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VEHICLE DESIGN

&
CAD
Işık University - AUE 421

Week #5

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Today ?

Power Transmission Systems


Alternative Propulsion Systems

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Energy => Work & Function

Energy Storage Mechanical Energy


Electrical Energy + Battery
Gasoline + Tank
Diesel Fuel + Tank
Hydrogen + Tank Energy
.. Converter
..
Electric Motor
..
Int. Comb. Engine
.. Power
.. Transmission
.. Elements
Speed converter
Torque converter
Torque splitter
Differential Tires
.. On Street
..
..

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Converting Power (Torque-Speed) Characteristics

INPUT ANY ELEMENT OUTPUT


nI nO
OF POWER
MI MO
TRANSMISSION
PI PO = η PI

(1−η) PI

LOSSES

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Front Engine – Rear Wheel Drive

Clutch & Gearbox

Propeller shaft Axle drive


and differential

Engine

Side shafts
Rim +
Tire

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Main Powertrain Schemes for Passenger Cars

Rear wheel drive


(standard drive)
Top view

Front wheel drive


Top view
Coaxial gearbox

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Packaging

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Arrangement of the Powertrain Elements in a Passenger Car

Front-wheel drive Standard drive

Rear-motor drive

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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Powertrain Packaging for Trucks with One or More Powered Axles

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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Powertrain Packaging for Buses

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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Powertrain Packaging for all-wheel drive passenger
cars

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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Clutches

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Dry Clutch – Schematic
Kavrama Diski Pressure
Baskı DiskiplateBaskı
Pressure
Yayı spring
Friction plate

Flywheel
Volan

Clutch Pedal
Kavrama pedalBağlantısı
connection

Engine
Motordan Gearbox
Moment Değiştiriciye

Max. Permissible pressure on friction plate passenger cars 0.2 ... 0.5 MPa,
heavy commercial vehicles 0.15 ... 0.25 MPa

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Flywheel
Pressure plate

Friction plate

Release bearing

Dry Clutch

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Clutch Diameter

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Gearboxes

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Automotive Transmission Types

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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Trends in the Use of Passenger Car
Transmissions in Europe

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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Passenger Car Transmission Designs: Market Shares and
Prediction

2000 2010

2015

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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5 Speed Manual Passenger Car Transmission
(VW Golf)

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Two-Range, 12-Speed Gearbox

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Three- Range, 18 Speed Gearbox

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8-Speed Automatic Transmission - ZF
Torque
Converter Pump
Excitation
Gear Shifting Elements

Lock-Up
Clutch

Gear Lever Connection


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CVT Example - Mini

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Autotronic CVT (Daimler)

Mmax: 280 Nm
imax: 10,74 – 13,21
Overall transmission ratio : 6,41
m: 88 kg
Starting with : Trilok Converter
Reverse gear with : Planetary gear set

Reference: Grainer, J., Front-CVT Automatikgetriebe von Mercedes-Benz, VDI-Berichte Nr. 1827, 2014.
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Multitronic CVT (Audi)
Mmax: 330 Nm (2006: 400 Nm)
n: 700...6850 1/min
imax: 12,15 – 17,1
Overall transmission ratio : 6,25
m: 87,5 kg
Start with : Wet (disk) clutch
Reverse gear with : Planetary gear
set

Chain

Reference: Schibema, P., Gesenhaus, R., Audi multitronic-leistungsfähig und sportlich, VDI-Berichte Nr. 1827, 2014.
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DCT's

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DCT's
Output Shaft 2 Output Shaft 3 Part 2

Input Shaft 2

Engine Torque

Input Shaft 1

Output Shaft 1 Part 1


Reference: Volkswagen AG.
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Powertrain to Body – Connection Points

Reference: ATZ.
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Shafts

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Universal Joint

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_joint.
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Hooke Joint – Angular Difference & Velocities

ϕ 2 = arctan ( cos ( β ) tan (ϕ1 ))

ω2 cos ( β )
=
ω 1 1− sin 2 ( β ) sin 2 (ϕ1 )

where
dϕ dϕ 2
ω1 = 1 ω2 =
dt dt

Reference: Seherr-Thoss, H. C., Schmelz, F., Aucktor, E., Universal Joints and Driveshafts, Springer, 2006.
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Universal Joint Configurations

Reference: Seherr-Thoss, H. C., Schmelz, F., Aucktor, E., Universal Joints and Driveshafts, Springer, 2006.
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Universal Joint Configurations
Between Shaft #1 and Shaft #2 Between Shaft #2 and Shaft #3

tan (ϕ 2 ) = cos ( β1 ) tan (ϕ1 ) ( ) ( ) ( )


tan ϕ 2 = cos β 2 tan ϕ 3

cos ( β1 ) tan (ϕ1 )


Hence tan (ϕ 3 ) =
cos ( β 2 )

If β1 = β2, then tan (φ1) = tan (φ3) or tan (φ1) − tan (φ3) = 0.

This means that there will be no lag between shaft #1 and shaft #3, and φ1 = φ3.

Therefore, ω1 = ω3.

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Driveshafts

Reference: Seherr-Thoss, H. C., Schmelz, F., Aucktor, E., Universal Joints and Driveshafts, Springer, 2006.
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Driveshafts

Reference: Seherr-Thoss, H. C., Schmelz, F., Aucktor, E., Universal Joints and Driveshafts, Springer, 2006.
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Driveshafts

Reference: Seherr-Thoss, H. C., Schmelz, F., Aucktor, E., Universal Joints and Driveshafts, Springer, 2006.
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Axle Drive

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Axle Drives for Passenger Cars
• spur gear axle drive,
• bevel gear axle drive of helical bevel or hypoid design
• worm gear axle drive.

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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Differential
When travelling in a straight line, the differential cage 2, the axle bevel
gears 4, the axle shafts 6 which are torsionally locked to the axle bevel
gears, and the differential bevel gears 3 inside the cage rotate as a block.
There is no relative movement between the differential shaft 5 and the
differential bevel gears mounted on it. When cornering, the outer axle shaft has
to rotate faster than the inner one; axle bevel gears and differential bevel gears
move on rolling contact. This enables speed compensation between the
wheels.

Reference: Naunheimer, H. et. al., Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.


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Powertrain to Body – Connection Points

Reference: ATZ.
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All Wheel Drive

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Porsche Cayenne Powertrain Architecture

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BMW X5 Powertrain Architecture

(V8 ICE + Automatic Gearbox as classical AT)

Reference: ATZ.
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All Wheel Drive – Four Wheel Drive

Design Criteria and


Customer
Expectations
● Good handling and
driving safety
● Better traction on
slippery pavements
● Driving pleasure
and agility
● More mass
● More friction and
inertia
M Ön M Giriş M Arka
● More fuel
consumption
● Higher price
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All Wheel Drive Systems
BE BE
BE... Brake engagement
D... Differential
D D MDC Multiple Disc Clutch,
MDC electric activated

BE BE e.g. BMW X3

BE BE
D/MDL Differential,
Multiple Disc Lock
D/MDL D
D/MDL e.g. Land Rover Discovery
BE BE

BE

D D e.g. Hyundai Tucson 4WD


MDC

BE
Reference: Auto Motor & Sport 1/2005.
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All Wheel Drive Systems
BE BE BE... Brake engagement
D... Differential
D/MDL Differential,
D/MDL D Multiple Disc Lock
D/MDL

BE e.g. Porsche Cayenne


BE

BE BE

HC Haldex Clutch
D D
HC e.g. VW Golf 4Motion

BE BE

BE BE

e.g. Mercedes 4Matic


D D
D
BE BE
Reference: Auto Motor & Sport 1/2005.
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All Wheel Drive Systems
BE BE
BE... Brake engagement
D... Differential
D D TD Torsen Differential
TD
e.g. Audi quattro
BE BE

MDC Multiple Disc Clutch,


electric activated
D/VL D VL Visco Lock
MDC
e.g. Subaru Outback

VC Visco Clutch
D D
VC
e.g. Fiat Panda 4x4

Reference: Auto Motor & Sport 1/2005.


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All Wheel Drive Systems
EMC... Electro Magnetic Clutch
EMC D... Differential
D D VC Visco Clutch
VC
EMC e.g. Honda Legend

Reference: Auto Motor & Sport 1/2005.


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Alternative Propulsion Systems

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Full Electric Vehicles – Conceptual Examples
Rear Wheel Drive Direct Drive at Wheels Direct Drive at all Wheels

+ - + -
BAT BAT G/EM G/EM

FA FA FA
INV INV + -
BAT

G/ INV
EM

D
G/EM G/EM G/EM G/EM

RA RA RA

G : Generator INV : Inverter FA : Front Axle


EM : Electric Motor BAT : Battery RA : Rear Axle
D : Differential : electric : mechanic
Reference : IfF – TU BS
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Series Hybrid Structure

T
Series Hybrid

D
G INV EM iDif

ICE

BAT

FA RA

Ø Permanent E-Drive! Mechanical


Ø No conversion of ICE torque or rpm! Electrical
Chemical

Reference : IfF – TU BS.


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Series Hybrid Structure
Advantages - Disadvantages

Low efficiency (too many


energy conversions)
Series Hybrid

"Big" e-machines to satisfy


performance requirements
-
-
High mass and
Series - costs
Hybrid
+
Free selection of the - Big e-machines
ICE operating point require large
packaging cavities

Reference : IfF – TU BS.


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Parallel Hybrid – ICE&EM on the same Shaft
"Torque Adding"

T
T
Parallel Hybrid

GB D
G/EM iGB iDif.
Mechanical
ICE C0 C1 Electrical

INV Chemical
BAT

FA RA
Ø If all clutches closed and e-machine off : Conventional powertrain!!

Reference : IfF – TU BS.


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Parallel Hybrid – ICE&EM on the same Shaft
Advantages & Disadvantages
Adaptation to existing vehicles No free selection of ICE
possible operating point

Only "1" e-machine


+
-
If battery full, ICE operating
+
Parallel Hybrid

point can not be altered.


Existing drivetrain
components are used. One Shaft -
+ Parallel
Hybrid - Packaging difficulties if ICE
High benefit/cost ratio
+ position front lateral

+ -
Packaging OK No fuel consumption or
Additional mass OK CO2 benefit at highway
driving!

Reference : IfF – TU BS.


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Fuel Cell System on a Hydrogen Electric Vehicle

Battery

Inverter E-Motor Gearbox


Air + + -
Water

On-Board Producing
of Electric Energy Air
Valve
with the help
of a fuel cell stack
Storage
H2

Reference : IfF – TU BS.


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Fuel Cell System on a Hydrogen Electric Vehicle

Battery

Inverter E-Motor Gearbox


Air + + -
Water

H2 Humidifier Compressor Air


Valve
FC FC FC FC FC FC FC

Storage Pump and Cooling System


H2

Reference : IfF – TU BS.


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