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International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) – Volume-2, Issue-2, February 2016

ISSN: 2395-3470


Parul Gupta, Rishabh Khampariya
1 Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur, India
2 Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur, India

Abstract ushered in the transmission of rich

The objective of this paper is to introduce multimedia content. 4G systems use
the concept of 5G Communication, its Orthogonal Frequency Division
comparison with previous technologies, Multiplexing (OFDM) along with
and mainly to discuss various enabling Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
technologies required for 5G (MIMO) and link adaptation
Communication. These technologies technologies. 4G wireless networks
include Massive MIMO, use of Cognitive can support data rates of up to 1 GB/s
Radio & Networks, Implementation of for low mobility, such as
Millimetre Waves, and Non Orthogonal nomadic/local wireless access, and up
transmission. This paper also describes the to 100Mb/s for high mobility such as
importance of Device to Device mobile access. [1]
communication in 5G, especially when it
However, more and more people
is implemented in Internet of Things. This
with more powerful wireless gadgets
paper also discusses why these
are demanding advanced multimedia
technologies will play a major role when
capabilities. They crave faster internet
the fifth generation of standards for
and information access as well as
wireless communication is implemented.
instant communication, while on the
Keywords: 5G, MIMO, Millimetre waves, move. Wireless World Research forum
Cognitive Radio, Non-orthogonal predicts that by 2017, 7 billion people
transmission, Device to Device will be served by 7 trillion wireless
communications. devices. On one hand, cellular service
providers are facing an ever increasing
1. INTRODUCTION demand for higher data rates. New
Mobile and wireless communications wireless applications also require a
have undergone a remarkable evolution larger network capacity, higher
in the last three decades. With the spectral and energy efficiency and
advent of new technologies, new higher mobility. On the other hand, 4G
standards were defined. Since wireless networks have reached the theoretical
communications were upgraded, each limit as far as current technologies are
set of standards defined a generation. concerned.
The first generation or 1G used
Frequency Domain Multiple Access It is time to therefore begin
(FDMA) and was based on analog structuring the fifth generation of
communication. The second generation standards for wireless
or 2G used digital radio signal and was communications. 5G will be a global
based on Time Division Multiple standard, similar to 4G, dominated by
Access (TDMA). It added the concept LTE-Advanced. Worldwide, many
of transmitting data along with voice countries and regions are already
wirelessly. Code Division Multiple setting up detailed plans for 5G study
Access (CDMA) and turbo codes and promotion, such as METIS project
enabled the third generation which ofEurope Union, IMT-2020 of China,

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) – Volume-2, Issue-2, February 2016
ISSN: 2395-3470

5G Forum of Korea and ADWICS of There are several technologies

Japan. [2] which will help in the implementation
of fifth generation standards. We will
Unlike the previous four discuss a few of them in this paper.
generations, the application scenarios
will be much more diverse in 5G. The 2.1. Massive MIMO
user peak data rate and average cell Multiple antennas at both the
efficiency are no longer the only transmitter and receiver constitute the
requirements. System design will have MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple
to be based on high reliability, latency, Output) system. In addition to time and
number of connections, user frequency domains, multiple antennas
experience rate, energy efficiency, etc. offer more freedom in wireless
The five words ‘anybody, anything, channels to accommodate more
anywhere, anytime and anyhow’ will information. Hence, reliability, and
be the basis of 5G. The aim is to spectral and energy efficiency
achieve seamless and ubiquitous improves significantly.
communication between anybody or
anything (people to people, people to To a large extent, this is facilitated
machine or machine to machine), by OFDM in 4G. The much simpler
whenever they want (anytime), at processing at the receiver compared to
whichever place they are (anywhere) coded-division multiple access makes
using whichever device they possess MIMO an attractive and effective way
and the service they subscribe to in improving both the peak rate and
(anyhow). system capacity of cellular networks.
So, the question arises, what will
the 5G network be defined as? It is too Massive MIMO is also called
early to predict the standards, but what Large Scale Antenna Systems. In this
can be said with certainty that with system, the number of antennas at base
such diverse scenarios that 5G is station is much larger than the number
expected to cater to, technologies for of devices per signalling resource. [3]
5G will be multi-fold. It cannot be The transmit antennas can be co-
represented by one dominant single located or distributed in different
technology. applications. Similarly, the huge
number of reception antennas can be
In this paper, we will discuss the possessed by a single device or
key technologies which will distributed for multiple devices.
individually and together as a group
enable the implementation of an Unlike in single-user MIMO (SU-
evolutionary as well as revolutionary MIMO), in which a mobile device can
set of standards for the next generation accommodate a limited number of
of wireless devices and antennas, multi-user version of MIMO
communications. We will start with a lets each BS communicate with several
discussion on MIMO, and then users concurrently by effectively
proceed to discuss cognitive radio, pulling together the antennas at those
millimetre waves, device to device users.
communication and finally Non-
MIMO offers many benefits. First,
Orthogonal transmission.
without the need for increased BS
2. PROMISING TECHNOLOGIES densification, it provides significantly

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) – Volume-2, Issue-2, February 2016
ISSN: 2395-3470

great enhancements in spectral radio 5G can achieve interoperability

efficiency. Second, it results in a and still have good quality of service.
smoothed out channel response [4] By interoperability we mean, that
because of vast spatial diversity. Third, different systems using different
the effects of noise, fast fading and technologies will be able to
intracell interference are diminished communicate with each other.
using simple linear precoding and
detection method. The 5G technology needs a
universal terminal, with all of the radio
Spatial modulation has been predecessors featuring into a single
proposed for the low complexity device. This convergence meets the
implementation of MIMO models, users’ demands and needs. Therefore
without the degradation of system cognitive radio is one of the key
performance. Instead of simultaneously technologies to implement 5G.
transmitting multiple data streams
from the available antennas, SM The use of cognitive radio
encodes part of the data to be networks is motivated by the fact that
transmitted onto the spatial position of the RF spectrum is under-utilized most
each transmit antenna in the antenna of the time. The CR network is an
array.[1] This increases data rate with innovative software based radio
respect to single antenna wireless technique in which a secondary system
systems. One transmits antenna can share spectrum bands with licensed
remains active while others remain primary system. This maybe done
idle. The receiver may then use the either in interference free basis or an
optimal Maximum Likelihood (ML) interference tolerant basis.
detection for decoding purposes.
The CR network should regulate its
2.2 Cognitive Radio and Networks transmissions based on the surrounding
Cognitive radio is an intelligent radio environment’s status quo. IN
communication system that is aware of interference free networks, CR users
its surrounding environment. It learns can employ spectrum resources only
from its environment and changes its when the primary users are not using
internal states according to the them. In interference tolerant CR
incoming RF stimuli. This is achieved networks, CR users can share the
by changing certain operating spectrum with the primary users as
parameters like carrier frequency, long as the threshold is below a certain
transmit power, etc. in real time. This limit. In general interference tolerant
methodology ofunderstanding by CR systems utilize the spectrum more
building is implemented with two efficiently as well as provide higher
objectives in mind: highly reliable efficiency.
communication at anytime and
2.3 Millimetre Waves
anyplace along with efficient
Wireless systems have been
utilization of radio spectrum.
employing a slim range of microwave
Cognitive terminal therefore has frequencies corresponding to
the intelligence to choose the best wavelengths in the range of a few
network among those available. centimetres to a meter. This spectrum
Information such as time, demand and is nearly fully occupied, especially at
resource will determine the choice. peak times and in peak markets. With
Therefore, with the use of cognitive the internet services increasing with a

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) – Volume-2, Issue-2, February 2016
ISSN: 2395-3470

tremendous rise in the number of challenge for narrow beams is

gadgets, much more bandwidth is establishing associations between users
needed. To increase bandwidth, there and BSs, both for initial access and
is only one way: to increase frequency. handoffs. The notion of “Phantom
Fortunately, the mmWave range of 1- cells” is the solution. In this concept,
10mm wavelengths is lying relatively mmWave frequencies will be
idle. employed for payload data
transmission from small cell BSS
Until recently, this mmWave while microwave frequencies from
spectrum was deemed unsuitable for macro BSS will be used at the control
mobile communications due to many plane. Fast data transmissions could
reasons. First, it had hostile then be arranged over mmWave links,
propagation qualities resulting in as control links would remain in place
strong pathloss, atmospheric and rain for retransmission of lost data,
absorption, low diffraction around overcoming the problem of sporadic
obstacles and penetration through interruptions of mmWave links.
objects. Second, there was strong
phase noise. Also, the equipment had 2.4 Device to Device Communication
exorbitant costs. Direct device to device (D2D)
communication between devices can
The free space loss between be defined as the direct communication
transmit and receive antennas grows between devices, without involving
with f c 2. However, if the antenna

any network infrastructure.

aperture at one end of the link is held
constant as the frequency increases, In voice centric systems it was
then the free space pathloss remains implicitly accepted that two parties in
unchanged. Further if both transmit close proximity will not establish a
and receive antenna apertures are held call. But now, in the new age of data
constant, then free space loss actually transmission, several co-located
diminishes with f c 2. [5] As antennas
R RP P devices are willing to share multimedia
shrink in size with frequency, more of content or interact say for the purpose
them must be added within the original of gaming or social networking. There
area to maintain the aperture. are inefficiencies at various levels,
Therefore, path loss in the spectrum when such a connection is made.
can be reduced using arrays.
Multiple wireless hops are used to
The absorption due to air and rain achieve what requires fundamentally a
is noticeable, especially the 60 GHz single hop. This results in wastage of
unlicensed band, but it is insignificant signalling resources as well as higher
where BS spacings might be of the latencies. Transmit powers of a
order of 200m, like in urban fraction of a watt (in downlink) and
deployments. In fact, such absorption several watts (in uplink) are consumed
becomes beneficial, since it further to achieve what fundamentally requires
attenuates interference from more a few mWatts. Consequently there is
distant BSs. unnecessary battery drain. Spectral
efficiencies are also lower given that
Therefore we can say, that the path losses to possibly distant BSs are
propagation losses can be overcome, much stronger than direct link ones.
but require large antenna arrays to steer
the beam and collect it coherently. A

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) – Volume-2, Issue-2, February 2016
ISSN: 2395-3470

Although, other radio access In spread sequence based code

technologies such as Bluetooth or structure, the sequences have low cross
WifiDirect, cases requiring a mixture correlation and hence can easily
of local and non local content for facilitate SIC at the receiver. Sparse
example interaction of users via code based implementation can reduce
augmented reality represent more receiver complexity with a well
compelling reasons to use D2D. designed matrix. Both these methods
Therefore, D2D natively supported in are suitable for grant free uplink
5G is a sine qua non. transmission. Code superposition at bit
level can be used to reduce receiver
2.5 Non Orthogonal Transmission complexity of downlink.
OFDM system has a simple
receiver implementation due to 3. CONCLUSION
orthogonal resource allocation, It is a revolutionary time for wireless
especially for MIMO. However, industry. The requirements and
orthogonal systems are sub-optimum expectations from the fifth generation
in nature especially when SNRs of co- of wireless communication standards
scheduled users are different. The are many. In this paper we have
drawbacks of OFDM include its and presented five key technologies that
peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR). will play a major role in
Another problem is the applicability of implementation of 5G. Massive MIMO
OFDM to mmWave spectrum, given will help improve reliability of
the enormous bandwidths therein and networks, their energy and spectral
the difficulty of developing power efficiencies. Millimeter waves will
amplifiers at such high frequencies. [5] solve the problem of a huge demand
for bandwidth. Cognitive radio will
The simplest form of non
provide interoperability and cognitive
orthogonal transmission is direct
radio networks will further improve
superposition of modulation symbols.
spectral utilization. Device to Device
However, it requires full-blown
communication will improve latency
successive interference (SIC) at the
and data rates between co-located
receiver that can be a serious issue for
devices. Finally non orthogonal
mobile terminals. [2]
transmission will enable
Code structures can be used to communication at mmWave
either improve the system robustness frequencies and offer further
when resource collisions occur, or optimization. These technologies
provide more flexibility in pairing the might as well be the foundation on
users for simultaneous transmissions. which 5G will be build.
They can also reduce receiver
complexity. References:
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International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) – Volume-2, Issue-2, February 2016
ISSN: 2395-3470

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