMPONENTS

• Identify the travel motor The illustration above shows travel motor connections of the hydraulic lines from
components. the swivel. High pressure oil flows through these hoses as described below:
• Pilot pressure oil from the travel speed solenoid valve is delivered to the travel
motor displacement change valves through the small pilot supply (1) hoses.
Since the motors are identical in design, the pilot supply port is at the bottom
on the right travel motor and at the top on the left travel motor.
• Case drain (2) oil from the motors is returned through the upper hoses. Both
motors have a case drain oil port at the top and bottom, but the case drain oil
hoses are connected at the top port, which ensures the cases must fill with oil
before it is returned through the swivel to the case drain oil filter. This strategy
ensures the motors are cooled by the flow of case drain oil.
• High pressure oil from the travel control valves for the FORWARD (3) direction
is directed through the hoses connected to the top supply ports on both the
right and left travel motors.
• High pressure oil from the travel control valves for the REVERSE (4) direction
is directed through the hoses connected to the bottom supply ports on both the
right and left travel motors.

The illustration above shows the inboard side of the left travel motor and
counterbalance valve assembly. The right travel motor and counterbalance valve
assembly are identical in construction and operation. The right travel motor is
oriented 180° (top and bottom) from the left motor.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -12- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

Each travel motor is equipped with a counterbalance valve assembly that is bolted
to the inside of the motor. The high pressure supply oil to and return oil from the
travel motor passes through the counterbalance valve assembly.

Each counterbalance valve assembly contains a counterbalance valve (5), two inlet
check valves (6), and two crossover relief valves (7).

The travel counterbalance valves and crossover relief valves work together to
perform the following four functions:
• Help prevent pressure shocks to system components when travel is started or
stopped.
• Prevent travel motor overspeed when the machine is traveling down a slope.
• Prevent motor cavitation in a motor overspeed condition.
• Divert a portion of the pump supply oil to release the parking brakes.

Operation of the counterbalance valve assembly and the travel motor is discussed
in detail later in this module.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -13- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

3
1

13
FINAL DRIVE

• Identify the final drive The final drive (1) is composed of a three stage planetary gear set that provides
components. triple gear reduction of the travel motor output. The planetary gear set reduces the
travel motor speed and increases the torque to drive the track.

A final drive lube oil fill plug (3) and drain plug (2) are installed in the outer final
drive cover. The fill plug is also used to check the lube oil level when the cover is
oriented properly.

NOTE: The final drive should be rotated until the drain plug is located at the
bottom center before checking the lube oil level, adding lube oil, or draining
lube oil. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific
information regarding oil type and service intervals.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -14- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

MACHINE TRAVEL ORIENTATION


FORWARD FORWARD
Travel (7) Travel (7)

REVERSE
Travel (8) Idler (3)
Left Travel
Control Lever Operator’s
and Pedal (1) Idler (3)
Station (4)
Right Travel
Control Lever
and Pedal (2)

Left Travel Right Travel


Motor (5) Motor (6)

REVERSE
Travel (8)

14
MACHINE TRAVEL ORIENTATION

• Explain machine travel The direction of travel is relative to the position of the undercarriage (lower
orientation. structure). For normal travel, the idlers (3) are positioned in front of the operator’s
station (4), and the left travel motor (5) and right travel motor (6) are to the rear of
the cab.

With the machine in the normal position for travel:


• Movement of the travel control levers and pedals (1) and (2) forward (away
from the operator) commands FORWARD travel (7). The machine will move in
the forward direction.
• Movement of the travel control levers or pedals rearward (toward the operator)
commands REVERSE travel (8), which causes the machine to move in the
reverse direction.

If the upper structure is rotated 180 degrees, the travel motors are positioned in
front of the operator’s station. The direction of travel and the operation of the travel
control levers or pedals will be reversed from the normal travel direction.

When one of the travel control levers or pedals is moved forward, the respective
track travels forward. The machine turns because the stationary track acts as the
pivot point, which is called a pivot turn. To make a right pivot turn, the left track
must turn faster than the right track.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -15- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

The machine will spot turn in order to change the travel direction of the machine in
a narrow space. Spot turns are accomplished by moving one travel control lever
REARWARD and moving the other travel control lever FORWARD at the same
time. One track will rotate in the REVERSE direction and the other track will rotate
in the FORWARD direction. The machine will spot turn around the center axis of
the machine.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -16- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

TRAVEL HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT Right Travel


FORWARD - LOW SPEED Motor (3)

Travel Pedals/ Main Control Valve (2)


Levers (17) Right Travel
Left Travel
Reverse Reverse
Travel Straight Solenoid (6)
Solenoid (4)
Left Travel Motor (1) Speed Travel
Switch Solenoid (5)
(18)
Rotating
Group (22) Maximum Angle
Servo Piston (25)

Swashplate (23)
Parking
Brake (26)

Minimum Angle
Servo Piston (24)
Displacement Primary Right
Change Machine Travel
Left
Valve (28) ECM (19) Spool
Travel
Spool Main Relief (10)
Brake Pilot Pilot PRV
(7) Valve (9)
Valve (27) (20)

Travel
Speed
Solenoid
Check Valves (33)
(21) Straight
Crossover Relief
Valves (29) Travel
Valve (8)

BCM
(37)

Counterbalance
Valve (30)

Makeup Pump 2 Pump 1


Valve (31) Orificed (12) (14)
Orifice (36) Check
Valve (32) Pump 2
Left Travel Forward Pressure
Solenoid (11) Sensor Right Travel Forward
(13) Pump 1 Solenoid (16)
Pressure
Swivel (35)
Sensor
(15) Right Travel
Motor (34)

16
TRAVEL SYSTEM OPERATION

• Explain the operation of the This illustration shows a hydraulic schematic of the left travel motor (1) and a partial
travel hydraulic circuit when in hydraulic schematic of the main control valve (2) with the travel hydraulic circuit
FORWARD at LOW SPEED. components in the LOW SPEED FORWARD TRAVEL condition. The travel motors
are identical and therefore just the left travel motor will be discussed.

When the left travel lever/pedal (17) is moved forward, the left lever/pedal position
sensor sends a signal to the Primary Machine ECM (19), which energizes the left
travel forward solenoid (11). The solenoid directs pilot oil to the bottom of the left
travel spool (7), which directs oil from pump No. 2 (12) through the straight travel
valve (8) to the left travel motor. The swivel (35) routes the oil from the rotating
upper structure to the lines in the lower structure.

The high pressure oil first flows to the counterbalance valve (30). The oil flows
through an orificed check valve (32) at the right end of the counterbalance valve,
shifting the valve to the left. (The orificed check valve serves to slow the drain of
the pressure oil when the travel request stops. This feature causes the valve to
slowly return to the centered position when the travel request has ceased and
pump supply oil stops flowing from the travel control valve.)

As the counterbalance valve shifts to the left, the pump supply oil flows into the
oil passageways in the motor case. Some of the oil flows to and shifts the brake
pilot valve (27) up, allowing the supply oil to flow to the parking brake (26). The
pump supply oil pressurizes the brake piston, moving it DOWN against the spring,
releasing the parking brake.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -17- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

As the brake is being released, most of the pump supply oil flows to the travel
motor rotating group (22). The pump supply oil flow to the rotating group causes
the motor (and the track) to rotate in the FORWARD direction.

As the oil flows to the rotating group (travel motor), the oil is also directed to the
crossover relief valve (29) on the pressure side of the travel motor circuit. The relief
valve will open if pressure spikes in the circuit exceed the relief setting of the valve,
allowing the excess pressure oil to vent into the return oil side of the circuit. (The
crossover relief valves are discussed in detail later in this module.)

After the oil exits the travel motor and enters the return oil side of the circuit, it flows
back through the counterbalance valve and then returns to tank, via the left travel
control valve.

As the oil flows to the travel motor, some of the oil enters a small passage in the
motor case that leads to the right check valve (33) and then to the displacement
change valve (28). When in the Low Speed Mode, the travel speed switch (18)
sends a signal to the Primary Machine ECM (19), which communicates with the
Body Control Module (BCM) (37) to de-energize the travel speed solenoid (21). The
solenoid directs oil from the right side of the displacement change valve to drain.
The displacement change valve is held to the right by spring force, and drains oil
from the minimum angle servo piston (24). At the same time, pump supply oil flows
to the maximum angle servo piston (25), keeping the motor swashplate (23) at
maximum angle for the Low Speed Mode.

An orifice (36) is installed in the passage from the counterbalance valve to the
brake pilot valve. The orifice slows the flow of oil (as the counterbalance valve
starts to shift) in order to slightly delay the release of the parking brake. This
delay will prevent gravity from moving the machine before the circuit is completely
pressurized and the motor begins to propel the track. Likewise, the orifice slows the
flow of oil from the brake pilot valve, and subsequent brake engagement, giving the
travel motor time to stop rotation before the brake engages at travel stop. (The slow
movement of the counterbalance valve to its centered position allows the brake
pilot valve to be drained. Operation of the counterbalance valve will be discussed in
detail later in this module.)

Two makeup valves (31) are installed in either side of the motor hydraulic circuit.
Depending on the direction of oil flow, the makeup valve on the return oil side of the
circuit can open to draw return oil directly from the return oil passages in the main
hydraulic control valve if the motor is placed in an overspeed condition.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -18- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

TRAVEL HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT Right Travel


FORWARD - HIGH SPEED Motor (3)

Travel Pedals/ Main Control Valve (2)


Levers (17) Right Travel
Left Travel
Reverse Reverse
Travel Straight Solenoid (6)
Solenoid (4)
Left Travel Motor (1) Speed Travel
Switch Solenoid (5)
(18)
Rotating
Group (22) Maximum Angle
Servo Piston (25)

Swashplate (23)
Parking
Brake (26)

Minimum Angle
Servo Piston (24)
Displacement Primary Right
Change Machine Travel
Left
Valve (28) ECM (19) Spool
Travel
Spool Main Relief (10)
Brake Pilot Pilot PRV
(7) Valve (9)
Valve (37) (20)

Travel
Speed
Solenoid
Check Valves (33)
(21) Straight
Crossover Relief
Valves (29) Travel
Valve (8)

BCM
(37)

Counterbalance
Valve (30)

Makeup Pump 2 Pump 1


Valve (31) Orificed (12) (14)
Orifice (36) Check
Valve (32) Pump 2
Left Travel Forward Pressure
Solenoid (11) Sensor Right Travel Forward
(13) Pump 1 Solenoid (16)
Pressure
Swivel (35)
Sensor
(15) Right Travel
Motor (34)

18
TRAVEL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - FORWARD HIGH SPEED

• Explain the operation of the This illustration shows a hydraulic schematic of the left travel motor (1) and a partial
travel hydraulic circuit when in hydraulic schematic of the main control valve (2) with the travel hydraulic circuit
FORWARD at HIGH SPEED. components in the HIGH SPEED FORWARD TRAVEL condition. The travel motors
are identical and therefore just the left travel motor will be discussed.

When the High Speed Mode has been selected using the travel speed switch (18)
in the cab, and the Primary Machine ECM (19) has determined that the high speed
travel conditions are met, the Primary Machine ECM communicates with the
BCM (37) to energize the travel speed solenoid (21), which directs oil from the pilot
Pressure Reducing Valve (PRV) (20) to shift the displacement change valve (28)
to the left. This action opens passages that allow the pump supply oil to pressurize
the minimum angle servo piston (24) and allows the oil to be drained from the
maximum angle servo piston (25). Pressuring the minimum angle servo piston and
draining the maximum angle servo piston moves the motor swashplate (23) toward
minimum angle.

Rotating the swashplate to minimum angle decreases the displacement of the


travel motor. Given the same rate of oil flow from the left travel control valve and
the decrease in the motor’s displacement, the pressure in the left travel circuit
increases. The increase in pressure and the decrease in motor displacement
causes the motor to rotate faster. As the motor turns faster, so does the output
shaft and the track (through the final drive).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -19- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

If the pump pressure sensors (13 and 15) indicate that the system pressure has
risen above the high speed travel pressure threshold, the Primary Machine ECM
will respond by DE-ENERGIZING the travel speed solenoid valve, via the BCM,
and will revert to the LOW SPEED condition.

System pressure can rise above the HIGH SPEED travel activation pressure
threshold if the machine is traveling up a steep incline or when encountering an
obstacle that causes the system pressure to rise. The Primary Machine ECM
waits a pre-determined amount of time after a pressure increase is sensed before
returning to Low Speed Mode. This wait time (known as de-bounce time) strategy is
used to prevent the motors’ swashplates from UPSTROKING and DE-STROKING
frequently due to short pressure spikes that occur during travel.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -20- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

AUTOMATIC TRAVEL SPEED CHANGE FUNCTION


BCM (2) Primary Machine ECM (1)

Travel CAN 1 J1939


Speed Data Link (8)
Switch
(3) Pump Pressure
Sensors (7)
CAN 2 Machine
CAN Data Link (4)

Travel Speed
Solenoid (5)
2

Travel Levers/Pedals (6)


20
AUTOMATIC TRAVEL SPEED CHANGE FUNCTION

• Explain the automatic travel The Automatic Travel Speed Change function allows the travel system to
speed change function. automatically shift to the High Speed Mode when there is little resistance to travel.
This function also automatically downshifts the travel speed to the Low Speed
Mode when resistance to travel reaches a defined system pressure threshold. The
Automatic Travel Speed Change function is activated by pressing the travel speed
switch (3), which illuminates the rabbit indicator light and sends a signal over the
CAN 2 Machine CAN Data Link (4) to the Primary Machine ECM (1). The Primary
Machine ECM controls the travel speed and communicates with the BCM (2) over
the CAN 1 J1939 Data Link (8) and CAN 2 Machine CAN Data Link to control
output current to the travel speed solenoid.

When the operator uses the travel levers/pedals (6) to request travel, the travel
motors begin to move the machine. The Primary Machine ECM monitors the pump
pressure sensors (7). If there is a high resistance to travel (uphill, for example), the
Primary Machine ECM maintains the Low Speed Mode, due to the resulting high
pressures in the hydraulic system. When there is not much resistance to travel
(level ground), and the pump pressure sensors indicate that system pressures are
below the pressure threshold for initiating High Speed Mode, the BCM will energize
the travel speed solenoid (5). The travel speed solenoid sends pilot pressure oil to
cause the travel motor swashplates to DESTROKE. Given the same oil flow rate
from the main hydraulic pumps, the travel motors speed up, resulting in a higher
travel speed. If system pressures become higher than the pressure threshold for
the High Speed Mode, the BCM will de-energize the travel speed solenoid, placing
the travel system back into the Low Speed Mode.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -21- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

Left Travel Right Travel Left Travel Right Travel


Motor (1) FORWARD TRAVEL Motor (2) Motor (1) FORWARD TRAVEL Motor (2)
STRAIGHT TRAVEL INACTIVE STRAIGHT TRAVEL ACTIVE

Left Travel Right Travel Left Travel Right Travel


Reverse Reverse Reverse Reverse
Straight Solenoid (5) Straight Solenoid (5)
Solenoid (3) Solenoid (3)
Travel Travel
Solenoid (4) Solenoid (4)

Travel Travel
Travel Right Travel Right
Left Spool Left Spool
Spool Main Relief (9) Spool Main Relief (9)
(6) Valve (8) (6) Valve (8)

Straight Straight
Travel Travel
Spool (7) Spool (7)

Pump 2 Pump 1 Pump 2 Pump 1


(11) (13) (11) (13)
Pump 2 Pump 2
Left Travel Forward Pressure Left Travel Forward Pressure
Solenoid (10) Sensor Right Travel Forward Solenoid (10) Sensor Right Travel Forward
(12) Pump 1 Solenoid (15) (12) Pump 1 Solenoid (15)
Pressure Pressure
Sensor Sensor
Left Travel Left Travel
(14) Right Travel (14) Right Travel
Motor (1) Motor (1)
Motor (2) Motor (2)

21
STRAIGHT TRAVEL OPERATION

• Explain straight travel operation. The straight travel spool (7) maintains straight travel even during swing or
implement operation.

When the machine travels without swing motor or implement operation (as shown
in the left illustration), the straight travel solenoid (4) is de-activated and the straight
travel spool is centered by spring force.

Pump No. 1 (13) sends oil to the right travel motor (2) and pump No. 2 (11) sends
oil to the left travel motor (1), as previously described. Because both travel circuits
are separate, the machine continues to travel straight, unless a difference in travel
resistance occurs between the right and left tracks. In the illustrations, pump No. 1
oil is colored red and pump No. 2 oil is colored red and white striped, but are equal
in pressure.

Pump No. 1 and pump No. 2 supply oil to the travel motors and additionally to
the swing motor and implement cylinders. During travel, if an implement or swing
function is requested the oil supply to each travel motor will differ. This action would
cause the right travel motor and the left travel motor to rotate at different speeds.
The different speeds will cause the machine to turn. The straight travel system
ensures the machine will travel straight when other circuits are operated during
travel.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -22- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

When implement movement has been requested during travel, the Primary
Machine ECM energizes the straight travel solenoid (as shown in the right
illustration). The straight travel solenoid directs pilot oil to the top of the straight
travel spool, and the spool moves down. With the straight travel spool shifted
down:
• Oil flow from pump No. 1 flows to the right travel spool and is also directed
through the straight travel spool to the left travel spool.
• Oil flow from pump No. 2 flows to the left parallel feeder path and is also
directed through the straight travel spool to the right parallel feeder path.

Pump No. 1 provides most of the flow for both travel motors and pump No. 2
provides the oil flow for the swing motor and the implements through the parallel
feeder passages.

When pressure in the pump No. 2 circuit exceeds pressure in the pump No. 1
circuit, oil from pump No. 2 flows through an orifice and check valve in the straight
travel spool, which allows oil from pump No. 2 to supplement the pump No. 1 oil
supply to the travel motors.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -23- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

TRAVEL MOTOR
Brake
Piston
Spring
(7)
A
(6)
OPERATION Swashplate Slipper Retainer Barrel
Maximum Angle (2) (3) (4) (5)
Servo Piston (20)

Check
Valve
(8)
Minimum Angle
Stop (19)
Brake
Drive Pilot
Shaft Valve
(1) (9)

Maximum Angle
Stop (18)
Pilot
Port
(21)
C
Minimum Angle
Servo Piston Guide Spacer Spring Piston
(17) (16) (15) (14) (13)

B-B
Friction
Plate (12)
Separator
Plate (11)
Port
Plate A
B (10)

C Max
Angle
Min
Angle

Inlet
Ports Pilot
(24) Port

B (21)

A-A Displacement
C-C Spring
(23)
Change Valve
Spool (22)
23
Travel Motor Operation

• Identify the travel motor The two-speed travel motor assembly consists of three groups:
assembly components. • Rotary group: Consists of:
-- Drive shaft (1)
-- Swashplate (2)
-- Slippers (3)
-- Retainers (4)
-- Barrel (5)
-- Port plate (10)
-- Pistons (13)
-- Springs (14)
-- Spacer (15)
-- Guide (16)
• Parking brake group: Consists of:
-- Brake piston (6)
-- Springs (7)
-- Separator plates (11)
-- Friction plates (12)
-- Brake pilot valve (9)
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -24- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

• Valve group: Consists of


-- Check valves (8)
-- Displacement change valve spool (22)
-- Spring (23)
-- Minimum angle servo piston (17)
-- Maximum angle servo piston (20)
-- Maximum angle stop (18)
-- Minimum angle stop (19)

Low Speed Operation


Low speed operation is the default operational condition. Main hydraulic pump
supply oil from the travel control valve flows into the travel motor inlet port (24)
through the counterbalance valve (not shown). Most of the supply oil flows into the
piston inlet in the port plate (red arrow). Some of the oil flows through an internal
passage in the motor case, past the check valve, and then to the displacement
change valve spool. During low speed operation, the displacement change valve
directs the high pressure oil to the pressure chamber at the left of the maximum
angle servo piston. At the same time, the displacement change valve spool drains
the pressure chamber to the left of the minimum angle servo piston.

As the chamber to the left of the maximum angle servo piston is pressurized, the
piston moves to the right. The piston contacts the swashplate, causing it to rotate
clockwise toward maximum angle. The clockwise movement of the swashplate
forces the minimum angle servo piston to the left, against the maximum angle stop.
The maximum angle stop limits the angle of the swashplate.

Some of the oil flows past the brake pilot valve and then through an internal
passage to the brake piston. As the area to the left of the brake piston is
pressurized, the piston moves to the right, compressing the springs. As the brake
piston moves to the right, it releases the spring force that normally compresses
the friction plates and separator plates together, allowing them to separate so the
barrel can rotate freely.

The pistons are set in slippers that are held against the surface of the swashplate
by the retainers. As the pump supply oil fills and pressurizes each piston, it is
forced outward (LEFT) from its bore in the barrel. The force of the piston moving
outward causes the slipper and the piston to slide downward along the slope of the
swashplate.

This sliding force causes the barrel to rotate. Since the barrel is splined to the
drive shaft, the drive shaft rotates with the barrel. (The drive shaft is the input to a
planetary gear set in the final drive.)

As each piston and slipper reaches the bottom center position of the swashplate,
the piston is depressurized as its internal volume expands. When each piston
reaches the bottom of the swashplate, it is closed off from the pressure passages
in the port plate and becomes open to the return oil passages in the port plate. As
the barrel rotates past bottom center of the swashplate, each piston is moved back
inward (RIGHT) as the slipper and the piston slide upward along the slope of the
swashplate. As each piston moves inward, it forces the oil from its cylinder through
the return oil passages of the port plate (green arrow) and then into the return oil
passage in the motor head. The return oil flows past the counterbalance valve and
then back to the travel control valve.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -25- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

High Speed Operation


High speed rotation is possible when pilot pressure oil from the travel speed
solenoid valve enters the pilot port (21), which pressurizes the chamber at the right
end of the displacement change valve spool. The pressure moves the displacement
change valve spool to the left, against its return spring (23). This spool movement
opens the drain passage (in the motor case) to the maximum angle servo piston,
and also directs pump supply oil through another passage to pressurize the
minimum angle servo piston.

With high pressure pump supply oil in the chamber at the left of the minimum angle
servo piston, the servo piston moves to the RIGHT. The servo piston contacts and
moves the bottom of the swashplate to the right, which causes the swashplate to
rotate in a counterclockwise direction about the guide. The spring, spacer, and
guide keep the swashplate centered and held against the shoulder of the drive
shaft during operation. The swashplate continues to rotate until the maximum angle
servo piston meets the minimum angle stop.

Rotating the swashplate to minimum angle decreases the displacement of the


rotating group (or decreases the amount of travel for the pistons to move in and
out of the bores in the barrel). Given the same rate of oil flow from the travel control
valve and the decrease in the motor’s displacement, the pressure in the system
increases, which causes the barrel to rotate faster.

As the barrel rotates faster, so does the drive shaft. The drive shaft is mechanically
connected to the final drive by the internal splines at the left end of the drive shaft.
As the final drive rotates, the attached sprocket causes the track to rotate.

When the request for travel has ceased, oil flow from the control valve is stopped,
but the inertia of the machine and the mechanical connections will cause the pump
drive shaft to continue rotating for a short time. This condition causes the motor
to act as a pump. Because there is no outlet for the oil on the pressurized side of
the motor circuit (the travel control valve is in NEUTRAL, blocking oil flow), the
crossover relief valves (not shown) allow the oil to circulate within the motor. The
counterbalance valve and the crossover relief valves help to dissipate any pressure
shock in the system and bring the travel to a smooth stop. (The crossover relief
valves and the counterbalance valve are discussed later in this presentation.)

With no oil flow from the travel control valve, the spring returns the parking brake
pilot valve to its default position, which allows the parking brake piston to be slowly
drained through orifices in the valve and the motor case passageways, delaying the
parking brake application by the brake springs. This delay allows the travel motors
to slow to a stop before the brakes are applied, reducing the wear on the separator
plates and friction plates and preventing damage to the motor components.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -26- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

TRAVEL MOTOR PARKING BRAKE


ENGAGED

Brake
Piston Piston Spring Passage
Chamber (7) (8) (9)
(6)
Separator
Plate (5)
Friction
Orifice
Plate (4) Head Spring (13)
(10) (12)
Barrel
(3)
Retainer
(11)
Housing
(2)
Pump
Supply
(14)

Drive
Shaft
(1)
Brake
Pilot
Valve
(15)

26
Travel Motor Parking Brake Operation - ENGAGED

• Explain the operation of the The travel parking brake is integrated into the travel motor. The brakes are
travel motor parking brake with ENGAGED by springs and are RELEASED with oil pressure. When high pressure
parking brake ENGAGED. pump supply oil flows to the travel motor, the parking brake is RELEASED and the
travel motor begins to rotate. When no oil flows to the travel motor, the rotation of
the travel motor stops and the travel parking brake is ENGAGED.

When the machine has been moving and the operator returns the travel lever/pedal
to the NEUTRAL position, the flow of pump supply oil to the travel motor is blocked
at the travel control valve. This traps any pump supply (14) oil between the travel
control valve and the motor head (10).

With no oil flow or pressure at the right, the brake pilot valve (15) is moved to the
right by the force of its return spring (12). As the pilot valve moves to the right,
the orifice (13) in the valve slowly drains the brake piston chamber (6) into the
motor case through the connecting passages (9).

As the oil pressure is slowly drained, the brake springs (8) move the brake
piston (7) to the LEFT. As the piston moves to the LEFT, it forces the friction
plates (4) and the separator plates (5) together.

The separator plates are splined to the stationary housing (2). The friction plates
are splined to the rotating barrel (3). The barrel is splined to the drive shaft (1).
When the separator plates and the friction plates are forced together, the rotation of
the drive shaft gradually slows to a stop as the parking brake is engageD.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -27- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

Since the orifice restricts and slows the oil flow from piston chamber to the motor
case, the parking brake is slowly ENGAGED. The delay in the parking brake
ENGAGEMENT gives the machine (and the motor) time to stop before the brakes
are ENGAGED.

Early wear and/or damage to the motor and its component parts could result if the
parking brake is engaged while the motor is still rotating.

NOTE: Callouts not listed in the text are shown for reference purposes only.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -28- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

TRAVEL MOTOR PARKING BRAKE


RELEASED

Brake
Piston
Piston Spring Passage
Chamber
(7) (8) (9)
(6)
Separator
Friction Plate (5)
Plate (4) Orifice
Head Spring (13)
(10) (12)
Barrel
(3)
Retainer
(11)
Housing
(2)
Pump
Supply
(14)

Drive
Shaft
(1)
Brake
Pilot
Valve
(15)

28
Travel Motor Parking Brake Operation - RELEASED

• Explain the operation of the When the operator commands travel by moving a travel lever/pedal from the
travel motor parking brake with NEUTRAL position, the travel control valve directs high pressure pump supply (14)
parking brake RELEASED. oil to the counterbalance valve, which in turn directs some of the pump supply oil to
the right end of brake pilot valve (15). With high pressure oil at the right end and
case pressure at the left, the brake pilot valve shifts to the LEFT, against its return
spring (12). (Because the orifice connects the pressure passage (9) to the motor
case, the valve is able to move left.)

As the brake pilot valve moves to the LEFT, the orifice (13) is covered by the
retainer (11), which closes the connection between the pressure passage and the
motor case. High pressure pump supply oil can then flow through the pressure
passage to the brake piston chamber (6).

As the brake piston chamber is pressurized by the supply oil, the brake piston (7)
moves to the RIGHT, against the force of the brake springs (8). This movement
allows the separator plates (5) and the friction plates (4) to separate. Friction from
the spring force against the brake piston no longer holds the plates together, so
they can easily slide past each other.

With the friction plates and separator plates RELEASED, the barrel (3) and the
housing (2) are now disconnected and the motor is free to rotate.

The brakes are RELEASED. The drive shaft (1) is now free to rotate at a rate that
is proportional to the flow of oil supplied.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -29- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

DISPLACEMENT CHANGE VALVE OPERATION Travel Speed

LOW SPEED Switch (4)

Swashplate
(12)
Minimum Angle Minimum Angle Maximum Angle
Servo Piston (13) Servo Piston (13) TRAVEL MOTOR Servo Piston (5)

Swashplate Parking
(12) Brake (6)
Pressure
Chamber Maximum Angle
(14) Servo Piston (5)
Primary
Displacement
Machine
Change Valve
Pressure ECM (3)
(7)
Chamber
(14)
Pilot Travel Speed
Supply Solenoid Valve
(2) (8)

Brake
Displacement Pilot
Change Valve Check
Valve (11)
(7) Valves
(9)
Pilot
Supply
(2)
Return Pump Check
Oil (10) Supply (1) Valves
Return (9) Pump
Oil (10) Supply (1)

29
Travel Motor Displacement Change Valve Operation - LOW
SPEED

• Explain the operation of the travel The travel system is capable of a Low Speed Mode and Auto Speed Mode. Auto
motor displacement change valve Speed Mode is selected by pressing the travel speed switch (4) and allows the
when in LOW SPEED. machine to travel at a higher rate of speed when certain system conditions are met.

When the default Low Speed Mode is selected with the travel speed switch and the
tortoise icon is illuminated, the Primary Machine ECM (3) keeps the travel speed
solenoid valve (8) de-energized. When de-energized, the travel speed solenoid
valve drains any pilot supply (2) oil to the displacement change valve (7).

With no pilot oil pressure at its LEFT end (RIGHT, in the schematic) the
displacement change valve spool is held to the LEFT (RIGHT, in the schematic)
by the force of its return spring. This is the default position for the displacement
change valve spool.

With the valve spool in its default position, high pressure pump supply (1) oil flows
through the passage from the right check valve (9) and is directed to the pressure
chamber beneath the maximum angle servo piston (5). At the same time, the
pressure chamber beneath the minimum angle servo piston (13) is drained to case.
As these two pressure chambers are drained and pressurized, the swashplate (12)
is rotated counterclockwise, to maximum angle.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -30- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

When the swashplate is in the maximum angle position, the displacement of the
travel motor is increaseD. Given a constant rate of oil flow from the travel control
valve and the INCREASED travel motor displacement, the motor rotates at a slow
speed. The travel system is placed in the LOW SPEED condition.

The hydraulic state of the travel system shown above is the same when the High
Speed Mode is selected, but the system pressures are below the high speed travel
pressure threshold (as sensed by the pump pressure sensors installed in the main
hydraulic control valve). In this condition, the Primary Machine ECM de-energizes
the travel speed solenoid and HIGH SPEED travel is reduced to LOW SPEED.

If REVERSE travel is requested, the return oil (10) side of the circuit would be
pressurized and the left check valve would be open and the right check valve
closed. The pump supply oil flow is reversed through the travel system by the travel
control valve, but the motor components operate in the same fashion. The travel
motor would then rotate in the REVERSE direction at LOW SPEED.

NOTE: Callouts not listed in the text are shown for reference purposes only.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -31- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

DISPLACEMENT CHANGE VALVE OPERATION Travel Speed


HIGH SPEED Switch (4)

Swashplate
(12)
Minimum Angle Minimum Angle Maximum Angle
Servo Piston (13) Servo Piston (13) TRAVEL MOTOR Servo Piston (5)

Swashplate Parking
(12) Brake (6)
Pressure
Chamber Maximum Angle
(14) Servo Piston (5)
Primary
Displacement
Machine
Change Valve
Pressure ECM (3)
(7)
Chamber
(14)
Pilot Travel Speed
Supply Solenoid Valve
(2) (8)

Brake
Displacement Pilot
Change Valve Check
Valve (11)
(7) Valves
(9)
Pilot
Supply
(2)
Return Pump Check
Oil (10) Supply (1) Valves
Return (9) Pump
Oil (10) Supply (1)

31
Travel Motor Displacement Change Valve Operation - HIGH
SPEED

• Explain the operation of the travel When the Auto Speed Mode is selected using the travel speed switch (4) and the
motor displacement change valve rabbit icon is illuminated, the Primary Machine ECM (3) will energize the travel
when in HIGH SPEED. speed solenoid valve (8) when the HIGH SPEED conditions are met.

The Primary Machine ECM monitors the pump pressure sensors installed in the
main hydraulic control valve. If the system pressure is below a pre-determined
value, and the Auto Speed Mode is ENABLED, the ECM will energize the travel
speed solenoid valve. When energized, the travel speed solenoid valve sends
pilot supply (2) oil to the left end (right side, in the schematic) of the displacement
change valve (7), shifting the spool to the RIGHT (LEFT in the schematic).

With the valve spool shifted, high pressure pump supply (1) oil flows through the
passage from the right check valve (9) and is directed to the pressure
chamber (14) beneath the minimum angle servo piston (13). At the same time, the
pressure chamber beneath the maximum angle servo piston (5) is drained to case.
As these two pressure chambers are drained and pressurized simultaneously, the
swashplate (12) is rotated clockwise, to minimum angle.

Rotating the swashplate to minimum angle decreases the displacement of the


travel motor. Given the same rate of oil flow from the travel control valve and the
decrease in the motor displacement, the pressure in the system increases,
which causes the motor to rotate faster. The travel system is placed in the HIGH
SPEED condition.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -32- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

When the travel load is light and the system pressure is below a certain level, the
Primary Machine ECM maintains the HIGH SPEED condition of the Auto Speed
Mode.

If the machine travels up a steep slope and/or some other conditions cause the
hydraulic system pressure to exceed the threshold for high speed travel
(as determined by the pressure sensors in the main hydraulic control valve), the
Primary Machine ECM will de-energize the travel speed solenoid valve.

This action drains the pilot pressure oil from the displacement change valve, which
causes the return spring to shift the valve spool back to the LEFT (RIGHT, in the
schematic). The displacement change valve spool then directs the pump supply oil
to the pressure chamber beneath the maximum angle servo piston and drains the
pressure chamber beneath the minimum angle servo piston. This change causes
the swashplate to rotate counterclockwise, back to the maximum angle, which
places the travel system back in the LOW SPEED condition.

NOTE: Callouts not listed in the text are shown for reference purposes only.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -33- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

COUNTERBALANCE VALVE
LEVEL TRAVEL - FORWARD
Relief
Relief Valve Passages Passage
Spool (3) (4) (6)
Crossover Small
Crossover
Spring Orifice
Relief Valve Relief Valve
Check (2) (5)
(REVERSE) (FORWARD)
Valve (18) (1) (7)

Orifice
(17)
Large
Check Spring
FWD Valve (9) REV (16)

A-A B-B
Damper A B
Spool (15)
FWD REV
(2) (2) Damper
Chamber
Orifice A B Counterbalance
(13) Valve (8)
(14) FWD REV
(1) (7)
Ball (12)
Check
Hole (11) Valve (9)
Check
Valve (18) Hole
(10)
(16) (16)

(9)

FWD REV
(13) (8)

33
Counterbalance Valve Operation - LEVEL TRAVEL - FORWARD

• Explain the operation of the Each travel motor assembly is equipped with a counterbalance valve assembly.
counterbalance valve during The counterbalance valve assembly is bolted to the inside of the travel motor and
LEVEL TRAVEL in FORWARD. consists of a large cast manifold that contains the counterbalance valve and the
crossover relief valves. Pump supply oil from the travel control valve enters the
counterbalance valve assembly and then flows to the travel motor.

The travel counterbalance valves and crossover relief valves work together to
perform the following four functions:
• Help prevent pressure shocks to system components when travel is started or
stopped.
• Prevent travel motor overspeed when the machine is traveling down a slope.
• Prevent motor cavitation in a motor overspeed condition.
• Divert a portion of the pump supply oil to release the parking brakes.

After the initial pressure spike from the start of travel, the system pressures
decrease during level travel, given no obstacles to overcome or resistance to
movement. The illustration above shows the operation of the counterbalance valve
assembly in the LEVEL TRAVEL condition in the FORWARD direction of travel.

These explanations describe the operation of one counterbalance valve assembly,


but apply to the operation of both valve assemblies.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -34- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

During FORWARD TRAVEL on a level surface, pump supply oil from the travel
control valve flows into the FWD (left) inlet port of the counterbalance valve. As the
oil flows into the FWD inlet port, it flows to the counterbalance valve (8) spool and
the left check valve (18). The pressure and flow of the oil opens the left check valve
and flows up, around the REVERSE crossover relief valve (1) and then to the travel
motor. A portion of the oil flowing to the travel motor also flows through the upper
relief passage (4) to the left end of the FORWARD crossover relief valve (7).

At the start of travel, the right relief valve spool (3) will have opened, relieving some
oil into the return oil (REV) passage. This oil also flows through the orifice (5) in the
relief spool and the pressure is reduced as it flows into the spring chamber behind
the FORWARD crossover relief valve. This pressure adds to the spring force
and helps close the valve as pressures start to equalize. This same oil also flows
through the small upper passage (6) to the spring chamber behind the REVERSE
crossover relief valve and through the left relief orifice, through the lower relief
passage and into the return oil passage. The opening of the FORWARD crossover
relief valve dampens the initial pressure spikes. The orifices prevent rapid opening
and closing of the relief valves. (This same sequence of events happens during
pressure spikes when encountering an obstacle while traveling.)

Initially, the left large spring (16) chamber was at tank pressure, and the
counterbalance valve spool was centered, blocking oil in the FWD passage and
the REV passage from flowing around the spool to and from the travel motor. But
as the oil flows through the hole (11) in the land, it seats the ball (12) to the left,
sealing the center passage at the left end. The counterbalance valve body seals
the hole (10) at the right end of the center passage. At the same time, the high
pressure oil flows through the orifice (13), into the damper chamber (14), and
then into the large spring chamber at the left end of the counterbalance spool
through the large orifice (17). As the large spring chamber is pressurized, the
counterbalance valve spool moves to the RIGHT, opening a path for return oil
to flow from the travel motor into the REV passage. As the spool shifts further, it
slowly increasES the opening, and therefore, the flow of oil from the travel motor.

The slow shift of the counterbalance valve spool to the right also provides a
dampening effect in the circuit to reduce the pressure shock in the travel system at
the start of travel.

If REVERSE TRAVEL is commanded, the flow of oil through the counterbalance


valve assembly is also reversed and the components operate in the same way, but
with movements in the opposite directions.

In summary, the FORWARD crossover relief valve opens first to relieve the initial
pressure spike at the start of FORWARD TRAVEL. Pump supply oil flows past the
left check valve to the travel motor. As the motor starts rotating, the pressures start
to equalize, closing the relief valve. At the same time, the counterbalance valve
slowly moves to the right, INCREASING the size of the flow path for return oil flow
from the travel motor. The counterbalance valve also acts as a dampening piston
to help relieve pressure spikes in the system. These actions allow for a smooth
start of travel and will ensure smooth travel operation should there be any pressure
spikes during travel.

NOTE: Callouts not listed in the text are shown for reference purposes only.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -35- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

COUNTERBALANCE VALVE
DOWNHILL SLOPE TRAVEL
Relief
Relief Valve
Passages Passage
Spool (3)
(4) (6)
Crossover Small Relief
Spring Orifice Orifice Crossover
Relief Valve Relief Valve
Check (REVERSE) (2) (19) (5)
Valve (18) (FORWARD)
(1) (7)

Orifice
(17)
Large
Check Spring
FWD Valve (9) REV (16)

A-A B-B
Damper A B
Spool
FWD REV (15)

(2) (2) Damper Orifice


Chamber
A B Counterbalance
(13)
(14) FWD REV Valve (8)
(1) (7)
Ball (12)

Hole (11) Check


Check Valve (9)
Valve (18) Hole
(10)
(16) (16)

(9)

FWD REV
(13) (8)

35
Counterbalance Valve Operation - DOWNHILL SLOPE TRAVEL

• Explain the operation of the When the machine starts to travel down a slope in the FORWARD direction, the
counterbalance valve during mass of the machine and gravity attempt to speed up the machine. This causes the
DOWNHILL SLOPE TRAVEL. travel motors to rotate faster than the pump is supplying oil. In this situation, the
pressures are higher on the return oil side of the travel motor than on the pump
supply side. As the pressure in the FWD supply passage DECREASES, the left
check valve (18) closes, temporarily stopping the oil flow to the travel motor.

The reduction in oil pressure in the FWD supply port is also sensed through the
hole (11) in the left land of the counterbalance valve spool (8) and through the
center passage to the hole (10) in the center land. The pressure that existed in the
left large spring (16) chamber now flows back around the seat into the ball (12)
chamber. This action shifts the ball to the right, closing off the center passage.
The oil from the large spring chamber is forced to flow through the orifice (13) into
the (lower pressure) FWD passage. As the pressure in the large spring chamber
slowly dissipates through the orifice, the counterbalance valve spool slowly
moves to the LEFT from the force of the large spring at the right end and the
DECREASING pressure in the large spring chamber at the left end.

As the counterbalance valve spool moves to the LEFT, the right land begins to
restrict the flow of return oil from the motor into the REV port. The right check valve
is held CLOSED by the high pressure above it and tank pressure beneath. This
combination of valve and spool movements creates a high pressure before the
counterbalance valve spool.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -36- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

This high return oil pressure is sensed through the lower relief passage (4) and at
the right end of the REVERSE crossover relief valve (1). The high pressure causes
the left relief valve spool (3) to OPEN, relieving some oil into the supply oil (FWD)
passage to the travel motor. This same high pressure oil also flows through the left
orifice (5) in the relief spool and the pressure is reduced as it flows into the spring
chamber behind the spool. The pressure in the spring chamber is reduced again as
it flows through the left relief orifice (19) and into the small passage (6).

Supply oil to the motor flows through the upper relief passage to the left end of the
FORWARD crossover relief valve, but is not at a high enough pressure to open the
relief spool. The oil flows through the orifice in the right relief spool and blends with
the oil from the left relief spool orifice, eventually equalizing the pressure between
the two spring chambers. The combination of the orifices and passages slow
the changes in pressures, preventing the valves from harsh opening and closing
movement, and recirculating the oil in the relief system. The REVERSE relief valve
will CLOSE from the force of the small spring (2) when the pressures equalize on
either side of the relief spool.

The restriction of return oil by the counterbalance valve begins to slow the rotation
of the travel motor, helping maintain travel motor rotational speed according to the
operator’s command.

When pressures within the circuit begin to equalize, the counterbalance valve spool
will modulate to a position that matches the commanded travel speed by restricting
the appropriate volume of return oil flow. The left check valve will also OPEN, but
only enough to satisfy the demand of the motor with pump supply oil.

In summary, cavitation of the travel motor is avoided by the movement of the


relief valves and the counterbalance valve. This is accomplished by proportionally
reducing the oil flow to and from the motor and by relieving high pressure oil in the
return oil side of the circuit to the low pressure side. The travel motor is prevented
from the overspeed condition and the commanded travel speed is maintained.

NOTE: Callouts not listed in the text are shown for reference purposes only.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -37- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

COUNTERBALANCE VALVE
STOP FROM FORWARD TRAVEL
Relief
Relief Valve Passages Passage
Spool (3) (4) (6)
Crossover Small Relief
Orifice Crossover
Relief Valve Spring Orifice
(5) Relief Valve
Check (REVERSE) (2) (19)
(FORWARD)
Valve (18) (1) (7)

Orifice
(17)
Large
Check Spring
FWD Valve (9) REV (16)

A-A B-B
Damper A B
Spool (15)
FWD REV
Damper
(2) (2) Chamber Orifice A B Counterbalance
(14) (13) Valve (8)
FWD REV
(1) (7)
Ball (12)
Check
Hole (11) Valve (9)
Check
Valve Hole
(18) (10)
(16) (16)

(9)

FWD REV
(13) (8)

37
Counterbalance Valve Operation - STOP FROM FORWARD TRAVEL

• Explain the operation of the When the operator returns the travel controls to the NEUTRAL position from a
counterbalance valve during FORWARD TRAVEL operation, the travel control valve is returned to the centered
STOP FROM FORWARD TRAVEL. position. In the centered position, the travel control valve blocks the pump supply
oil from flowing to the counterbalance valve. However, both the FWD and REV oil
ports between the hydraulic tank and the counterbalance valve remain open. This
is done to ensure that residual pressures within the travel circuit can be dissipated
when travel stops and tank oil can be used for a MAKEUP condition in either
direction, if necessary. The example above shows the state of the counterbalance
valve assembly when FORWARD TRAVEL is suddenly stopped.
Inertia and the machine’s mass cause the travel motors to continue rotating when
a travel command is suddenly stopped, causing the travel motors to act like
pumps. This condition causes a sudden pressure increase in the REV passage
from the motor. At the same time, the oil pressure in the FWD passage to the
motor DECREASES to below tank pressure as the motor draws oil from the tank
passages in the main hydraulic control valve.
With no supply oil pressure from the pump in the FWD passage, any residual
oil pressure in the left large spring (16) chamber and the damper chamber (14)
dissipates as it flows into the ball (12) chamber. The oil in the ball chamber then
flows through the orifice (13) into the FWD passage. With no pressure now at
either end, the large springs move the counterbalance valve (8) spool to its center
position, blocking the REV and FWD passages to and from the travel motor. The
right check valve (9) is then CLOSED by the INCREASED pressure above it and
the tank pressure beneath. The counterbalance valve and the right check valve
now completely prevent any of the motor return oil from flowing to tank.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -38- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

The high return oil pressure is sensed at the right end of the REVERSE crossover
relief valve (1) through the lower relief passage (4). The high pressure causes
the left relief valve spool (3) to OPEN, relieving some oil into the supply oil (FWD)
passage to the travel motor.

This same high pressure oil also flows through the left orifice (5) in the relief spool
and the pressure is reduced as it flows into the spring chamber behind the spool.
The pressure in the spring chamber is reduced again as it flows through the left
relief orifice (19), where it flows through the small passage (6). The relief oil then
flows into the spring chamber behind the FORWARD crossover relief valve (7),
through the orifice in the right relief spool, then through the upper relief passage
into the motor supply passage.

The combination of the orifices and passages slow the changes in pressures
across and through the relief valves, preventing the valves from harsh opening and
closing movement and recirculating the relief oil from the high pressure to the low
pressure side of the circuit. The REVERSE relief valve will CLOSE from the force of
the small spring (2) when the pressures equalize on either side of the relief spool.

Because the motor components vent oil into the case drain passage during
operation, some makeup oil is needed to prevent cavitation in the motor. When
the travel motor continues rotating after travel stop, it creates a negative pressure
in the FWD oil passage in the counterbalance valve assembly. With tank pressure
beneath and a negative (less than tank) pressure above, the left check valve (18)
OPENS, allowing the motor to draw the needed oil from the main control valve
return oil passages, via the travel control valve. When the motor stops rotation, the
pressures will equalize and the check valve will close.

If STOPPING from REVERSE TRAVEL is commanded, the flow of oil through the
counterbalance valve assembly is also reversed and the components operate in
the same way, but with movements in the opposite directions.

In summary, the counterbalance valve immediately closes off the supply and return
oil passages to and from the travel motor when travel is stopped. Cavitation of the
travel motor is avoided in this condition by the oil flow through the crossover relief
valves and by the opening of the left check valve. The crossover relief valves also
allow oil within the counterbalance valve assembly to recirculate from the high
pressure to the low pressure side of the circuit until all pressures equalize. These
actions avoid a harsh stop from FORWARD TRAVEL.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2110-01 - 11/17 -39- Module 6 - Travel Hydraulic System

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completion of this Hydraulic Excavators Travel


Hydraulic System module, participants are now able to:
• Locate and identify the components, service points, and
adjustment points of the travel hydraulic system during a
lab exercise.
• Using the appropriate service information and tooling;
test, adjust, and calibrate the travel hydraulic system
during a lab exercise.
• Identify the correct operation of the travel hydraulic
system on a post assessment.

39

• Learning outcomes review Learning Outcomes Review

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow