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CHAPTER 3

Angle Modulation
Learning outcomes

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:


• Explain the concept of angle modulation.
• Describe the differences among analog
modulation schemes.
• Analyze amplitude-modulated signals in the time
and frequency domains.
• Analyze frequency-modulated signals in the
frequency domain.
• Describe phase modulation.
• Explain the need for pre-emphasis and de-
emphasis with FM signals.
Contents
PART 1
• Angle modulation
• FM and PM
• Basic Principles of FM
• Frequency Deviation
• Modulation Index
• Bessel Function
• Power Analysis
• Bandwidth
• Carson’s Rule
• Narrowband
• Wideband
• AM vs FM

PART 2
• FM Transmitter
• FM Receiver
• Noise in FM: pre-emphasis and de-emphasis
Analog Modulation

• AM is the process of varying the


Amplitude instantaneous amplitude of Carrier signal
modulation (AM) accordingly with instantaneous amplitude
of information signal.

• FM is the process of varying the in


Angle Modulation

Frequency instantaneous frequency of Carrier signal


modulation(FM) accordingly with instantaneous amplitude
of information signal.

• PM is the process of varying the


Phase instantaneous phase of Carrier signal
modulation (PM) accordingly with instantaneous amplitude
of information signal.
Angle Modulation

• Angle Modulation is often called as Frequency & Phase


Modulation (FM & PM).

• Because of its superior performance than AM, it is used


extensively for commercial broadcasting, radio
broadcasting, television sound transmission, 2-way
mobile radio, cellular radio, microwave and satellite
communications systems.

• FM is probably the most commonly used analog


modulation technique, seeing application in everything
from broadcasting to cordless phones.

• PM is rarely used in analog systems but is very common


in digital communication.
Frequency Modulation
Frequency Modulation

The frequency of the carrier wave is


changed according to the information signal.

Waveforms that are more spaced apart


represent the valleys of the sine wave

Waveforms that are closed together


represent the peaks of the sine wave.
Phase Modulation
Phase Modulation

Here, the phase of the carrier wave is altered


according to the information signal.

Waveforms that are closed together represent


the sine wave transition from –ve to +tve.

Waveforms that are more spaced apart


represent the sine wave transition from +ve to -
ve.
AM, FM and PM Waveform: can you spot the
difference?
Angle Modulation

The angle modulation can be expressed mathematically as:

v (t )  Ec cos[2f c t   (t )]

FM: change of FREQUECY/PHASE

v(t) = angle modulated wave


Ec = peak carrier amplitude (Volt)
fc = carrier frequency (hertz)
(t ) = instantaneous phase deviation (radians)
(t ) is a function of the modulating signal:  (t )  F [vm (t )]
Where vm (t )  Em sin 2f mt is the modulating signal
Angle Modulation

The choice between FM and PM depends on which one is


directly varied by the modulating signal

• varying the frequency of a


constant-amplitude carrier signal
Direct FM: directly proportional to the
amplitude of a modulating signal

• varying the phase of a constant-


amplitude carrier signal directly
Direct PM: proportional to the amplitude of a
modulating signal

Whichever property is directly varied will cause the other


property to varied as well
FM Or PM ?
FM PM
Instantaneous frequency of the Phase angle of the carrier is
carrier is varied from its reference varied from its reference value by
value by an amount proportional an amount proportional to the
to the modulating signal modulating signal amplitude
amplitude
Phase carrier - - - > directly varied
Freq. carrier - - - > directly varied Freq. carrier - - -> indirectly
Phase carrier - - -> indirectly varied
varied

• Both must occur whenever either form of angle


modulation is performed.
FMFM
orvs
PM?
PM

Carrier

Modulating
signal

FM

PM
Basic Principles of FM

Frequency Deviation

Modulation Index

Bessel Function

Power Analysis
Frequency • Relative displacement of the carrier
frequency compared to the original
deviation (Δf) carrier frequency (unit: Hertz).
Information
signal

-∆f ∆f

fc
fc - Δf fc + Δf
+Vm :
-Vm: +Vm
fc + Δf
fc - Δf
-Vm
Frequency Deviation Δf
• FM is the process of changing carrier frequency by the
modulating signal while the carrier amplitude remains
constant.

• As the modulating signal amplitude increases, the carrier


frequency increases and vice versa.

• The amount of change in carrier frequency produced by the


modulating signal is measured in peak Frequency Deviation
(Δf).

• Sometimes frequency deviation can also be expressed as


maximum carrier swing which is equal to 2Δf

• The deviation is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating


signal.
Frequency Deviation Δf
• Peak frequency deviation can be calculated as:

f  K f Vm Hz

• Where
• Kf is deviation sensitivity
• Vm is peak modulating signal voltage

• So we can see that ∆f directly proportional to modulating


signal’s amplitude
Deviation Sensitivity, Kf
• Deviation sensitivity is a constant that shows the sensitivity of
frequency modulator
• Represent the input-output transfers of the modulator:
relationship between input voltage (Vm) and the resulting
frequency shift (∆ω)

 rad/s f Hz
Kf  ( ) or in Herz/V: Kf  ( )
Vm V Vm V


• in short, it shows how ‘well’ the modulator works
Frequency modulation index (m)
The ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating frequency is known
as the modulation index (m) -unitless
rad
Kf ( )Vm
m volt (unitless)
m
hertz
Kf ( )Vm
Or Kf can also be expressed in hertz. So, m is: m  volt (unitless)
fm

f  K f Vm Hz f ( Hz)
since: Thus: m
f m ( Hz)
Modulation Index (m)

f ( Hz) Percent Modulation


m % modulation 
f ( actual )
100
f m ( Hz) f (max)

• In most communication systems using FM, maximum limits are


put on both the frequency deviation and the modulating
frequency.

f c  f m , f c  2 f m , f c  nf m
Example
• Determine the modulation index for FM signal with
modulating frequency is 10KHz deviated by ±10kHz.
 Answer : (10KHz/10KHz) = 1 .0 (unitless)

• The total frequency change, 10kHz x 2 is called the carrier


swing
Example
• A cell phone transmitter has a maximum frequency deviation
of 12 kHz. Calculate the modulation index if it operates at
maximum deviation with a voice frequency of
• (a) 300 Hz (ans: 40)
• (b) 2500 Hz (ans:4.8)
Remember sidebands??
• It’s a product of any modulation.

• Angle modulation (FM & PM) produce more bandwidth


compared to amplitude modulation (bandwidth of an FM signal
is usually much wider than that of an AM signal with the same
modulating signal. (infinite number of pairs of upper and lower
sidebands generate)

• This is the different feature of angle modulation

• More sidebands means more immune to noise


Sidebands and Modulation index

• FM produces pairs of sidebands spaced from the carrier in


multiples of the modulating frequency.

• The number of significant pairs of sidebands determines by


modulation index (m).

• The modulation index (m) in the FM signal is ratio of the


frequency deviation Δf (or can also be written as fd ) to the
modulating frequency fm :
f
m
fm
Ex. Significant sidebands
FM equation

When a modulating signal is a single sine wave, the FM


equation is:

V fm (t )  Vc cos[c t  m sin(mt )]

Or : V fm (t )  Vc sin[c t  m sin(mt )]

• To expand the equation into complete FM equation,


including its sidebands is difficult.
• Thus Bessel function is used to solve the equation
vFM (t )  Vc cos [c t  m sin mt ]
Trigonometric identities: cos( A  B)  cos( A) cos( B)  sin( A) sin( B)
Hence :

vFM (t )  Vc cos(c t ) cos[m sin( mt )]  Vc sin(c t ) sin [m sin (mt )]

Where cos[m sin(ωmt)] and sin[m sin(ωmt)] is a trigonometric series called as


Bessel Function.

Expand using Fourier series yields:



cos[m sin(mt )]  J 0 (m)   2J
n  even
n (m) cos(nmt ) n = even


sin[ m sin(mt )]   2J
n  odd
n (m) sin( nmt ) n = odd
Substitute in vFM

vFM (t )  Ec cos(c t )[ J 0 (m)   2J
n  even
n (m) cos(nmt )]

 Ec sin(c t )  2J
n  odd
n (m) sin( nmt )

 Ec J 0 (m) cos(c t )  2 Ec J
n  even
n (m) cos(c t ) cos(nmt )

 2 Ec J
n  odd
n (m) sin(c t ) sin( nmt )

 Ec J 0 (m) cos(c t )  Ec J
n  odd
n (m)[cos(c  nm )t  cos(c  nm )t ]

 Ec J
n  even
n (m)[cos(c  nm )t  cos(c  nm )t ]

J n m   1 J n m
n
• Using Bessel identities :

 J n m  n even
J n m   
 J n m n odd
• Hence FM equation also known as WBFM (wideband FM):


vFM (t )  Ec  J n (m) cos[(c  nm )t ]


Expand the equation yields :

vFM (t )  Ec J 0 (m) cos(ct ) Carrier band

 Ec J1 (m){cos[(c  m )t ]  cos[(c  m )t ]} Sideband 1

 Ec J 2 (m){cos[(c  2m )t ]  cos[(c  2m )t ]} Sideband 2


 Ec J 3 (m){cos[(c  3m )t ]  cos[(c  3m )t ]} Sideband 3
 Ec J 4 (m){cos[(c  4m )t ]  cos[(c  4m )t ]} Sideband 4
 ...  Ec J n (m){cos[(c  nm )t ]  cos[(c  nm )t ]} Sideband n
Bessel Function

Where
m = modulation index
Vc = peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier
J0(m)= carrier component
J1(m)=first set of side frequencies displaced from the
carrier by ωm
J2(m)=second set of side frequencies displaced from
the carrier by 2ωm
Jn(m)=nth set of side frequencies displaced from the
carrier by nωm
Bessel function of the first kind
Bessel functionof of
Bessel function thethe
firstfirst
kindkind
34

Bessel function of the first kind



J  2 J  2 J  2 J  ...  2 J  J  2 J n2  1
2
0
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
n
2
0
n 1

*Significant sidebands are


those that have amplitude >
1% (0.01) in the Bessel table.
Ex: m = 1.0  3 significant sidebands
Amplitude distribution from Bessel table:
m carrier 1st 2nd 3rd
1.0 0.77 0.44 0.11 0.02

Ec J 0  amplitude at fc
Ec = amplitude of carrier signal Ec J1  amplitude at 1st sidebands
fc = frequency of carrier signal Ec J 2  amplitude at 2nd sidebands
Ec J 3  amplitude at 3rd sidebands
fm = frequency of modulating signal
amplitude

0.77*Ec

0.44*Ec 0.44*Ec

0.11*Ec 0.11*Ec

0.02*Ec 0.02*Ec
fc-3fm fc-2fm fc-1fm fc fc+1fm fc+2fm fc+3fm
frequency
Ex: m = 2.0  4 significant sidebands
Amplitude distribution from Bessel table:
m carrier 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
2.0 0.22 0.58 0.35 0.13 0.03

Ec J 0  amplitude at fc
Ec = amplitude of carrier signal Ec J1  amplitude at 1st sidebands
fc = frequency of carrier signal Ec J 2  amplitude at 2nd sidebands
Ec J 3  amplitude at 3rd sidebands
fm = frequency of modulating signal
Ec J 4  amplitude at 4th sidebands
amplitude
0.58*Ec 0.58*Ec

0.35*Ec 0.35*Ec

0.22*Ec
0.13*Ec 0.13*Ec
0.03*Ec 0.03*Ec

fc-4fm fc-3fm fc-2fm fc-1fm fc fc+1fm fc+2fm fc+3fm fc+4fm


frequency
Amplitude
If Ec = 50 V,
m J0 J1 J2 J3
1.0 0.77 0.44 0.11 0.02

Thus the amplitudes are:

Ec J 0  50 * 0.77  38.5 V
38.5V
Ec J1  50 * 0.44  22 V 22V 22V
Ec J 2  50 * 0.11  5.5 V
Ec J 3  50 * 0.02  1V 5.5V 5.5V

1V 1V
Power in FM signal
• In AM, since the amplitude of carrier signal is changed according to the
input signal, total power of an AM wave is equal to the sum of carrier
power and sidebands:
Pt ( AM )  PC  PSB
• Unlike AM, the amplitudes of FM signal is constant. Total power in FM
wave is equal to the power of unmodulated carrier.
Pt ( FM )  PC
• But the carrier power in FM is re-distributed among the carrier and
sidebands, thus the total power is:
NOTE! 2
Vc
Pc 
Pt  P0  P1  P2  ...  Pn 2R

•P0= modulated carrier power


And PC≠ P0
•P1= power in the first set of sidebands
•P2= power in the second set of sidebands •PC: unmodulated carrier power
•Pn= power in the nth set of sidebands •P0: modulated carrier power
•R: load resistance
Power in FM signal
• Total power in FM wave is: Pt  P0  P1  P2  ...  Pn
2 2 2 2
• Or we can also write it as: V 2(V ) 2(V ) 2(V )
Pt  0  1
 2
 ...  n
2R 2R 2R 2R

• Where V0, V1,…Vn are FM modulated carrier amplitudes and sidebands


amplitudes respectively.
• R is load resistance
• Thus, we can use Bessel table and further improve the equation to:

Ec2 J 02  Ec2 J12 Ec2 J 22 Ec2 J 32 Ec2 J n2 


Pt   2    ...  
2R  2R 2R 2R 2R 
Ec  2
2 
2
  J 0  2 J n 
2R  n 1 
Bandwidth
• The higher the modulation index in FM, the greater the number of
significant sidebands and the wider the bandwidth of the signal.

• When spectrum conservation is necessary, the bandwidth of an


FM signal can be restricted by putting an upper limit on the
modulation index.

• E.g: In standard FM broadcasting, the maximum permitted


frequency deviation is 75 kHz and the maximum permitted
modulating frequency is 15 kHz (modulation index : 5)
FM bandwidth calculation methods:

Approximation: BW  2f  f m 
Carson’s Rule

FM bandwidth:

Actual bandwidth: BW  2n  f m 


Bessel Table
1. Finding bandwidth using Carson’s Rule

• Approximates the bandwidth necessary to transmit an angle-


modulated systems is twice the sum of peak frequency
deviation and the highest modulating signal’s frequency:

BW  2f  f m 
• Where ∆f is maximum frequency deviation
fm is maximum modulating signal frequency
2. Finding bandwidth using Bessel’s table
• In Bessel table, the number of significant sidebands, n
depends on the value of modulation index, m.
• Minimum bandwidth is determine mathematically as:

BW  2n  f m 

• Where n is the number of significant sidebands


fm is maximum modulating signal frequency
2. Finding bandwidth using Bessel’s table
The number of sidebands depend on m value:

*Significant m = 0.25
sidebands are
those that have
 (rads 1 )
c an amplitude of c  m
greater than 1%
(.01) in the BW
Bessel table. m=2
c  m
 (rads 1 )
cc  4m c  4m

BW=2nfm=8fm
m=5

 (rads 1 )
cc  8m c  8m

BW=2nfm=16fm
Example
Example:
If the highest modulating frequency is 3 kHz and the maximum deviation is
6 kHz, find the modulation index and bandwidth using Bessel table and
Carson’s rule.

Solution: f 6kHz
m  2
f m 3kHz

From Bessel table, n = 4, thus


BW  2n  f m   2(4  3 103 )  24kHz
Using Carson’s rule,

BW  2f  f m   2(6  3)kHz  18kHz


Example 2
For FM Modulator with frequency deviation of 10 kHz,
modulating signal frequency of 10 kHz, Carrier amplitude
voltage of 50V and Carrier frequency of 500 kHz, determine
the following:

(a) Minimum Bandwidth using Bessel table


(b) Minimum Bandwidth using Carson’s rule
(c) Amplitudes of the side frequencies and plot the output
frequency spectrum
Solution

a)From Bessel function table, m=1 yields three sets of


significant sidebands. Thus bandwidth is
f 10kHz
m  1
f m 10kHz

B  2(3 10kHz)  60kHz


b) Approx. minimum bandwidth is given by Carson’s
rule. So

B  2(10kHz  10kHz)  40kHz


Solution (con’t)
Solution (con’t)
c) V0  0.77(50)  38.5V
V1  0.44(50)  22V
V2  0.11(50)  5.5V
V3  0.02(50)  1V

38.5V

22V 22V

5.5V 5.5V

1V 1V

470 480 490 500 510 520 530


(d) Determine the unmodulated carrier power (assume RL =
50Ω)
(e) Determine the total power in angle modulated wave

V0  0.77(50)  38.5V
V1  0.44(50)  22V
V2  0.11(50)  5.5V
V3  0.02(50)  1V

2
V0 2(V1 ) 2 2(V2 ) 2 2(Vn ) 2
Pt     ... 
2R 2R 2R 2R
Exercise 1

For an FM modulator with modulation index m = 2,


modulating signal vm (t )  Vm sin( 2 2000t ) and an
unmodulated carrier vc (t )  8 sin( 2 800kt )

(a) Determine the number of sets of significant


sidebands
(b) Determine the amplitudes of sidebands
(c) Draw the frequency spectrum showing the relative
amplitudes of the side frequencies
(d) Determine the bandwidth
(e) Determine the bandwidth if the amplitude of the
modulating signal increases by a factor of 2.5
Exercise 2
For an FM modulator with modulation index m = 1, modulating
signal Vm(t) = Vm sin (2π1000t) and an unmodulated carrier
Vc(t) = 10 sin (2π 500kt).

(a) Determine the number of sets of significant sidebands


(b) Determine the amplitudes in modulated carrier and
sidebands
(c) Write down the mathematical equation for this FM system

(d) Draw the frequency spectrum showing the relative


amplitudes of the side frequencies
(e) Determine the unmodulated carrier power (assume RL =
50Ω)
(f) Determine the total power in angle modulated wave
Exercise 3
An FM transmitter operates with Ec =10 Vp, a deviation of 5
kHz, and a modulation index of 2.

(a) What is the modulating frequency?


(b) How much power is transmitted at the carrier frequency if R
= 50 Ω?
(c) Determine the total power in angle modulated wave
(d) If a receiver has a bandwidth sufficient to include the carrier
and the first two sets of sidebands, what percentage of the
total signal power will it receive?
FM applications
• FM applications are divided into two broad categories
• The primary difference between the two types of FM is the number of
sidebands in the modulated signal.

Narrowband FM (NBFM)
• modulation index less than 0.5 (m< 0.5 )
• has only a single pair of significant sidebands.
• bandwidth for NBFM can be reduced to: BW = 2 x fm,
• Often used for short distance communications using vehicle
mount radios or hand carried equipment
• Usually the audio or data (input) bandwidth is small

Wideband FM (WBFM)
•Modulation index, m > 0.5
•has more than 2 significant sidebands
•Bandwidth is approximately BW = 2(n x fm )
•Broadcast FM stations use wideband FM,
•WBFM system is able transmit high quality audio as well as
other services like a stereo channel, and possibly other
services as well on a single carrier.
Frequency Modulation Versus Amplitude Modulation

Advantages of FM
• FM typically offers some significant benefits over AM.
• FM has superior immunity to noise, made possible by
clipper limiter circuits in the receiver.
• In FM, interfering signals on the same frequency are
rejected. This is known as the capture effect.
• FM signals have a constant amplitude and there is no
need to use linear amplifiers to increase power levels. This
increases transmitter efficiency.
Frequency Modulation Versus Amplitude Modulation
Disadvantages of FM
• FM uses considerably more frequency spectrum space.
• FM has used more complex circuitry for modulation and
demodulation.
• In the past, the circuits used for frequency modulation and
demodulation involved were complex. With the proliferation
of ICs, complex circuitry used in FM has all but disappeared.
ICs are inexpensive and easy to use. FM and PM have
become the most widely used modulation method in
electronic communication today.
• END OF PART 1