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Reyrolle

7SR17 Rho

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Motor Protection

Application
Functions
User Interface
Relay Build
Motor Theory

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Page 2 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Reyrolle Motor Protection Relays

Relay Date Firmware

7SR17 Rho 2013/10 2436H80012R2c-1a

7SG17 Rho 3 2008/04 2681H80005R5a


2006/12 2681H80005R5
2005/06 2681H80005R4
2004/07 2681H80005R3
2004/04 2681H80005R2

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Page 3 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Electrical Energy System – Connection of Motors

3-phase AC motors use the


synchronous or induction principle.

Motor power outputs from a few kW


to several MW.

Three phase induction motors are


typically employed in fixed speed
applications to drive machinery,
pumps, fans, compressors,
conveyors, hoists etc. Also used with
variable frequency inverters as
controlled speed machines.

LV motors are typically switched by


contactors and HV motors by circuit
breakers

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Page 4 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Types of Motor

In an INDUCTION MOTOR the stator (armature) windings (usually 3-phase) are connected to the power
supply. The windings in the rotor slots (usually 3-phase) are not connected to a power source, they
receive current by means of induction.
In a WOUND ROTOR induction motor the rotor conductors are insulated and brought out to slip-rings,
which are connected to a starting or control device.
In a SQUIRREL-CAGE induction motor the rotor conductors are not insulated, but consist of bare
conductors set into slots. These conductors are connected solidly by a conducting metallic ring at each
end.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS have stators and stator windings similar to those of induction motors. The
rotor has poles corresponding to the number of stator winding poles. The rotor poles are wound with
many turns of wire, and a DC current is circulated through the windings to create alternately north and
south magnetic flux poles.
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Page 5 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motors - Modern Day Workhorses

Motors are arguably the most common electrical plant item in any industrial plant

The point at which the electrical system and mechanical process meet

In a squirrel cage induction motor the 3-phase supply voltage produces a current in the
stator winding which sets up a rotating magnetic field. This field flux cuts the short-
circuited rotor conductors and induces a current in them. The interaction of the current
and flux produces a torque which causes rotation.

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Page 6 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Steinmetz Motor Equivalent Circuit

The motor is heated from the Watts loss in the resistances of the rotor and stator windings.

Slip-dependent rotor resistance decreases from a high locked-rotor value to a low value at rated speed.

Similar to transformer equivalent circuit.

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Page 7 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Induction Motor Circle Diagram

Impressed
voltage

Angle of
maximum
power factor
S
Max. Max. Locked rotor
output torque current
Starting
torque

Primary
current Slip
loss
Secondary
current
Primary
copper
Primary loss at
I2R U standstill

N
O No-load I
current Core loss and
No-load copper loss

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Page 8 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Protection - Motor Faults

The leading causes of motor failure as determined by the Electrical Research Association:-
• 46% - Rotor or bearing failure, contaminants & other
• 30% - Overload
• 14% - Single phasing
• 10% - Old age

Over-heating
Thermal Protections:
• Mechanical overload
• Stall /over torque / load jam, locked rotor (failure to accelerate)
• Starting problems
• Unbalanced conditions
Most of the motor failure contributors and failed motor components are related to motor
overheating of the Stator, Rotor, Bearings, Shaft and Frame.

Terminal connection short circuits


Overcurrent, earth fault

Undervolts

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Page 9 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Failure Analysis

AVERAGE
IEEE STUDY EPRI STUDY

FAILURE CONTRIBUTOR % FAILED COMPONENT % %


Persistent Overload 4.2% Stator Ground Insulation 23
Normal Deterioration 26.4% Turn Insulation 4 Electrical Related
Bracing 3 Failures
Core 1
Cage 5 33%
Electrical Related Total 30.6% Electrical Related Total 36.0%
High Vibration 15.5% Sleeve Bearings 16
Poor Lubrication 15.2% Antifriction Bearings 8 Mechanical Related
Trust Bearings 5 Failures
Rotor Shaft 2
Rotor Core 1 31%
Mechanical Related Total 30.7% Mechanical Related Total 32.0%
High Ambient Temp. 3 Bearing Seals 6
Abnormal Moisture 5.8 Oil Leakege 3
Abnormal Voltage 1.5 Frame 1
Environmental,
Maintenance & Other
Abnormal Frequency 0.6 Wedges 1
Reasons Related
Abrasive Chemicals 4.2
Failures
Poor Ventilation Cooling 3.9
Other Reasons 19.7 Other Components 21
36%
Environmental Related & Other Maintanence Related & Other Parts:
38.7% 32.00%
Reasons: Total Total

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Page 10 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Stress Causes Failure

Most of the motor failure contributors and failed motor components are related to
motor overheating.

Thermal stress potentially can cause the failure of all the major motor parts:
• Stator, Rotor, Bearings, Shaft and Frame.

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Page 11 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Critical Phases of Motor Operation

locked rotor
start duration / acceleration
STARTING
phase reversal
Rotor Critical
single phasing
thermal capacity inhibits

Overload
mechanical jam
RUNNING
unbalance currents (nps)
Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Stator Critical
A
undervoltage / frequency
B

loss of load

RUNNING bearing temperature


C Mechanical vibration
Stator Rotor

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Page 12 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Rotor Behaviour

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Page 13 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Impact of Rotor Bar Design

DESIGN A,B,C,D - FOR AC MOTORS


Design A
(Deep Rotor Bar)
300
Design C
Design D Dual Cage)
(Shallow Rotor Bar)
Torque (% of rated)

200

100
Design B
(Deep Rotor Bar)

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
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Page 14 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Classes of Insulation

Class A Class B Class F Class H


15ºC
10ºC Hot
180º 180º 180º 180º
Hot Spot
160º 160º 10ºC 160º 160º
Spot
140º 5ºC 140º Hot 140º 140º
Hot Spot
120º 120º 120º 120º
Spot
100º 100º 100º 100º
80º 60ºC 80º 80ºC 80º 105ºC 80º 125ºC
60º Rise 60º Rise 60º Rise 60º Rise
40º 40º 40º 40º
20º 20º 20º 20º
0º 0º 0º 0º

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Page 15 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Heating Curve

A motor’s temperature is most accurately modelled as an exponential function of measured stator


currents, sometimes biased to account for additional heat resulting from the negative sequence currents

2
IOL
OL
IB

2
IFL
N
IB
IEQ 2 t
1 e h 100%
2
IB

2
0
0
IB

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Page 16 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Determining Time Constant

I2
t h ln 2
I2 k IB
IEC60255-8 (No pre-load) t
h
Solving for : I2
ln 2
At: I = 5.5 x IB
I2 k IB
Run:
Trip Time Cold Stall (Start) = 25s 200 s

I = 1.9 x IB
Cold: 25 s
Trip Time Run = 200s
Hot: 15 s

Time Constants are:


744 s (12.4 min) - Cold Stall (Starting)
616 s (10.3 min) - Running

Hot/Cold Curve Ratio = LRTHOT / LRTCOLD


= 15/25
= 0.6 5.5
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Page 17 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Overload

Uses measured 3-phase current to


estimate Thermal State, , of motor

Thermal State based on both past and


present current levels

= 0% for unheated equipment


= 100% for maximum thermal
withstand of equipment – Trip threshold

For given current level, Thermal State will ramp up over


time until Thermal Equilibrium is reached when:

Heating Effects of Current = Thermal Losses

Slow acting – detect faults or system conditions too small


to pick-up fast acting protections

Alarms for at or above a set % of capacity


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Page 18 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Cooling

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Page 19 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Understanding the Thermal Model

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Page 20 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Managing the Start
The start is potentially the most critical period for a motor where most
potential damage occurs

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Page 21 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Rotor Temp During Start (Thermal: Hot/Cold Ratio)

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Page 22 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal: Hot/Cold Ratio

Overload Setting

An ideal motor is physically small and is Running temp.


continuously rated at its maximum running

TEMP
temperature. This motor runs at or near AVERAGE
OVERALL
maximum temperature, the H/C ratio will be TEMPERATURE

small and full account should be taken of


prior load current. Where a H/C setting = 0 TIME

is selected at steady state f.l.c. relay will


stabilise at thermal capacity used of (1 – 0) x Temp. for motor rating
100% = 100%.

A motor with a significant hot spot can HOT Remaining


thermal
SPOT

TEMP
withstand a hot stall condition for longer than capacity

the above, therefore the H/C setting will be


>0 and less account is taken of prior load Running temperature

conditions.
AVERAGE
OVERALL
TEMPERATURE
TIME
MOTOR START
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Page 23 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Repeated Starting

• Temperature curve and


thermal replica of the
rotor for three starts

• Restarts can lead to


thermal overload and
damage insulation.

• Each motor start


increases rotor
temperature

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Page 24 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
FAULT CAUSE RESULT PROTECTION
Supply Loss of phase / single phasing Broken conductor NPS current flow increases motor heating 46 NPS OC
Voltage unbalance Unbalanced loading NPS currents increase motor heating 46, 47
Loss of volts System fault, System switchout Motor will back-feed system 32 Power, 55 PF
Sudden restoration of supply Switch in after fault clearance
Under-Volts System fault, System overload 59 UV
Under/over frequency System under loaded or over loaded 81
Reverse Phase Sequence Incorrect system or relay connection 46 PhRev
High harmonic content System load types
All Motors Earth-fault Insulation failure - connections 50 G/N
Insulation failure - stator 50G, 50N, 64
Insulation failure - rotor
Phase fault Insulation failure - connections 50
Insulation failure - stator
Insulation failure - rotor
Stator Overheating Overload, Loss of coolant Insulation degradation, Reduced service life 49
Rotor Overheating Repeated starting, Start too long, Loss of supply 66, 49, 48 Start time, 27
phase, Low supply voltage, Overload, Stall Undervolts, 14 Stall
Overheating of plant on Coolant system failures (Pumps, compressors) Overheating 32: Low power
unloaded drives 37: Low current
Bearing failures Overload, Bearing temperature 38: RTDs
Loss of oil flow
Shaft vibration Increased motor wear
Coolant leakage
SynchronousLoss of synchronism of a mechanical overload, or reduction in the Relay isolates the machine from the supply or removes 78: Out-of-step protection
Motor synchronous motor voltage applied to the stator or field windings. the field excitation before the motor re-synchronises.
Asynchronous operation (of a 40: Under-excitation protn
synchronous motor)
Load Overload – load too great Overloading motor, Bearing faults 49, 50
Loss of Load

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Page 25 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Protection Cause Effect
49) Thermal Overload Stator: Overload, loss of coolant. Insulation degradation, reduced service life.
Rotor: Repeated starting (e.g. process demands), start too long, loss of supply
phase, low supply voltage, excessive load torque, locked rotor, bearing faults.
14) Stall Start too long, loss of supply phase, low supply voltage, excessive load torque, Insulation degradation, reduced service life.
locked rotor.
48) Start Time Supervision Repeated starting (e.g. process demands), start too long, loss of supply phase, Insulation degradation, reduced service life.
66) Number of Starts low supply voltage, excessive load torque, locked rotor.
46) Phase Unbalance Broken conductor – single phasing Causes NPS current to flow, increases motor heating.
Undercurrent Coolant system failures (Pumps, compressors) Overheating
Overcurrent
50/51 N) Derived EF
Measured Earth Fault
Restricted Earth Fault
59) Phase Under-Volts
59) Phase Over-Volts
47) NPS Over-Volts Unbalanced system loading
Frequency
Under-Power Coolant system failures (Pumps, compressors) Overheating
Over-Power
Sensitive Power
Phase Angle
Reverse Phase Sequence
RTD Inputs Overload, loss of coolant

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Page 26 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SG17 and 7SR1705/6 Functional Comparison

7SR17 New or enhanced functions

14 Stall Protection
27 Under-voltage
32/55 Power/Power Factor
37 Phase undercurrent
46 Phase Unbalance
47 NPS Voltage
48/66 Start Protection
49 Thermal Overload
49RTD RTD Monitoring
50(G)BF Phase (neutral) CB Fail
50/51 Overcurrent
50/51 G/N Earth Fault
59 Over-voltage
Front comms port 60CTS CT Supervision
Programmable LEDs 60VTS VT Supervision
Voltage functionality/metering 67 Directional OC/EF
Enhanced thermal algorithm 81 Frequency
Metering of current quantities 81B Back-spin
Logic equations/graphical logic 87REF High Impedance REF
DNP3.0 data comms protocols Programmable Logic

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Page 27 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR170 – Function Packages

14 Stall Protection
27 Under-voltage
32/55 Power/Power Factor
37 Phase undercurrent
46 Phase Unbalance
47 NPS Voltage
48/66 Start Protection
49 Thermal Overload
49RTD RTD Monitoring
50(G)BF Phase (neutral) CB Fail
50/51 Overcurrent
50/51 G/N Earth Fault
59 Over-voltage
60CTS CT Supervision
60VTS VT Supervision
67 Directional OC/EF
81 Frequency
81B Back-spin
87REF High Impedance REF
Programmable Logic

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Page 28 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR17 Motor Protection Relay: Hardware Ordering Options
ORDER-No.: 7 S R 1 7 0 - A 1 2 - C A 0
| | | | | | | | | | | |
Protection Product Family 5 | | | | | | | | | | |
Motor Protection 7 | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | |
Relay Type 6 | | | | | | | | | |
0 | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
Case, I/O and Fascia 7 | | | | | | | | |
E4 case, 4 CT, 3 Binary Inputs / 5 Binary Outputs, 10 LEDs 2 3
E4 case, 4 CT, 6 Binary Inputs / 8 Binary Outputs, 10 LEDs 3 3 | | | | | | | |
E4 case, 4 CT, 3 VT, 3 Binary Inputs / 5 Binary Outputs, 10 LEDs 5 4
E4 case, 4 CT, 3 VT, 6 Binary Inputs / 8 Binary Outputs, 10 LEDs 6 4 | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | |
Measuring input 8 | | | | | | | |
1/5 A, 50/60Hz with SEF Input 2/3 3 | | | | | | | |
1/5 A, 40-160V, 50/60Hz with SEF Input 5/6 4 | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
Auxiliary voltage 9 | | | | | | |
80-250V DC / 115V AC, binary input threshold 19V DC G | | | | | | |
80-250V DC, binary input threshold 88V DC H | | | | | | |
24-60V DC, binary input threshold 19V DC J | | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
Spare 10 | | | | | |
A | | | | | |
| | | | | |
Communication Interface 11 | | | | |
Standard version - included in all models, USB front port, RS485 rear port 1 | | | | |
| | | | |
Protocol 12 | | | |
IEC 60870-5-103, Modbus RTU, DNP3 or Modbus RTD Client (user selectable setting) 2 | | | |
| | | |
Front Cover 13 | | |
Standard Version - No Push Buttons 1 | | |
Push Buttons - DOWN and RIGHT Arrows 2 | | |

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Page 29 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Relay Thermal Model Function

1. Continuously maintains a numeric estimate analogous to the heat energy in


the motor

2. Adjusts the heat estimate based on the measured positive-sequence and


negative-sequence current flowing in the motor

3. Weighs the heating effect of negative-sequence current relative to the


positive-sequence current when the motor is in operation

4. Models the heat lost to the surroundings when the motor is running and
stopped

5. Compares the present heat estimate to a starting trip threshold or a running


trip threshold, depending on the state of the motor

6. Provides a trip output if the present heat estimate exceeds the trip
threshold

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Page 30 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Negative Sequence Biasing

Negative Sequence effects are not included in the thermal curves

Need to account for additional & disproportionate heating of negative sequence currents

Establish an EQUIVALENT “HEATING” current for use in thermal model

2 2 neg seq rotor resistance


Iequiv I ve k I ve
where: k =
pos seq rotor resistance

A k-value of 3 to 5 is typical for an AC squirrel cage induction motor

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Page 31 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Actual Thermal Model

2 2
IEQ (1 H )I
C P
t h ln 2 2
IEQ k I B

where:
• t = Time to Trip
• h = Time Constant
• IEQ = Equivalent “Heating” Current
• H/C = Hot/Cold Curve Ratio
• IP = “Pre-load”
• IB = Base Current / Rated Current
• k = Service Factor

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Page 32 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Overload
Overcurrent (50, 51), Earth Fault (50 G/N, 51 G/N)
Under Current / Loss of Load Protection (37)

Increased loading causes the current drawn Short circuit current limited only by system Under-Current (37) applied where load loss
from the supply and the motor temperature to impedances. may cause motor overheating. 37 inhibited
increase Overcurrent detects terminal faults. Motor is when I < ISTOP
at the end of the system - grading with
downstream devices not required
Can be caused by: 50BCL feature used to block tripping where Can be caused by:-
Starting problems fault current is larger than breaking capacity • Loss of coolant pumping
of contactor
Mechanical overload • Loss of suction for pumps
EF can be inhibited during motor starting, a
Stall/over torque time delay can be added or a snubbing • Loss of airflow for fans
Unbalanced conditions resistor can be added.
• Broken belt for conveyors

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Page 33 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Overload
Start/Run/Stopped Conditions

Motor start, run and stopped conditions can be confirmed by:


• Current levels
• Auxiliary switch monitoring
• Power factor

The motor will have different thermal time constants during stopped, start and running conditions

Thermal Protections may need to consider motor start/run/stopped status:


• Locked Rotor (48)
• Start Protection (66)
• Thermal Overload (49)
• Phase Unbalance (46PU)
• Stall (14)

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Page 34 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Characteristic

I 2 I P2
OperateTime . Ln . 2
I I2
Where:
Thermal time constant
Specific to protected equipment
I Currentmeasuredat relay
IP Prior current measuredat relay
I Overloadcurrent threshold

Rearranging
2 t
gives:
I
.(1 e ) .100%
I2

Where:
ThermalState
t Elapsedtime sinceheatingbegan

2
IEQ
F 2
(1 HC) 100%
I
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Page 35 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Overload Settings

IEC curve conforms to IEC60255-8


(Thermal Electrical Relays)

Ieq I12 KI22


H 2
I2eq 1 IP
C
t .ln
I2eq I2
Where
K NPS Weighting Factor
I Thermal overload setting
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Page 36 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Overload Grading

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Page 37 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Overload Grading
Enhanced Using Stall Protection (14)

Four motor stall protection DTL OC elements are


available (14-n).

Each element has independent settings for current


setting, DTL and control:-

Elements can be controlled such that operation is


only permitted when the motor is:-
• Stopped
• Not accelerating (not starting)
• Running
• (or no control applied)

For start time greater than locked rotor withstand


time (shown) select Gn 14-2 element control to
‘Running’.
Grading further improved using Gn 14-1 element
as excessive start time protection. Element control
selected to ‘None’.

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Page 38 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Hot / Cold Ratio Settings

t I2 1 H IP2
C
t I2 1 H I P2
C H 7 0.64
H 11 C 11
1 t I2 1 H IP2 t I2 1 H IP2
C 11 t I2 0.36IP2 C C
t I2 H 1 0.09 H 0 0
C 11 C 11
t I 2 0.91I P2 t I2 IP2

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Page 39 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Comprehensive Thermal Algorithm

Running Motor
Thermal Withstand
Characteristic

Stalled Motor
Thermal Withstand
Motor Characteristic
IRUN

Thermal Overload
Protection
Operating
CURRENT Characteristic

Motor ISTART

THEAT TSTART
Thermal Time Constants

IEC Thermal Curve


‘Hot’ ‘Cold’
Curve Curve
Current Setting
ISTOP IOVERLOAD ISTART

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Page 40 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
User Defined Thermal Curve

Define thermal curve in ‘Reyrolle Curve Editor’ e.g. matched to the


motor curve.
Establish comms to relay and ‘File > Send Curve File to Relay’
Relay re-start is required

After re-start the curve will now be visible in ‘Settings > THERMAL
PROT’N > THERMAL OVERLOAD > Gn 49 Char’

To assist with curve plotting the motor withstand curve is added first.
Curve Editor procedure:-
Edit > Double Click to Add Points (this defines new curve e.g.
Motor thermal withstand curve.
File > Save As (e.g. ‘Motor’)

To now use curve as a reference curve:-


Reference Curves > Configure Reference Curve (Motor)

Now add the user defined thermal overload protection curve :-


Edit > Double Click to Add Points (this defines new curve e.g.
Motor thermal withstand curve.
File > Save As (e.g. ‘New Therm OL’)
Send to Relay

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Page 41 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal: Motor Temperature Sensors

Ball or roller bearing failure usually occurs very quickly causing the motor to come to a standstill. There is little chance of
detecting this type of failure from the currents measured by the relay before the bearing is completely destroyed. (Stall
protection will avoid consequential damage).
Sleeve bearing failure can be detected by means of a rise in bearing temperature. This may ultimately be detected by the
normal thermal protection of the motor but this will not protect the bearing itself.

RTDs located in the bearings can provide suitable protection providing an alarm prior to complete bearing failure.
Pt100 Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD’s). Resistance of RTD increases with temperature.
These can be monitored by the Rho (Settings > SUPERVISION > TEMPERATURE)
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Page 42 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal: Temperature Sensor Input Monitoring

Relay connected to 7XV5662 using RS485 connection


7XV5662 connected to temperature sensors using 2 wires or 3 wires.

Up to 12 temperature Pt 100 sensors (100 Platinum), can be monitored using 7XV5662 temperature monitoring box.
Alarm and trip settings can be applied.
Monitoring of temperature input for short circuit and open circuit failure. A temperature input fail alarm output is
generated by a failure condition and the failed input is indicated. No trip or alarm output is issued by a failed input.
Gating: Security is enhanced by enabling each temperature input to be AND gated with any other input. When this
feature is enabled no trip output will be issued unless both gated inputs detect temperature (or resistance) above the trip
setting. Temperature input alarm outputs are not subject to gating.

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Page 43 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal: Temperature Sensor Connections

RS485

RS485

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Page 44 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal: Stall Protection (14)

An induction motor stalls when the load torque exceeds the breakdown torque causing a speed
decrease to zero or some stable point well below rated speed. Caused by suppression of motor
terminal voltage or excessive mechanical load. During this process, the motor current will
increase rapidly (which is called ‘inrush current’ or ‘locked rotor’) until the breakdown torque is
reached. Beyond breakdown torque, the motor current continues to increase approaching locked
rotor current. Two types of stall are:
• Excess shaft load prior to motor startup (e.g. failure to open the pump’s discharge gate)
• Sudden change of increased shaft load torque during normal operation (e.g. bearing
failures)

A synchronous motor may lose synchronism (pull-out or out-of-step condition) due to


suppression of motor terminal volts, excessive mechanical load or reduced motor excitation.

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Page 45 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Overload Grading

TIME

Running motor
thermal withstand

Motor
Run

Stalled motor
thermal withstand

Thermal Protection
Operate Characteristic

Motor
Start

CURRENT

ISTOP ISTART

Thermal Protection for running, starting and stalling


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Page 46 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Running Stall

• Running stall refers to mechanical jam while running

– Running Stall current ~ Starting


Current (6 x FLA)
Settings Criteria Guidelines
– Isolate motor prior to reaching
full thermal heat as the situation
is irrecoverable • Setting 2,5 x FLA
– Used primarily in application • Delay 2-3 sec (> U/V delay)
where motors feeds constant
• Inhibit during starting
load
– Do not use on crushers

• Protection
– Definite Time O/C element
– Inhibited during starting
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Page 47 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal – Motor Start Protection

A motor start is determined from the


measured current level or by a binary input
configured as ‘Start Motor I/P’.

Start Protection detects the number of motor


starts within a specified time interval (66)
Start inhibit delay - Further starts inhibited
until this period has elapsed
Minimum time between starts is used to
avoid consecutive starts where these can
damage the motor .

The motor start time can be monitored and


an output issued where excessive (48).

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Page 48 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Built-in Start Protection

Multiple start protection


and one thermal replica

assume:
2 start from cold
1 start from hot

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Page 49 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Inhibits & Start Blocks

Name Function

Thermal Inhibit Prevents motor starting if insufficient thermal capacity for a start is
available

Starts-per-hour / Another start would exceed the permissible number of motor starts in an
Jogging Block hour

Time Between Starts The minimum required cooling time for the motor since the last start has
not elapsed

Restart Inhibit The time required for re-starting the motor after a stop has not yet
elapsed

Backspin Timer Inhibit The fixed time required for the motor shaft to stop rotating backwards has
not expired
Note:
All Motor inhibits are designed to protect the motor against thermal or mechanical damage. Therefore:
• In determining settings, cognizance must be taken of motor and load technical data.
• A decision to over-ride the inhibits must be made with due consideration to the potential impact tis may have in terms of motor damage in
terms of immediate damage or reduction in the expected design life of the motor.

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Page 50 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal: Phase Unbalance Protection (IDMT)

20% Unbal. Setting

Current Unbalance can cause serious rotor over-heating 30% Unbal. Setting

100

Can use either Phase Difference or NPS detection - Phase Diff.


used where harmonics present
TM = 1.0
10
Setting must be above current imbalance levels caused by typical

Time Seconds
supply volts imbalance TM = 0.3

DTL set above short time tolerable unbalance current 1

0.5sec
Min. Op. Time

10 % UNBALANCE 100

Operate Time = Time Mult. / (xI / I )2


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Page 51 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
“Unbalance” Protection

Traditionally measured as % unbalance current relative to load current


(NOT absolute Negative Sequence Value)

(IMax IMin )
Unbalance 100%
IFLA

• Unbalance protection method has following limitations:


• Tends to under-estimate heating at I > FLA and
over-estimate heating at I < FLA
• Does not grade effectively with true negative
sequence elements (Generators)
• Normally implemented as a definite time function
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Page 52 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Negative Sequence Protection

True negative sequence function preferred


Inverse characteristic for more effective protection

Unbalance Determination
IMAX IMIN I
% Unbal 100% 100%
I I

Inverse Characteristic
Unbalance Negative sequence
1 1
t TRIP UNBAL 2
tm t TRIP NPS 2
tm
I I2
I I
I = k x IB

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Page 53 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Thermal Overload
Overcurrent (50, 51), Earth Fault (50 G/N, 51 G/N)
Under Current / Loss of Load Protection (37)

Increased loading causes the current drawn Short circuit current limited only by system Under-Current (37) applied where load loss
from the supply and the motor temperature to impedances. may cause motor overheating. 37 inhibited
increase Overcurrent detects terminal faults. Motor is when I < ISTOP
at the end of the system - grading with
downstream devices not required
Can be caused by: 50BCL feature used to block tripping where Can be caused by:-
Starting problems fault current is larger than breaking capacity • Loss of coolant pumping
of contactor
Mechanical overload • Loss of suction for pumps
EF can be inhibited during motor starting, a
Stall/over torque time delay can be added or a snubbing • Loss of airflow for fans
Unbalanced conditions resistor can be added.
• Broken belt for conveyors

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Page 54 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Overcurrent (50, 51) and Earth Fault (50 G/N, 51 G/N)
Under Current / Loss of Load Protection (37)

13
IA
14
17
IB
18
21
IC
22

25
IG
26

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Page 55 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Short Circuit

Short Circuit protection aimed to detect cable & terminal failures


Large majority of insulation failure faults in the stator winding results in earth faults

• Considerations:
Settings Criteria Guidelines
– Fuses (Contactor Controlled motors)

– Short Circuit protection (Circuit • Only use if Switch can interrupt full
Breaker Controlled motor) short circuit level
• Setting < 0.33 x Fault Level
– Differential (Circuit Breaker
controlled with low S/C currents or • Setting >1.6 x Starting Current
very high cost motor)
• Time delay 40 ms (avoid initial
peak offset during start)
– Differential (Synchronous Motors)

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Page 56 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Undercurrent Settings

Loss of coolant pumping


Loss of suction for pumps
Loss of airflow for fans
Broken belt for conveyors

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Page 57 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Earth Faults

Three Solutions

Residual connection of CT’s


• Least cost
• Risk of instability during start due to
CT saturation
• Sensitivity low (mismatch)
Settings Criteria Guidelines

Internally Calculated • Typically 10 – 15% pickup


• Time delay to avoid instability during start
Core balance related CT saturation
• Good sensitivity
• Can block during start
• Immune to CT saturation
• If resistance grounded can use sensitive
input fed from core balance for earth
leakage
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Page 58 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Directional Earth Fault Settings

Incomer

Snubbing
resistor

Holmgreen Core
connection Balance
CT
Directional
Earth
M M M Fault M
Circuit 1 Circuit 2 Circuit 3 Circuit 4

There are limits to how sensitive an earth fault relay may be set since the setting must be above any line
charging current levels that can be detected by the relay. On occurrence of an out of zone earth fault the
elevation of sound phase voltage to earth in a non-effectively earthed system can result in a zero
sequence current of up 3 times phase charging current flowing through the relay location. The step
change from balanced 3-phase charging currents to this level of zero sequence current includes
transients. It is recommended to:

• Apply directional earth fault protection, or

• Allow for a transient factor of 2 to 3 when determining the limit of charging current. Based on the
above considerations the minimum setting of a relay in a resistance earthed power system is 6 to 9
times the charging current per phase.

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Page 59 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Voltage & Frequency Protection

• Sustained UNDERVOLTAGE conditions result in


overheating due to increased current levels of fixed
MVA nature of load.
• Setting typically 80% of VNOM. Delay to allow for plant
dip proofing & motor thermal sustainability
• Sustained OVERVOLTAGE stresses insulation.
• Setting typically 110% of VNOM.

Sustained LOW FREQUENCY results in core saturation


leading to higher losses and potential thermal damage
FREQUENCY VARIATION may impact on load as speed
will be variable
Frequency problem typically encountered when motor is
fed from non-grid supply.
Setting enabled when running from non-grid supply?

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Page 60 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Under Voltage (27)

A motor may be approximated as a constant kVA device i.e. current


variations follow voltage variations inversely. The increased current
caused by reduced volts has a heating effect on the motor.

Undervoltage protection is used if the overheating caused by the


long duration undervoltage conditions can damage the motor. The
motor may be prevented from reaching rated speed and the
acceleration period may be extended. Synchronous motors may
pull-out of synchronism.

Where the undervoltage condition is caused by some abnormality in


the power system it may be that continued operation of the motor is
required where the system may recover. The motor may be forced
to operate at an over temperature or at reduced capability e.g. to
provide power plant services.

When a motor is not considered essential the ’27’ protection may


trip the motor contactor or CB. A time delay is included to allow
faults or system disturbances to clear before tripping is initiated.

Where a switchboard is switched out it may be necessary to


disconnect all motors, this allows inrush conditions to be managed
when the board is re-energised.
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Page 61 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Under Voltage (27)
Motors fed by contactors have inherent undervoltage protection, unless a latched contactor is used.

An undervoltage on a running motor results in increased current. The thermal overload feature will detect this condition, however, the undervoltage
element can be used to provide an advance warning before the overload condition occurs.
Power system under-voltages may last for only a few cycles or continue on a steady-state basis, they can occur due to system faults, an increase
in system loading or loss of supply e.g. loss of an incoming transformer.

Loss of Supply
When the supply is removed from an induction motor its back e.m.f. will decay exponentially and virtually disappear in a few seconds. During that
time there will also be a slight decrease in speed so that the phase of the back e.m.f. (E) moves away from the position which it occupied before
the removal of the supply.
There is a limit on the amount of time the motor can be allowed to run without a supply, as the back emf will fall out of synchronism with the supply.
This means the motor must be tripped after a short time delay.
Default setting are 1.5 x I and 0.3 seconds time delay. This will allow the backfed fault infeed from the motor to subside if a system fault occurs
and allow for an increase in current during a voltage depression due to a system fault.
An accepted level of backfed current from a motor is a maximum of 5 times full rating for 4 cycles. Therefore the time delay should always be set in
excess of 8 cycles. The minimum is therefore set to 0.2 seconds.
If the voltage was restored before 0.4s, then the voltage applied to the motor would be less than the system voltage because of the back e.m.f. and
the current would be less than short-circuit current. After 0.4s, the voltage between the applied voltage and the back e.m.f. is greater than the
applied voltage and the short circuit current would be correspondingly greater. If the voltage was restored at 0.8s, the short circuit current would be
1½ times normal. This means that the mechanical forces exerted on the rotor would be over twice the normal starting forces and could cause
damage to the rotor structure.
For this reason undervoltage protection (with DTL) is used on large machines to ensure that the machines are disconnected if the loss of voltage
exceeds say 0.3s.
During a system fault there is a loss of supply to all motors connected to the system until the fault is cleared. The loss of supply will be of the order
or 120 to 250ms. Even if the fault persisted for a longer time there is not much danger of the high short circuit current. This is because the motor
will be contributing current to the fault and consequently the decay of the back e.m.f. is far more rapid – probably disappearing in less than 0.5s.
When the auxiliary voltage supply drops below the dropout voltage level, the motor contactor(s) are de-energised until the dip is over as indicated
by supply recovery to the pick-up level.
For short dips (100 – 500ms) the contactors can be immediately closed back onto the supply.
For medium dips (0.1 – 10s) it is appropriate to restart the motor with any staged startup sequence the starter type might provide.
For long dips (0.5 – 60mins) supply restoration is from backup power, and their must be substantial intervals between starting different motors to
maintain stability, and/or only critical motors can be started.
Re-Acceleration: After a reduction in system voltage stall protection is disabled to allow for re-acceleration if system LV > 100ms.

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Page 62 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Under Voltage (27)
Sustained Under-Voltage
Where 3-phase motors are subjected to a significant voltage drop the motor may stall. Large motors are typically specified to start
successfully, without damage, with terminal voltages as low as 70% to 85% of rated voltage. Too low a voltage at the terminals of a
motor while the motor is being started may prevent it from reaching it’s rated speed, or cause the acceleration period to be extended,
resulting in excessive heating of the rotor and stator windings.
A large induction motor rotating at essentially rated speed may be approximated at steady state conditions as a constant kVA device for
a given shaft load. Therefore low voltage encountered while the motor is running results in higher than normal operating currents and
increased heating of the stator winding and rotor.
Re-Acceleration: After a reduction in system voltage stall protection is disabled to allow for re-acceleration if system LV > 100ms.

System Faults
Transient undervoltages will generally allow a motor to recover when the voltage is restored, unless the supply is weak. Re-
acceleration is normally possible for voltage dips lasting between 0.5 – 2 seconds, depending on system, motor and drive
characteristics.
Motors fed by contactors have inherent undervoltage protection, unless a latched contactor is used.
An undervoltage element can be set to trip motor circuits when the voltage falls below a preset value so that on restoration of supply an
overload is not caused by the simultaneous starting of all the motors. A time delay is required to ensure voltage dips due to remote
system faults do not result in an unnecessary disconnection of motors. If two elements are used, alarm and trip settings can be applied.
An interlock with the motor starter is required to block relay operation when the starting device is open, otherwise a start will not be
permitted. As motor starting can result in a voltage depression to 80% of nominal, the voltage setting is likely to be below this value.

An industrial facility may provide alternate sources to critical pump motors. If the normal supply is lost for any reason, automatic
switching is initiated to transfer the motor loads to an alternate source. The transfer is typically initiated by an undervoltage relay
operating to indicate loss of voltage. When the power supply to a motor is lost, the motor terminal voltage does not disappear
immediately but is sustained by its rotating inertia and internal magnetic field. This remnant voltage decays according to the motor and
load characteristics. Depending on the speed of the transfer scheme, voltage may be present at the motor terminals when the transfer
occurs. Application of the alternate source voltage to the motor with its remnant voltage can produce severe torque on the motor shaft
as well as voltage and current transients. The result can be damage to the shaft, damage to the motor windings, and damage to other
connected equipment. Remnant undervoltage logic prevents the transfer until the motor voltage has decayed to a safe level. A typical
setting is 20-25 percent of motor rated voltage. For additional security, a time delay is used to ensure the remnant voltage remains
below the setting.

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Page 63 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
NPS Over-Voltage (47)

Pos seq flux wave rotating @ 50Hz clockwise and cuts

Unbalanced supply voltage (NPS voltage) can cause thermal damage to the induction motor.
rotor bars at slip frequency to produce positive torque
Neg seq flux wave rotating @ 50Hz anti-clockwise and
cuts rotor bars at 100Hz less slip frequency producing

Very high levels indicate a reversed phase sequence due to an incorrect connection. negative torque

NPS Voltage is used for monitoring supply quality. Any system voltage abnormality is important Stator

since it will affect every motor connected to the source of supply and can result in mass
failures in an industrial plant.
NPS Voltage DTL elements can be used as Alarms to indicate that the level of NPS has
reached abnormal levels. Remedial action can then be taken, such as introducing a Balancer Rotor

network of capacitors and inductors.


A 1% voltage unbalance typically translates into a 6% current unbalance: If the supply voltage
is normally unbalanced up to 2% the current unbalance seen by a typical motor would be 2 x 6 Rotor turning in same direction as positive sequence
flux wave less slip frequency

= 12%. Rotor Bar heating due to excessive negative sequence


currents

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Page 64 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Power/Sensitive Power

Direction of load
power flow
M

A B C

1A
A13

A14

5A Ia
A15

A16

A17
1A

A18

A19
5A Ib
Under power provides the most accurate measure of motor loading over the full
A20

1A
operating range as load loss may result in only a small change in current.
A21

A22
It can be used, for example, to protect for a failure in the mechanical
Ic
A23
5A
transmission - may indicate loss of pump flow which in turn may cause pump
A24

A25
1A
overheating.
A26

5A Ig
M
A27
Directional power measurement may also operate on occurrence of a system
A28

power supply fail or system fault. Power flow into the motor will reverse since the
motor will act as a generator due to the inertia of the connected load.

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Page 65 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Power Factor (55)

Power factor is often a more sensitive measurement of underload conditions than


undercurrent current
Low PF indicates loss of excitation on a synchronous motor. This can be enabled for
service once the excitation is applied, it can be disabled during motor starting e.g. by
setting the DTL.
During motor starting the power factor is low. This function can be used instead of a
tachometer speed switch to block stall protection for starting, when the stall withstand is
within the motor start current profile.

This feature can also be used to detect out of step condition on synchronous motors, but
additional logic is required. For this a d /dt feature should be added to check the rate of
change is slow indicating a loss of synchronism rather than a fault condition.
Detect start/running conditions of a VFD (variable frequency/speed) drive or synchronous
motor.

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Page 66 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Additional Protections for Synchronous Motors?

Overall Differential Protection

Pole Slip / Out of Step Protection

Loss of Field Protection

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Page 67 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Example Settings Calculation

Motor Rating Plate or Data Sheet Information

Where available:
Rated output kW
Rated Voltage kV
Rated Frequency Hz
Rated Power Factor
Rated Efficiency % (95% default)
Service Factor
Stall Withstand Time Cold/Hot secs
Starting Method
Locked Rotor Current A primary
Permitted starts cold/hot
Start Time @ 100% Voltage
Max. Starts Per Hour
Min. Time Between Starts
Control Device

CT and VT Connection Details

CT turns ratio (T)


VT Ratio and connection

Nominate Basic Thermal Settings

NPS Weighting
Thermal Overload Setting (49 Itheta)
Motor Start Current (x Itheta)
Motor Stop Current (x Itheta)

Calculate Thermal Protection Settings

Overload: OL protection settings, alarms and inhibits


Stall protection settings
Start protection settings
Current Unbalance protection settings

Enable and Set Other Protections as Required

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Page 68 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Example Settings Calculation

Motor Rating Plate or Data Sheet Information

Where available:
Rated output kW
Rated Voltage kV
Rated Frequency Hz
Rated Power Factor
Rated Efficiency % (95% default)
Service Factor
Stall Withstand Time Cold/Hot secs
Starting Method
Locked Rotor Current A primary
Permitted starts cold/hot
Start Time @ 100% Voltage
Max. Starts Per Hour
Min. Time Between Starts
Control Device

CT and VT Connection Details

CT turns ratio (T)


VT Ratio and connection

Nominate Basic Thermal Settings

NPS Weighting
Thermal Overload Setting (49 Itheta)
Motor Start Current (x Itheta)
Motor Stop Current (x Itheta)

Calculate Thermal Protection Settings

Overload: OL protection settings, alarms and inhibits


Stall protection settings
Start protection settings
Current Unbalance protection settings

Enable and Set Other Protections as Required

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Page 69 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
TRIP
2283% 91.3%

1422% 57.7%

ISTART = 4.3 x In IRUN = 0.86 x In


IOVERLOAD = 0.9 x In IOVERLOAD = 0.9 x In

TRIP

THEAT THEAT

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Page 70 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
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Page 71 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Supervision: Breaking Capacity Limit

Where the measured fault current is above the 50BCL setting the relay can be
configured to issue the trip output through a different output relay.

The motor can be then switched out via a suitably rated upstream circuit breaking
device.

Applied where the motor contactor has limited break capacity.

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Page 72 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Supervision: Backspin

DTL

DTL + UV

DTL + UV + Speed Sensor

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Page 73 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Supervision: Motor Maintenance

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Page 74 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
60CTS CT Supervision

1 Conductor De-energised & 2 Energised = ALARM OUTPUT


CT Failure Setting 0.05 – 1xIn
CT Failure Delay 0.01 - 300s

CT Failure
Current Setting
EVENT
OFF, 0.05 to 1.00
FUN: 165
IA 1 out of 3 < ICTF CTF DTL INF:
IB 2 out of 3 < ICTF
OFF, 0 - 300s CT Failure
IC 3 out of 3 = no-op
TYP: 1
COT: SE, GI
DIR: RC

RL1
RL1
1

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Page 75 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Trip & Close Circuit Supervision (74TCS & CCS)

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Page 76 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Trip Circuit Supervision Schemes

Contacts shown with CB in Open position

Fuse 52a Link


+ -
TRIP
TRIP
COIL
Recommended B.I. Settings:
20ms p.u. BIn
400ms d.o. Rs H5
Scheme Notes: BO1 BOn
Scheme
BI = 19V (24,30,48,110 & 220V supply) Rd 52b C.B.
Remote
BI = 88V (110 & 220V Supply) Alarm
Rs & Rd = 3K3 typical
TCS can be set for each status input and therefore can be used to monitor 1st and
2nd trip coils or all phases of phase segregated CB

Rs Prevents Excessive Drain current


Rd prevents Trip Coil being operated while the CB is Open
Maximum trip coil current < 35mA

Contacts shown with CB in Open position

Fuse 52a Link


+ -
TRIP TRIP
52a COIL

Recommended B.I. Settings:


20ms p.u.
H6
Rs
400ms d.o. BIn Scheme
52b C.B.
Scheme Notes:
BI = 19V (24,30,48,110 & 220V supply) BO1 BOn TCS can be set for each status input and therefore can be used to
Remote
BI = 88V (110 & 220V Supply) monitor 1st and 2nd trip coils or all phases of phase segregated CB
Alarm
Rs & Rd = 3K3 typical
Rs Prevents excessive drain current

Contacts shown with CB in Open position

Fuse 52a Link


+ -
TRIP TRIP
Rs COIL
BIn

Recommended B.I. Settings:


H7
20ms p.u.
400ms d.o.
Scheme
BIn
Scheme Notes: 52b C.B.
BI = 19V (48,110 & 220V supply)
Rs & Rd = 3K3 typical BO1 BOn
Remote
TCS can be set for each status input and therefore can be used to
Alarm
monitor 1st and 2nd trip coils or all phases of phase segregated CB

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Page 77 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Supervision - CB Fail
Detection

Triggered from the protection algorithm and trip output contact


Monitors the flow of current into the motor – issues back-trip output if current remains
above setting P/F & E/F CB Fail Setting: 0.05 – 1xIn
2 independent time delays for tripping or alarming CB Fail Time Delay 1 & 2: 0 - 300s

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Page 78 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Control - Motor Start/Stop

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Page 79 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Quick Logic

Input up to 4 logic equations using:


• Binary Inputs (In) and Outputs (On)
• LEDs (Ln)
• Virtual Inputs / Outputs (Vn)
• Standard logic gates
• NOT !
• AND .
• EOR ^
• OR +
Equations entered as Text string of up to 20 characters
Example:
E1 = ((I1 ^ V1) . ! O2) + L1
Equation 1 output = ((Binary Input 1 XOR Virtual 1)
AND NOT Binary Output 2)
OR LED 1
E1 is subject to a pick-up and a drop-off timer, and a counter (with both
instantaneous and time delayed reset functionality)

E1 can be mapped to Binary Outputs, LEDs or Virtual Input / Outputs


Runs at fastest Protection cycling time and status is visible in the relay
Instruments.
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Page 80 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Self Monitoring

Range of Self Monitoring features initiate a controlled reset recovery


sequence in the event of a relay hardware or software failure

• Power Supply Watchdog


• Processor Health Check
• Analogue Input Health Check
• Code Execution Watchdog
• Checksum Validation of Memory

“Protection Healthy” LED and Binary Output are de-energised on


relay reset
Repeated resets due to permanent failure result in flashing
“Protection Healthy” LED and pulsing of Binary Output
To aid relay Fault diagnosis

• Event generated and stored


• Error Message displayed on LCD

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Page 81 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
User Interface and Menu Structure

Use the and keys to scroll to a setting and press ENTER to change the setting.

Relay Identifier – Two line of user text for circuit identification


Setting Mode – allows the user to view and change settings
Instruments – allows the user to see the conditions seen by the relay
Fault Data – allows the type and data of a fault the relay has detected to be viewed
Control – allows the user to control plant and relay functions

Pressing the Cancel key will return the relay one level back in the menu structure
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Page 82 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Settings (Relay > Settings > Settings)

SYSTEM CONFIG>SETTING DEPENDENCIES


Used to reduce the number of visible settings. When a function
is Disabled its settings will disappear from view.

SYSTEM CONFIG>BACKLIGHT TIMER


Used to set the duration the LCD backlight remains on after the
last key press on fascia.

SYSTEM CONFIG>RELAY IDENTIFIER


The user can enter their own text to appear on the LCD in the
top level of the menu structure. Max 16 Character string.

FUNCTION CONFIG>
Allows each relay function to be Enabled/Disabled

MAINTENANCE > OUTPUT MATRIX TEST > Function select


Output relay test from fascia

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Page 83 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Passwords

Once Relay is Password protected, settings can be examined but not changed
until correct Password has been entered

User Password can be entered either at the Fascia or via the communications

Each Password is 4-alphanumeric characters

Double entry of Password required to set or reset feature

By default both are set to “NONE”

Automatic log-off after 1 hour without changes

Numerical representation available in Instruments Screen allowing


recovery of forgotten Passwords

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Page 84 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR1705/6 Instrumentation (Relay >
Information > Monitor Instruments)

7SR1702/3 instrumentation does not


include metering of voltage dependent
functions

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Page 85 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Maintenance - CB

CB Counters
Provides a guide to Circuit-Breaker wear for maintenance purposes

Operations (Trip) Counter


•Provides a running count of the number of trips performed by the CB
•Delta Operations Counter - Gives a running count of the number of trips over a given period
•A CB trip time meter provides the time between the trip being issued and the auxiliary contact changing state

All CB Maintenance Counters can be Reset to 0. Binary Outputs can be energised when any counter reaches its user
defined Count Target or Alarm Limit .

I2t CB Wear
Provides an accumulated total of the I2t measured at each trip
I2 is a measure of the heating effect of the current
The i2t value at the time of trip is added to the previously stored value and an alarm is given when any of the three
phase running counts exceeds the set alarm limit.
The t value is the time between the CB contacts separation when an arc is formed and the clearance time.
(‘Gn Clearance time’ – ‘Gn Separation Time’).

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Page 86 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Operating Mode

SYSTEM CONFIG>OPERATING MODE setting - simulates keyswitch


Local, Remote, Local or Remote, Service – this setting is only available via fascia
OPERATION REMOTE MODE LOCAL MODE SERVICE MODE

Control
Rear Ports Enabled Disabled Disabled
Fascia (Control Mode) Disabled Enabled Disabled
USB Disabled Enabled Disabled
Binary Inputs Setting Option Setting Option Enabled
Binary Outputs Enabled Enabled Disabled
Reporting
Spontaneous
IEC Enabled Enabled Disabled
DNP Enabled Enabled Disabled
General Interogation
IEC Enabled Enabled Disabled
DNP Enabled Enabled Disabled
MODBUS Enabled Enabled Disabled
Changing of Settings
Rear Ports Enabled Disabled Enabled
Fascia Enabled Enabled Enabled
USB Disabled Enabled Enabled
Historical Information
Waveform Records Enabled Enabled Enabled
Event Records Enabled Enabled Enabled
Fault Information Enabled Enabled Enabled
Setting Information Enabled Enabled Enabled
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Page 87 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Data Storage

Settings

Event Records (Relay > Events > Get Events)

Waveform Records (Relay > Waveform > Waveform Record)

Fault Data Records (Relay > Data Records > Data Fault Record)

Demand/Data Log (Relay > Data Records > Data Log Record)

Data Report File (Relay > Data Records > Data Report File)

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Page 88 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Reydisp Evolution – Relay
Interrogation Software

View and download settings


8 Settings Groups

Disturbance Records
10 second window
1, 2, 5 or 10 records

Relay events
Up to 5,000 events

Fault Records
Up to 10 Records

All Data Storage in


non-volatile memory

Retained during power-off

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Page 89 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Clock Synchronisation

The Real Time Clock can be set by:

• Set Time / Date at Fascia

• Set Time / Date via Data Communications

The Real Time Clock can be synchronised in a number of ways:

• Set Time via Control System Communications

• Synchronising pulse on Binary Input


Setting to define whether pulse resets to nearest minute or nearest second

• Optional IRIG-B connection

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Page 90 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Reydisp Manager

Relay templates available from website

Reylogic Express

Setting Editor

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Page 91 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Inputs / Outputs / LED’s Matrix

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Page 92 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Relay > Data Records > Data Log

Up to 10080 samples
User defined interval, range 5min (35 days total) to 60mins (420 days total)

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Page 93 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Relay > Data Records > Data Report File

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Page 94 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Data Storage for logic (events, faults) and
waveforms (disturbance records)

Fault Data Record triggered By Operation of element


Trip LED
Last 10 fault records available from relay facia
mapped to:
OUTPUT CONFIG > TRIP CONFIG > Trip Contacts 02/22 15:27:17 TEST/ FAULT 1
RESET Fault data >>>
Trip A

FAULT 5
If maximum record storage exceeded, Fault data >>>
new Fault, Waveform or Event record
Or over data communication link
will overwrite oldest record

10 seconds of waveform storage


available over data communications link
Waveform Storage triggered By operation of Protection element
mapped to:
DATA STORAGE > WAVEFORM STORAGE > Required function

1,000 Event Records available over data communications


link

Configurable as:
1 x 10s, 2 x 5s, 5 x 2s or 10 x 1s Record

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Page 95 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Data and Waveform Storage Trigger

Protection elements defined as a Trip by settings:

P/F Trig, E/F Trig, Thermal Trig, Voltage Trig, Freq Trig and Misc Trig

A Trip:

Triggers a Data Record


Initiates CB Fail element
Operates Trip LED

Protection elements triggering Waveform Storage defined by settings:

P/F Pickups, E/F Pickups, SEF Pickups, Voltage Pickups, Freq Pickups and Misc
Pickups

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Page 96 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Data and Waveform Storage Trigger

Output Contacts defined as Trip outputs by Trip Contacts setting

A Trip:

Triggers a Data Record


Operates Trip LED

Protection element starters triggering General Pickup output defined by settings:

Voltage Pickups, Freq Pickups

Protection elements triggering Waveform Storage defined by settings:

Voltage Trig Storage, Freq Trig Storage

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Page 97 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Data Communications

Connectivity
USB, RS485

Protocols
IEC60870-5-103, DNP3, Modbus RTU

REYDISP
Evo, Manager, Language Editor,
Communication Editor

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Page 98 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Connectivity

The USB port allows ‘plug and play’


connection to Reydisp from default
settings.

Standard Communication Ports


• COM 1 (Rear RS485)
• COM 2 (Front USB)

Protocol
• IEC 60870-5-103 and ASCII are
available on all Ports
• MODBUS-RTU and DNP-3 are
available on all Ports except the
USB
• REYDISP is compatible with IEC
60870-5-103 and can be used on all
ports providing that protocol
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Page 99 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
RS485 Data
Communications
Connections

14

16

18

20

14

16

18

20

14

16

18

20
Term.

Term.

Term.
GND

GND

GND
+ve

+ve

+ve
-ve

-ve

-ve
Single or multi-drop configuration
RS485 master must use the Auto Device Enable (ADE) feature
Last device termination to be compatible with the Master Device driving the connection
RS485 120 Ohm screened twisted pair cable
Maximum number of relays that can be connected to the bus = 64
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Page 100 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Language Editor

When opening the language editor you are given the following to choose from:

Simply click which item you need to use

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Page 101 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Language Editor

Load the template of the relay language you want to change, shown below in left
hand box.

Simply type the new language into the ‘alternative settings text’ section, this is
set up symmetrically with the original text so you can see the new and old text
simultaneously
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Page 102 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Language Editor

Alternative views: -When you change something it becomes


highlighted for clarity.
Settings: To make finding each setting easier
than searching a list of thousands of rows, the
settings tab displays the relay settings
hierarchically, similar to Reydisp.

Meters: The meters tab displays the


instrument meters that are visible on the relay.

Misc text: The miscellaneous text tab is


identical to the “All Text” tab apart from any
items
that have appeared in the “Settings” or
“Meters” tabs are not shown.

If you change the text in one view it automatically changes in all of the other views
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Page 103 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Language Editor

:- Sending new language file to relay:


1) Connect to the relay to
send the file

2) Insert language file


(browser)

3) Send the file to the


relay

4) Restart the relay

Always ensure the file


name contains the
version number

When the new language is uploaded and the relay has been restarted, you will need to
select your new language which will have the file name you saved it under.
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Page 104 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Communication Protocol Editor

The Communications Editor is provided to allow its users to configure the


Communications Files Protocols in Reyrolle Relays

Current protocols:
DNP 3.0
MODBUS RTU
IEC60870-5-103

The software will get the relevant configuration files from the relay.

The editor allows configuration files to be retrieved from the relay, edited, then
uploaded back to the relay.

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Page 105 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
DNP3

The tool will allow:


· Data Points to be enabled or disabled.
· Changing the point numbers for the Binary Inputs, Binary Outputs and Analogue Inputs.
· Changing their assigned class and object variants.
· Setting Binary points to be inverted before transmission.
· Setting the Control Relay Output Block (CROB) commands that can be used with a binary
output.
· Specifying a dead-band outside which Analogue Events will be generated.
· Specifying a multiplier that will be applied to an analogue value before transmission.

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Page 106 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
IEC60870-5-103

The tool will allow:


· Data Points to be enabled or disabled.
· Changing the point numbers, Function Type (FUN) and Information
(INF), returned by each point.
· Changing the text returned to Reydisp for display in its event viewer.

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Page 107 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
MODBUS-RTU

The tool will allow:


· Changing the Addresses for the Coils, Inputs and Registers.
· Changing the format of the instrument returned in a register, e.g. 16 or 32 bit.

Note, as MODBUS points are polled they do not need to be enabled or disabled.

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Page 108 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Settings Wizard

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Page 109 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR17 Construction

E4 case
USB Front Port
LCD - 4 lines, 20 Characters, Backlit
Programmable from Fascia
Familiar operation keypad with 5 navigation keys
Protective Cover
9 Multi coloured user programmable LED’s
Protection Healthy LED
User inscription label for easy identification

Withdrawable element using handles. Key contacts


short-circuited when element is withdrawn

Rear connections using 28 x M4 terminals


Rear RS485 Port

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Page 110 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR1702/3 Wiring Interface

1A and 5A CT inputs 2
+ve +ve
3
-ve
BI 1 BI 4 -ve
4 1
+ve +ve
8 programmable output contacts, 6

8
-ve BI 2 BI 5
5

• Miniature Electromechanical Relays 10


+ve

-ve BI 3 BI 6
+ve
7

• Initiated from Protection, Alarms, Monitoring or Status Input 12

• All Binary Outputs are Trip rated 14

16 GND
+ve
BO 6 11

• Self or Hand Reset 18 -ve


BO 7
BO 8
13

15

• Common Minimum Operate Energise Time setting 20 Term.

• “O/P Relay Test” command available in Maintenance menu 22


+ve

-ve

• Typical close response time of 7ms 24

28 GND.

B
6 binary inputs: 13
1A
3
• Mechanical Alarms/Trips 14
IL1
BO 1 1

• Inhibit selected functions 15

16
5A
2

• Change settings groups 17


1A
BO 2 6

• Reset LEDs and Output Contacts 18

19
5A IL2
5

• Trigger Waveform Storage 20


8

• Synchronise Clock 21

22
1A BO 3
7

• Trip / Close Circuit Supervision 23


5A IL3
BO 4
10

• User Logic
9
24
1A 12
25

Time delayed pick-up and drop-off settings for each input 26


IL4
BO 5
11

Setting for functional inversion 27


5A

28
A
Setting to enable in local and/or remote mode

AC/DC auxiliary supply 1 2 1 2 NOTES


BI = Binary Input,
BO = Binary Output,
TEMP = Temperature input
Data comms: Front USB, Rear RS485 B A Shows contacts internal
to relay case assembly.
Contacts close when
relay chassis withdrawn
27 28 27 28
from case

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Page 111 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR1705/6 Wiring Interface

1A and 5A CT inputs 2

4
+ve

-ve BI 1 BI 4
+ve

-ve
3

40 – 160V VT inputs 6
+ve
BI 2 BI 5
+ve
5
-ve
8
+ve +ve
7
8 programmable output contacts,
10
-ve
BI 3 BI 6
12

• Miniature Electromechanical Relays 14 +ve


9

BO 6
• Initiated from Protection, Alarms, Monitoring or Status Input
11
16 GND
BO 7 13

• All Binary Outputs are Trip rated


18 -ve
BO 8 15
20 Term.

• Self or Hand Reset 17

• Minimum Operate Energise Time setting 22


+ve

-ve
See
Relay
19

21

• “O/P Relay Test” command available in Maintenance menu 24 Voltage


Config.
Setting
23

• Typical close response time of 7ms


28 GND. 25

B 27

1A

6 binary inputs:
13 3

14 BO 1 1
IA
• Mechanical Alarms/Trips 15
5A
2

• Inhibit selected functions


16 4
1A
17 BO 2 6

• Change settings groups 18


5A
IB
5

• Reset LEDs and Output Contacts 19

20

• Trigger Waveform Storage


8
21
1A BO 3
7

• Synchronise Clock 22

23
5A
IC
BO 4
10

• Trip / Close Circuit Supervision 24


9

12

• User Logic
1A
25
BO 5
11
26

Time delayed pick-up and drop-off settings for each input 27


5A
IG

Setting for functional inversion 28


A
Setting to enable in local and/or remote mode
1 2 1 2

NOTES
AC/DC auxiliary supply BI = Binary Input, BO = Binary Output

B A Shows contacts internal


Data comms: Front USB, Rear RS485 to relay case assembly.
Contacts close when
relay chassis withdrawn
27 28 27 28
from case

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Page 112 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Phase Voltage Configurations

A B C
Va
B17

Van,Vbn,Vcn
B19

Vb
Phase-Neutral voltages measured
B21
Phase-Phase voltages derived
B23
NPS voltage (V2) derived
Vc
B25
ZPS voltage (V0) derived
CT/VT CONFIG >
B27
Phase Voltage Config:
Van,Vbn,Vcn

Va
Voltage configurations are selectable in:
B17
CT/VT CONFIG >Phase Voltage Config
B19

Vb
Va,Vb,Vc
B21
Phase-Phase voltages derived Voltage inputs have trimming settings to allow for
B23
NPS voltage (V2) derived voltage drop in external wiring:
Vc
B25
CT/VT CONFIG >Phase Voltage Trim Magnitude
CT/VT CONFIG > B27
Phase Voltage Config:
Va,Vb,Vc

Va
B17

B19
Vab,Vbc,3V0
Vca calculated
Vb

B21

B23
Phase-Neutral voltages derived
Vc

Dn
B25
NPS voltage (V2) derived
CT/VT CONFIG > Da
ZPS voltage (V0) derived
B27
Phase Voltage Config:
Vab,Vbc,3V0

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Page 113 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Current Inputs Connections

Current Input(s): Phase Overcurrent Current Input(s): Phase Overcurrent


Ia, Ib, Ic Ia, Ib, Ic
Derived E/F Derived E/F

Current Input(s): Measured E/F Current Input(s): ‘B’ Phase


Ig Ig
CT/VT CONFIG: Selects 1 or 5A CT/VT CONFIG: Selects 1 or 5A
Phase Current Input Phase Current Input
CT/VT CONFIG: Selects 1 or 5A CT/VT CONFIG: CT ratio for primary
Earth Current Input meters
Phase CT Ratio
CT/VT CONFIG: CT ratio for primary CT/VT CONFIG: Selects 1 or 5A
meters
Phase CT Ratio Earth Current Input

CT/VT CONFIG: CT ratio for primary CT/VT CONFIG: CT ratio for primary
meters meters
Earth CT Ratio Earth CT Ratio

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Page 114 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Binary Input – Opto Isolator

INPUT CONFIG > INPUT MATRIX


Used to map input functions to Binary Inputs
Initiated from Protection, Alarms, Monitoring, User Logic or Binary Inputs e.g.
• Mechanical Alarms/Trips
• Inhibit selected functions
• Change settings groups
• Reset LEDs and Output Contacts
• Trigger Waveform Storage
• Synchronise Clock
• Trip / Close Circuit Supervision
• User Logic

INPUT CONFIG > BINARY INPUT CONFIG


Time delayed pick-up and drop-off settings for each input
Setting for functional inversion
Setting to enable in local and/or remote mode

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Page 115 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Binary Inputs – Compliance with ESI 48-4

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Page 116 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Binary Output - Miniature Electromechanical
Relays

OUTPUT CONFIG>OUTPUT MATRIX


Used to map output functions to Binary Outputs
Initiated from Protection, Alarms, Monitoring, User Logic or Binary Inputs e.g.
• Trip Outputs
• General Starter
• Plant Control Open/Close
• Watchdog
• Counter Alarms
I2t Alarm

OUTPUT CONFIG>BINARY OUTPUT CONFIG


‘Trip Contacts’ defined
• Generates ‘TRIP’ event
• Stores fault record,
• Initiates internal ‘Trip’ Input
Minimum Operate Time settings for each BO
Self or Hand Reset or Pulsed

Output relay test from fascia


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Page 117 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Virtual Inputs / Outputs

8 Virtual Inputs / Outputs available

Where an input or output function is not mapped to either a Binary Input or


Binary Output

It can instead be mapped to a Virtual Input / Output

This Virtual Input / Output can then be used in Quick Logic

Or mapped to a Binary Output

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Page 118 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
LEDs

Standard LEDs: PROTECTION HEALTHY

9 User programmable LEDs:

OUTPUT CONFIG>OUTPUT MATRIX


Used to map output functions to LEDs (Ln)
Initiated from Protection, Alarms, Monitoring, User Logic or Binary Input

OUTPUT CONFIG>BINARY OUTPUT CONFIG


Self or Hand Reset
(Status of latched LEDs retained in capacitor-backed memory in event of supply loss)

OUTPUT CONFIG>LED CONFIG


Colour setting for each LED for operate and pick up condition
Green (Status)
Red (Trip or Failure)
Amber (Green + Red) (Alarm)

The same LED can be mapped one colour for the pick up condition and another for trip

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Page 119 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR17 vs 7SG17

Front comms port


Programmable LEDs
Voltage functionality/metering
Enhanced thermal algorithm
Metering of current quantities
Logic equations/graphical logic
DNP3.0 data comms protocols

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Page 120 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SG17 and 7SR1705/6
Functional Comparison

7SR17 New or enhanced functions

14 Stall Protection
27 Under-voltage
32/55 Power/Power Factor
37 Phase undercurrent
46 Phase Unbalance
47 NPS Voltage
48/66 Start Protection
49 Thermal Overload
49RTD RTD Monitoring
50(G)BF Phase (neutral) CB Fail
50/51 Overcurrent
50/51 G/N Earth Fault
59 Over-voltage
Front comms port 60CTS CT Supervision
Programmable LEDs 60VTS VT Supervision
Voltage functionality/metering 67 Directional OC/EF
Enhanced thermal algorithm 81 Frequency
Metering of current quantities 81B Back-spin
Logic equations/graphical logic 87REF High Impedance REF
DNP3.0 data comms protocols Programmable Logic

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Page 121 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SG17 and 7SR1705/6 – Settings Comparison

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Page 122 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR17 Commissioning

Test:
• Pickup and reset
• Thermal characteristic
• Over/Under Current protection
• Phase unbalance protection
• Number of starts
• Temperature inputs
• Binary inputs and outputs
• Circuit breaker fail

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Page 123 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Competitor Comparison: SEL-710

Thermal Algorithm
SEL710 “AccuTrack” calculates motor slip, the motor slip
affects rotor resistance.
During motor starting the rotor currents are concentrated
near the rotor bar surface (higher resistance). At operating
speed the deep bar effect evenly distributes current resulting
in lower rotor resistance.

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Page 124 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Competitor Comparison: GE-369

Thermal Algorithm
Standard or custom (FlexCurve) curves. Thermal memory
updated every 0.1 second.
RTD and current unbalance biasing
Programmable integral RTD inputs (up to 12)

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Page 125 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR17 vs 7SG17

14 Stall Protection 14 Stall Protection


37 Phase undercurrent 27 Under-voltage
46 NPS Current 32/55 Power/Power Factor
66 Start Protection 46 NPS Current
49R Thermal Overload 47 NPS Voltage
49RTD RTD Monitoring 48/66 Start Protection
50BF CB Fail Monitoring 49R Thermal Overload
50 Overcurrent 49RTD RTD Monitoring
50G Earth Fault 50(G)BF Phase (neutral) CB Fail Monitoring
60CTS CT Supervision 50/51 Overcurrent
87REF High Impedance REF 50/51 G/N Earth Fault
59 Over-voltage
60CTS CT Supervision
60VTS VT Supervision
67 Directional OC/EF
81 Frequency
81B Back-spin
87REF High Impedance Restricted Earth Fault

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Page 126 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Induction Motors
Types of Motors
Induction Motor Action
Physical arrangement
Motor Impedances
Requirement for protection / fault types

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Page 127 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
11 Motor Parameters Required for
Protection Setting Calculations

CT Ratio
Output Power
Rated Voltage
Rated Current
Service Factor
Cold Safe Stall Time
Hot Safe Stall Time
Locked Rotor Current
Starting Time
Max starts per hour
Min time between starts

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Page 128 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Effects of PF Correction
Capacitors

P.F. correction will modify the total current drawn by the motor circuit

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Page 129 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Questions

What is a motor?
• An electromechanical energy converter suited to purpose –
driving machinery, pumps, fans, compressors, conveyors,
hoists etc.
• It is estimated that one third of all the electricity generated
is converted back to mechanical energy in induction
motors.

Why is motor protection required?


• To limit damage caused to the motor by overheating and
short circuits

What methods of protection can be used?

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Page 130 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Standards

IEC 60034-1 Rating and performance

IEC 60034-2-1 Testing: Standard methods for


determining

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Page 131 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Action - 1

I1
Alternating current flows in the primary
V1 T1 Current creates a m.m.f. which results in
An alternating flux m in the core

m induces in the primary coil e.m.f. E1 of self-induction to counterbalance applied voltage


E1 V1

In a secondary coil of T2 turns linking the same core an emf E2 is developed by mutual
I1
induction
V1 T1 T2

E2 forces I2 to flow through the secondary circuit load.


I2

I2 will produce flux L2 which opposes main flux m – this tends to reduce main flux but is
I1 prevented by the immediate and automatic adjustment of I1, thereby maintaining m at the
I2
value required to produce E1
E1

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Page 132 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Action - 2

I1
A small m.m.f. is required to generate a magnetic field
V1 T1 E1
m.m.f. of the primary circuit on no load is approx. 5% of its m.m.f. on full
load

Magnetising current Ior is considered as in time phase with its associated


flux.
V1 = -E1
Pulsation of the flux in the core produces core loss (Ioa) – hysteresis and
eddy currents.

Io
0 Ioa
Ior m

E1

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Page 133 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Action - 3

I1

V1 T1 T2

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Page 134 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Action - 4

I1 I2

V1 T1

I1x1 = -Ex1
V1

I1r1

-E1
I1
-I2'

Io
1

V'2
I'2
I'2r'2

E'2 = E1
I'2x'2 = -E'x2

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Page 135 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Measuring PPS and NPS Impedances

200MVA PROCEDURE
345/220kV Short circuit Apply supply of rated frequency to HV side.
applied Increase supply volts until rated current (1 p.u.)
is circulated in transformer secondary.

RESULTS
Voltage 36.9kV (primary)
Losses 703kW
HV LV A

Z+ve of transformer = leakage impedance. Transformer is a static device, leakage impedance will not change if the phase
sequence ABC is reversed to ACB
• Z+ve and Z-ve are therefore identical

Results obtained for 1 p.u. LV current:-


VPU = V/VRATED = 36.9/345 = 0.107
ZPU = VPU/IPU = 0.107/1 = 0.107p.u.

Test volts = 10% of VRATED (approx), core losses can be neglected since flux approx. 10% of normal value. Measured
losses = for all practical purposes the winding losses.
0.703
Wdg. Losses I2R = 703kW, RPU = PPU/IPU2
R 0.00352 p.u.
12 200
Z p.u. X p.u.

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Page 136 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
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Page 137 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Nameplate

The National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) specifies that every


motor nameplate must show these specific items:

Manufacturers type
Rated volts and full load amps
Rated frequency and number of phases
Rated full load speed
Rated temperature rise or the insulation system class
Time rating
Rated horsepower
Locked rotor indicating code letter (or current)
Service factor
Efficiency
Frame size
Design code

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Page 138 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
NEMA Standards: National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards are used by process industries in countries operating to these
guidelines e.g. the Americas, Korea, Japan and Taiwan.

Service factor: The service factor (SF) is a measure of the periodic overload capacity at which a motor can operate without overload or damage.
The NEMA standard service factor for totally enclosed motors is 1.0.
A motor operating continuously at a service factor greater than 1 will have a reduced life expectancy compared to operating at at its rated
nameplate horsepower.
For example a 1 HP motor with SF = 1.15 can operate at 1.15 HP without overheating or otherwise damaging the motor if rated voltage and
frequency are supplied to the motor.
The life of the Insulation and bearings are reduced by the service factor load.

Insulation Class: The Underwriters Laboratories Inc (UL) is based in the USA. The letter designation indicates the thermal tolerance, or windings
ability to survive a specified operating temperature for a specified period of time. Class F insulation is UL approved (1550C = 20,000 hour life
temperature).

Time Rating: Specifies the length of time the motor can operate at its rated load safely and indicates whether the motor is rated for continuous
duty.

Full Load Torque: The full load torque (F.L.T.) is the safe continuous torque rating.

Locked Rotor Torque: The locked rotor (L.R.) torque or starting torque. L.R. torque is higher than 100% of the full load torque.

Start Time: A ‘Hot Start’ is defined by an initial thermal state above 50%, A ‘Cold Start’ is defined by an initial thermal state below 50%.

Starting Torque Ratio:

Locked Rotor Code: When AC motors are started with full voltage applied they create an inrush current that’s usually many times greater than the
value of the full load current (this can cause a voltage dip affecting other equipment). The start inrush current has been standardized and defined
by a series of code letters.

Breakdown Torque:

Pull-Up Torque Ratio:


NEMA Design Code
Defines torque characteristic.

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Page 139 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Induction Motors

An electromechanical energy converter of simple design, suited to purpose – driving machinery, pumps, fans,
compressors, conveyors, hoists etc.
Ubiquitous in fixed speed applications and well established in variable speed applications when used with variable-
frequency inverters.

It is estimated that one third of all the electricity generated is converted back to mechanical energy in induction motors.

Torque developed by the interaction of axial currents on the rotor and radial magnetic field produced by the stator.
Currents in the rotor are induced are induced by electromagnetic action – hence the name ‘induction motor’.

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Page 140 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Design

Obtain highest possible flux density – design good magnetic circuit


As many conductors as possible
Each conductor must pass as much current as possible

Having designed the magnetic circuit to give a high flux density under the
poles a set of conductors must be arranged on the rotor.

An induction motor is a supremely elegant electromechanical converter.

F B.I.l B
A
B Flux density (Tesla), Flux (Weber)
V N.I
I magnetic analogy
R A

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Page 141 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Figure 1-1 Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit
At Standstill:-

E2 E2
I2
Z2 R2 jX 2
As Rotor Speeds Up:-

NS N
s N sNS NS N 1 s NS
NS
sE2 E2
I2
R2 jsX 2 R2
jX 2
s
(Equation 1)

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Page 142 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
The only way that the primary is affected by a change in the rotor speed, therefore, is that the
secondary resistance as viewed from the primary varies inversely with slip. The apparent secondary
resistance, R2/s, should be thought of as the sum of the actual resistance, R2, and the load resistance,
R2(1-s)/s, equal to the in-phase motor speed voltage divided by the secondary current i.e.:-

2
Ws
R' r Rr
Wr

To simplify matters, the iron losses are Figure 1-2 Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit
ignored. Rotor variables are converted to the variables of the stator
via magnetic coupling

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Page 143 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Figure 1-4 represents the equation:
E1
I1
R2
R1 j X1 X2
s

(Equation 2)
derived from equation 1 by substituting the primary for the secondary voltage , and the total
impedance for the secondary impedance, in accordance with the approximate circuit of Figure 1-3

Figure 1-3 Approximate Equivalent Circuit of 3-phase Induction Motor Used as Basis for the Circle Diagram
The circle diagram shown in Figure 1-4 is very convenient for visualization but is based on several
approximations. The usual form of the diagram assumes a constant air-gap field at all speeds i.e. it lumps
the primary and secondary impedances on the secondary side of the magnetising current.
The data necessary to construct Figure 1-4 are the magnitude of the no-load current ON and of the
blocked-rotor current OS, and their phase angles with reference to the line voltage OE. A circle with its
centre on the line NU at right angles to OE is drawn to pass through N ans S.
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Page 144 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Starting

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Page 145 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Rotor Resistances

Effectively two values:

Slip Dependent Rotor Resistance


During locked rotor conditions voltage is induced in the rotor at rated
frequency. This voltage causes a current to flow in the rotor, also at line
frequency, and the heat generated (I2R) is a function of the effective rotor
resistance. At 50 or 60Hz the reactance of the rotor cage causes the current
to flow at the outer edges of the rotor bars. The effective resistance of the
rotor is therefore at a maximum during a locked rotor condition as is rotor
heating. When the motor is running at rated speed, the voltage induced in the
rotor is at a low frequency (approx. 1Hz) and therefore, the effective
resistance of the rotor is reduced quite dramatically.
NPS current will generate a rotor voltage that will produce a substantial rotor
current that will have a frequency of approximately 2 times the line frequency
(100Hz for a 50Hz system). Skin effect in the rotor bars at this frequency will
cause a significant increase in rotor resistance and therefore, a significant
increase in rotor heating.

Rotor Resistance

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Page 146 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Testing – Locked Rotor

The rotor is blocked to prevent rotation and balanced


voltages are applied to the stator terminals at a frequency of
25 percent of the rated frequency at a voltage where the
rated current is achieved.
Current, voltage and power are measured at the motor input.

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Page 147 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Testing - Load

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Page 148 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Testing – No Load

Balanced voltages are applied to the stator terminals at the


rated frequency with the rotor uncoupled from any
mechanical load. Current, voltage and power are measured
at the motor input. The losses in the no-load test are those
due to core losses, winding losses, windage and friction.

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Page 149 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Testing – No Load 2

As No Load test above but with rotor rotated at synchronous speed


by an external machine. Should yield more accurate results as slip
is exactly zero.

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Page 150 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Testing – Stray Load Loss Measurement

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Page 151 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
Motor Connections

P.F. correction will modify the total current drawn by the motor circuit

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Page 152 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL
7SR17 Information

www.siemens.com/reyrolle
• Catalogue sheets
• Technical Manual
1. Description of Operation
2. Settings, Configuration and Instruments
3. Performance Specification
4. Data Communications
5. Installation
6. Commissioning and Maintenance
7. Applications Guide
• Wiring diagrams
• Panel drilling drawings
• Firmware
• Reydisp Evo / Manager templates

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Page 153 April.2015 PLM/ SPDL