Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

FROM WORD TO
SENTENCE

smallest LETTER

WORD

PHRASE

CLAUSE

largest SENTENCE

Rodney Huddleston, “Syntactic Overview”, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, (Eds.), Rodney Huddleston and
Geoffrey K. Pullum, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 44.
LETTER

a sign in writing or printing that represent a


speech sound
WORD

a group of letters that are used together with a


particular meaning
PHRASE

a group of words that make up parts of a


sentence
A Noun Phrase is a group of words that all
belong with the noun and tell us more about it.
Look at these examples:
university
a civilised university
a big civilised university
a big civilised university with thousand students
A Prepositional Phrase is the preposition and
the following noun or pronoun together.
Look at these examples:
class table
in the class on the table
Other types of phrases are
verb phrase : will study
adjective phrase : more difficult
adverb phrase : too slowly
CLAUSE

a group of words that contains a subject and a


verb
An Independent Clause is a clause that can
stand alone in a sentence. So, it can also work as
a sentence on its own. This kind of clause is also
called Main Clause.
Look at this example:
I have to learn English
A Dependent Clause is a clause that cannot
stand alone in a sentence. A dependent clause
needs an independent clause to form a sentence.
Dependent clause is also called Subordinate
Clause.
Dependent clauses often begin with conjunctions
such as after, before, because, as, when, while, if,
since, and although. These conjunctions are called
subordinating conjunctions.
Look at these examples:
Because I will study abroad
Because I will study abroad, I have to learn English.
Before I graduate
Before I graduate, I want to have a job.
SENTENCE

A sentence is a group of words that make


sense on their own. A sentence always begins
with a capital letter, and it ends with a period, a
question mark, or an exclamation point.
A Simple Sentence is a sentence that contains
one independent clause only.
Look at this example:
I have to learn English.
A Compound Sentence consists of two or
more independent clauses. The clauses in a
compound sentence are often linked by
conjunctions called coordinating conjunctions.
Look at this example:
I have to learn English and I have to get a
scholarship to study abroad.
A Complex Sentence consists of one
independent clause and one or more dependent
clauses.
Look at this example:
I have to learn English because I will study abroad.
A Compound-Complex Sentence consists of
two independent clauses and one or more
dependent clauses.
Look at this example:
I have to learn English and I have to get a
scholarship to study abroad before I graduate.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Colman, R. 2011. “The Briefest English Grammar and Punctuation Guide


Ever!”. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Dignen, S. 2017. “DK Visual Guide to Grammar and Punctuation”. New York:
Dorling Kindersley Limited

Greenbaum, S. 1996. “The Oxford English Grammar”. New York: Oxford


University Press Inc.

Huddleston, R. 2012. Syntactic Overview. In Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey


K. Pullum (Eds.). “The Cambridge Grammar of the English
Language” (pp. 43-70). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Humphrey, S., Love, K., and Droga, L. 2014. “Working Grammar: An


introduction for secondary English teachers”. Sydney: Pearson
Australia

Leech, G. 2006. “A Glossary of English Grammar”. Edinburgh: Edinburgh


University Press Ltd.