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Board Capsule

Class XII Physics


Unit 1 Electrostatics
Electric Charge and its Properties
Q.1. Two insulated charged copper sphere A and B of identical size have charges Q A and QB respectively.
A third sphere C of same size but uncharged is brought in contact with the first and then in contact
with the second and finally removed from both. What are the new charges on A and B?
Q.2. Two concentric metallic spherical shells of radii R and 2R are given charges Q1 and Q2 respectively.
The surface charge densities on the outer surfaces of the shell are equal. Determine the ratio Q1: Q2.

Q.3. What is SI unit, emu and c.g.s. unit of electrostatic charge?


Q.4. How are coulomb and stat coulomb units related to each other?
Q.5. How many electrons must be removed form a conductor so that it acquires a charge of 3.5 nC.
Q.6. Give two points of distinction between charge and mass?
Q.7. What is the cause of charging? Is mass of a body affected on charging?
Q.8. Can ever photons have a charge? If not, why?
Q.9. A copper sphere of mass 2g contains nearly 2 X 1022 electrons. The change on the nucleus of each
atom is 29e. What fraction of the electrons must be removed from the sphere to give it a charge of +2
µC? [NCERT]

Coulomb’s Law
Q.1. Is the force acting between two point charges q1 and q2 kept at some distance apart in air attractive or
repulsive when (i) (q1q2) > 0, (ii) (q1q2) < 0 ?
Q.2. Two equal balls having equal positive charge ‘q’ coulombs are suspended by two insulating strings
of equal length. What would be the effect on the force when plastic sheet is inserted between the
two?
1
Q.3. Plot a graph showing the variation of coulomb force (F) versus , where r is the distance between
𝑟2
the two charges of each pair of charges (1 C, 2C) and (2 C, -3 C). Interpret the graphs obtained.
Q.4. Consider the charges q, q, and –q placed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle of side L ,What is
the force on each charge?
Q.5. Does Coulomb’s law of electric force obey Newton’s third law of motion?
Q.6. How is the force between two charges affected when dielectric constant of the medium in which they
are held increases?
Q.7. Two point charges of +2 μC and +6 μC repel each other with a force of 12N. If each is given an
additional charge of - 4 μC, what will be nature and magnitude of new force?
Q.8. Two point charges lie on the x-axis. A charge of +9 μC is at the origin, and a charge of -4 μC is at
x=10cm. At what position x would a third charge q3 be in equilibrium? Does your answer to part a
depend on whether q3 is positive or negative? Explain.
Q.9. Two charges, q and 4q, are 1 m apart. What are the location, magnitude and sign of a third charge, Q,
placed so that the entire system is at equilibrium NCERT
Q.10. Two similarly and equally charged identical metal spheres A and B repel each other with a force of
2 x 10-5 N. A third identical uncharged sphere C is touched with A and then placed at a midpoint
between A and B. Calculate the net electric force on C NCERT
Q.11. Coulomb’s law for electrostatic force between two point charges and Newton’s law for gravitational
force between two stationary point masses, both have inverse-square dependence on the distance
between the charges/masses. (a) Compare the strength of these forces by determining the ratio of
their magnitudes (i) for an electron and a proton and (ii) for two protons. (b) Estimate the
accelerations of electron and proton due to the electrical force of their mutual attraction when they
are 1 Å (= 10-10 m) apart? (mp = 1.67 × 10–27 kg, me = 9.11 × 10–31 kg) NCERT
Q.12. Four point charges qA = 2 μC, qB = –5 μC, qC = 2 μC, and qD = –5 μC are located at the corners of
a square ABCD of side 10 cm. What is the force on a charge of 1 μC placed at the centre of the
square? [NCERT]

Electric Field
Q.1. Two point charges +4 C and +1 C are separated by a distance of 2 m in air. Find the point on the
line-joining charges at which the net electric field of the system is zero.
Q.2. A charge is distributed uniformly over a ring of radius ‘a’. Obtain an expression for the electric field
intensity 𝐸 at a point
(i) On the centre of the ring.
(ii) On the axis of the ring. Hence show that for points at large distances from the ring, it behaves like a
point charge.
Q.3. Two identical circular loops ‘1’ and ‘2’ of radius R each have linear charge densities –  and +  C/m
respectively. The loops are placed coaxially with their centers 𝑅 3 distance apart. Find the magnitude
and direction of the net electric field at the centre of loop ‘1’.
Q.4. Define electric field strength. What is its unit? Is it scalar or vector quantity?
Q.5. Two charges +5µC and +20µC are placed 15 cm apart. At what point on the line joining the two
charges is the electric field zero?
Q.6. ABCD is a square of side 5m. Charges of +50C, -50C and +50C are placed at A,C and D respectively .
Find the magnitude of resultant electric field at B.
Q.7. Five charges, q each are placed at the corners of a regular pentagon of side ‘a’ (Fig.)
(a) (i) What will be the electric field at O, the centre of the pentagon?
(ii) What will be the electric field at O if the charge from one of the corners (say A) is removed? (iii)
What will be the electric field at O if the charge q at A is replaced by –q?
(b) How would your answer to (a) be affected if pentagon is replaced by n-sided regular polygon with
charge q at each of its corners? [NCERT]

Q.8. Fig shows tracks of charged particles crossing uniform electric field with same velocities along with

horizontal. Give the signs of the three charges. Which particle has the highest charge to mass ratio?
Electric Field Lines
Q.1. Why do the electrostatic field lines not form closed loops?
Q.2. Depict the electric field lines due to two positive charges kept a certain distance apart.
Q.3. Why do the electric field lines never intersect each other?
Q.4. Figure shows a point charge +Q, located at a distance R/2 from the centre of a spherical metal shell.

Draw the electric field lines for the given system


Q.5. Why electric field lines cannot form closed loops?
Q.6. Sketch the electric field lines for a uniformly charged hollow cylinder as shown.

Q.7. Draw the electric lines of force when a positive point charge is placed near the isolated conducting
sphere.
Q.8. Fig. shows the electric field lines around three point charges A, B and C.
(a) Which charges are positive?
(b) Which charge has the largest magnitude? Why?

(c) In which region or regions of the picture could the electric field be zero? Justify your answer. near
A, (ii) near B, (iii) near C, (iv) nowhere.
Electric Dipole

Q.1. Derive an expression for the electric field intensity due to an electric dipole, of dipole moment 𝑃 and
length 2a, at a point distant r from the centre of the dipole on:
(i) the axial line.
(ii) the equatorial line.
(iii) What is the direction of this Electric Field with Dipole moment in both cases?
(iv) Draw a graph of E versus r for r >> a.
(v) What will be the electric field intensity at the midpoint of the dipole?

Q.2. An electric dipole of dipole moment 𝑝 is placed in a uniform electric field 𝐸 .


(i) Show that it does not undergo any translatory motion (Net force on the dipole is zero in
uniform electric field).
(ii) Obtain the expression for the torque experienced by the dipole. Identify two pairs of
perpendicular vectors in the expression. Point out the direction along which torque acts.
(iii) Diagrammatically represent the position of the dipole in stable and unstable equilibrium and
write the expressions for the torque acting on the dipole in both the cases.
(iv) What happens if the Electric field is non uniform?
(v) What would happen if the external field E is increasing (i) parallel to P and (ii) anti-parallel
to P?
Q.3. Derive an expression for the work done in rotating a dipole from the angle o to 1 in a uniform
electric field E.

What is the value of the angle between the vectors 𝑃 and 𝐸 for which the potential energy of an
electric dipole of dipole moment 𝑃, kept in an external electric field 𝐸 , has maximum value.
Find out the amount of work done in rotating it from the position of unstable equilibrium to the
stable equilibrium.
Q.4. Define Electric Dipole moment. Give its SI unit. Is it scalar or vector quantity?
Q.5. The distance of the field point, on the equatorial plane of a small electric dipole is halved. By what
factor does the electric field due to the dipole change?
Q.6. Two small identical electrical dipoles AB and CD, each of dipole moment ‘P’ are kept at an angle of
120 as shown in the figure. What is the resultant dipole moment of this combination? If this system

is subjected to electric field 𝐸 directed along + X direction, what will be the magnitude and
direction of the torque acting on this?
Q.7. Two dipoles, made from charges ±q and ±Q, respectively, have equal dipole moments. Give the (i)
ratio between the ‘separations’ of these two pairs of charges (ii) angle between the dipole axis of these
two dipoles.
Q.8. An electric dipole consists of two opposite charges each of magnitude 6 X 10-8 coulomb separated by
6.0cm. The dipole is placed in an external electric filed of 5 X 10-5 NC-1 .
What maximum torque will the field exert on the dipole? How much work will an external agent have
to do in turning the dipole through 180o, starting from the position ɵ= 0o?
Q.9. A system has two charges qa and qb; qa = 2.5 X 10-7 C and qb = -2.5 X 10-7 C located at the points
A (0, 0, -15cm) and B (0, 0, +15cm). What is the total charge and electric dipole moment? NCERT

Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law

Q.1. Define the term electric flux. Write its SI unit. What is the flux due to electric field 𝐸 = 3 × 103 𝑖
N/C through a square of side 10 cm, when it is held normal to 𝐸 ?
Q.3. State Gauss’s law in electrostatics.

Q.4. Show, with the help of a suitable example along with the figure, that the outward flux due to a point
𝑞
charge ‘q’ in vacuum within a closed surface, is independent of its size or shape and is given by 𝜖 .
𝑜
Q.5. State the theorem which relates total charge enclosed within a closed surface and the electric flux
passing through it. Prove it for a single point charge.
Q.6. Find out the outward flux due to a point charge +q placed at the centre of a cube of side ‘a’. Why is it
found to be independent of the size and shape of the surface enclosing it? Explain.
Q.7. How does the electric flux due to a point charge enclosed by a spherical Gaussian surface get
affected when its radius is increased?
Q.8. What is the electric flux through a cube of side 1 cm which encloses an electric dipole?
Q.9. A wire AB of length L has linear charge density = kx, where x is measured from the end A of the
wire.
This wire is enclosed by a Gaussian hollow surface. Find the expression for the electric flux through
this surface.
Q.10. A right circular cylinder of length ‘a’ and radius ‘r’ has its centre at the origin and its axis along the
x-axis so that one face is at x = + a/2 and the other at x = – a/2, as shown in the figure. A uniform
electric field is acting parallel to the x-axis such that 𝐸 = 𝐸𝑜 𝑖for x > 0 and 𝐸 = −𝐸𝑜 𝑖 for x < 0.

Find out the flux (i) through the flat faces, (ii) through the curved surface of the cylinder. What is the
net outward flux through the cylinder and the net charge inside the cylinder?
Q.11. Given the electric field in the region 𝐸 = 2𝑖, find the net electric flux through the cube and the

charge enclosed by it.


Q.12. Find the electric field intensity due to a uniformly charged spherical shell at a point (i) outside the
shell and (ii) inside the shell. Plot the graph of electric field with distance from the center of the
shell.
Q.13. Draw a plot showing variation of electric field with distance from the centre of a solid conducting
sphere of radius R, having a charge of +Q on it.
Q.14. A thin metallic spherical shell of radius R carries a charge Q on its surface. A point charge Q/2 is
placed at the center C and another charge +2Q is placed outside the shell at A at a distance x from
the centre as shone in the figure:

Find the electric flux through the shell.


State the law used.
Find the force on the charges at the center C of the shell and at the point A.
Q.15. A point charge +Q is placed at the centre O of an uncharged hollow spherical conductor of inner
radius ‘a’ and outer radius ‘b’. Find the following:

(i) The magnitude and sign of the charge induced on the inner and outer surface of the conducting
shell.
(ii) The magnitude of electric field vector at a distance (i) r = a/2 and (ii) r = 2b, from the centre of
the shell.
Q.16. An atom was earlier assumed to be a sphere of radius ‘a’ having a positively charged point nucleus
of charge +Ze at its centre. This nucleus was believed to be surrounded by a uniform density of
negative charge that made the atom neutral as a whole.
Use this theorem to find the electric field of this ‘atom’ at a distance r (r<a) from the centre of the
atom.
Q.17. Derive an expression for the electric field due to an infinitely long straight uniformly charged wire
with linear charge density .
Q.18. A long charged cylinder of linear charge density + 1 is surrounded by a hollow coaxial conducting
cylinder of linear charge density -2. Use Gauss’s law to obtain expressions for the electric field at a
point (i) in the space between the cylinders, and (ii) outside the larger cylinder.
Q.19. Use Gauss’s theorem to find the electric field due to a uniformly charged infinitely large plane thin
sheet with surface charge density .
Prove that the electric field is independent of distance from the plane sheet.
What is the direction of field for positive and negative chare densities?
Represent graphically the variation of electric field with distance, for a uniformly charged plane
sheet.
Q.20. Show, using Gauss’s law, that for a parallel plate capacitor consisting of two large plane parallel
conductors having surface charge densities +  and –  , separated by a small distance in vacuum,
the electric field
(i) In the outer regions of both the plates is zero,
𝜎
(ii) Is ∈ in the inner region between the charged plates.
𝑜
Q.21. Given a uniformly charged plane/ sheet of surface charge density σ = 2 x1017 C/m2.

(i) Find the electric field intensity at a point A, 5mm away from the sheet on the left side.
(ii) Given a straight line with three points X, Y & Z placed 50 cm away from the charged sheet on
the right side. At which of these points, the field due to the sheet remain the same as that of point A
and why?
Q.22. Two parallel uniformly charged infinite plane sheets, ‘1’ and ‘2’, have charge density + and -2
respectively. Give the magnitude and direction of the net electric field at a point
(i) in between the two sheets and
(ii) outside near the sheet ‘1’.
Q.23. Figure shows three point charges +2q, -q and +3q. The charges +2q and –q are enclosed within the

surface ‘S’. What is the electric flux due to this configuration through the surface ‘S’?
Q.24. Two charges of magnitude -2Q and +Q are located at points (a,0) and (4a,0) respectively. What is the
electric flux due to these charges through a sphere of radius ‘3a’ with its centre at the origin?
Q.25. A charge Q is placed at the centre of a cube. What would be the flux through;
(i) one face and (ii) two opposite faces of the cube?
Q.26. (a) An infinitely long positively charged straight wire has a linear charge density  C/m. An electron
is revolving around the wire as its centre with a constant velocity in a circular plane perpendicular to
the wire. Deduce the expression for its kinetic energy.
(b) Plot a graph of the kinetic energy as a function of charge density .
Q.27. A cube with each side ‘a’ is kept in an electric field given by 𝐸 = 𝐶𝑥𝑖, (as shown in the figure)
where C is a positive dimensional constant. Find out

(i) the electric flux through the cube, and


(ii) the net charge inside the cube.
Q.28. Apply Gauss’ theorem to find the electric field near a charged conductor.
Q.29. An electric dipole of dipole moment 20×10−6 Cm is enclosed by a closed surface. What is the net
flux coming out of the surface?NCERT
Electric Potential and Potential Energy
Q.1. Define electrostatic potential at a point. Write its S.I. unit.
Q.2. Write two properties by which electric potential is related to the electric field.
Q.3. A point charge Q is placed at point ‘O’ as shown in the figure. Is the potential at point A, i.e. V A,

greater, smaller or equal to potential, VB, at point B, when Q is (i) positive, and (ii) negative charge?

Q.5. Figure shows a configuration of the charge array of two dipoles.


Obtain the expression for the dependence of potential on r for r >> a for a point P on the axis of this
array of charges.
Q.6. Eight identical spherical drops, each carrying a charge 1 nC are at a potential of 900 V each. All
these drops combine together to form a single large drop. Calculate the potential of this large drop.
(Assuming no wastage of any kind)
Q.7. Define an equipotential surface.
Q.8. Why (Prove) electric field lines are perpendicular at a point on an equipotential surface of a
conductor?
Q.9. Can electric field exist tangential to an equipotential surface? Give reason.
Q.10. Draw equipotential surfaces:
(i) In the case of a single point charge.
(ii) In a constant electric field in z-direction.
(iii) In case of an electric dipole.
(iv) In case of two identical positive charges separated by a distance.

Q.11. Why the equipotential surfaces about a single charge are not equidistant?
Q.12. Show that the equipotential surfaces are closed together in the regions of strong field and far apart in
the regions of weak field.
Q.13. Concentric equipotential surfaces due to a charged body placed at the centre are shown. Identify the
polarity of the charge and draw the electric field lines due to it.

Q.14. Three point charges q1, q2 and q3 are kept respectively at points A, B and C as shown in the figure.
Derive the expression for the electrostatic potential energy of the system.
Q.15. Obtain an expression for the work done to dissociate the system of three charges placed at the

vertices of an equilateral triangle of side ‘a’ as shown in the figure.


Q.16. Three point charges, +Q, +2Q and -3Q are placed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle ABC of

side l. If these charges are displaced to the mid-points A1, B1 and C1 respectively, find the amount of
the work done in shifting the charge to the new locations.
Q.17. The figure shows the field lines of a positive point charge. What will be the sign of the potential

energy difference of a small negative charge between the points Q and P? Justify your answer.
Q.18. The field lines of a negative point charge are as shown in the figure. Does the kinetic energy of a

small negative charge increase or decrease in going from B to A?


Q.19. A charge ‘q’ is moved from a point ‘A’ above a dipole of dipole moment ‘p’ to a point ‘B’ below the
dipole in equatorial plane without acceleration. Find the work done in the process.

Q.20. What is the amount of work done in moving a point charge Q around a circular arc of radius ‘r’ at the
centre of which another point charge ‘q’ is located?
Q.21. In the given figure, charge +Q is placed at the centre of a dotted circle. Work done in taking another

charge +q from A to B is W1 and from B to C is W2. Which one of the following is correct: W1> W2,
W1=W2 and W1< W2?
Q.22. An α-particle and a proton are accelerated through the same potential difference. Calculate the ratio
of linear momenta acquired by the two.
Q.23. An infinitely large thin plane sheet has a uniform surface charge density +. Obtain the expression
for the amount of work done in bringing a point charge q from infinity to a point, distant r, in front of
the charged plane sheet.
Q.24. Deduce the expression for the potential energy of a system of two charges q1 and q2 located at 𝑟1 and
𝑟2 respectively in an external electric field.
Q.26. Derive the expression for the potential energy of an electric dipole of dipole moment P placed in a
uniform electric field E.
Q.27. Show that the potential energy of a dipole making angle  with the direction of the field is given by
𝑈() = −𝑃. 𝐸 .
Q.28. Can electric potential at a point be zero, while the electric field intensity is not zero? Justify by
giving example.
Q.29. Can electric field intensity at a point be zero, while the electric potential is not zero? Justify by
giving example.
Q.30. Name the physical quantity whose SI unit is J/C. Is it a scalar or a vector quantity?
Q.31. Why two equipotential surfaces can never intersect each other?
Q.32. A hollow metal surface of radius 5 cm is charged such that the potential on its surface is 10 V. What
is the potential at the centre of the sphere?
Q.33. Find the electrostatic potential at a point on
(i) the axial line of electric dipole
(ii) the equatorial line of an electric dipole.
Derive the expression for the electric potential at any point P, at distance r from the centre of an
electric dipole, making angle α, with its axis.
Q.34. A test charge ‘q’ is moved without acceleration from A to C along the path from A to B and then

from B to C in electric field E as shown in figure. (i) Calculate the potential difference between A
and C. (ii) At which point (of the two) is the electric potential more and why?
Q.35. Plot a graph comparing the variation of potential ‘V’ and electric field intensity ‘E’ due to a point
charge ‘Q’ as a function of distance ‘R’ from the point charge.
Q.36. A charge Q is distributed uniformly over a metallic sphere of radius R. Obtain the expressions for the
electric field (E) and electric potential (V) at a point 0 < x < R.
Show on a plot the variation of E and V with x for 0 < x < 2R.
Q.37. Two spherical conductors of radii R1 and R2 (R2>R1) are charged. If they are connected by a
conducting wire, find out the ratio of the surface charge densities on them.
Q.38. Two charges 3 X 10-8 C and -2 X 10-8 C are located 15 cm apart. At what points on the line joining
the two charges is the electrical potential to be zero.
Q.39. A cube of side b has a charge q at each of its vertices. Determine the potential and electric field due
to this charge array at the centre of the cube.
Q.40. A metal wire is bent into a circle of radius 10 cm . It is given a charge of 200μ C which spreads on it
uniformly. Calculate the electric potential at its centre and at a point at a distance 10 cm from the
center.
Q.41. A charge of 24μC is given to a hollow sphere of radius 0.2m. Find the potential
(i) at the surface of the sphere, and
(ii) at a distance of 0.1 m from the centre of the sphere.
(iii) at the centre
Q.42. What is the work done in moving a charge of 100μC through a distance of 1cm along the equatorial
line of dipole?
Q.43. If V equals a constant throughout a given region of space, what can you say about E in that region?
How many electron volts make one joule?
Q.44. If E equals zero at a given point, must V equal zero for that point? Give some example to prove your
answer.
Q.45. What is the S.I. unit of the line integral of electric field?
Q.46. The potential at point A is 10 volts and at point B is 20 volts. What is the direction of electric field
b/w A and B.
Q.47. Four charges are placed at the vertices of a square of side d as shown in the figure.(i) Find the work

done to put together this arrangement. (ii) A charge q0is brought to the center E of the square, the
four charges being held fixed at its corners. How much extra work is needed to do this?
Q.48. If one of the two electrons of a H2 molecule is removed, we get a hydrogen molecular ion H2+ In the
ground state of an H2+ the two protons are separated by roughly 1.5 Å, and the electron is roughly 1
Å from each proton. Determine the potential energy of the system. Specify your choice of the zero of
potential energy.NCERT
Q.49. In a hydrogen atom, the electron and proton are bound at a distance of about 0.53 Å:
(a) Estimate the potential energy of the system in eV, taking the zero of the potential energy at
infinite separation of the electron from proton. (b) What is the minimum work required to free the
electron, given that its kinetic energy in the orbit is half the magnitude of potential energy obtained
in (a)? (c) What are the answers to (a) and (b) above if the zero of potential energy is taken at 1.06 Å
separation?NCERT
Q.50. Figures (a) and (b) show the field lines of a positive and negative point charge respectively.NCERT

(a) Give the signs of the potential difference VP – VQ; VB – VA.


(b) Give the sign of the potential energy difference of a small negativecharge between the points Q
and P; A and B.Give the sign of the work done by the field in moving a smallpositive charge from Q
to P.
(c) Give the sign of the work done by the external agency in moving a small negative charge from B
to A.
(d) Does the kinetic energy of a small negative charge increase or decrease in going from B to A?
Q.51. The electrostatic potential on the surface of a charged conducting sphere is 100V. What is the
electric field intensity and electric potential at centre of sphere
Which of the following is a correct statement?

Q.52. There point charges of are kept at the vertices, A, B and C 2μ C, -3 μ C, -3 μ C respectively of an
equilateral triangle of side 20 cm as shown in the figure. What should be the sign and magnitude of
the charge to be placed at the mid-point (M) of side BC so that the charge at A remains in
equilibrium?
Q.53. What is the work done in moving a point charge over an equipotential surface?
Q.54. What is the work done by the field of a nucleus in a complete circular orbit of electron? What if the
orbit is elliptical?
Q.55. The electric field at a point due to a point charge is 30 N/C, and the electric potential at that point is
15 J/C. Calculate the distance of the point from the charge and the magnitude of the charge.

Conductors and Dielectrics


Q.1. What is electrostatic shielding? How is this property used in actual practice? Is the potential in the
cavity of a charged conductor zero?
Q.2. A point charge +Q is placed in the vicinity of a conducting surface. Trace the field lines between the
charge and the conducting surface.
Q.4. Explain, using suitable diagrams, the difference in the behavior of a (i) conductor and (ii) dielectric
in the presence of external electric field.
Q.5. How does polarized dielectric modify the original external field?
Q.6. Define the terms polarization of a dielectric and write its relation with susceptibility.

Q.7. Write the relation for polarization 𝑃 of a dielectric material in the presence of an external electric
field 𝐸 .
Q.8. Compare the individual dipole moment and the specimen dipole moment for H2O molecule and O2
molecule when placed in (i) Absence of external electric field and (ii) Presence of external electric
field. Justify your answer.
Q.9. How does the electric field inside a dielectric decrease when it is placed in an external electric field?
Q.11. Define dielectric constant of a medium. What is its S.I. unit?
Q.12. Explain why the polarization of a dielectric reduces the electric field inside the dielectric.
Q.13. The dielectric constant of a conductor can be taken as infinitely large. Why
Q.14. What is the effect of temperature on dielectric constant?
Q.15. Derive relation between dielectric constant and electric susceptibility.
Capacitor
Q.1. Explain briefly the process of charging a parallel plate capacitor when it is connected across a d.c.
battery.
Q.2. Define the capacitance of a capacitor. Obtain the expression for the capacitance of a parallel plate
capacitor in vacuum in terms of plate area A and separation d between the plates.
Q.3. If two similar large plates, each of area A having surface charge densities + and - are separated by
a distance d in air, find the expressions for
(a) Field at points between the two plates and on outer side of the plates. Specify the direction of
the field in each case.
(b) The potential difference between the plates.
(c) The capacitance of the capacitor so formed.
Q.4. Explain what is the effect of inserting a dielectric slab of dielectric constant k in the intervening
space inside the plates on (i) The electric field and (ii) The capacitance of the capacitor.
Q.5. Derive the expression for the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor. Hence obtain the expression
for the energy density of the electric field.
Q.6. Calculate the potential difference and the energy stored in the capacitor C2 in the circuit shown in the

figure. Given potential at A is 90 V, C1 = 20 F, C2 = 30 F and C3 = 15 F.


Q.7. A network of four 10 F capacitors is connected to a 500 V supply as shown in the figure. Determine

the (i) equivalent capacitance of the network and (ii) Charge on each capacitor.
Q.8. Find the equivalent capacitance of the network shown in the figure, when each capacitor is of 1 F.

When the ends X and Y are connected to a 6 V battery, find out (i) the charge and (ii) the energy
stored in the network.
Q.9. Calculate the equivalent capacitance between points A and B in the circuit below. If a battery of 10

V is connected across A and B, calculate the charge drawn from the battery by the circuit.
Q.10. Two capacitors of unknown capacitance C1 and C2 are connected first in series and then in parallel
across a battery of 100 V. If the energy stored in the two combinations is 0.045 J and 0.25 J
respectively, determine the value of C1 andC2. Also calculate the charge on each capacitor in parallel
combination.
Q.11. A capacitor of capacitance ‘C’ is charged to ‘V’ volts by a battery. After some time, the battery is
disconnected and the distance between the plates is doubled. Now a slab of dielectric constant,
1<K<2, is introduced to fill the space between the plates. How will the following be affected?
(i) The electric field between the plates of the capacitor.
(ii) The energy stored in the capacitor.
Justify your answer by writing the necessary expressions.
Q.12. A parallel plate capacitor of capacitance C is charged to a potential V by a battery. Without
disconnecting the battery, the distance between the plates is tripled and a dielectric medium of k = 10
is introduced between the plates of the capacitor. Explain giving reasons, how will the following be
affected:
(i) Capacitance of the capacitor
(ii) Charge on the capacitor, and
(iii) Energy density of the capacitor.
Q.13. Capacitor of capacitance C is charged fully by connecting it to a battery of emf E. It is then
disconnected from the battery. If the separation between the plates of the capacitor is now doubled,
how will the following change?
(i) Charge stored by the capacitor.
(ii) Field strength between the plates.
(iii) Energy stored by the capacitor.
Justify your answer in each case.
Q.14. Two capacitors of capacitance 10 F and 20 F are connected in series with a 6 V battery. After the
capacitors are fully charged, a slab of dielectric constant (K) is inserted between the plates of the two
capacitors. How will the following be affected after the slab is introduced:
(i) the electric field energy stored in the capacitors
(ii) the charges on the two capacitors
(iii) the potential difference between the plates of the capacitors Justify your answer.
Q.15. A parallel plate capacitor (C1) having charge Q is connected, to an identical uncharged capacitor C2
in series. What would be the charge accumulated on the capacitor C2?
Q.16. Three identical capacitors each of capacitance 3 F are connected, in turn, in series and in parallel
combination to the common source of V volt. Find out the ratio of the energies stored in two
configurations.
Q.17. Two parallel plate capacitors X and Y have the same area of plates and same separation between
them X has air between the plates while Y contains a dielectric medium of ϵr = 4.
(i) Calculate capacitance of each capacitor if equivalent capacitance of the combination is 4 F.
(ii) Calculate the potential difference between the plates of X and Y.
(iii) Estimate the ratio of electrostatic energy stored in X and Y.
Q.18. In the following arrangement of capacitors, the energy stored in the 6 F capacitor is E. Find the
value of the following:

(i) Energy stored in 12 F capacitor.


(ii) Energy stored in 3 F capacitor.
(iii) Total energy drawn from the battery.
Q.19. Two identical parallel plate capacitors A and B are connected to a battery of V volts with the switch
S closed. The switch is now opened and the free space between the plates of the capacitors is filled
with a dielectric of dielectric constant K. Find the ratio of the total electrostatic energy stored in both

capacitors before and after the introduction of the dielectric.


Q.20. A capacitor of unknown capacitance is connected across a battery of V volt. A charge of 360 C is
stored in it. When the potential across the capacitor is reduced by 120 volt, the charge stored in the
capacitor becomes 120 C. Calculate V and the unknown capacitance. What would have been the
charge on the capacitor if the voltage were increased by 120 volt?
Q.21. How many electrons must be added to one plate and removed from the other so as to store 25.0 J of
energy in a 5.0 nF parallel plate capacitor?
Q.22. How would you modify this capacitor so that it can store 50.0 J of energy without changing the
charge on its plates?
Q.23. A capacitor is made of a flat plate of area A and second plate having a stair like structure as shown in
figure below. If width of each stair is A/3 and height is d. Find the capacitance of the arrangement.

Q.24. A slab of material of dielectric constant K has the same area as the plates of a parallel plate capacitor
but has a thickness 3𝑑 4. Find the ratio of the capacitance with dielectric inside it to its capacitance
without the dielectric.
Q.25. Find the ratio of the potential differences that must be applied across the parallel and series
combination of two capacitors C1 and C2 with their capacitances in the ration 1:2 so that the energy
stored in the two cases becomes the same.
Q.26. Given two parallel conducting plates of area A and charge densities + σ & -σ. A dielectric slab of
constant K and a conducting slab of thickness d each are inserted in between them as shown.
(i) Find the potential difference between the plates.
(ii) Plot E versus x graph, taking x=0 at positive plate and x=5d at negative plate.

Q.27. Derive an expression for the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor when a dielectric slab of
dielectric constant K and thickness t = d/2 but of same area as that of the plates is inserted between
the capacitor plates. (d = separation between the plates).
Q.28. The given graph shows the variation of charge q versus potential difference V for two capacitor C 1

and C2. The two capacitors have same plate separation but the plate area of C2 is double than that of
C1. Which of the two graphs P and Q correspond to capacitors C1 and C2 and why?
Q.29. A parallel plate capacitor is charged by a battery, which is then disconnected. A dielectric slab is
then inserted in the space between the plates. Explain what changes, if any, occur in the values of (i)
capacitance, (ii) potential difference between the plates, (iii) Electric field between the plates and (iv)
the energy stored in the capacitor.
Q.30. A parallel plate capacitor is charged by a battery. When the battery remains connected a dielectric
slab is inserted in the space between the plates. Explain what changes, if any, occur in the values of
(i) capacitance, (ii) potential difference between the plates, (iii) Electric field between the plates and
(iv) the energy stored in the capacitor.
Q.31. Find the ratio of the potential differences that must be applied across the parallel and the series
combination of two identical capacitors so that the energy stored, in the two cases, become the same.
Q.32. Two isolated metal spheres A and B have radii R and 2R respectively, and same charge q. Find
which of the two spheres have greater: (i) Capacitance and (ii) energy density just outside the surface
of the spheres.
Q.33. If N drops of same size each having the same charge, coalesce to form a bigger drop. How will the
following vary with respect to single small drop?
(i) Total charge on bigger drop, (ii) Potential on the bigger drop and (iii) Capacitance.
Q.34. What is meant by the capacitance of a capacitor?
Q.35. Define the farad.
Q.36. Is it possible for a metal sphere of 1 cm radius to hold a charge of 1C?
Q.37. A 60 PF capacitor is connected to a 20V battery and is charged to 20V. How many electrons are
transferred from one plate to the other?
Q.38. Two spheres of silver of same radii, one solid and the other hollow are charged to the same potential.
Which one has greater charge?
Q.39. On what factor does the capacitance of a capacitor depends?
Q.40. When the plates of a charged capacitor are brought near, what is the effect on potential difference
between plates? Explain with reason.
Q.41. Find the length of the paper used in a capacitor of capacitance 2 µF if the dielectric constant of the
paper is 2.5 and its width and thickness are 50mm and 0.05mm respectively.
Q.42. Two insulated charged spheres of radii 10 cm and 20 cm having same charge are connected by a
conductor and then they are separated. Which of two spheres will carry more charge?
Q.43. The distance between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor is d. A metal plate of thickness d/2 is
placed between the plates, what will be the new capacity?
Q.44. A slab of material of dielectric constant has the same area as the plates of a parallel plate capacitor
but has a thickness 3d / 4, where d is the separation of the plates. How is the capacitance changed
when the slab is inserted between the plates?
Q.45. A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance of 8µF. What will be the
capacitance if the distance between the plates is doubled and the space between them is filled with a
substance of dielectric constant K=6?
Q.46. Two parallel plate capacitor X and Y have same area of plates and same separation between them. X
has air between the plates whereas Y has a dielectric of constant k=4
(a) Calculate capacitance of each capacitor if equivalent capacitance is4 μF.
(b) Calculate potential difference between the plates of X and Y.
(c) What is the ratio of electrostatic energy stored in X and Y.
Q.47. A capacitor of capacitance 5 μF is connected to a 6 V supply. What charge is stored in the capacitor?
Q.48. A 400 pF capacitor carries a charge of 2.5 x 10-8 C. What is the potential difference across the plates
of the capacitor?
Q.49. A 4700 μF capacitor is connected as shown in the circuit diagram. When it is fully charged:
(a) What is the charge on the positive plate of the capacitor?
(b) What is the potential difference across the capacitor?
(c) How many additional electrons are on the negative plate?
Q.50. A resistor of 100 Ω is now added to the circuit as shown in the second diagram.
(a) What effect does this have on the time to charge up the capacitor?
(d) What is the final charge on the plates?
(e) What is the final potential difference across the capacitor?
Q.51. Two capacitors 4 µ and 6 µF are connected in series with a 6V battery. Which will have more
potential difference?
Q.52. Fig. Shows the variations of voltage V across the plates of the capacitors A and B versus charge Q

stored on them. Which of the two capacitors has higher capacitance? Give reason for your answer.
Q.53. An electrical technician requires a capacitance of 2 µF in a circuit across a potential difference of 1
kV. A large number of 1 µF capacitors are available to him each of which can withstand a potential
difference of not more than 400 V. Suggest a possible arrangement that requires the minimum
number of capacitors
Q.54. The capacitors C1, and C2, having plates of area A each, are connected in series, as shown. Compare
the capacitance of this combination with the capacitor C3, again having plates of area A each, but
‘made up’ as shown in the figure.

Q.55. Find the charge on and potential across each of the capacitors.

Q.56. The effective capacitance of two capacitors is 3ìF, when they are connected in series and parallel
respectively, Compute the capacitance of each capacitor.
Q.57. What is the equivalent capacity of the network given below?

Sharing of charges / Energy Stored


Q.1. A 600 pF capacitor is charged by a 200 V supply. It is then disconnected from the supply and is
connected to another uncharged 300 pF capacitor. Calculate how much electrostatic energy is lost in
the process. What is the source of energy loss?
Q.2. Three circuits, each consisting of switch ‘S’ and two capacitors, are initially charged, as shown in the
figure. After the switch has been closed, in which circuit will the charge on the left-hand capacitor (i)

increase, (ii) decrease and (iii) remain same? Give reason.


Q.3. Find the energy lost when the charged capacitor is disconnected from the source and connected in
parallel with the uncharged capacitor. Where does this loss of energy appear?
Q.4. Two metallic spheres of radii R and 2R are charged so that both of these have same surface charge
density . If they are connected to each other with a conducting wire, in which direction will the
charge flow and why?
Q.5. Keeping the voltage of the charging source constant, what will be the percentage change in the energy
stored in a parallel plate capacitor if the separation between its plates were to be decreased by 10%.
Q.6. A capacitor is charged through a potential difference of 200 V, when 0.1 C charge is stored in it. How
much energy will it release, when it is discharged
Q.7. In what form is the energy stored in a charged capacitor?
Q.8. Two parallel plate capacitor X and Y have same area of plates and same separation between them. X
has air between the plates whereas Y has a dielectric of constant k=4 Calculate capacitance of each
capacitor if equivalent capacitance is4 μF. Calculate potential difference between the plates of X and
Y.What is the ratio of electrostatic energy stored in X and Y?
Q.9. The plates of a parallel plate capacitor have an area of 90 cm2 each and are separated by 2.5 mm. The
capacitor is charged by connecting it to a 400 V supply. (a) How much electrostatic energy is stored by
the capacitor? (b) View this energy as stored in the electrostatic field between the plates, and obtain the
energy per unit volume u. Hence arrive at a relation between u and the magnitude of electric field E
between the plates.
Q.10.Show that the force on each plate of a parallel plate capacitor has a magnitude equal to ½QE, where Q
is the charge on the capacitor, and E is the magnitude of electric field between the plates. Explain the

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