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12/26/2019 Chhath - Wikipedia

Chhath
Chhath is an ancient Hindu Vedic festival
Chhath Puja
historically native to the Indian subcontinent,
more specifically, the Indian states of Bihar,
Jharkhand[1] and Uttar Pradesh and the
Madhesh region of Nepal.[2][3][4][5] The
Chhath Puja is dedicated to the Sun and
Shashthi devi (Chhathi Maiya) in order to
thank them for bestowing the bounties of life
on earth and to request the granting of certain Performing of prayer to Sun around the
wishes.[6] This festival is observed by holy rivers, ponds and other small water
Nepalese and Indian people, along with their bodies
diaspora.[7]
Also called Chhaith
The festival doesn't involve idolatry and is Chhath Parva
dedicated to worship the Chhathi Maiya Chhath Puja
(Shashthi Mata) and sun God Surya alongwith Dala Chhath
his consorts Usha and Pratyusha the Vedic Dala Puja
Goddess of Dawn and Dusk respectively. It is Surya Shashthi
believed that the main sources of Sun's Observed by
Indians and
powers are his wife Usha and Pratyusha. In
Nepalese
Chhath, there is a combined worship of both
the powers along with the Sun. In the Magahi people
morning, worship of the first ray (Usha) of the
Maithils
Sun and the last ray (Pratyusha) of the Sun in
Bhojpuri people
the evening are offered to both of them. [8]
And the rituals are rigorous and are observed Awadhi people
over a period of four days.[9] They include Liturgical Colors related to
holy bathing, fasting and abstaining from Color Hinduism
drinking water (Vratta), standing in water for Saffron (or Bhagua)
long periods of time, and offering prasad
Type Cultural, Historical,
(prayer offerings) and arghya to the setting
Religious
and rising sun.[10] Some devotees also
perform a prostration march as they head for Significance To thank Sun for
the river banks.[11] bestowing the bounties
of life on earth and

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12/26/2019 Chhath - Wikipedia

Environmentalists claim that Chhath is the fulfilling particular


most eco-friendly Hindu festival. [12][13] wishes
Although the festival is observed most 2019 date 31 October to 3
elaborately in Madhesh (southern) region of November
Nepal and Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand
and UP, it is also more prevalent in areas where migrants from those areas have a
presence. It is celebrated in all Northern regions and major Northern urban centers
in India. The festival is celebrated in the regions including but not exclusive to the
northeast region of India, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarkhand, Uttar Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Rajasthan[14][15] Mumbai,[16] Mauritius, Fiji,
South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica, other parts of the
Caribbean, United States, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New
Zealand, Malaysia, Macau, Japan and Indonesia.

Contents
Types of Chhath Puja
History
Rituals and traditions
References

Types of Chhath Puja


Chaitra Chhath - Celebrated in the Chaitra month of Vikram Samvat.
Kartik Chhath - Celebrated in the Kartika month of Vikram Samvat. This one is
most famous and celebrated at very large scale.

History
[17]

Chhath is a Vedic ritual dedicated to Hindu solar deity Surya, and goddess
Shashthi(also called Chhathi Maiyya).[18] It has also been mentioned in both the
major Indian epics - In Ramayana, when Rama and Sita returned Ayodhya, then
people celebrated Deepawali, and on its sixth day Ramrajya was established. On this
day Rama and Sita kept fast and Surya Shashthi/Chhath Puja was performed by Sita.
Hence, she was blessed with Luv and Kush as their sons. While in the Mahabharata,
Chhath Puja was performed by Draupadi/ Kunti after they escaped from Lakshagrih.

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Rituals and traditions


The main worshipers, called Parvaitin (from
Sanskrit parv, meaning 'occasion' or 'festival'), are
usually women. However, many men also observe
this festival as Chhath is not a gender-specific
festival.[19] The parvaitin pray for the well-being of
their family, and for the prosperity of their
offspring. In some communities, once a family
member starts performing Chhath Puja, it is their Deo Surya Mandir World Top
compulsory duty to perform it every year and to Sun Temple in Deo, Bihar,
pass it on to the following generations. The festival Aurangabad Bihar, India
is skipped only if there happens to be a death in the
family that year. If the person stops performing the
ritual on any particular year, it stops permanently and one cannot resume it. In other
communities, this is not mandatory.

The prasad offerings include sweets, Kheer, Thekua and fruits (mainly sugarcane,
sweet lime and banana) offered in small bamboo soop winnows. The food is strictly
vegetarian and is cooked without salt, onions or garlic. Emphasis is put on
maintaining the purity of the food.[20]

References
1. https://m.hindustantimes.com/cities/20k-perform-chhath-puja/story-
ku0MAYpW55U9YBwBGE7ssK.html
2. "Chhath festival celebrated in India and Nepal begins today : The Indian Express"
(http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/art-and-culture/chhath-puja-2016-history
-significance-dates-and-benefits-of-chhath-puja-surya-sashthi-3736023/).
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20161105095143/http://indianexpress.com/
article/lifestyle/art-and-culture/chhath-puja-2016-history-significance-dates-and-b
enefits-of-chhath-puja-surya-sashthi-3736023/) from the original on 5 November
2016.
3. "Chhath natively celebrated in India and Nepal has significance in Hindu Culture"
(http://www.weallnepali.com/nepali-festivals/chhath-parva). Archived (https://web.
archive.org/web/20161105170120/http://www.weallnepali.com/nepali-festivals/chh
ath-parva) from the original on 5 November 2016.
4. Subhamoy Das. "Chhath Puja" (http://hinduism.about.com/od/festivalsholidays/fl/
Chhath-Puja.htm). About Religion. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/2015111
7032326/http://hinduism.about.com/od/festivalsholidays/fl/Chhath-Puja.htm) from
the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.

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5. "Festivals of India And Nepal - CHHATH FESTIVAL" (http://www.aryabhatt.com/fa


st_fair_festival/Festivals/Chhath%20Festival.htm). Archived (https://web.archive.o
rg/web/20090607030908/http://aryabhatt.com/fast_fair_festival/Festivals/Chhat
h%20Festival.htm) from the original on 7 June 2009.
6. "A festival not confined to Bihar" (https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/patna/a-f
estival-not-confined-to-bihar/articleshow/61208996.cms). Archived (https://web.ar
chive.org/web/20171223231209/https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/patna/a-f
estival-not-confined-to-bihar/articleshow/61208996.cms) from the original on 23
December 2017.
7. "No Nepalese and Bihari diasporas want to stay out of home in Chhath :: Patna
Reportings" (https://web.archive.org/web/20140918091228/http://bstdc.bih.nic.in/
patna.htm). Archived from the original (http://bstdc.bih.nic.in/Patna.htm) on 18
September 2014.
8. https://www.teachingbanyan.com/essay/long-essay-on-chhath-puja/amp/
9. "Chhath at the crossroads" (http://www.telegraphindia.com/1161106/jsp/bihar/stor
y_117672.jsp#.WB7jCtJ97IU). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/2016110616
5447/http://www.telegraphindia.com/1161106/jsp/bihar/story_117672.jsp#.WB7jCt
J97IU) from the original on 6 November 2016.
10. "Chhath rituals bring family together" (https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/patn
a/chhath-rituals-bring-family-together/articleshow/61190103.cms). Archived (http
s://web.archive.org/web/20171024211139/https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/
patna/chhath-rituals-bring-family-together/articleshow/61190103.cms) from the
original on 24 October 2017.
11. Sah, Jitendra (8 November 2016). "Sun worshippers" (http://kathmandupost.ekan
tipur.com/news/2016-11-08/sun-worshippers.html). The Kathmandu Post.
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20161111191013/http://kathmandupost.eka
ntipur.com/news/2016-11-08/sun-worshippers.html) from the original on 11
November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016. "Some devotees go to river
banks to worship the sun by prostrating themselves the entire distance."
12. "Chhath the most eco-friendly festival: Environmentalists" (http://timesofindia.indi
atimes.com/city/patna/Chhath-the-most-eco-friendly-festival-Environmentalists/art
icleshow/55266563.cms). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/2016111100492
5/http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/patna/Chhath-the-most-eco-friendly-festiv
al-Environmentalists/articleshow/55266563.cms) from the original on 11
November 2016.
13. "Ode to god of green things" (https://www.telegraphindia.com/1141028/jsp/bihar/s
tory_18972561.jsp). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170801122445/http
s://www.telegraphindia.com/1141028/jsp/bihar/story_18972561.jsp) from the
original on 1 August 2017.
14. "Surat 1 lakh to celebrate chhath puja" (https://web.archive.org/web/2010010317
4842/http://jaibihar.com/surat-1-lakh-to-celebrate-chhath-puja/13529/). Jai Bihar.
22 October 2009. Archived from the original (http://jaibihar.com/surat-1-lakh-to-cel
ebrate-chhath-puja/13529/) on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2009.

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15. "15 lakh to observe Chhath Puja in Delhi" (https://web.archive.org/web/20091102


225314/http://jaibihar.com/15-lakh-to-observe-chhath-puja-in-delhi/13535/). Jai
Bihar. 22 October 2009. Archived from the original (http://jaibihar.com/15-lakh-to-
observe-chhath-puja-in-delhi/13535/) on 2 November 2009. Retrieved
14 December 2009.
16. "Juhu Beach decks up for worshiping the sun god" (http://www.dnaindia.com/mu
mbai/report_juhu-beach-decks-up-for-worshipping-the-sun-god_1302371). DNA
India. 24 October 2009. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20120228205155/
http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report_juhu-beach-decks-up-for-worshipping-th
e-sun-god_1302371) from the original on 28 February 2012. Retrieved
14 December 2009.
17. https://www.india.com/travel/articles/chhath-puja-2017-famous-sun-temples-in-
bihar-to-witness-chhath-puja-celebrations-3228015/
18. Prateek Pathak. "Why do we celebrate Chhath Puja?" (https://www.speakingtree.i
n/allslides/why-do-we-celebrate-chhath-puja). SpeakingTree. Retrieved
2 November 2019.
19. "Men not far behind women in celebrating Chhath" (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.
com/city/patna/Men-not-far-behind-women-in-celebrating-Chhath/articleshow/552
51895.cms). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20161111122821/http://timeso
findia.indiatimes.com/city/patna/Men-not-far-behind-women-in-celebrating-Chhat
h/articleshow/55251895.cms) from the original on 11 November 2016.
20. " 'Rasiao-kheer', 'thekua' make for festive platter" (http://articles.timesofindia.indiat
imes.com/2011-11-01/ludhiana/30345212_1_chhath-puja-ancient-hindu-festival-s
un-god). The Times of India. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2012.

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