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SURVEYORS & SURVEYING

IN RPD

PRESENTED BY :
ANNESHA K. KONWAR
MDS II nd YEAR
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
TERMINOLOGY
HISTORY & DEVELOPMENT
TYPES & USES OF SURVEYOR
PRINCIPLES IN SURVEYING
SIGNIFICANCE OF SURVEY LINES
PARTS OF DENTAL SURVEYOR
SURVEY PROCESS
RECENT ADVANCES
CROSS REFERENCES
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
A partial denture will not succeed unless it is designed and
constructed in harmony with all the physiologic and mechanical
problems present in the patient’s mouth.

Surveying and designing are important steps towards


achieving a successful restoration.

A well-executed design serves as a blueprint for fabrication of


the removable partial dentures.

Lack of plan,haphazard preparation and lack of abutment


preparation are a few factors of partial denture failure.
TERMINOLOGIES :

SURVEY-”The SURVEYOR-”An
SURVEYING-”An instrument used in the
procedure of locating
analysis and construction of a
or delineating the
comparison of the removable partial denture
contour and position of
prominence of intraoral to locate and delineate the
the abutment teeth and contours and relative
contours associated
associated structures positions of abutment
with the fabrication of
before designing a teeth and associated
a prosthesis”-GPT
partial denture.”-GPT 8 structures.”-GPT 8
• A line drawn on a tooth or teeth of a cast by means of a
surveyor for the purpose of determining the positions of the
SURVEY LINE various parts of a retainer-GPT 8

• Two or more vertically parallel surfaces of abutment teeth so


oriented as to direct the path of placement/removal of a
GUIDING
PLANE removable partial denture

• The direction in which a prosthesis is placed upon and


PATH OF removed from the abutment teeth-GPT 8
INSERTION

A line encircling a tooth designating its greatest


HEIGHT OF circumference at a selected position
CONTOUR
HISTORY AND
DEVELOPMENT
During the first part of the twentieth century, RPD were

designed and constructed using arbitrary techniques

“eye balling”.

The turning point in the change of partial denture construction

from guesswork based on clinical experience to scientifically

based procedure was the appearance of the dental surveyor in 1918.

Dr. A.J. Fortunati

In 1923 the J.M. Ney Corporation produced the first commercially


available, the Ney instrument.
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE : 1860 : Dr. J.
Richardson.
1890 : Dr
W.M.
Randall’s
technique.
1905 : Dr
Herman E.S
Chayes’
Parallelomete
r
1920 :
Robinson
surveyor by
Philadephia
Dental Clinic
club.
1923 : The
original ney
surveyor by
Weinstein &
1937 : Ney surveyor
– the current model.

1929 : The original


Wills surveyor by
noble G Wills.

1937 : Wills
Surveyor-the
current model

1942 : King’s
College Surveyor.

1944 : The Roach


Surveyor.
>The Electrome >The Retentoscope >The
Stressograph

>Broken-arm > Pendulum Surveyor >Optical


Surveyor
WILLIAMS SURVEYOR
It has a Gimbal stage table -adjustable to
any desired tilt. Degree of inclination can
be recorded for repositioning of cast at any
time.

Superstructure of this surveyor consists of


jointed arm and spring-supported survey
rod, all components of which can be locked
in fixed position if desired.
THE HIGHRISER RPD SURVEYOR

A pendulum arm Block out/Survey Instrument.

Allows fluid movement.

The arm can freely swing back and forth,

rotate, or move up or down.

Arm can be locked to hold it at a set vertical height.

Spring tension is easily adjusted

Heating element attachment is designed for easy use and various size
tips are available.
THE SKYSCRAPER SURVEYOR

A dual pendulum Electronic Block out / Survey


instrument.

The dual arm system has several advantages :

-The heating element does not have to be removed when

surveying
-By simply rotating the column the new tool is ready for
use.
THE THERMA-SCULPT SURVEYOR
ATTACHMENT

The Therma-sculpt is an electronically heated arbor


that can be easily attached to Ney-Jelenko type
surveyor.

The design concept allows the technician to


perform varied wax sculpting tasks : from block
out of RPD, to attachment and implant procedures.
PURPOSES OF SURVEYING
Determine the most advantageous path of insertion.

Locate proximal tooth surfaces - guiding surfaces.

Locate and measure undercuts.

Identify hard or soft tissue interferences.

Determine a path of insertion consistent with esthetic requirements.

Delineate the height of contour of the abutment teeth and identify


areas of undercut

Planning restorative procedures.

Record the most ideal cast position for future reference.

Plan for the RPD design and the required mouth preparation.
PARTS OF A SURVEYOR :

SURVEYING ARM
HORIZONTAL
MANDRE ARM
L VERTICAL ARM
CAST HOLDER/
SURVEYING TABLE

PLATFORM
SURVEYING TOOLS :

Analysing Rod

Carbon Marker

Undercut Gauge

Wax Trimmer
ANALYSING ROD :

Used for preliminary survey of the cast.


Assessment of degree of undercuts on hard & soft tissues.
Assessment of angulation of teeth.
In distal extension cases,allows judgement of whether the
distal abutment undercuts are sufficient to indicate that a tilt
may be beneficial.
CARBON MARKER

Basically allows visualization of the analysing rod’s work.

Used for drawing survey lines around all teeth involved in clasp
design or that have proximal undercuts to be eliminated.

To mark the extent of bony/soft tissue undercuts for prosthetic


mouth preparation if required.

Light pressure without erosion.


UNDERCUT GAUGES :
Used to measure the location and horizontal depth of undercuts on
the analysed and marked teeth in three dimensions.

Stewert – o.o1”,0.015”,0.02”

McCracken-0.01”,0.02”,0.03”

Same shank,only the size of the tip/bead varies (except Neys)


WAX TRIMMERS :

Used to trim off excessive wax while surveying the wax


patterns.

To prevent overcontoured blockout of unfavourable undercuts.

To demarcate the exact planned clasp arm location to be


duplicated.

To create a gap/self cleansing area using a 25 trimmer.


COMPARISON OF NEY’S & JELENKO
SURVEYOR

1. Horizontal arm is fixed 1.Horizontal arm is movable

2. Vertical arm is retained 2. Vertical arm is spring


by friction mounted

3. Shaft remains in any 3. Vertical arm when released


vertical position until again returns to its original position,
it is moved it should be held against
spring tension
4. Cast table is moved
around surveyor platform 4. Cast table is fixed to the
SURVEY LINES :

High

Louis
Blatterfein’s
division of
abutment
Diagonal Medium
teeth into
near zone
NZ & far
zone FZ

Low
SIGNIFICANCES OF SURVEY
LINES :

It helps to locate areas


of undesirable tooth
undercuts that must be
Any rigid,nonflexible avoided or eliminated.
part of the prosthesis
must be designed to lie
above the survey
line,and only flexible
parts may be designed
to go below it.
HIGH SURVEY LINE: From occlusal
1/3rd in NZ to occlusal 1/3rd in FZ

MEDIUM SURVEY LINE: From occlusal


1/3rd in NZ to middle 1/3rd in FZ.

LOW SURVEY LINE: From cervical


1/3rd in NZ to cervical 1/3rd in FZ

DIAGONAL SURVEY LINE: From


occlusal 1/3rd in NZ to gingival 1/3rd in
FZ
NEY’S CLASSIFICATION

Class I: Class II: Class III:


Survey line runs Survey line also Survey line is
diagonally across runs diagonally parallel to the
the tooth surface. across the tooth occlusal surface
The type of clasp surface but as a and lies just below
indicated is mirror image of it
occlusally Class I line. Here a
approaching cast gingivally
clasp with terminal approaching clasp
third engaging the arm is suggested.
26
undercut.
HEIGHT OF CONTOUR:

First termed by KENNEDY.

Represents the greatest bulge of diameter of a crown when


viewed from a specific angle or changes as the vertical position of
the tooth changes.

Tipping or tilting the cast will cause the height of contour to


move accordingly.
SUPRA BULGE :
Surface of the
tooth that is INFRA BULGE :
occlusal to the
Surface gingival to
height of contour
the height of contour

DE VAN 1935
PATH OF INSERTION :

FACTORS
AFFECTING

RETETIVE
UNDERCU
TS

INTERFERENCES &
GUIDING PLANES

ESTHETICS
RETENTIVE UNDERCUTS :

When surveying diagnostic casts for rpd,retentive undercuts must be


present on abutment teeth when the cast displays a horizontal tilt.

This is necessary because dislodging forces are always directed


perpendicular to the occlusal plane.
IDENTIFYING THE MOST FAVOURABLE TILT :
Tilting is changing the position of the cast,which thus changes the
long axis
of each tooth on the cast relative to the horizontal plane.

Change in the tilt then changes the position of survey line and
location and
extent of the undercut.
The basic position or tilt of the cast on surveyor should be the
horizontal tilt.

In the horizontal tilt,occlusal surfaces of the teeth are at or near parallel


to the horizontal plane.
The anterior tilt increases the mesial undercut on the teeth.

In the posterior tilt,the occlusal plane is lower in the posterior region.


The posterior tilt will increase the distal undercut and decrease the
mesial undercut.
INTERFERENCES
In the maxillary arch –

palatal torus

exostoses and undercuts on the buccal surfaces of the


maxillary arch

facial tipping of posterior teeth

anterior soft tissue undercuts


In the mandibular arch –

mandibular tori

lingual tipping of the posterior teeth

bony prominences often encountered at the facial surfaces


of mandibular canines and premolars.

Soft tissue undercuts


BONY UNDERCUTS
ESTHETICS:

To obtain optimum esthetics,the metal,usually in the form of clasp arm,


must be concealed without compromising necessary support and
stability of the prostheses.

The artificial teeth must be placed in the most natural position possible.

Avoiding unnecessary display of the metal,the tilt of the survey table


should be such that the survey line on the teeth that are visible be as
close to the gingival margin.

The ideal position of the clasp for the retentive purpose is gingival
third of the tooth.
GUIDING PLANES :

Guiding planes are formed from the proximal tooth surfaces of the
teeth and are contacted by the minor connectors or other rigid
components of the partial denture.

These planes guide the prostheses for removal and placement.

The guiding planes are in intimate contact with the minor


connectors,help to stabilize against the lateral forces.
NUMBER OF PATH OF
INSERTION:
STEP BY STEP PROCEDURES IN SURVEYING A
DIAGNOSTIC CAST
Orientation of cast
Cast tilting
Visual analysis using analysing rod
Marking of survey lines /soft tissue undercuts using carbon markers
Undercut gauges used to measure amount of available retention
Interferences
Wax Trimmers
Tripoding of casts
ORIENTATION OF CAST

Casts oriented such that the anterior part is always toward the
vertical member of surveyor and away from the operator

Position for description is fixed for either cast.

Can be attached to the holding table via:

o Soft plasticine or wax

o Locking screws engaging the sides of model

o Magnetised iron cast into base of model


CAST TILTING

Tilting is changing the position of the cast, which thus


changes the long axis of each tooth relative to the horizontal
plane.
Alters the contour, positions, location & depth of undercut
relative to the new plane.
Allows:
The most advantageous path of insertion
Increase in desirable and decrease in undesirable undercuts
Distribution of available undercuts to produce more uniform
retention throughout the available teeth & tissues
Establishes parallelism & improvises upon esthetics.
Dislodging forces primarily to occlusal plane.
Hence, HORIZONTAL or 0. TILT most common(Not>10˚).
Other tilts:
o Anterior
o Posterior
o Lateral
VISUAL ANALYSIS USING
ANALYSING ROD
Primarily responsible for “eyeballing” of the cast.

Once orientation & tilt is established, allows for a general tangential


analysis of undercuts, tooth angulations, etc.

Also aids the establishment of relative parallelism of various planar


surfaces.
MARKING OF SURVEY LINES /SOFT TISSUE
UNDERCUTS USING CARBON MARKERS

Analysis by the analysing rod is visualised via the carbon marker.


5H pencil graphites secured with metal reinforcement sheath
UNDERCUT GAUGES USED TO MEASURE
AMOUNT OF AVAILABLE RETENTION

These gauges are used to identify the specific amount


and location of desired retentive undercut on the surface
of the abutment tooth.

The undercut is best viewed against light passing


through a triangle bounded by surfaces of abutment
tooth, surveyor blade ,apex being the point of contact at
the height of convexity and base of triangle being the
gingival tissues.

46
Undercut utilisation
o 0.01 → cast retainers
o 0.02 → wrought wire retention
o 0.03 → rarely used
If no retentive undercuts are present, they must be created by:
o Gold Crowns
o Retentive Restorations
o Creating an undercut by tooth modification
WAX TRIMMERS
Once unfavorable undercuts are blocked, to prevent overcontouring,
wax trimmers are used.

In case of distal extension cases, to create a gap/self cleansing area


.
under the saddle, a 25 trimmer is used in conjunction.

Wax patterns for casting can also be carved accordingly.


PRESERVING THE TILT THROUGH
TRIPODING :
Once tilt has been selected for given rpd design, this tilt should be
preserved,so that it can be re-established accurately to the surveying
table.

This procedure is termed as “ TRIPODING”.This helps in returning


the cast to the surveyor for future reference.
Methods for tripoding a cast :

METHOD 1 :

By placing widely spaced dots on the tissue surface of the cast using
the tip of the carbon marker, with the vertical arm of the surveyor in a
locked position.
METHOD 2
Scour 2 sides and the dorsal
aspect of the base of the cast with
a sharp instrument/ marking
pencil held against the surveyor
blade.
Marks don’t interfere with the
design
Easy duplication
May get smudged upon
handling
METHOD 3
A hole about 10 mm in diameter and
10 mm deep is prepared in the
lingual land area of the mandibular
cast with a large acrylic finishing bur.
The pin is locked in the vertical
spindle and lowered to the bottom of
the hole.
The vertical spindle with the pin is
then locked in this position and the
hole is filled with dental plaster.
Once the plaster is set, vertical
spindle is released from cemented
pin.
METHOD 4
An instrument reproduces the tilt
of a cast on a surveyor using
protractor
Flat metal strip 5mm wide and
3cm long, one end of which bend
upward at 90˚
Metal rod is attached to the end of
the flat part of the strip which
serves to fit the instrument to the
surveyor

J Prosthet Dent 1965;34(3)465-471


A hole is tapped and threaded in
the middle of the bent part of
metal strip through which a
protractor is screwed
The protractor can rotate around
the metal rod, acting as a pointer.
After determining the path of
insertion, the protractor
instrument is mounted on the
surveyor in place of analyzing rod
3 divergent points are marked,
with readings recorded at each tilt
METHOD 5
Make a hole in the tongue space
on mandibular cast 4-6mm in
diameter
Hole should create undercut but
should not perforate the base of
the cast
Following normal surveying
procedures, a parallel shanked
straight handpiece bur is
suspended.

J Prosthet Dent 1981;41(3):352-354


• With the bur in place, fill the
hole with autopolymerizing
acrylic resin

For reorientation, reposition the


bur in autopolymerizing resin
for a parallel tripod record.
METHOD 6
Wax deposited on side of
cast at 3 widely separated
points
Analyzing rod used to create
imprints of wax
This can be transferred by
duplication
METHOD 7
Make a universal tray on a
cast after adapting 2 thickness
of baseplate wax over the
teeth.
Make a platform with a
cylinder over the tray and
insert analyzing rod into
cylinder.
Move the tray to and fro
vertically during setting of
the material to make a smooth
vertical perforation in
cylinder.
Tray loaded with elastic
impression material, the cylinder
is attached to the rod and locked

After establishing tilt, an


impression is made

Reorientation can later be done


by placing the impression on
cast and the tilt at which the
stylus can enter the cylinder
locks the prior position
SURVEYING THE MASTER CAST :

Surveyed as a new cast

Prepared proximal guiding plane surfaces will indicate the correct


anteroposterior tilt

Any remaining interferences after mouth preparation must be


eliminated with block out.

Survey lines marked


SURVEYING IN CONFINED AREAS

J Prosthet Dent 1991;61(5):378-380


Orthodontic wire can be used as a
horizontal "feeler gauge“ in combination
with the vertical analyzing wire to
estimate the adequacy of the retentive
undercut.

Dimensions of the wire allow for finer


measurements.
CONTOURING OF WAX PATTERNS
Surveyor blade – used as wax carver

Proposed path of placement maintained throughout preparation of


cast restorations for abutment teeth.

Surfaces of restorations that provide reciprocation for clasp arms


have to be contoured to permit their location well below occlusal
surfaces and on non retentive areas
BLOCK OUT
After the establishment of path of insertion and the location of
undercut areas on the master cast, the areas that shall be crossed by
the rigid parts of the denture must be blocked out.

Roach carver or No.7 spatula used to adapt the blocking wax.

Four types:

o Parallel Blockout

o Shaped Blockout/Ledge Blockout

o Arbitrary Blockout

o Relief
Parallel Blockout:
Performed:
o On interproximal surfaces to be used as guiding
planes(0/2/6˚ taper)
o Beneath all minor connectors
o On tissue undercuts to be crossed by rigid connectors
o Beneath bar clasp arms to gingival crevices
Materials Used:
o Hard baseplate wax
o Hard inlay wax
o Oil based modelling clay
Thickness-Only undercut remaining gingival to contact of
surveyor
blade with tooth surface
Shaped/Ledge Blockout:

Performed:

o On buccal & lingual surfaces to locate plastic or wax


patterns for clasp arms

Material:

o Hard Baseplate Wax

Thickness: Ledges for location of reciprocal clasp arms to follow


height or convexity so that they may be placed as cervical as
possible without becoming retentive
Arbitrary Blockout:
Performed:
o On all gingival crevices
o On gross tissue undercuts below areas involved in
framework design
o On tissue undercuts distal to cast framework
o Labial & buccal tooth undercuts not involved in denture
design
Material:
o Oil Based Modelling Clay
o Hard Baseplate Wax
Thickness:Enough to just eliminate gingival
crevice, levelled arbitrarily with a wax spatula
Relief
Provided:
o Beneath lingual bar connectors or the bar portion of
linguoplates
o On areas in which the major connector will contact thin
tissue
o Beneath framework extensions onto ridge areas for
attachment of resin bases
Material:
o Adhesive wax
o Hard Baseplate Wax
Thickness:
o 32 gauge wax(universally)
o 20 gauge wax for resin base attachment relief
PLACEMENT OF INTERNAL REST SEATS
Large box shaped metallic extensions that function as intracoronal
extensions.

Carved in wax patterns and refined further with hand piece after
casting.
MACHINING OF CAST
RESTORATIONS :

Rotary instruments can be attached to the surveyor via a handpiece


holder for trimming/machining of restorations.

Surveying arm can then be rotated around the restoration to trim


excess crown material.
SURVEYING CERAMIC VENEER CROWNS

Ceramic veneer crowns is used to restore abutment on which an extra-


coronal rest is placed

Surveyor is used to contour wax pattern except labial or buccal


surfaces for

esthetic reasons

Repositioning on surveyor, reshaping with stones may be required


before final Glazing of veneer crowns
PLACEMENT OF INTRA CORONAL RETAINERS

Surveyor is used to
To select a path of placement in relation to the long axes of abutment
teeth

To cut on diagnostic cast to estimate proximity to pulp

To carve wax patterns, to place internal attachment in wax patterns or


to cut recesses in casting

To place keyway portion of attachment in casting


PLACEMENT OF INTERNAL REST SEATS

Surveyor used as a drill press

Internal rest seats carved in wax pattern, defined in casting or


entirely cut in cast restoration

It provides positive occlusal support and horizontal


stabilization

Internal rests may be of Retentive, Non-retentive or Semi-


retentive

forms
WHAT’S NEW?? - THREE DIMENSIONAL
COMPUTER AIDED SURVEYING

J Prosthet Dent 2004;92(3):408-412


Programs were written for this
technique using mathematic software
(MatLab:The Math Works, Inc, Natick,
Mass)

The program identified all downward


facing surface triangles on scan as –ve
& upward facing as +ve, the junction
being the survey line.
Tilting the cast allows for
accurate re-record of the new
survey line.
20˚ tilt
This can then be reproduced onto
the digitally scanned tooth
structure.
CONCLUSION

Preservation of abutment teeth and supporting structures of the oral


cavity depends on accurate and knowledgeable survey and design.
To plan, survey, and design a removable partial denture which will
provide proper retention, support, stabilization, and esthetics, is
essential for the success of the removable partial denture.
REFERENCES

Stewart’s clinical REMOVABLE PARTIAL PROSTHODONTICS

– 4th Edition and 2nd edition

McCracken’s Removable partial prosthodontics

– 11th Edition

An Atlas Of Removable Partial Denture Design – Stratton

Dental Laboratory procedures for Removable Partial Denture

- Rudd and Morrow