Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Background of the Study

The international educational standard is 12 years according to Corsi-Bunker (n.d.), but for the
past decades, the Philippines only have 10 years in basic education. To compete internationally, the
Department of Education of the Philippines (DepEd) sees this an opportunity to add years in basic
education. To be able to directly apply for a job internationally or to be globally competitive, one must
meet the educational standards of the said country, and having a uniform standard makes it easier for
graduates to apply to almost everywhere. In the year 2013, President Benigno Aquino III signed the
Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 or most commonly known as the K-12 Program (Labrador, 2015).
According to the Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines (n.d), the K-12 Program aims to
develop mastery of concepts and skills, lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education,
middle-level development, employment, and entrepreneurship. It has added two years in the schooling
years which is called “Senior High School,'' where students may choose a specialization based on
aptitude, interests, and school capacity. As stated by Montemayor, M. T. (2018), DepEd Secretary
Leonor Briones confirmed that the first batch graduates of K to 12 program are competent and ready to
land jobs after completion.

Review of Related Literature

This section introduces and reviews items of previous research in the area. It strengthens the second
move of CARS Model: Establishing the research niche. Here, the researchers discuss the related studies
from scholarly books and research journals in greater detail, as opposed to Move 2 in the introduction
where only an overview and the most important works are obligatory. Remember, the purpose of the
literature review is to lead the readers and panel to understanding and accepting that there is indeed a
research gap that the undergraduate research intends to fill in.

The literature review can be organized in several ways: (a) Beginning with established major theories
then moving to theories associated with individual authors’ (b) In chronological order; or (c) According
to the theories topics or findings. Whichever organizational structure the researchers pick for their
paper, the structure should be clear in the way sub-items are presented under this section.

Studies Pertaining to Variable/Issue 1

Studies Pertaining to Variable/Issue 2

Studies Pertaining to Variable/Issue 3 (if necessary)

Synthesis and Research Gap

In the recent study conducted by Lorenzano, Palafox L., and Palafox Q.A. (2018), students from
ABM and HUMSS strand are competent in the employability skills categories and place high value on
these skills. However, the study shows only the perception of the students. In this study, it aims to
assess the competence of Grade 12 students from different strands. This study does not only focus to
two strands but rather it focuses on the STEM, ABM, HUMSS, and GAS strands.
Research Questions

There is a standard to meet in employability. To meet these standards, the graduates should be
assed if they have passed the necessary requirements, thus this research has the goal:

1. To see if there are skills acquired for employability by graduates of senior high school

2. To see if graduates have a high entry level based on the skills assessed

3. To prove or disprove the statements of DepEd that senior high school graduates are job ready

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

1. WORK DISCIPLINE
Given the various motivational and inspirational training programs and development of
positive work settings, it is obvious that not all employees perform according to the acceptable
behaviors set by the organization. The occurrence of organizational misbehaviors is dependent
on the opinions of employees towards the organization. When employees believe that their
organization is fair, it is unlikely that they will be involved in misconducts (De Schrijver, et al
2010). Discipline is an action that must be constantly exercised to rehabilitate employees’
misbehavior due to violation of work policy and standards. Disciplinary guidelines are used for
maintaining the work standard that must be imparted to employees through proper
communication. According to Franklin and Pagan (2006) culture is an influential factor in making
disciplinary decisions. Other two factors that has causal effects can be tangible and intangible.
The former describes the formal practices the organization wishes to follow and the latter
provide indications why informal strategies appear as successful practices for getting things
done. A recommended hypothesis using the idea of organizational culture was suggested to
confirm the validity of the supposed influence of culture on decisions pertaining to employee
discipline. Greer and Labig (1987) stated that limited researches were made about employee
reactions to disciplinary actions. Their exploratory study about employee reactions to disciplinary
actions revealed that the manner in which the disciplinary action is instituted seems to greatly
influence emotional response and affect the manager-employee relationship.
The foregoing positive relationship will seem to deteriorate due to the implementation of
a disciplinary action. However, when the discipline is instituted in a pleasant way, it is unlikely
that adverse employee reactions will occur. In a qualitative study made by Atwater, Leanne E.,
Waldman, David A., Carey James A., and Cartier, Priscilla. (2001), on recipients and observers of
disciplinary process, results showed a positive perception about discipline from the two
categorized groups but they may also lose respect for the one who instituted the discipline,
following development of negative attitudes towards the organization as a result of the
discipline. They have also the tendency to regard the experience as unfair, when it is used for
informal rather than to formal rule violations. In an exploratory study using the internal dynamics
of disciplinary process made by Rollinson, Handley, Hook and Foot (2007) about the disciplinary
experience and its effects on Behavior, it was tentatively concluded that half of those formally
disciplined will internalize the rules and the other half have the inclinations of breaking the rules.
These behaviors were said to be caused by first; ‘conditioning by punishment’ paradigm, where
punishment stimuli is ineffective in influencing the behavior. The second cause is attributed to
the managerial styles that have created impressions of motives of retaliation on the disciplined
person.
Nwinyokpugi, Patrick (2015). Workplace Discipline: A Catalyst For Organizational
Productivity, the severity of disciplinary measures may depend on such considerations as
whether the employee is a first-time offender, prior tract record, length of service etc. For the
minor offenses, the following are included: Failure to obey safety rules, sleeping on duty, smoking
in prohibited areas and concealing one’s defective work, work output below standard, loafing,
leaving job or work area without authorization, quarrelsome manifestations, unexcused absence
from work, while for serious offenses embraces amongst others; willful and malicious damage of
company property, indecent conduct, stealing, attacking another with the intent of maiming or
causing serious injury, gambling, repeated tardiness and falsification of any kind and drunkenness
or found with hard drugs or under its influence. It is not easy to establish the frequency of the
occurrence of each of these forms of offenses in the organization. However, it appears that some
of these forms of indiscipline or offenses occur more frequently than others and their effects also
more noticeable than others. One of such is absenteeism.
2. TEAMWORK
The existing literature on teamwork and performance in the organization suggests that
there is a positive link between the two variables. The emphasis on this link reflects the view that
organizational market value depends less on tangible resources but rather largely on intangible
ones, particularly teamwork (Stiles and Kulvisaerchana, 2005). Conti and Keliner (2003) have also
observed that teams offer greater participation, challenges and feelings of accomplishment. They
noted further that organizations with teams will attract and retain the best people, which in turn
will create a high performance organization that is flexible, efficient and most importantly,
profitable.
The theory upon which this study is anchored is the HRM-performance linkage model of
Becker and Huselid (1998) and Wright et al (2003) whose core philosophy suggests that
teamwork has a direct impact on employee skills and motivation, which are subsequently
translated into improved employee/organizational performance. The HRM-performance linkage
model is based on the resource-based view (RBV) which states that increasing employees‟
abilities and motivation, through teamwork will ultimately improve employee/organizational
performance (Lopez et al, 2005). The RBV perspective advocates that the potential for
competitive advantage of an organization is based on its ability to exploit the inimitable
characteristics of its pool of human resources and capabilities. The basic causal pathway of the
HRM-performance linkage model is as stated below: Employee Performance Behaviour 
Attitudes  Skills Teamwork Looking at the causal pathway illustrated above, the general
framework of the model is indirect linkage or hierarchical linkage through the outcomes of skills,
attitudes and behaviour between teamwork and employee performance (Black, 2001).
Teamwork activities aimed at providing increased skills to employees has a direct impact on their
attitudes: motivation, commitment and satisfaction (Barlett, 2001).
This theory/model was considered very relevant to the study because the issues involved
in teamwork and employee performance could be explained within the framework of the theory.
The central argument is that teamwork facilitates the acquisition of necessary skills which leads
to enhanced performance of the team members in the organization. Every member of the team
can never be equally endowed but through interaction and joint execution of task, the tendency
is for the weak to learn from the strong members.
3. CUSTOMER SERVICE ORIENTATION
Customer service has received attention in the marketing, organizational behavior, and
industrial-organizational psychology literatures. Scholars working within these areas have tended
to agree that customer service is an important indicator of firm performance, as customer
perceptions of service quality can have implications for the bottom line (e.g., Deshpande, Farley,
& Webster, 1993). They have also agreed that the customer service orientation of organizations
and their employees aids in the delivery of high quality service to consumers. As an individual
difference variable, service orientation consists of the tendency to be helpful, considerate, and
cooperative across situations (Hogan, Hogan, & Busch, 1984). Using facets from various
personality inventories (e.g., the Hogan Personality Inventory), Hogan and colleagues (1984)
found that individuals demonstrating service-oriented behaviors tended to be more emotionally
stable, conscientious, socially-skilled, and ruleabiding. More specific to customer service, Kelley
(1992) defined customer orientation as the value individuals place on customers, including their
expressed commitment to meeting customer needs and expectations. At the organizational level,
Schneider and colleagues (1998) identified customer service orientation as a climate variable,
describing a climate for service as the shared perceptions employees hold concerning “the
practices, procedures, and behaviors that get rewarded, supported, and expected with regard to
customer service and customer service quality” (p. 151). Relatedly, Brady and Cronin (2001)
assessed customer service orientation from an organizational culture perspective, suggesting
that customer 6 service-oriented organizations use customers as the primary focus of their
strategy development and implementation initiatives.
However defined or conceptualized, research suggests that the organization’s orientation
towards customers predicts a variety of important outcomes relevant to employees, customers,
and the organization at large. Kelley (1992), for instance, found that an organization’s climate for
service predicted employee customer orientation. Building on these findings, Susskind et al.
(2003) found that the customer orientation of service providers contributed to greater customer
satisfaction. Further, research by Salanova, Agut, and Peiro (2005) as well as Schneider and his
colleagues (1998) found that an organization’s climate for service enhanced customer
perceptions of service quality. These results highlight how an organization’s position regarding
customer service impacts employee service behavior and customer perceptions concerning their
service experiences. In addition to driving employee service behavior towards customers, an
organization’s customer service orientation may also lead employees to engage in greater service
behavior towards the organization (e.g., Gonzalez & Garazo, 2005; Walumbwa et al., 2010). Such
organization-directed service behavior or extra-role performance (Williams & 7 Anderson, 1991)
has been labeled organizational citizenship behavior (OCB; Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983) and
prosocial organizational behavior (POB; Brief & Motowidlo, 1986). Generally, service behavior or
extra-role performance consists of discretionary behaviors which may not be part of an
employee’s formal role requirements but contribute to the organization’s effectiveness (Van
Dyne & LePine, 1998). Examples of these types of behaviors include volunteering for tasks that
are not required and making suggestions to improve the organization. They may also consist of
behaviors aimed to help coworkers or the work unit. As coworkers and supervisors are agents of
the organization who carry out their roles on the organization’s behalf, supportive behavior
directed towards them can be considered supportive behavior towards the organization itself
(i.e., organization-directed service behavior or extra-role performance).
This theory helps our reasearch study since as service orientation can drive valued outcomes, it’s
important to consider the factors that promote perceptions of an organization’s customer service
orientation. Schneider and Bowen (1993) proposed that “a climate for employee well-being serves as a
foundation for a climate for service” (p. 43). Evidence in the literature supports this notion that the
organization’s regard for employees could signal and promote the organization’s position concerning
customers. Salanova and colleagues (2005), for instance, found that organizational resources (training,
technology, and autonomy) contributed to employee perceptions of service climate through work
engagement. Schneider and Bowen (1985) found 11 that employee perceptions of the organization’s HR
practices were positively related to customer attitudes regarding service. These findings highlight how the
organization’s position concerning employees may provide indication of the organization’s orientation
towards all customers.

4. MANAGERIAL POTENTIAL
Jeffrey Ertel (2013), all employees are valuable and should be treated accordingly, but in
most workplaces there are certain staffers that are disproportionately valuable in comparison to
their compensation. It‘s wonderful to have one or two of these rare albatrosses on staff, but you
can move your company ahead by leaps and bounds if you can build teams of high potential
employees. High potential talent is, as defined by a recent study on Strategic Human Resources
Management, ―employees whose particular skills and knowledge value make them vital to
organizational success.‖ The study added, ―High potential employees are highly talented and
create a disproportional amount of value from the resources made available to them by the
organization.‖ As an HR pro, this has got to intrigue you. Talent that can willingly produce far
more output than expected based on the wages, benefits and tools accorded to them are a boon
to the bottom line. So how can you attract these rare birds? And if you have them, or acquire
them, how do you keep them engaged, performing well and nurtured? It‘s important that you be
able to identify these creative, innovative, complex problem solvers and develop plans to manage
this talent effectively to ensure retention. The notion that they need to be managed differently
is a good reason to put these uber-staffers onto a team (or teams) together. Having them work
side by side with average staffers may create inequitable management complaints, but clustering
them can keep everyone happier.
Satish, K. (2012), some employees are more talented than others. That‘s a fact of
organizational life that few executives and HR managers would dispute. The more debatable
point is how to treat the people who appear to have the highest potential. Opponents of special
treatment argue that all employees are talented in some way and, therefore, all should receive
equal opportunities for growth. Devoting a disproportionate amount of energy and resources to
a select few, their thinking goes, might cause you to overlook the potential contributions of the
many. But the disagreement doesn‘t stop there. Some executives say that a company‘s list of
high potentials and the process for creating it should be a closely guarded secret. After all, why
dampen motivation among the roughly 95% of employees who aren‘t on the list? High potentials
consistently and significantly outperform their peer groups in a variety of settings and
circumstances. George (2009), while achieving these superior levels of performance, they exhibit
behaviors that reflect their companies‘ culture and values in an exemplary manner. Moreover,
they show a strong capacity to grow and succeed throughout their careers within an organization
more quickly and effectively than their peer groups do.‖
These theories gives us more informations that A big part of a manager‘s job is to identify
who is contributing to the overall success of the company and who needs to pull their socks up.
However, the temptation is to concentrate too much on the staff members who need the most
help, while allowing high-potential employees to regulate themselves. While they may enjoy the
freedom to begin with, if left to their own devices too long they could suffer from a lack of
motivation. This can result from them feeling ignored, overworked and underappreciated, which
in a worstcase scenario could see them fleeing to your biggest competitor. Here are some top
tips for effectively managing your rising stars, ensuring they achieve their full potential and
remain satisfied in their job.
Conceptual Framework

Student

K-12 Program

Skills acquired

Work Customer Managerial


Discipline Teamwork service potential
orientation

Job
competency

Employability