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ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES AND WATER QUALITY IN ESTERO DE

BINONDO, MANILA

A Thesis

Presented to

Department of Chemistry

College of Science

Technological University of the Philippines

In Partial Fulfilment

of the requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Environmental Science

Buenaventura, Jairah O.

Capada, Genesis P.

March 2019
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Most of all, we thank unto the Almighty God Jesus Christ for giving us courage,

protection, knowledge, hope, patients, answered prayers and will to finish this manuscript

despite all circumstance we faced on the journey. He also gave us people to help, encourage

and guide us on completing all the necessary task related on this research.

We would also like to express our sincere gratitude towards our family, Mr. Aldrin

T. Buenaventura, Mrs. Judy Anne O. Buenaventura, Mr. Roy B. Capada and Mrs.

Rubilyn P. Capada, for providing us financial, moral support, encouragement and a home

to stay for overnight work on our manuscript. Without your presence and faith on us, we

cannot finish this paper. We are very thankful for all of things you sacrifice; your time,

budget, patience, and sleepless nights because of our disturbance, just to show your support

and assistance.

To our dear adviser Prof. Corazon D. Sacdalan, thank you very much for your

understanding, patience on checking our thesis and help on every concern we have in

almost every sampling and giving us an opportunity to conduct this research. Without your

guidance it is very impossible accomplished this great task.

To our Prof. Erwin P. Elazegui, th ank you for suggesting the topic as an

alternative to our proposed thesis. Thank you for all the knowledge you have shared to us.

To the panel members, Prof. John Louelle F. Mazo, Dr. Mary Sheenalyn P.

Rodil, Dr. Nancy G. Pastrana, Prof. Elvira V. Silfavan, and Prof. Irmalyn V. Santos,

thank you for the honest opinion and criticisms, and suggestion for improving our work on

this study.

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To the department’s laboratory technician, Sir Arnold Soliman, thank you for

providing us the equipment, reagents and apparatus that we needed for the laboratory works

on this research. Because of your assistance, kindness and patience we did finished our

analysis of the water sample on time.

To Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission, thank you for the pleasing approach of

your good office, allowing us to have the copy of the reports and used the data as baseline

for our study.

To the Barangay Chairman of Barangay 287 zone 27, Binondo-Manila, Mr. Wilson

Chua, thank you for allowing us to conduct our study on your vicinity.

To my boyfriend, Christian C. Iman, thank you for your patience to wake up early

and strength to carry our sampling needs and samples. Without you, our sampling would

be tough and full of hassles. Thank you for handling my mood swings and cheering

whenever I’m feeling down and doubtful to myself.

To our friends, Nerika, Erica, Zsadel, Edel Grace, Noli, Maynard, and Aldwien

thank you for showing the real meaning of friendship. Thank for all the knowledge we’ve

been shared, the laughs and the hardships we’ve been through to get where we are right

now. And to Lester, thank you for being a good friend and source of our daily happiness

even just for a couple of years.

And lastly, to our co-researchers and friends, Ms. Sandra Leslie Esguerra, Ms.

Faith Macapanas, and Ms. Leejocelle Cruz, without you our expenses on the reagents

will be unbearable. Thank you for the shared moments with us during every sampling, this

journey becomes lighter and fun despite of the roughness and hardships that we had faced.

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Our team work on the laboratory session and working on the manuscript is very

unforgettable. To all our classmates in BS Environmental Science- batch 2019, may the

Lord God guide us on our next journey and in every decision that we will make in the

future as an environmental science graduate.

-Jai & Gen

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Capada, G.P., Buenaventura, J.O., Anthropogenic Activities and Water Quality of Estero
de Binondo, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, Technological University of the
Philippines, Manila. 2019

Thesis Adviser: Prof. Corazon D. Sacdalan

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine the anthropogenic activities and monitor the
physico-chemical and biological parameters in Estero de Binondo, Manila from the months
of June, July, August, September, and October 2018. Water samples were collected in the
three selected sites in Estero de Binondo; first site is near Juan Luna Plaza mall where
Estero Dela Reina, Estero de Magdalena and Estero de Binondo merged, second site is at
the San Fernando bridge, and the third site at Muelle dela Industria near Binondo Pumping
Station. Water parameters like the temperature, color, pH, biological oxygen demand,
phosphate, chloride, nitrate as nitrogen, ammonia as nitrogen, oil and grease, and surfactant
were determined. Survey questionnaire was administered to the people living near the area
to determine the anthropogenic activities. Based on the survey, some households have no
comfort rooms and garbage throwing is the most common practices among the residents
near the estero which affects the water quality in Estero de Binondo. All of the water
parameters were within the standard criterion set by DENR for Class C waters, except for
the biological oxygen demand, phosphate, ammonia as nitrogen, oil and grease, surfactant
and fecal coliform. There are significant differences among the three sites in terms of
temperature except in July, color, pH, biological oxygen demand except in July, September
and October, phosphate except in October, chloride, nitrate as nitrogen except in September
and October, ammonia s nitrogen except in August and September, oil and grease except
in June, surfactant except in August and fecal coliform.

Keywords: Estero de Binondo, Pasig river, anthropogenic activities, physico-chemical


properties, water quality

vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL SHEET ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

ABSTRACT vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER Page

I. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Objectives of the Study 2
1.2 Significance of the Study 3
1.3 Scope and Limitation of the Study 3

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 5


2.1 Sampling Sites 5
2.2 Water Pollution 6
2.3 Physical and Chemical Parameters of Water 6
2.3.1 Temperature 6
2.3.2 Color 7
2.3.3 pH 8
2.3.4 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 8
2.3.5 Phosphate Content 10
2.3.6 Chloride Content 11
2.3.7 Nitrate as Nitrogen 12
2.3.8 Ammonia as Nitrogen 12
2.3.9 Oil and Grease 13
2.3.10 Surfactant 14
2.4 Bacteriological Parameter 14
2.4.1 Fecal Coliform 14
2.5 Related Studies 15
2.6 Synthesis 20

III. METHODOLOGY 22
3.1 Selection of Sampling Site 22
3.2 Sampling Method 22
3.3 Materials, Reagents and Apparatus 23

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3.4 Analysis of Water Quality Parameter 23
3.4.1 Temperature 24
3.4.2 pH 24
3.4.3 Phosphate 24
3.4.4 Chloride 25
3.5 Administration of Survey 25

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 26


4.1 Demographic Profile 26
4.2 Anthropogenic Activities 26
4.3 Water Quality of Estero de Binondo 30
4.3.1 Temperature 32
4.3.2 Color 33
4.3.3 Water pH 33
4.3.4 BOD 34
4.3.5 Phosphate 35
4.3.6 Chloride 36
4.3.7 Nitrate as N 37
4.3.8 Ammonia as N 38
4.3.9 Oil and Grease 38
4.3.10 Surfactant 39
4.3.11 Fecal Coliform 40
4.4 Comparison with PRRC 41

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION 45


5.1 Summary 45
5.2 Findings of the study 46
5.3 Recommendation 47

BIBLIOGRAPHY 50

LIST OF APPENDICES 53
Appendix A Schematic Diagram for Water Quality Analysis 54
Appendix B Sampling Sites 55
Appendix C Survey Questionnaire 56
Appendix D Demographic Profile of Respondents 59
Appendix E Graph 60
Appendix F Statistical Treatment 62
Appendix G Field Data 63
Appendix H Letters 68
Appendix I Lab Results 74
Appendix J Gantt Chart 79
Appendix K Photo Documentation 80
Appendix L Line Item Budget 82

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Community Profile 27
Table 2 Activities that affects the Maintenance of the estero 28
Table 3 Protection and Conservation Measures 29
Table 4 Results of the Physicochemical parameters of Estero de
Binondo from the period of June to October and the DENR
limit per parameters 31
Table 5 Fecal Coliform 40
Table 6 Data on the Physicochemical and Bacteriological
parameters of Estero de Binondo from 2009, 2014, and
2017 from Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission and
the average data in the period of June to October 2018
and the DENR limit per parameters 41

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Map of Estero de Binondo 5

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

One of the water systems of the metropolitan that has been exposed to water

pollution is the Pasig river together with its tributaries. The status of the Pasig river in terms

of its water quality depends on its tributaries like the esteros. In Metro Manila, most of the

esteros are surrounded by industrial, commercial establishments and informal settlers, that

it became the sink for both solid and liquid wastes of the community. The common

practices along the esteros such as dumping of garbage, excreting, and discharge of

household water contributes to the alteration of water quality parameters of connected

rivers, such as Pasig River.

Metropolitan Manila as an urbanized area experiences water pollution on its

waterways and rivers. The unsupervised discharge of wastewater from domestic and

industrial establishments on the water bodies are considered sources of the pollution and

affects human health, environment, economic cost and opportunities on recreational

activities. Along with this, waterway obstruction and solid waste dumping in the stream

and river which cause clogging (Lagmay, 2017), that later results to flooding during heavy

rains, was also included on the cause of water deterioration on the metropolitan.

In addressing these concerns, various programs were done by the government such

as the installation of barricades along the waterways, establishing water treatment facilities,

monitoring of the water quality of the river system, implementing environmental taxes and

violations and relocation of informal settlers. However, the successful collective efforts of

government and non-government agencies on reviving the rivers and its tributaries like the

Pasig river system is not enough as the pollutant sources were still prevalent. These drivez

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the researchers to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters and the

anthropogenic activities of one of the esteros in Manila which is the Estero de Binondo.

1.1 Objectives of the Study

This study aimed to assess the anthropogenic activities and the water quality

of Estero de Binondo in Manila, in the period of June to October 2018. Specifically,

the study sought to determine the:

1. anthropogenic activities in Estero de Binondo,

2. physical and chemical parameters such as:

2.1 temperature,

2.2 color,

2.3 pH,

2.4 biological oxygen demand (BOD),

2.3 phosphate content,

2.4 chloride content,

2.5 nitrate as nitrogen,

2.6 ammonia as nitrogen,

2.7 oil and grease, and

2.8 surfactant,

3. bacteriological parameter which is:

3.1 fecal coliform, and

4. the significant difference among sampling sites using the Kruskal Wallis

and the significant difference across sampling period using the Friedman

test in terms of each physicochemical parameter.

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1.2 Significance of the Study

Monitoring the water quality of tributaries such as esteros is important in

making plans for problems related to its rehabilitation process. The findings of this

study will provide information to the community about the risks and the pollutants

in the estero that will affect the nearby river as` well as to the health of the people

living near the estero. This might help to initiate the concern and encourage the

population to join the rehabilitation of Pasig River by avoiding dumping of waste

and maintaining the estero free from solid waste particles like plastics made

materials.

1.3 Scope and Limitation

The study focused on monitoring the physico-chemical and biological

parameters of the Estero de Binondo and the anthropogenic activities that affect its

water quality. Water samples were collected using a composite sampling method

from June to October 2018, every 3rd week of the month from 7:00 am to 10:00 am.

The weather condition, the garbage present in the sampling site, and the activities

of the people were recorded every sampling period. The sampling area was divided

into three sites: site 1 - Juan Luna St, site 2 - San Fernando Bridge, and site 3-

Muelle dela Industria St. The water parameters such as temperature and pH were

analyzed in-situ, and the analyses of phosphate and chloride concentration were

performed at TUP Chemistry Laboratory, while the other parameters such as

biological oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia and nitrate as nitrogen, color, oil and

grease, surfactant, and fecal coliform were analyzed by Mach Union Water

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Laboratory. Survey questionnaires were administered to 20 respondents from each

site, chosen by purposive random sampling.

The study lacked data on oil and grease in the month of June due to the

insufficient water sample. On the second sampling in the month of July, BOD

analysis results were not included as it shows high fluctuation from the first

sampling due to changes on method, because of this, the first sampling method was

used on the third to last sampling period.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIE

2.1 Sampling Sites

Estero de Binondo is the nearest Pasig river tributary that drains to Manila Bay

which receives water from Estero de Maypajo, Estero de Vitas and Estero dela Reina. It

belongs to cluster 1 Pasig river tributaries system (PRRC-EMB, 2017), where it is the

shortest tributary having a length of 1,007 m starting from Juan Luna Street to Muelle dela

Industries Street of Barangay 287, Binondo. The stretch of the estero in Juan Luna Street

to Tabora Street is congested with malls, wet and dry market, warehouses, and informal

settlers as it is near Divisoria Market. Apartments, informal settlers warehouses and pick

up centers were observed heading to San Fernando Bridge. And, before heading to Binondo

Figure 1. Map of the Estero de Binondo

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Pumping Station, the area is mainly comprised of high-rise residential buildings,

apartments, banks, informal settlers and some warehouses. Moreover, dredging activity

and installation of barricades were currently ongoing in the stretch near San Fernando

bridge towards the pumping station.

2.2 Water Pollution

Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals or other foreign

substances that are detrimental to human, plant, or animal health. It is one of the most

serious ecological threats that the world is facing today.

Water pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural runoff, sewage

and food processing waste, lead, mercury, and other heavy metals, chemical wastes from

industrial discharges, and chemical contamination from hazardous waste sites. The

presence of these pollutants alters the chemistry of any water system which can affect the

health, the fishing industry, agriculture, the marine ecosystem, the biodiversity, and

others (Miller & Spoolman, 2015).

2.3 Physical and Chemical Parameters of Water

2.3.1 Temperature

The temperature of water is associated to solar radiation and air temperature

in natural ways as water absorbs heat from the environment through endothermic

reaction. The water temperature at given locality varies from other water bodies in

a period. Ambient temperature or the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere,

has the most profound and universal effect on shallow and natural water systems.

When water is used by industry to regulate heat produce, the discharge location

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surface waters may experience localized temperature changes. Temperature is

known for affecting solubility, but it depends on the compounds. Like the oxygen,

its saturation in water is best at low temperature compared with other compound

that dissolved best at high temperature. Water is also known for being heat

resistance as it increases in temperature slowly compared to solid matter. Turbid

water or highly colored water can contribute to a rapid increase of temperature than

the usual, causing more solutes to dissolve. The mixing of solutes in waters cause

the temperature to decrease as the solutes absorbs heat but some compounds

releases heat that causes slight increase of water temperature. However, there are

cases where a compound is not appreciably exothermic or endothermic. When

temperature is high the water said to be highly reactive thus, increase the chlorine

demand, organic matter and algal bloom (Boyd, 2016).

2.3.2 Color

Color is a quality that can easily judge as it is a physical characteristic of

water. However, color in water is classified as either true or apparent color. The

true color of the natural waters is due to the unabsorbed light rays remaining from

the original light. True color in depend in the dissolved matter that remain after the

removal of suspended solids (Spellman, 2014). The suspended particles can impart

apparent color of various hues. The apparent color contributes to water turbidity

affecting chlorine effectivity. Phytoplankton blooms cause various shades of green,

blue-green, yellow, brown, red, and even black. While suspended mineral particles

also can differ greatly in hue recognized as the color of soils or the sediments.

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Tannins and lignins usually give yellow-brown, tea-like hue to water, but when

concentrations are high, the color may be almost black (Boyd, 2016).

2.3.3 pH

The pH of water is an important variable in water quality because

many chemical reactions that take place within water is dependent on pH. Normal

waters contain both acids and bases, were biological processes tend to increase

either acidity or alkalinity. Dissolved carbon dioxide reacts with water to form

carbonic acid (H2CO3) combine with the nitrogen reactions in water also varies

water pH concentration. Water having high organic matter contributes greatly to

pH as each mole of nitrogen oxidized in nitrification releases two hydrogen ions,

while each mole of nitrogen denitrified releases only one hydroxyl ion (Boyd,

2016). At pH values above 7.5, the disinfectant capability of chlorine is greatly

reduced (Spellman, 2014).

2.3.4 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Biochemical or biological oxygen demand (BOD) is the oxygen used to

meet the metabolic needs of aerobic microorganisms in water that is rich in organic

matter. BOD directly affects the amount of dissolved oxygen; the higher BOD,

more dissolved oxygen is being depleted in the stream. This means less oxygen will

be available in the respiration of aquatic animals which leads to stress, suffocation

or death. In water, dissolved organics is either biodegradable and non-

biodegradable. Material that is biodegradable consists of organics that can be used

for food by naturally occurring microorganisms within a reasonable length of time.

They may result from domestic or industrial wastewater discharges, or they may be

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ending products of the initial microbial decomposition of plant or animal tissue.

Biodegradable organics in surface waters cause problems mainly associated with

the action of microorganisms as they metabolize organic material and consume

oxygen because of this the DO level will decrease which contribute to increase of

BOD. Sources of BOD include leaves and woody debris, dead plants and animals,

animal manure, effluents from pulp and paper mills, wastewater treatment plants,

feedlots, failing septic systems and urban stormwater runoff. Biochemical oxygen

demand is affected by the same factors that affect dissolved oxygen; temperature,

pH, the presence of certain kinds of microorganisms, and the type of organic and

inorganic material in the water. In the laboratory, BOD measurement requires

immediate testing of dissolved oxygen concentration and incubation in the dark for

5days at 20°C for measuring the microorganism oxygen uptake in breaking down

the organic matter by getting the difference between the initial DO and the

remaining DO. The chlorine in the water was being neutralized with thiosulfate so

that the decomposers will not be inhibited. However, if the water is too polluted the

dissolved oxygen after 5days could be zero, this means that the water sample needs

be subjected to dilution method (Spellman, 2014).

2.3.5 Phosphate Content

Phosphorus as phosphate is limiting factor in freshwater systems together

with nitrogen, as it is one component of phospholipids, DNA, RNA, and ATP

production. When the rock is exposed to water with certain pH concentration, the

phosphorus then dissolved and move to an adjacent water system. In alkaline

environments, phosphate is precipitated as calcium phosphate, which mostly settled

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in the sediments due to its slight solubility. In many waterways, municipal and

agricultural pollution are the major source of phosphorus, which enters via point

sources like a pipe, and non-point source like nutrient run-offs (Boyd,

2016). Phosphate is present in many detergents, it is also used in bar soaps for

counteracting the water hardness, as it been used in laundry, water is being drained

to waterways which contributes to pollution. Phosphate becomes important in water

quality assessment since human activity such as sewage discharges, land clearing,

excessive fertilizers, and agriculture could be the source, that could potentially

trigger eutrophication (Rissik & Suthers, 2009). Plant growth in aquatic

environment ceases if all phosphorus is used up, no matter the amount of nitrogen

available. The increasing concentration of available phosphorus allows plants to

assimilate more nitrogen before the phosphorus is depleted. If enough phosphorus

is available, high concentrations of nitrates will lead to phytoplankton (algae) and

macrophyte (aquatic plant) production (Spellman, 2014).

2.3.6 Chloride Content

Chlorine exists as chloride, a major inorganic constituent in water and

wastewater, the possible sources of chlorides in natural waters include leaching of

chloride from rocks and soils, saltwater intrusion in coastal areas, agricultural,

industrial, domestic, and human wastewater. Chlorine reacts with H+ and

OH- radicals in the water producing hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and

the hypochlorite radical (OCl-1) which penetrate to the microbe cells and react with

certain enzymes that lead to disruption of metabolism of the organisms and kills

them. The germicidal efficiency of hypochlorous acid is much higher than that of

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the hypochlorite ion (Spellman, 2014). The distribution of chlorine species between

HOCl and OCl– is determined by pH, HOCl dominates at pH between 2-6,

providing more effective disinfection, while at high pH specifically above 7.53

concentration, OCl– dominates, which causes a decrease in disinfection

efficiency. In any water bodies, chlorine does react with the dissolved inorganic or

organic substances forming chloramines, which hindered its ability for disinfection.

Turbidity interferes with disinfection as microorganisms hide from chlorine

through the particles causing the turbidity. Temperature affects the solubility of

chlorine, when the water temperature decreases, the rate at which the chlorine can

pass through the microorganism’s cell wall decreases, causing less effectivity of

chlorine as a disinfectant (Boyd, 2016).

2.3.7 Nitrate as Nitrogen

Nitrate is the common form of nitrogen found in water, introduction of

nitrate in the water can be by nitrogen cycle and anthropogenic induce sources like

runoff from animal feedlots, fertilizer runoff from agricultural fields and municipal

wastewater discharges. Another source is the blue–green algae that obtain nitrogen

directly from the atmosphere and converts it to nitrate by nitrogen fixation. Un-

ionized nitrate can be toxic to aquatic organisms as it causes eutrophication in

excessive concentration (Boyd, 2016). Nitrates serve as a better indicator of the

possibility of a source of sewage or manure pollution during dry weather, it is easily

end-up in river and streams compare to other nutrients such as phosphorus because

nitrates dissolved in water more readily. The decomposition of the organic matter

might lower the dissolved oxygen level, which in turn slows the rate at which

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ammonia is oxidized to nitrite and then to nitrate for these reasons, water that is

polluted with nitrogen-rich organic matter shows low nitrate concentration

(Spellman, 2014).

2.3.8 Ammonia as Nitrogen

Ammonia nitrogen exists in water as ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ion

(NH4+). Un-ionized ammonia can be toxic to aquatic organisms at low

concentration and it causes eutrophication together with nitrate but not appreciably

toxic because ammonia hydrolyzes to ammonium. Ammonia and nitrogen

concentration increase with increasing temperature and pH but increases

significantly with pH. The main effect of ammonia on aquatic life probably is stress

rather than mortality. In unpolluted water, ammonia nitrogen concentration is less

than 0.25mg/L but may be above 1 mg/L in polluted waters, and in highly polluted

waters concentrations of 5–10 mg/L are common. In aquatic system where there is

a phytoplankton bloom ammonia nitrogen concentration decreases as it is being

used by the phytoplankton (Boyd, 2016).

2.3.9 Oil and Grease

Oil and grease are another major components of food-stuffs aside from

protein. They are also usually related to spills or other releases of petroleum

products in water bodies like river or ocean. Minor oil and grease problems can be

because of wet weather runoff from highways or the improper disposal in storm

drains of motor oil. Oil and grease are insoluble in water but soluble in organic

solvents such as petroleum, chloroform, and ether. Fats, oils, waxes, and other

related constituents found in wastewater are under the category of grease. Fats and

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oils contributed to domestic wastewater include butter, lard, margarine, and

vegetable fats and oils. Fats, which are compounds of alcohol and glycerol, are

among the more stable of organic compounds can be decomposed by bacteria in a

long-time duration; however, they can be broken down by mineral acids, resulting

in the formation of fatty acid and glycerin. When these glycerides are liquid at

ordinary temperature, they are considered as oils and when in solid form it is

considered as fats. Oil and grease also interfered biological processes in the surface

waters as it creates unsightly floating matter and films. (Spellman, 2014).

2.3.10 Surfactant

Surfactants or detergents are large organic molecules that are slightly

soluble in water, which cause foaming in the surface waters into where the effluent

is discharged. Probably the most serious effect detergents can have on wastewater

treatment processes or in natural waters are their tendency to reduce the oxygen

uptake in biological processes. Detergents lowers the surface or interfacial and

tension of water, it emulsifies oil and grease, deflocculated colloids, it induced

flotation of solids and give rise to foams and kill useful organisms like decomposing

bacteria. Since the development and increasing use of synthetic detergents, many

of these problems have been reduced or eliminated but still quite exist (Spellman,

2014).

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2.4 Bacteriological Parameters

2.4.1 Fecal Coliform

Fecal coliforms are used as indicators of possible sewage contamination

because they are commonly found in human and animal feces. Fecal coliform

indicates the possible presence of pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria and

protozoa that also live in human and animal digestive systems. Their presence in

streams suggests that pathogenic microorganisms might also be present. Sources of

fecal contamination to surface waters include wastewater treatment plants, on-site

septic systems, domestic and wild animal manure, and storm runoff. In addition to

the possible health risks associated with the presence of elevated levels of fecal

bacteria, they can also cause cloudy water, unpleasant odors, and increased oxygen

demand (Spellman, 2014).

2.5 Related Studies

Enguito et al. (2013) conducted a physicochemical and bacterial analysis to assess

the water quality of Carangan Estero in Ozamiz City, Philippines. Water sampling was

conducted in three stations, upstream in Barangay Calabayan, midstream in Barangay Lam-

an and downstream in Barangay San Roque. The study revealed that pH concentration in

sites 1 and 2, DO and BOD in site 3, and fecal coliform count in three sites were not within

the DENR standard for class C waters. Low pH in site 1 and 2 was attributed to the presence

of dam and quarry activity such as excavation of limestone in upstream and inundation of

organic wastes midstream. Highest concentration of BOD and low DO in site 3 was

attributed to the massive presence of organic matter. Furthermore, site 3 has the highest

fecal coliform count of >11,000 MPN/ 100mL, since the downstream becomes the catch

14
basin of upstream and downstream. Researchers concluded that the continuous

deterioration of the water quality in the downstream is due to the relatively high flux of

wastes that carried from upstream to downstream from the toilet, kitchen, piggeries,

laundry, and commercial establishments and indiscriminate dumping of solid waste

associated with dense population.

Rañola and Santiago (2009) assessed the sediment quality of Estero de Sante Bañez

which is a major tributary of Pasig River. Grab sampling was employed in the collection

of sediment samples from three sampling sites. The results showed that PCB amount in the

estero is negligible, copper, zinc, and nickel are considered major components of sediments

in all sites of the estero. Metals such as zinc (11.9-17.9), nickel (6.15-12.3), lead (<0.2-

3.4), copper (5.4-11.6) and chromium (0.6-0.8) are below the minimum level set while

mercury (0.48-0.61) and cadmium (<0.01-8.32) exceeds the standard value in the sediment

quality guidelines. And almost of all the heavy metals concentration is high in Site C.

Orozco and Zafaralla (2012) studied the biophysico-chemical and socio-economic

of two major Manila esteros which are Estero de Quaipo and Estero de San Miguel. The

sampling was made in two periods, dry and wet season to determine the physicochemical

and biological parameters, level of biodiversity in terms of species richness, diversity and

dominance, and the socio-economic of the two esteros. Based on Pearson correlation, there

is a positive correlation between between total nitrogen, total phosphorus, DO, BOD, COD,

turbidity, chl-a, water depth, temperature, salinity, conductivity, clarity, and stream

velocity which means that the parameters fall under class C and D water set by the DENR.

On the assessment of biodiversity, four fish species were observed in the esteros with

Rasbora maculata and Gambusia affinis as the dominant species. Shannon diversity index

15
showed higher fish diversity in Estero de Quiapo than in San Miguel with an index of

similarity of 67% and evenness index showed higher apportionment of fishes per species

in Estero de San Miguel. The researchers concluded that the socio-economic status plays a

big role why informal settlers families resides near the estero despite of its filthy

surroundings.

Pedroza et al. (2017) assessed the water quality risk of Bitan-ag Creek downstream,

Cagayan De Oro. The study was conducted to derive an estimate of risk assessment on the

present water quality of the creek. Water sampling was done in three different areas in

Bitan-ag creek downstream. Descriptive and comparative study was employed. The results

showed that pH, temperature, and alkalinity are within the standards except for the elevated

concentrations of salinity, TDS, and conductivity. The risk quantification analyses

indicated water quality risk with DO and not suitable for drinking. It was affected by

anthropogenic activities from adjacent communities and establishments.

Ideriah et al. (2010) assessed the water quality along Amadi creek in Port Harcourt,

Nigeria. The sampling was done in six different stations in wet and dry season along the

creek based on the type of activity on both sides of the creek. The results showed that

Amadi creek is brackish, hard, saline, and polluted. The difference between DO, pH,

alkalinity, conductivity, TDS, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, total hardness and BOD

between season was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, there is no significant

difference (p>0.05) between dry and wet seasons values in terms of turbidity. Generally,

dry season levels of parameters were high than wet season level. The physicochemical

parameters in dry season are higher than wet season. The researchers concluded that

16
dredging, stream channelization, and domestic sewage contribute to the larger increase of

organic matter in the creek.

A study on the impact of industrial activities on water quality of Omuko creek in

Nigeria was conducted by Ewa et al. (2011). The water sampling was done at three

sampling stations (upstream, downstream and midstream). Results showed that the

temperature in the downstream is higher than the obtained temperature in the upstream,

and above the limit of 27 °C tolerable by Federal Environmental Protection Agency. The

high level of pH in the upstream and downstream that ranged from 6.8 to 5.7 was within

FEPA's permissible limit (6-9). Dissolved oxygen in upstream is high with the value of

41.3 mg/L and lower at the downstream with a value of 38.2 mg/L which could be

attributed to a huge influx of organic wastes. Biological oxygen demand of 59 mg/L at

downstream exceeded the maximum standard as well as the oil and grease content of 34.4

mg/L. The presence of oil and grease may be attributed to automobile shops and oil

operators along the creek. ANOVA showed that the parameters in the three sampling points

have no significant difference with FEPA's and WHO's permissible limits for surface water

(F = 2.84, p<0.05).

Seiyaboh et al. (2017) assessed the water quality of Sagbama creek, Niger Delta in

Nigeria. The water sampling was undertaken between June and July 2014 in five locations:

Tungbo, Tungabiri, Bolou, Agoro, and Kabi. The results showed that the dissolved oxygen,

total hardness, total dissolved solid, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium,

calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese have significant difference (p<0.05) among the

parameters and are within the permissible limit recommended by Standard Organization of

Nigeria except for temperature, pH, and turbidity. High turbidity obtained (21.80-23.03

17
NTU) can be attributed to pollution brought by anthropogenic activities of the inhabitants

aligning the coastal settlement.

Aghoghovwia and Ohimain (2014) studied the physicochemical characteristics of

Lower Kolo Creek, Otuogidi, in Bayelsa State. The study was conducted during wet and

dry seasons from three locations. Based on the results, pH, conductivity, turbidity, salinity,

TDS, nitrate, and DO of water collected between dry and wet season differ significantly

(p<0.05). The high temperature range during dry season were 31.0°C to 35.0°C and low

temperature range from 28.4°C to 28.6°C. The pH for wet season ranged between 7.422

to 7.45 while for dry season ranged between 6.9 to 7.45, and pH values obtained passed

the limit of 7-8 set by WHO for safe drinking water. The turbidity and TDS for all seasons

were higher than 34.0 NTU and 41 mg/L due to sand mining, dredging and logging of

timber. Dissolved oxygen level also exceeded the 5.0 mg/L limit. Biological oxygen

demand values of 6.70 and 5.00 mg/L at station 3 exceeded the desirable limits of 4.00

mg/L standard set by UNESCO/WHO/UNDP (1992) due to the presence palm oil

industries, latrines, and dumpsites.

Eledo et al. (2017) assessed the water of Epie creek in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa

State in Nigeria. The sampling was conducted in dry and wet season from five different

locations. Based on the results, high concentration of parameters such as pH, conductivity,

TDS, nitrate, chloride, alkalinity, potassium, iron, BOD, and bicarbonate in the Tombia

location can be attributed to effects of market activities on the Epie creek. And there is a

significant variation (p<0.05) pH, TDS, bicarbonate, and BOD. However, there was no

significant difference (P>0.05) in salinity and conductivity across the monthly and spatial

distribution due to the almost same concentration in all sampling point and period. The

18
absence of significant variation in turbidity suggests that the waste materials frequently

pollute the water. The researchers concluded that the water quality of Epie creek were

highly affected by waste discharges especially from the market area in Tombia location.

Lastly, a study on the physico-chemistry of Elechi creek in the upper Bonny

estuary, Rivers Stae in Nigeria was conducted by Ngah et al. (2017). The sampling was

conducted in dry and wet season from five different stations. Most of the parameters

showed a higher concentration in the dry season. The pH values ranged from 6.40 in the

dry season to 7.60 in the wet season. The highest temperature was recorded in January and

lowest in August, wet season. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was generally high

that ranged from 2.85 to 7.45 mg/L, it can be attributed to the agitation of the surface water

within the creek channel due to creek channel precipitation and run-off discharge especially

in the wet season. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) ranged from 1.02 mg/L to 1.78 mg/L

in the dry season and 1.40 mg/L to 5.38 mg/L in the wet season. Low nutrient concentration

was below the internationally accepted value of 45.00 mg/L as well as the low

concentration of heavy metals throughout the stations at Elechi creek, respectively.

2.6 Synthesis

Among the related studies presented in this research, the present study is similar

with the study of Ewa et al. (2011) where most of our physico-chemical parameters of

water were correlated to anthropogenic activities. However, this current study differs from

the cited literature in terms of sampling sites, periods and some physicochemical

parameters analyzed. Majority of the study mentioned do the sampling during dry and wet

season. Some of them included the stream velocity, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity,

19
conductivity, turbidity, chl-a, COD, total phosphate, total nitrogen, DO, sulfate, and species

diversity which this study did not consider.

20
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Selection of Sampling Site

The study was conducted in Estero de Binondo of Manila City, which has a length

of 1,007 meters. Estero de Binondo is between the Barangay 287, 271, 281, 282, and 268

of Binondo and San Nicolas district. Three sampling sites were established, site 1- near

Juan Luna Plaza mall and market where Estero Dela Reina, Estero de Magdalena and

Estero de Binondo merged, site 2- San Fernando bridge where some warehouses,

apartments, parking space for vehicles, and few informal settlers families and site

3- Muelle dela Industries street near Binondo Pumping Station where buildings, residential

areas, warehouses, parking space for vehicle and informal settlers families are located. The

distance between site 1 and site 2 is roughly estimated 549.31m and 426.39m between site

2 and site 3.

3.2 Sampling Method

Composite sampling method was used for the water collection in an estimated depth

of 20-30cm below the water surface. The collected water samples from each site were

mixed thoroughly in a pail and transferred into clean 1L PET bottles. For the oil and grease,

1L volume sterilized wide-mouth glass bottles sealed with aluminum foil before its stopper

was used. And for microbiological analysis, 250 mL sterilized sample glass bottles were

used. After the collection at each station, samples were stored in the portable ice-cooled

box and appropriately labeled before transporting to Mach Union Water Laboratory for

analysis. Weather condition, cloud cover, and color of the water were also observed during

every sampling.
21
Water samples were collected from each site every 3rd or 4th week of the month

(June to October) between 7 to 10 am.

3.3 Materials, Reagents and Apparatus

Collected water samples were stored in 1L PET bottles. The physical parameters

such as pH and temperature were measured in-situ using a pen-type pH meter and glass

thermometer. Ammonium molybdate reagent and stannous chloride were used on

phosphate analysis while silver nitrate and potassium chromate were used in chloride

concentration analysis. The laboratory apparatus such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks,

Florence flasks, volumetric flasks, graduated cylinders, stirring rod, pipet, burette, watch

glass, analytical balance, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer was also used in the preparation

of the aqueous solution and water sample analysis.

3.4 Analysis of Water Quality Parameter

The physical and chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, was determined in-

situ. While parameters such as chloride concentration and phosphate were analyzed in the

Technological University of the Philippines-Manila Chemistry laboratory. The parameters

such as color, BOD, ammonia, and nitrate as nitrogen, oil and grease, surfactant and fecal

coliform were analyzed in Mach Union laboratory.

3.4.1 Temperature

Mercury thermometer was immersed in the pail containing water sample for

2-3 minutes to measure the temperature on-site.

22
3.4.2 pH

The sensor of pen type pH meter was dipped in the water sample until its

reading was stabilized.

3.4.3 Phosphate

A stock solution of phosphate was prepared by dissolving 0.286g of

KH2PO4 in 1L distilled water. 100 ml of the resulting solution was diluted to 1L,

this gave a 20 ppm stock phosphate solution. Standard phosphate solutions of 1, 2,

3, 4 and 5 ppm were prepared from the 20 ppm stock phosphate solution, by diluting

12.5 mL, 25 mL, 37.5 mL, and 62.5 mL of 20 ppm stock solution to 250 mL,

respectively.

To 25 ml of each standard solutions and distilled water in separated flasks,

1 mL of ammonium molybdate solution was added and swirled to mix. Then 2

drops of stannous chloride solution were added to each flask and mixed by swirling

until blue color was developed within a maximum of 5 minutes. The absorbance of

the solution was read against blank at 650 nm within 5 to 15 minutes after the

addition of stannous chloride solution. Standard calibration curve for phosphate

was constructed using the absorbance of the standard phosphate solutions.

3.4.4 Chloride

The Argentometric method was used for chloride concentration analysis,

0.1235 grams of NaCl was dissolved in water and diluted to a 500 mL volumetric

flask. Potassium chromate indicator and 0.0141N silver nitrate solution were

prepared. A 1.795 grams of silver nitrate was dissolved in enough water and diluted

to a 500 mL volumetric flask. Aluminum hydroxide suspension for removal of

23
interference was also prepared. The water pH must be 7-9 concentration before

titration with silver nitrate, so phenolphthalein indicator and sodium hydroxide

solution were prepared. The 2 grams of NaOH was dissolved in enough water and

was diluted to a 500 ml volumetric flask. Silver nitrate was standardized using the

prepared NaCl solution then 20 mL water sample was titrated with standardized

silver nitrate until red coloration occurred.

3.5 Administration of Survey Questionnaire

A subjective or purposive sampling was used in the administration of the survey

questionnaire to settlers residing near the Estero of Binondo in December 2018. There were

20 respondents per site, thus a total of 60 respondents participated. The respondents were

given enough time to answer the questions of the four (4) parts survey with the guide of

the researchers. The four parts of the survey are the 1) demographic profile of the

respondent 2) community profile 3) anthropogenic activities that might affect the water

quality of the estero, and 4) the perception of the respondents regarding conservation and

protection of the estero.

24
CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Demographic Profile

A total of 60 respondents were surveyed from the stretch of Barangay 287 in

Binondo, Manila. There are twenty respondents per site of the study area selected through

purposive sampling. The respondents per site were mostly single. In site 1-Juan Luna St.,

the respondents were mostly male (55%) with an age range from 38 to 47 years old (55%),

having a 2-7 family member (50%) and residing near the estero for about 1-5 years (45%).

In site 2-San Fernando Bridge, majority of the respondents are female (55%) with an age

range from 48 and above (35%), having a 5-7 family members (50%) and residing near the

estero for about 16-20 years (35%). On site 3-Muelle della Industria St., most of the

respondents were female (65%) with an age range from 38 and above (40%), having a 5-7

family members (40%) and residing the estero for about 16-20 years (40%).

4.2 Anthropogenic Activities

Estero de Binondo is surrounded by establishments such as condominiums or high-

rise residential buildings, banks, malls, wet and dry market, food stalls or carinderias, and

households. Table 1 shows the facilities that surround the Estero de Binondo, frequency (f)

represents the number of respondents who agreed in the existence of each facility.

25
Table 1. Community Profile
Site 1 Site 2 Site 3
Facilities along the estero
f % f % f %
1. Households with comfort rooms 8 40 19 95 1 5
2. Household with no comfort rooms 12 60 1 5 19 95
3. Factory 0 0 0 0 0 0
4. Laboratories/ School 0 0 0 0 0 0
5. Market 20 100 5 25 0 0
6. Oil depot 0 0 0 0 0 0
7. Piggery 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 1 reveals that site 2 (95%) has the highest number of households with comfort

rooms followed by site 1 (40%), then site 3 (5%), then were contrary to the number of

surveyed households with no comfort rooms per site: site 1 (60%), site 2 (5%) and site

(95%). The majority of residents in site 2 were majority have an open sewage system in

which their household wastes directly injected to the estero because of the absence of septic

tanks. At site 1, the respondents that do not have their own comfort rooms tend to use the

toilet of the nearby establishment while others, particularly in site 3, were honestly

admitted that they directly excreted in the estero.

Site 1 is a commercial area where malls and various stores like food, fruit and

vegetables stalls, textiles, papers, pets, accessories and plastic wares stores are located. Site

2 is surrounded by warehouses, food stalls, plastic ware shops and apartments, while site 3

is comprised of high-rise residential buildings, apartments, food stalls, banks and informal

settlers families. Aside from the household with/without a comfort room, an establishment

such as market, laboratory/school, piggery, and oil depot were also presented in table 1,

among these the market is the only establishment present in the study site where all of the

respondents in site 1 (100%) and few in site 2 (25%) were near.

26
Aside from the presence of commercial establishments/facilities that could be a

source of effluents and solid wastes, activities of the informal settlers residing near the

estero also affect the water quality and maintenance of the estero. Table 2 presents the

anthropogenic activities of the respondents per site along Estero de Binondo, frequency (f)

represents the number of respondents who are in claimed of doing such activities.

Table 2
Activities that affects the Maintenance Site 1 Site 2 Site 3
of the estero f % f % f %
1. Throwing garbage within/near the estero. 9 45 9 45 11 55
2. Burning garbage near the estero 1 5 5 25 10 50
3. Excreting in the estero 3 15 1 5 10 50
4. Discharging liquid waste 10 50 7 35 10 50

Based on Table 2, most of the respondents in all sites throw garbage in the estero.

Suspended solid wastes such as plastic bags, bottles, plastic fruit case, a sack of trash, cans,

shampoo sachets, discarded wood pieces, and styro boxes, cups and plates are the common

waste found in site 1 as this area is surrounded by small-scale businesses and malls.

Observable solid wastes were stock in the net screens that are attached under the bridges.

During the sampling period in the month of July, the net on the bridge in site 1 in Juan

Luna St. was observed to be broken and all suspended trash were trapped in the net screen

under Tabora St. bridge. In addition to this, the sampling point on site 1 near the Juan Luna

Plaza mall was observed to be highly congested with trash in the of October (Appendix G).

Burning of waste are usually being practiced by the respondents (50%) in site 3 especially

when they missed the garbage collection to lessen the filing of trash in the sidewalks and

because this area is less crowded compared to site 1 (Juan Luna St.) and 2 (San Fernando

Bridge). The respondents (50%) in site 1 and site 3 discharged their liquid waste in the

sewers drain to estero as they do not have a septic tank.


27
Protection and Conservation Measures in the Estero

The perception of the respondents on the protection and conservation measures in

estero is presented in Table 3.

Table 3
Site 1 Site 2 Site 3
Protection and Conservation and Measures
f % f % f %
1. Proper disposal of solid waste. 19 95 18 90 17 85
2. Have knowledge about environmental laws. 1 5 1 5 1 5
3. Joining the cleaning operation 3 15 2 10 2 10

The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission (PRRC) is the leading agency that

specifically focused on the rehabilitation of Pasig River tributaries. It coordinates with

other agencies such as Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA), and

Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) in order to improve the water quality

of the esteros and other water system connected to Pasig river. In Binondo, river warriors

placed net screens to remove and stop the floating solid wastes in the estero, but solid

wastes are still frequently observed in the waterway. Despite the bad state of the estero,

respondents are looking forward to the continued rehabilitation of the waterway. Based on

Table 3, proper waste disposal is the most effective way to protect the estero from water

pollution for the respondents from the three sites (95% in site 1, 90% in site 2, and 85% in

site 3). Most of the respondents were not familiar and knowledgeable that environmental

laws are important as there is only 5% of the respondents per site said that knowing such

laws is vital on protecting the estero. Joining the barangay cleaning activities was less

favored per site, and this may be because the respondents did not observe any cleaning

activities by their barangay, as they said that only PRRC and MMDA do conduct clean-

ups on the Estero.

28
4.3 Water Quality of Estero de Binondo

To determine the water quality of Estero de Binondo physicochemical parameters

and biological parameters which include temperature, pH, biological oxygen demand, true

color, phosphate, chloride, ammonia, and nitrate as N, oil and grease, surfactant and fecal

coliform was analyzed and recorded. The water collection was conducted from 7am to

10am every 3rd or 4th week of the month from June to October 2018 in three sampling sites;

1) near the Juan Luna Plaza Mall, 2) San Fernando Bridge, and 3) near the Binondo

Pumping Station.

29
Table 4
Results of the Physico-chemical parameters of Estero de Binondo from the period of
June to October 2018 and the DENR limit per parameters
Physicochemical DENR
Parameters Site June July August September October Limit
Temperature 1 24 25 31 29 32.5 25-31
(°C) 2 24 25 32.5 31 33
3 27 25 33 33 34

Color 1 83 63 80 63 63 <75
(TCU) 2 50 50 50 56 50
3 10 13 10 33 63

pH 1 6.41 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.5-9.0


2 6.58 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
3 6.67 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.6

BOD 1 128 - 356.3 256.7 69.7 <7


(mg/L) 2 93 - 254 293.3 131
3 38 - 116 131 50

Phosphate 1 4.785 5.865 7.691 6.232 6.663 <0.05


(mg/L) 2 5.899 5.947 6.894 5.886 6.602
3 0.784 1.981 1.232 0.964 1.294

Chloride 1 258 457.6 175.8 166.6 114.1 <350


(mg/L) 2 268 557.1 200.4 219.9 75.0
3 421 310.4 61.6 69.1 100.0

Nitrate as N 1 0.143 0.088 0.0547 2.951 55.70 <7


(mg/L) 2 0.096 0.079 0.0583 1.495 48.76
3 0.111 0.104 0.0696 0.401 2.88

Ammonia as 1 14.3 8.7 13.43 20.17 10.74 <0.05


N 2 46.5 4.12 12.43 18.5 19.1
(mg/L) 3 5.41 4.64 0.908 0.918 8.57

Oil and Grease 1 - 1.4 8.7 4.71 8.94 <2


(mg/L) 2 - 1.2 7.8 4.78 5.31
3 - 3 1.5 3.49 2.15

Surfactant 1 3.99 2.3 0.319 1.01 4.08 <1.5


(mg/L) 2 3.93 2.59 0.838 0.998 2.8
3 0.188 0.144 0.827 0.844 2.18
Legend: no data (-)

30
4.3.1 Temperature
Table 4 shows the temperature reading of the five-month sampling ranges

from 24ºC to 34 ºC. It can be observed that the temperature of the water from the

estero varies from each sampling period and sampling sites. The highest obtained

temperature, 34ºC, was observed in the month of October at Site 3 while the lowest

recorded temperature is in the month of June at Site 1 and Site 2. Based on the

Kruskal Wallis test, temperature of water collected in three sampling sites differ

significantly in the month of June, August, September and October (pJune,July, October=

0.018). The temperature of water in site 1 and 2 in June, site 2 and 3 in August, site

3 in September and all sampling sites in the month of October did not pass the limit

set by DENR in Class C waters (25-31ºC). On the other hand, the Friedman test

showed that there is a significant difference in the water temperature across

sampling period in all sites (psite1-3=0.017). The variation of water temperature in

sampling sites and sampling periods may be attributed to atmospheric condition. It

was cloudy and windy during the collection of water sample in June, humid weather

was experienced in August, partly sunny to a clear sky in September and October.

Also, the surrounding of the sampling sites could contribute to the variation in

water temperature. Site 1 is surrounded by high rise buildings which block the sun

radiation, and which could be reason for a low temperature reading while Site 3 is

completely exposed to the sun, which makes the temperature of the water high and

exceeded the standard set by the DENR for Class C water. Based on the study of

NMED (2011), atmospheric condition and solar radiation affect the water

temperature, especially streams and shallow water bodies.

31
4.3.2 Color
The color of the water at all sampling months and sites range from 10 to 83

TCU and within the DENR limits (75 TCU) except site 1 in the month of June and

August which has a value of 83 and 80 TCU that can be due to the high

concentration of dissolved organic matter. During the water collection on these

months the water was observed colored black. According to SWRCB (2018), color

of water is affected by the concentration of natural dissolved organic acids derived

from decomposition of plant and animal matter that gives yellow to black coloration

in water. In site 3 the increasing color of water from the third to the last sampling

could be attributed to observed intensifying green coloration of water because of

algal bloom (Appendix G). Boyd (2016) said that color of water changes because

of the occurrence of water bloom due to eutrophication. Based on the Kruskal

Wallis and Friedman test, the color of water in the three sampling sites per month

and across sampling periods per sites are significantly different, p values are all less

than 0.05.

4.3.3 Water pH

The pH readings for all sampling sites and sampling periods are within the

standard set by the DENR except for Site 1 in the month of June (pH = 6.41). The

water in all sampling sites and sampling periods is slightly acidic. Based on Kruskal

Wallis and Friedman test showed a significant difference in water pH across all the

sampling periods (p= 0.017) in all sites and sites (p= 0.018) in all months. The slight

acidity of water could be attributed to the organic waste from vegetable, fruit and

food stalls in the area, the presence of dead animal on water such as cat and rat, and

32
plant debris like leaves that undergo decomposition by microbial activity that

releases carbon dioxide in the water. According to Boyd (2016) microbial activity

causes dissolved oxygen concentrations to decline and carbon dioxide

concentrations to increase affecting pH of the water. The slight increase of water

pH in most all sites from month of July to October could be attributed to the high

discharges of waste water containing detergents from households with an open

sewage system on the study site. Based on the study of Enguito et al. (2013) even

the organic pollution is massive, waste water containing detergents that is being

discharge to the Caragan Estero can increase the water pH. The lowest recorded

water pH is in site 3 from the month of August to October, this could be attributed

to activities involve with algal bloom and decomposition. MacIntosh (2017) reveal

dying algae drop to the bottom and decompose then the bacteria, which decompose

this organic matter produce acidic byproducts which contributed to low pH.

4.3.4 Biological Oxygen Demand

The result of BOD concentration in Estero de Binondo at all sampling

months and sites range exceeded the 7mg/L limits for Class C waters of DENR.

Based on the Kruskal Wallis test, BOD concentration of the three sites in the month

of June and August was significantly different (pJune= 0.018; pAugust= 0.027).

Likewise, Friedman test showed that BOD varies across sampling period in all site

(psite 1= 0.017; psite 2= 0.018; psite 3= 0.034). The increased of BOD concentration

from June to August in all sites could be attributed to a bulk organic matter waste

in water from storm runoff during the rainy days in the month of August. The

presence of biodegradable organic wastes in water, such as raw wood debris, plant,

33
dead animal, and sewage from discharges increase the BOD concentration. Organic

wastes undergo decomposition by microbial community which accounts to the

demand of dissolved oxygen in water (Spellman, 2014). Meanwhile, the notable

decrease of biological oxygen demand from 256.7mg/L-69.7mg/L at site 1 and

131mg/L-50mg/L at site 3 in the month of September to October could be due to

the presence of non-biodegradable waste that are suspended in the water which do

not contribute to the increase of BOD concentration (Appendix G). On the other

hand, the BOD concentration was reduced from the month of September to October

at site 2, and this could be attributed to low concentration of decomposable matter

because of the clean-up drive conducted by the river warriors, where all kind of the

solid wastes are removed even the attached plants on the wall of the estero.

4.3.5 Phosphate

The phosphate concentration ranges from 0.784mg/L to 7.691mg/L from

June to October and exceeded the DENR limits of 0.05mg/L for Class C waters.

The Freidman test showed a significant difference of phosphate across sampling

period in all sites (psite 1-3= 0.017), while the Kruskal Wallis test showed that

phosphate of water in the three sites is not significant different only in the month

of October (p= 0.066) contrary to the phosphate concentration in the month of June

to September (p>0.05). The increasing concentration of phosphate from the June to

August in all sites could be attributed to the massive organic matter and domestic

water discharge from the surrounding community during the rainy days which

induced the release of water out of the estero. The organic material undergoes

decomposition by the microorganism which increases the dissolve inorganic

34
phosphorus into the water that can be absorbed by aquatic plants or react with the

aluminum or iron in the sediments (Boyd, 2016). The increased concentration of

phosphate in site 3 from June to July could be attributed to the bulk released of

water containing nutrients from the Estero de Binondo to Pasig river by Pumping

station operators to prevent the flooding in the community of during the consecutive

rainy days because of the southwest monsoon and tropical storms such as “Gardo”,

“Henry”, “Inday” and “Josie.” This natural phenomenon affects the water in site 3

causing water changes from lime green to black-grayish coloration and decrease of

plants which is the hyacinth that helps to reduces concentration of phosphate in

water (Appendix G). In the study of Moyo (2013) observed a significant reduction

of phosphates together with sulfates, TDS, electrical conductivity and total

hardness of water because of the phytoremediation activity of water hyacinths in

Shagashe river in Masvingo, Zimbabwe.

4.3.6 Chloride

The concentration of chloride in all sampling sites and sampling periods are

within the standard set by the DENR, except in Site 3 in the month of June and site

1 and 2 in the month of July. Based on the Freidman and Kruskal Wallis test, there

is a significant difference on the chloride concentration collected across sampling

period (p>0.05) and among the three sites per month, respectively. High

concentration of chloride in the month of June and July at all sites may be attributed

to high salt content of the water which is induced by the consecutive typhoon. Based

on the study of Mullaugh et. al (2013), typhoon or hurricane deposits chloride from

the sea to land by precipitation. The sampling month of July is where the southeast

35
monsoon is mostly activated and enhances the rainfall events in the month,

particularly during the severe tropical storm Josie according to ESCAP/WMO

Typhoon Committee (2018). In addition to this the chloride concentration on site 2

at from June to September is high compared to site 1 and this is may be because of

the open sewage system of households that induces the discharge of human

wastewater in to the estero. Spellman (2014), said that the sources of chloride could

be from leaching of chloride from rocks and soils, saltwater intrusion in coastal

areas, agricultural, industrial, domestic, and human wastewater.

4.3.7 Nitrate as N

The concentration of nitrates in all sampling sites and sampling periods are

within the standard set by the DENR (7 ppm), however, a high nitrate concentration

was recorded in the month of October in Site 1(55.70 ppm) and Site 2 (48.76ppm).

Based on Kruskal Wallis analysis, there is a significant difference in nitrate

concentration of the three sites in the month of June to August (pJune= 0.018; pJuly=

0.018, pAug= 0.032). Moreover, the Freidman test showed significant difference in

nitrate concentration across sampling period in site 1 (p= 0.017) and site 2

(p=0.017). The sudden increase of nitrate in the last sampling periods in site 1 and

2 may be attributed to the wastewater discharge from households and presence of

biodegradable organic wastes that were decaying which releases ammonia that in

continuous oxidation it is converted to nitrate under warm temperature. According

to Wall (2013), forms of nitrogen such as ammonia, nitrite and organic nitrogen

tend to transform into nitrate in the presence of oxygen, moist moisture, and warm

temperature where biological breakdown is active. Meanwhile, the low

36
concentration of nitrate in almost all the months in the three sites could be due to

slow conversion of ammonia to nitrite then to nitrate as dissolved oxygen is not

enough. Decomposition of organic matter which consume dissolved oxygen level,

which slows the rate at which ammonia is oxidized to nitrite then to nitrate resulting

to low concentration of nitrate in polluted water rich in nitrogen-rich organic matter

(Spellman, 2014).

4.3.8 Ammonia as N

The ammonia concentration in all sampling sites and sampling periods

exceeded the 0.05mg/L limit set by DENR in Class C waters. Based on the Kruskal

Wallis analysis, there is a significant difference in the three sites in the months of

June (p= 0.018), July (p= 0.018) and October (p= 0.430) in terms of ammonia

concentration while there is a significant difference in ammonia concentration

across sampling period at site 2 (p= 0.041) and site 3 (p= 0.031) according to

Freidman test analysis. The high concentration of ammonia can be attributed to the

amount of organic waste present in the estero that undergo decomposition.

According to Boyd (2016) organic matter with high nitrogen content usually

decomposes quickly and release of appreciable ammonia nitrogen. Ammonia

concentration is related to BOD and nitrate, usually polluted waters with low nitrate

concentration has high ammonia concentration because the dissolve oxygen is

depleted (Spellman, 2014). The high decrease of ammonia from 4.64mg/L to

0.908mg/L in site 3 in the month of July and August could be attributed to the

observed coloration from black-grayish to lime green water that indicates the

phytoplankton bloom. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations and soluble reactive

37
phosphorus concentrations in water bodies usually decline when phytoplankton are

growing rapidly (Boyd, 2016).

4.3.9 Oil and Grease

The oil and grease concentration in site 3 in July, site 1 and 2 in August,

and all sites in September and October did not conform with the standard set by the

DENR (2ppm). Kruskal Wallis showed that there is a significant difference in the

oil and grease collected in the three sampling sites in the month of July to October

(p>0.05). Moreover, Freidman test showed that there is a significant difference in

the oil and grease across sampling period in all sites (psite 1-3= 0.017). High level of

oil and grease are recorded in the month of August, September and October and

this can be attributed to the runoffs from roads due to tropical storm “Karding” that

enhances the southwest monsoon which causes light to heavy precipitation in

August, typhoon “Ompong” and “Paeng” in September, and typhoon “Rosita” in

October. The heavy downpour increased the water level of the estero, the streets

are flooded which caused the flow of oil and grease into the estero. Other sources

of oil and grease in runoff include hydraulic fluid leaks from vehicles and lubricant

leaks from construction, and other off-road heavy equipment (Han et al., 2006).

Also, numerous vehicles are present in site 1 while site 2 is the parking space for

trucks that unload the stocks to various stores and warehouses in the street of

Muelle de Binondo.

4.3.10 Surfactant

The concentration of surfactant in Estero de Binondo ranges from 0.144 to

4.08 mg/L. A high surfactant concentration was observed in the month of June and
38
July both in Site 1 and 2, while in the month of October in all sites, did not conform

with the standard. Based on Kruskal Wallis there is a significant difference in the

concentration of surfactant in the month of June (p= 0.018), July (p= 0.018),

September (p= 0.018), and October (p= 0.018). The Freidman test revealed that

there is a significant difference in surfactant across sampling period in the three

sites (psite 1=0.017; psite 2= 0.017; psite 3= 0.017). The high concentration of surfactant

in water may be due to the water containing soaps and detergent disposed in the

estero, street dust emitted by vehicles as well as volume of vehicles. High

concentration of surfactant from to street dusts mainly consists of particles emitted

by vehicles that is believed to contain substantial amount of surfactants which

might be dissolved in runoff water (Hanif et al., 2009). Also, surfactant content is

higher in heavily trafficked street (Murakami & Takada, 2008) like in Juan Luna.

Mostly, soaps and detergents are used in auto washing, window and building

cleaning (Mallin et al., 2008), the presence of condominiums in site 2 is also

considered as the one of the main contributors to high concentration of surfactants.

4.3. 11 Fecal Coliform

In order to estimate the concentration pathogens in the water of the estero

that are from the human feces and animal dropping, fecal coliform analysis was

done. Table 5 shows average fecal coliform concentration per site from June to

October 2018.

39
Table 5

Sites June July August September October DENR Limits

1 2.4x106 5.4x105 5.4x101 3.5x104 1.1x106


200MPN/100ml
2 2.4x105 2.4x106 4.9x105 9.3x103 5.4x105

3 2.2x104 2.4x105 3.5x104 3.5x103 9.2x103

The fecal coliform count in all sampling period and sites are very high and

exceeded the standard limits of 200MPN/100ml set by DENR for class C. Based

on Kruskal Wallis and Freidman, there a significant difference per sampling period

and sampling site. The variation fecal coliform could be attributed to germicidal

activity of chloride in increasing temperature and waste discharges containing fecal

coliform. The germicidal activity of chloride is more effective in high temperature,

it reduces the bacteria in the water such as the fecal coliform (Spellman, 2014).

This is attributed to the low concentration of fecal coliform in three sites in the

month of August, September except for site 1 and site 1 and 3 of October. The

sudden increase of fecal coliform in the month of September in site 1 could be due

to high discharge of water with fecal material. The high concentration of fecal

coliform and chloride (557.1 mg/L) in the month of July were due to low

temperature (25ºC) and dredging activity that increases water turbidity on the site

during the water collection. According to Spellman (2014) chloride germicidal

activity reduces as the water is turbid because the bacteria hides in the suspended

particles in the water.

40
4.4 Comparison with the PRRC data

Table 6 shows the results of the PRRC last 2009, 2014, 2017 and our findings on

the same parameters during the month of June, July, August, September and October 2018.

Table 6
The data on Physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of Estero de Binondo
from 2009, 2014 and 2017 from Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission and the
average data in the period of June to October 2018 and the DENR limit per
parameters
Parameters PRRC Results Current DENR Limits
2009 2014 2017 Results (2018)

Temperature ND 26.60 25.47 29.27 25-31 ºC

Color ND ND 46.67 50.47 75 TCU

pH ND 6.84 6.72 6.66 6.5-9.0

BOD 32 39.33 80.00 84.22 <7 mg/L

Phosphate 4.22 <0.02 9.64 4.42 0.5 mg/L

Chloride 26 59.07 67.67 230.31 350 mg/L

Nitrates 8.9 <0.20 5.51 7.53 < 7 mg/L

Ammonia 0.09 19.45 4.06 21.14 < 0.05mg/L

Oil and Grease 3.5 5.50 3.43 3.53 < 2 mg/L

Surfactants 2.99 3.40 4.29 1.80 < 1.5 mg/L

Fecal Coliform 1.60x107 2.52x106 5.53x106 8.098x105 200MPN/100ml

Prior to the current study, water quality parameters such as temperature, color, and

pH are within the standard limits for class C waters set by DENR. The concentration of

phosphate, pH, and surfactant decreased from 2017, contrary to biological oxygen demand,

temperature, color, chloride, nitrate, ammonia, oil and grease, and fecal coliform.

41
Temperature does affect the chemical activities on the water. In high temperature

chlorine is highly active on its germicidal property and organic matter decomposition is

fast, furthermore phytoplankton blooms in warm temperature that causes the decrease of

phosphate, ammonia and nitrate.

The color of the water increased by 3.80 from 2017, in Estero de Binondo, water

was observed gray to black color, this reflects that the estero is contaminated with high

concentration of dissolve organic matter.

The concentration of pH presented at the table show a decreasing trend from 2009

to present, water pH was affected by decomposition of organic matter as it could give acidic

by products such as carbon dioxide.

The biological oxygen demand shows an increasing trend from 2009 to 2018 which

indicate that more oxygen is being depleted on water because of microbial decomposition

of organic waste. Based on the conducted survey of this study, dumping of waste in the

estero were profound activity by the respondents from the three sites aside from

discharging liquid waste. Moreover, it was observed in most of the sampling period in site

1 that waste such as plant debris, raw wood pieces, raw foods, vegetable and fruit peels and

dead animal were common.

Phosphate concentration from 2009 to 2018 shows high changes between the years,

from 2017 the phosphate concentration was decreased by 5.22mg/L, which means that

phosphate from water discharges containing detergent was reduce in 2018, this is supported

by the decreased in concentration of surfactant.

42
Chloride concentration from 2009 to the present was appreciably increasing, this

could be because of discharges of human waste and excreting activities by the informal

settler surrounding the estero, furthermore the atmospherically activities such as typhoons

that adds chloride by wet deposition also increases the concentration on the receiving water

body such as the estero.

Nitrate concentration in water of Estero de Binondo also show high changes

between the years from 2009 to the present. Nitrate is associated with ammonia, ammonia

is converted to nitrate after being oxidized to nitrite, and this will not happen if oxygen in

water. is very low due to the decomposition of organic matter.

Oil and grease concentration were almost no great changes per year, its source was

from the runoff of motor oil from the streets during heavy precipitation. In Estero de

Binondo, the road sides and bridges such as the Juan Luna, San Fernando and Muelle dela

Industria street were frequently run by vehicles, while the roads do serve as a parking space

for the delivery and private vehicles. Aside from this, the water discharges containing

waxes, butter, lard, margarine, and vegetable fats and oils was all included in oil and grease

in water. Fecal coliform concentration from 2014 to 2018 is increasing as presented in

Table 6, this could be mean that the estero were still subjected to open sewage system

where most of human and animal excreta is drain with the waste water into the estero.

The practices such as dumping solid waste, discharge of liquid waste and excreting

in the estero combined with atmospheric condition causes alteration on the water quality

parameters. Organic waste in waterway could increases the BOD, phosphate, color,

ammonia and nitrate and it could decrease water pH due to the organic carbon that was

released from the decayed matter. And also, the waste water containing sewage, human
43
waste, and detergent could contribute to the increase of nutrient, chloride and fecal coliform

concentration water. Strom runoffs during heavy precipitation contributes to the increase

of oil and grease on the waters especially in an area where vehicles were frequently

observed.

44
CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary

The study assessed the water quality and anthropogenic activities in Estero de

Binondo in Manila from June to October 2018, as it is one of the tributaries of Pasig river.

The study determined the water quality of the estero through the analysis of its physico-

chemical such as temperature, true color, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD),

phosphate, chloride, ammonia and nitrate as N, surfactant, oil and grease, and

bacteriological parameters which is fecal coliform. In addition to this, the anthropogenic

activities near and within the estero were assessed through purposive sampling.

Through the survey, it was revealed that most households in site 1 (60%) and site

3 (95%) has no comfort room which induces the most of them to directly excrete in the

Estero. Based on the survey the facility that can be a potential source of solid waste and

effluents is the market which is located at site 1 (Juan Luna St.). The most common

practiced affecting the water quality and maintenance of the estero by the respondents per

site was also assessed: discharge of liquid waste in site 1 (50%) and waste dumping in the

estero in site 2 and site 3 (45%). In addition to this, the most preferred measure of the

respondents in the three sites in terms of protection, conservation and maintenance of the

estero is the solid waste proper disposal.

On the analysis of water quality, the biological oxygen demand, phosphate,

ammonia as N, oil and grease, temperature, and fecal coliform were the parameters that

almost no sampling site per month that pass the limits set by the DENR for class C waters.

45
5.2 Findings of the Study

Based on the results obtained, the following findings were drawn:

1. The anthropogenic activities such as dumping of organic and non-organic

solid waste, wastewater discharge from human and laundry waste, and

control of water volume releases outflow or inflow causes the increase and

decrease of corresponding affected water quality parameter.

2. Most of the physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of Estero de

Binondo did not pass on the limits for Class C waters specifically biological

oxygen demand, phosphate, ammonia as N, oil and grease, temperature, and

fecal coliform.

3. Site 1 has highest concentration of all the parameters except water

temperature and pH.

4. Site 3 has the lowest concentration of almost all of the parameters except

for temperature.

5. The occurrence of typhoon that is being intensified by southeast monsoon

causes also a factor for the elevated water quality parameters.

6. There are significant differences among the three sites in terms of:

a. temperature, true color, pH, BOD, phosphate, chloride, surfactant

and fecal coliform in the month of June.

b. color, pH, phosphate, chloride, oil and grease, surfactant and fecal

coliform in the month of July.

c. temperature, pH, color, phosphate, chloride, oil and grease,

surfactant and fecal coliform in the month of August.

46
d. temperature, color, pH, BOD, phosphate, chloride, color, oil and

grease, surfactant, and fecal coliform in the month of September.

e. temperature, color, pH, chloride, oil and grease, surfactant and fecal

coliform in the month of October.

7. There is a significant difference on nitrate concentration at site 1 and 3 of

the study area in the months of June, July, and August.

8. There is a significant difference on ammonia concentration at site 2 and 3

in the months of June, July, and October.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were drawn:

1. Include the other parameters such as TDS, TSS, turbidity, and heavy metals

specifically, lead, mercury, copper, arsenic, and cadmium, phenols and

cyanide.

2. Include the dry season on the study to better understand the effect of

seasons specifically the southwest and southeast monsoon combine with the

anthropogenic activities that effect on the water quality of the estero or other

river tributaries.

3. For the assessment of anthropogenic activities, conduct a wide range

survey which includes the personal interview with the establishment owners

not just to the people residing in the embarkment of the estero channel. Also

include on the survey paper the question regarding the presence of septic

tank on the establishment.

47
4. For easy relating the anthropogenic activity to water quality results per

month, conduct a purposive sampling survey every month of the coverage

period of your study.

5. Include the assessment of the frequency or days of water by the pumping

station as it controls the release of water from tributaries to the river such as

the Pasig river.

6. For relating the socio-economic to the water quality of the river tributaries,

include the population growth and urban development on the study area to

have a better discussion on the trend of water quality per year, and for better

comparison of the result of your study to past trend of the same water quality

parameters.

For the government agencies:

1. Collaboration with the barangay, especially on the downstream community

regarding the agendas for the rehabilitation of the tributaries as they were

the last receiving area of the polluted water.

2. Assessment of the septic system on each pumping station and establishment

surrounding the esteros

3. Coordination or cooperation with the pumping station activities or operation

as they control the outflow and inflow of the water between the river and

the tributary.

4. Focus on the congested area like market, as the waterway on this area is

prone to waste dumping.

48
5. Implementation and monitoring of waste production and management on

the communities surrounding the estero to avoid clogging with non-

biodegradable materials.

6. Consider the time to time inflow of water from the river to the estero

especially during dry season as it could help to replenish the dissolved

oxygen on the water and balance other water quality parameters.

7. Consider the potential phytoremediation capability of water hyacinth on

improving the water quality of the estero. As they could possibly use for

treating different kinds of waste water according the review study of

Rezania et. al, 2015.

49
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52
APPENDICES

53
APPENDIX A
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM FOR WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS

Water Quality of Estero de Binondo

June, July, August, September,


October

Composite Sampling
Method

Physico-chemical Bacteriological
Parameters Parameters

In-situ Ex-situ Fecal Coliform

 Temperature TUP-Chemistry Mach Union


 pH Laboratory Laboratory

 Phosphate  Color
 Chloride  Ammonia
 Nitrates
 Surfactant
 Oil and
Grease

54
APPENDIX B

SAMPLING SITES

Site 1

Site 2

Site 3
55
APPENDIX C

TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
Ayala Blvd. Cor. San Marcelino St. Ermita Manila

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
“ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITY IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY OF
ESTERO DE BINONDO”

Name (Pangalan): ______________________________


Age (Edad): _____ Sex (Kasarian): ______ Civil Status (Katayuang Sibil): ________
Educational Attainment (Antas ng pag-aaral): ___________
Profession (Hanap-buhay): _______________
Year of settle (Taong naninirahan): ________
How many family members (Ilan sa pamilya?): _________

Direction (Pnauto): Put check on your answer inside the box. (Lagyan ng tsek ang iyong
sagot sa kahon)

A. INFORMATION WITH REGARDS TO THE HOUSEHOLD.


(IMPORMASYONG MAY KINALAMAN SA GAWAING BAHAY.)
1. What is your major source of drinking-water? (Ano ang pangunahing
pinagkukunan ng inuming tubig?
Mineral water Tap water
Sterilized water (pinakuluang tubig) (Maynilad/ Manila water)
Others Deepwell (poso o balon)

2. Do you have your own comfort room? (May sarili po ba kayong palikuran?)
YES (Oo) NO (Hindi)

3. Is there any industrial or establishment near your home? (Mayroon bang


malapit na establisyemento o pabrika na malapit sa inyong bahay?)
YES (Oo) NO (Hindi)

56
If yes, what are those? (kung oo, anu-ano ang mga ito?)
Piggery (babuyan) Laboratories (laboratory/paaralan)
Oil dept (imabakan ng langis) Market (palengke)
Factory (pabrika)

4. Is there a regular garbage collection in your area? (Regular ba ang


pangongolekta/pagkuha ng mga basura sa inyong lugar?)
Never (hindi) Seldom (once a week)
Sometimes (every 2 days or twice a week) Often (every other day)
Always (araw-araw)

B. INFORMATION WITH REGARDS TO ESTERO. (IMPORMASYON


NA MAY KAUGNAYAN SA ESTERO.)
1. Is the estero/waterway produces unpleasant odor? (Lumlikha ba ng
mabahing amoy ang estero o daluyan ng tubig?)
YES (Oo) NO (Hindi)

2. Are there garbages/trash present in the estero? (Meron bang nakikitang


basura sa estero?)
YES (Oo) NO (Hindi)

If yes, what are those? (Kung oo, ano ang mga yun?)
Waste water used in laundry (tubig na ginagamit sa paglalaba)
Plastic (plastik)
Empty toxic chemical bottles (walang laman ang bote ng nakakalasong
kemikal)
Others

3. Do you consider yourself and your family as one of the contributors of the
garbage in estero? (Tinuturing niyo ba ang sarili mo at iyong pamilya bilang isa
sa mga nagdadagdag/nagaambag ng basura sa estero?)
YES (Oo) NO (Hindi)
4. Do you experience flood? (Binabaha ba kayo?)
YES (Oo) NO (Hindi)

If yes, what are the reasons? (kung oo, anu-ano ang mga dahilan nito?)
Mababa ang harang ng estero
Barado ng basura ang daluyan ng tubig sa estero
Others (please specify) _____________________

57
C. INFORMATION WITH REGARDS TO THE ACTIVITIES THAT
AFFECT THE MAINTENANCE OF THE ESTERO.
(IMPORMASYONG MAY KINALAMAN SA PANGANGALAGA SA
ESTERO.)
Yes No
1. Throwing garbage within/ near the estero? (Nagtatapon
po ba kayo ng basura malapit o mismo sa estero.)
2. Burning garbage near the estero. (Pagsusunog malapit
sa estero.)
3. Excreting in the estero. (Pagdudumi sa estero)
4. Discharging household water used in laundry.
(Nagbubuhos po ba kayo sa estero ng tubig na ginamit sa
paglalaba?)
5. Discharging household water used from cleaning dishes.
(Nagbubuhos po ba kayo ng tubig na ginagamit sa
paghuhugas ng mga pinggan o gamit pangkusina sa
estero?)

D. POSSIBLE WAYS TO MAINTAIN THE WATERWAY CLEAN AND \


(MGA BAGAY O ACTION NA MAARING GAWIN UPANG
MAPANATILI ANG KALINISAN NG ESTERO.)
Yes No
1. Proper disposal of solid waste. (Maayos na pagtatapon ng
basura.)
2. Have a knowledge about environmental laws.
(Pagkakaroon ng kaalaman tungkol sa mga Batas
pangkalikasan).
3. Joining the cleaning operation along the water way.
(Pagsali sa paglilinis ng estero upang mabawasan o maalis
ang mga basura.)
4. Building barrier that prevent the flow of garbage along the
estero. (Paglalagay ng mga harang para pigilan ang pagdaloy
ng mga basura sa estero.)
5. Make programs or campaigns related to prevention of
garbage clogging in the estero. (Paglulunsad ng mga
programa para sa pagpigil ng pagtatapon ng basura sa
estero.)

58
APPENDIX D

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS

Demographic Profile SITE 1 SITE 2 SITE 3


f % f % f %
Gender Female 9 45 11 55 13 65
Male 11 55 9 45 7 35
Age 18-27 4 20 3 15 1 5
28-37 3 15 4 20 3 15
38-47 11 55 6 30 8 40
48-above 2 10 7 35 8 40

Single 11 55 9 45 14 70
Married 6 30 9 45 5 25
Separated 1 5 2 10 1 5
Civil Status Widowed 2 10 0 0 0 0
2-4 10 50 7 35 7 35
5-7 10 50 10 50 8 40
Family Member 8-11 3 15 3 15 4 20
12- above 0 0 0 0 4 20
1-5 9 45 4 20 2 10
6-10 2 10 3 15 3 15
Length of 11-15 2 10 0 0 3 15
Settlement (years) 16-20 0 0 7 35 8 40
20-25 5 25 3 15 0 0
26-above 2 10 4 20 14 70
Elementary 8 40 9 45 10 50
Education High School 8 40 4 20 10 50
Attainment College 5 25 5 25 1 5
12
Self Employed 8 40 11 55 3 60
Employed 11 55 7 35 5 15
Profession Unemployed 1 5 1 5 25

59
APPENDIX E
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL PARAMETER TRENDS
FROM JUNE TO OCTOBER 2018

Temperature pH
40 6.9
35
6.8
30
6.7
25
20 6.6
15 6.5
10 6.4
5 6.3
0 6.2

Site 1 Site 2 Site3 Site 1 Site 2 Site3

Biological Oxygen Phosphates


9
Demand 8
400
350 7
300 6
250 5
200 4
150 3
100 2
50 1
0 0

Site 1 Site 2 Site3 Site 1 Site 2 Site3

Chloride Content Color (True)


600
100
500
80
400
60
300
200 40

100 20
0 0

Site 1 Site 2 Site3 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

60
Ammonia as Nitrogen Nitrate as Nitrogen
50 60
45
40 50
35 40
30
25 30
20
15 20
10 10
5
0 0

Site 1 Site 2 Site3 Site 1 Site 2 Site3

Surfactant Oil and Grease


4.5 10
4
3.5 8
3
2.5 6
2
1.5 4
1
2
0.5
0 0

Site 1 Site 2 Site3 Site 1 Site 2 Site3

Fecal Coliform
3000000
2500000
2000000
1500000
1000000
500000
0

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

61
APPENDIX F
STATISTICAL TREATMENT

Kruskal Wallis Test

June July August September October


p- p- p- p- p-
Parameters value Remarks value Remark value Remark value Remark value Remark
Temperature 0.018 S 1 NS 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S
True Color 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S
pH 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S
BOD 0.018 S 1 NS 0.027 S 0.146 NS 0.113 NS
Phosphate 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.027 S 0.027 S 0.066 NS
Chloride 0.026 S 0.026 S 0.026 S 0.023 S 0.02 S
Nitrate as N 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.032 S 0.957 NS 0.061 NS
Ammonia as
N 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.061 NS 0.066 NS 0.430 S
Oil and
Grease 1 NS 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S
Surfactant 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.051 NS 0.018 S 0.018 S
Fecal
coliform 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S 0.018 S
Legend: S- significant (p-value<0.05, NS- not significant (p-value>0.05)

Friedman Test

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3


Parameters p-value Remarks p-value Remark p-value Remark
Temperature 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
True Color 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
pH 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
BOD 0.017 S 0.018 S 0.034 S
Phosphate 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
Chloride 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
True Color 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
Nitrate as N 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.099 NS
Ammonia as N 0.053 NS 0.041 S 0.031 S
Oil and Grease 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
Surfactant 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
Fecal coliform 0.017 S 0.017 S 0.017 S
Legend: S- significant (p-value<0.05, NS- not significant (p-value>0.05)

62
APPENDIX G
FIELD DATA
Sampling 1

STATIONS JUAN LUNA SAN FERNANDO MUELLE DELA


BRIDGE INDUSTRIA
1 Date June 28, 2018 June 28, 2018 June 28, 2018
2 Time Started 7:22 am 8:24 am 8:50 am
3 Time Ended 8:07 am 8:40 am 9:02 am
4 Weather Condition at Overcast and slightly cold Overcast and slightly Overcast and slightly
the time of sampling cold cold
5 Wind condition at the Breeze Breeze Breeze
time of sampling
6 Water color Black Black Lime Green
7 Intensity of odor of Strong Strong None
water
8 Animal present None None None
9 Plant present None None Hyacinth (abundant)
10 Solid wastes present Dense plastic bags, cups and Few styrofoam cups, Few sachets
sachets, styrofoam, bottles few plastics bag
11 Tide Low Low Not observed
12 Water flow Slow Slightly moderate Stagnant
13 Sampling Remarks Net in the opening of Estero Dredging Activity None
de Magdalena was broken
Site Condition
Juan Luna San Fernando Bridge

Muelle dela Industria

63
Sampling 2

STATIONS JUAN LUNA SAN FERNANDO MUELLE DELA


BRIDGE INDUSTRIA

1 Date July 24, 2018 July 24, 2018 July 24, 2018
2 Time Started 7: 30am 8: 24 am 9: 13 am
3 Time Ended 8: 13 am 8: 56 am 9:56 am
4 Weather Condition at the time of Overcast and Overcast and Overcast and
sampling slightly cold slightly cold slightly cold
5 Wind condition at the time of Breeze Breeze Breeze
sampling
6 Water color Black-gray Black-gray Black-gray
7 Intensity of odor of water Strong Strong None
8 Animal present None None None
9 Plant present None None Hyacinth (few)
10 Solid wastes present Few plastic bags, cups, Few Styrofoam cups, Few sachets, plastic
sachets, Styrofoam, feces, few plastics bag bags, Styrofoam,
leaves discard small wood
pieces
11 Tide low Low Not observed
12 Water flow Slow Slightly moderate Stagnant
13 Sampling Remarks Net in the opening of Estero Broken fence None
de Magdalena and Juan
Luna were broken, all trash
goes to the Tabora St. net

Site Condition
Juan Luna San Fernando Bridge

Muelle dela Industria

64
Sampling 3

STATIONS JUAN LUNA SAN FERNANDO MUELLE DELA


BRIDGE INDUSTRIA

1 Date August 28, 2018 August 28, 2018 August 28, 2018
2 Time Started 7:28 am 8:23 am 9:13 am
3 Time Ended 8:10 am 8:49 am 9:40 am
4 Weather Condition at the time Overcast and slightly Overcast and slightly Overcast and slightly
of sampling humid humid humid
5 Wind condition at the time of Slightly to no breeze Slightly to no breeze Breeze
sampling
6 Water color Black Black-gray Dark Lime green
7 Intensity of odor of water Strong Strong None
8 Animal present None None None
9 Plant present None None None
10 Solid wastes present Few plastic bags, Disperse Styrofoam Few sachets, plastic
cups and sachets, cups, few plastics bag, bags, Styrofoam,
Styrofoam, leaves eggshells, leaves. Raw sanitary napkin
papers, glass bottle

11 Tide Low Low Same to 2nd sampling


12 Water flow Slow Slightly moderate Stagnant
13 Sampling Remarks Net in the opening of Broken fence Water surface were
Estero de Magdalena Installation of blown by the wind.
& Juan Luna were barricades
broken, all trash goes
to the Tabora St. net

Site Condition
Juan Luna San Fernando Bridge

Muelle dela Industria

65
Sampling 4

STATIONS JUAN LUNA SAN FERNANDO MUELLE DELA


BRIDGE INDUSTRIA
1 Date September 24, 2018 September 24, 2018 September 24, 2018
2 Time Started 7:40 am 8:34 am 9: 23 am
3 Time Ended 8:14 am 9: 04 am 9: 57 am
4 Weather Condition at the Partially sunny Partially sunny Sunny
time of sampling
5 Wind condition at the Slightly to no breeze Slightly to no breeze no breeze
time of sampling
6 Water color Black Black-gray Green
7 Intensity of odor of Strong Strong None
water
8 Animal present Kataba None Fish
9 Plant present None None None
10 Solid wastes present Dense Plastic bags, cups Many Styrofoam cups, Dispersed few
and sachets, Styrofoam, few plastics bag, raw sachets, plastic bags,
leaves materials raw wood materials

11 Tide Low Low Higher compared to


the 2nd sampling
12 Water flow Almost stagnant Moderate Stagnant
13 Sampling Remarks Net in the opening of Estero Dredging activity and No hyacinth
de Magdalena were installment of
completely broken, net in barricades
Juan Luna were restored
Site Condition
Juan Luna San Fernando Bridge

Muelle dela Industria

66
Sampling 5

STATIONS JUAN LUNA SAN FERNANDO MUELLE DELA


BRIDGE INDUSTRIA
1 Date October 23, 2018 October 23, 2018 October 23, 2018
2 Time Started 7:36 am 8: 28 am 9:27 am
3 Time Ended 8:07 am 9: 02 am 9:49 am
4 Weather Condition at Hazy Haze to Partly sunny Clear Sky
the time of sampling
5 Wind condition at the Slightly to no breeze Slightly Breeze Breeze
time of sampling
6 Water color Black Black-gray Very Green with
partially lime green
7 Intensity of odor of Strong Strong None
water
8 Animal present There are small fast birds flying Kataba Not observed
above the trash, trying to dive in the
water
9 Plant present None None Hyacinth (few)
10 Solid wastes present So dense Plastic bags, cups and Few, mostly Disperse Few Sachets,
sachets, Styrofoam, leaves Styrofoam cups raw wood materials

11 Tide High compared to sampling 1-4 High compared to Not too high compared
sampling 1-4 to 2previous sampling

12 Water flow Slow Moderate Stagnant


13 Sampling Remarks Net in the opening of Estero de River warriors were A resident directly throw
Magdalena were completely broken, Net removing the plants an empty Boysen can
in Juan Luna were restored, in the walls of the into the estero.
Binondo pumping station released water
estero
to the estero Oct 22, 2018
Site Condition
Juan Luna San Fernando Bridge

Muelle dela Industria

67
APPENDIX H

LETTERS

68
69
70
71
72
73
APPENDIX I

LAB CERTIFICATES

74
75
76
77
78
APPENDIX J

GANTT CHART

79
APPENDIX K

PHOTO DOCUMENTATION

80
81
APPENDIX L

LINE ITEM BUDGET

Product Price Quantity Total Amount


Record Notebook 30 1 30
Masking Tape 15 2 30
Marker 55 2 110
Distilled Water (6L) 75 1 75
Tissue Paper 10 8 80
Ice 3 15 45
Cuvette 45 15 45
Sola bottle 15 6 90
Amber bottle 1L 135 1L(3pcs), 500ml(5pcs) & 490
250ml(1pcs)
Gloves 50 100 50
Reagents
Phosphate Monobasic 500 100g 142
Ammonium Molybdate 1000 100g 286
Sulfuric Acid 1500 500ml 1000
Stannous Chloride 1500 100g 428
Silver Nitrate 2500 10g 500
Laboratory Analysis
Color 200 15 3000
Phosphate 225 3 675
Nitrate 225 33 7425
Oil and grease 250 12 6000
Surfactant 250 21 5250
Ammonia 225 33 7425
BOD 300 30 9000
Fecal Coliform 300 15 4500
Transportation
Ocular Inspection 9 2 18
First Sampling 60 2 120
Second Sampling 50 2 100
Third Sampling 50 2 100
Fourth Sampling 50 2 100
Fifth Sampling 50 2 100
Printing 500 350 pcs bond paper 500
Hardbound 900 5 pcs 900
Ink 12000 1pc black & 1 set of colored 1200
80gms bond paper 180 2 reams 360
Total= 50, 174

82
83