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SFS, GURUKUL MARG, MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

INDEX

S.No. Contents Page Nos.


1. Course structure and Credit Template 2–5

2. Scheme of Examination ( UG Pass Course) 6-8

3. Scheme of Examination (Career Oriented and Skill 9 – 12


Development Course)

4. Syllabus (UG Pass Course) 13 – 51

5. Syllabus (Career Oriented and Skill Development 52 – 67


Course)
6. Model Question Papers (Semester V) 68 - 76

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SFS, GURUKUL MARG, MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

COURSES STRUCTURE
&
CREDIT TEMPLATES

FOR

B.Sc. PHYSICS EXAMINATION

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission to the B.Sc. Physics Course in the
academic year 2009-10

INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE FOR GIRLS, JAIPUR


DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
Courses of Study for B.Sc (Pass Course)

2
Six Semester Programme

Credit template (2009-10)

S.No Paper Paper Type of Contact Hours Credits Max. Min.


. code title paper marks marks
Per Per
Semester Week
1. PHY- Mechanics Theory 45 3 3 100 36
101
2. PHY- Electromagn Theory 45 3 3 100 36
102 etism
3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36
103

S.No. Paper Paper Type of Contact Hours Credits Max. Min.


code title paper marks marks
Per Per
Semester Week
1. PHY- Oscillations Theory 45 3 3 100 36
201 and Waves

2. PHY- Optics Theory 45 3 3 100 36


202
3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36
203

S.No. Paper Paper Type of Contact Hours Credits Max. Min.


code title paper marks marks
Per Per
Semester Week
1. PHY- Statistical Theory 45 3 3 100 36
301 Physics &
Thermodynamics
2. PHY- Electronics Theory 45 3 3 100 36
302
3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36
303

S.No. Paper Paper Type of Contact Hours Credits Max. Min.

3
code title paper Per Per marks marks
Semester Week
1. PHY- Mathematical Theory 45 3 3 100 36
401 Physics &
Numerical
Methods
2. PHY- Condensed Theory 45 3 3 100 36
402 Matter
Physics and
Devices
3. PHY- Practicals & Practical 60 4 2 100 36
403 Project

S.No. Paper Paper Type of Contact Hours Credits Max. Min.


code title paper marks marks
Per Per
Semester Week
1. PHY- Quantum Theory 45 3 3 100 36
501 Physics
2. PHY- Nuclear & Theory 45 3 3 100 36
502 Particle
Physics
3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36
503

S.No Paper Paper Type of Contact Hours Credits Max. Min.


. code title paper Per Per marks marks
Semester Week
1. PHY- Atomic & Theory 45 3 3 100 36
601 Molecular
Spectrosc
opy
2. PHY- Communi Theory 45 3 3 100 36
602 cation
Systems
3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36
603

4
INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE FOR GIRLS

U.G. Programme
Six Semesters

Session 2009-10

Proposed Schedule for Physics teaching is:

Semester Theory Credit Practical Credit Total


Hrs./Week Hrs./Week
I year I 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week
90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.
II 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week
90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.
II year III 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week
90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.
IV 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week
90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.
III year V 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week
90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.
VI 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week
90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.

5
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SFS, GURUKUL MARG, MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

FOR

B.Sc. PHYSICS EXAMINATION

I Semester Examination November 2009


II Semester Examination April 2010
III Semester Examination November 2010
IV Semester Examination April 2011
V Semester Examination November 2011
VI Semester Examination April 2012

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission to the B.Sc. Physics Course in the
academic session 2009-10

6
INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE FOR GIRLS

B.Sc. Physics

Scheme of Examination

Contact Maximu Minimu


Continuous Semester End
Semester Paper code Credits Hrs/ m m
Assessment Exam (70 %)
week Marks Marks
30 %
I PHY – 101 3 3 100 36 30 70
PHY – 102 3 3 100 36 30 70
PHY – 103 2 4 100 36 30 70

II PHY – 201 3 3 100 36 30 70


PHY – 202 3 3 100 36 30 70
PHY – 203 2 4 100 36 30 70

III PHY – 301 3 3 100 36 30 70


PHY – 302 3 3 100 36 30 70
PHY – 303 2 4 100 36 30 70

IV PHY – 401 3 3 100 36 30 70


PHY – 402 3 3 100 36 30 70
PHY – 403 2 4 100 36 30 70

V PHY – 501 3 3 100 36 30 70


PHY – 502 3 3 100 36 30 70
PHY – 503 2 4 100 36 30 70

VI PHY – 601 3 3 100 36 30 70


PHY – 602 3 3 100 36 30 70
PHY – 603 2 4 100 36 30 70

Note:
• Time duration of C.A. tests will be 45 minutes.
• Home assignments shall be given on descriptive questions.
• Time duration of SEE will be three hours.
• Passing percentage in continuous assessment and semester end exam is 36 % individually i.e. 11 marks in
C.A. test and 25 marks in SEE.

INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE FOR GIRLS


B.Sc. Physics
7
Scheme of Examination

Scheme of Evaluation for Semester End Examination


Theory Exam (70 %)
Time Duration: 3 hrs.
Section A 15 Multiple choice Questions 15 marks
Section B 8 Short Answer Questions 2 x 8 = 16
Section C 3 Numericals 5 x 3 = 15
Section D 3 Long Answer Questions 8 x 3 = 24
Final Outcome 70

Scheme of Evaluation for Semester End Examination


Practical (70 %)
Time Duration: 5 hrs.
Expt.1 Expt. 2 Total
Viva-voce

30 30 10 70

Scheme of Evaluation for Continuous Assessment


Theory (30%)
Time Duration: 45 minutes
Home
Test Class room Total
Assignment Attendance
Interaction

15 05 05 05 30

Scheme of Evaluation for Continuous Assessment


Practical (30 %)
Time Duration: 90 minutes

Practical
Test Viva Voce Attendance Total
Record
10 10 05 05 30

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SFS, GURUKUL MARG, MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

FOR

Career Oriented and Skill Development Course in


INSTRUMENTATION

9
INSTRUMENTATION (INS)

These are carrier and skill oriented courses, which a regular student in UG or PG
programmed can peruse simultaneously. The certificate holder shall be eligible for
admission to diploma and the diploma holder shall be eligible for admission to advance
diploma Course. Candidates who have passed 10+2 examination with physics and math’s
as their subjects shall be considered eligible for admission to the Certificate Course.

Nomenclature of Duration Medium of Eligibility criteria


the course instruction
Certificate in 1 English 10+2 from any
instrumentation academic recognized Board
year with Physics and
Maths as Electives
Diploma in 1 English Certificate in
instrumentation academic instrumentation
year
Advance diploma in 1 English Diploma in
instrumentation academic instrumentation
year

Teaching Schedule
The classes shall be conducted in the morning hours. Apart from the regular faculty,
senior professionals and academicians shall be invited to offer guidance on the
contemporary and technical aspect of the subjects under study .

Pedagogical Strategies

Apart from classroom lectures, activities and assignments, students shall be given
opportunities to present and participate in seminars and symposia.

10
Annual Scheme of Examination

1. Each theory exam shall be 3 hours duration and practical exam shall be of 5 hours
duration.

2. To pass the examination, a candidate is required to obtain at least 40% marks in


each paper (theory and practical) separately.

3. Candidate needs to clear all papers in order to be eligible for promotion to the next
level of courses.

4. Internal assessment will constitute 30% marks based on the internal examination
and regularity in attendance.

5. A candidate passing the certificate course shall be admitted to the Diploma Course.

6. A candidate passing the Diploma course shall be admitted to the Advance Diploma
Course.

7. Overall assessment shall be on the basis of practicals/submission at all levels of


vocational programme(Certificate, Diploma and Advance Diploma) by the internal
examiner.

8. 75% minimum attendance is a must throughout the session.

9. The Certificate/Diploma/Advance Diploma shall be awarded by the college.

11
Mark Distribution

Theory Paper (Max Marks: 70)

There shall be three sections in the question paper described:


1. Section 1 will consist of 20 Objective type questions of 1 mark each (Total
marks: 20)
2. Section 2 will consist of 10 short answer type questions of 2 marks each (Total
marks: 20)
3. Section 3 will consists of 3 long essay type questions (with internal choice) of
10 marks each (Total Marks: 30)

Practical Paper (Max. Marks: 70)

Viva - voce : 10

Practical Record : 10

Practical Work : 50

12
(AUTONOMOUS)

SFS, GURUKUL MARG, MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

COURSES OF STUDY

FOR

B.Sc. PHYSICS EXAMINATION

I Semester Examination November 2009


II Semester Examination April 2010
III Semester Examination November 2010
IV Semester Examination April 2011
V Semester Examination November 2011
VI Semester Examination April 2012

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission to the B.Sc. Physics Course in the
academic year 2009-2010

Semester I

13
Paper I
PHY-101
Mechanics

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objectives:
To acquaint the students with the fundamental laws and principles involved in motion and
to introduce some properties of matter like elasticity so that they develop abilities and skill
that are relevant to the study and practice of Physics.

Unit I

Physical Laws and Frames of Reference: (10 periods)


Inertial and non inertial frames, examples, Transformation of displacement, velocity and
acceleration between different frames of reference involving translation in uniform
motion, Galilean transformation and invariance of Newton’s laws, Transformation
equations of displacement velocity and acceleration for rotating frames, Fictitious forces
(Coriolis force and centrifugal force), effects of Centrifugal and Coriolis forces due to
earth’s rotation, Focault’s pendulum.

Unit II

Centre of mass: (9 periods)


Centre of mass of a two particle system, motion of centre of mass and reduced mass
conservation of linear momentum, elastic and inelastic collision of two particles in
laboratory and center of mass frames, motion of a system with varying mass, Angular
momentum conservation with examples, charged particle scattering by nucleus.

Unit III

Motion under central forces: (8 periods)


Motion under central forces, gravitational interaction, general solution under gravitational
interaction, discussion of trajectories, cases of elliptical and circular orbits, Keplers laws.

Unit IV

Special theory of relativity: (9 periods)


Postulates of special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations, length
contraction,Time dilation, transformation and addition of velocities, Relativistic Doppler’s
effect, space- like space time interval, time-like space time interval.

14
Unit V

Elastic Properties of Matter: ( 9 periods)


Elastic constants: Young’s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Modulus of Rigidity, Poisson’s ratio.
Relations between the elastic constants, torsion of a cylinder.
Bending of beams: Bending moment, Cantilever, Potential energy and oscillation of a
loaded cantilever, cantilever loaded at one end (i) when weight of beam is negligible
(ii) When weight is considered, Beam supported at both ends and loaded in the middle,
Experimental determination of elastic constants (Y, η ,σ).

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “Elements of Mechanics”, Gupta, Prakash and Agrawal, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut.


2. “Elements of Mechanics”, J.C.Upadhyaya ,Himalaya Publishing House,2006.

Reference Books:

1. “Fundamental University Physics”, Vol. I and II, Addison Wesley, Reading


Mars, LISA.
2. “Berkley Physics Course”, Vol. I, Mc. Graw Hill, New York.
3. “The Feynmann Lectures in Physics”, Vol. 1, R. P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton and M.
Sands , B.I. Publications, Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Madras.

4. “Physics”,Part 1, David Halliday and Resnick , John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Newyork.
5. “Properties of Matter”, D.S.Mathur, S.Chand & Company.

15
Semester I
Paper II
PHY-102
Electromagnetism

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.: 100
(CA-30, SEE-70)

Objectives: This course will acquaint the students with the scalar and vector fields,
gradient, divergence, curl and their physical significance. Students will also learn about
the fields produced by moving charges and magnetic fields in matter, electromagnetic
induction, Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic waves.

Unit I

Scalar and vector fields: (8 periods)


Partial derivatives, Gradient of a scalar function. Line integral of a vector field,
Divergence and Curl of a vector field, Physical significance of divergence & curl and their
expressions in Cartesian coordinates, Gauss divergence theorem, Stokes curl theorem,
Laplacian operator, Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation.

Unit II

Dynamics of a charged particle (9 periods)


Magnetic forces, Invariance of charge, Electric field measured in different frames of
reference, Field of a point charge moving with constant velocity, Interaction between a
moving charge and other moving charges.

Unit III

Magnetostatics: (10 periods)


Ampere’s law in differential form, Magnetic Vector Potential, Poisson’s equation for
vector potential, magnetic field due to a current carrying wire and deduction of Biot-
Savart’s law.
Electric current due to an orbiting electron, Bohr Magneton, Orbital gyro magnetic ratio,
Electron spin and spin magnetic moment, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic field caused
by magnetized matter, Magnetization current, Free current its H field.

Unit IV

Electrostatics and dielectrics: (9 periods)


Moments of a charge distribution, Atomic and molecular dipoles, Atomic Polarizability,
Permanent dipole moment, Dielectrics, capacitor filled with dielectric, the potential and
field due to a polarized sphere, dielectric sphere in a uniform electric field, The electric
field of charge in dielectric medium and Gauss law, Relation between electric
susceptibility and atomic polarizability, Polarization due to changing electric field. The
bound charge current.

16
Unit V

Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic waves: (9 periods)


Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction, its integral and differential form, Maxwell’s
displacement current, Maxwell’s equations in differential and integral form.
Poynting’s theorem ,Wave equation , EM waves in a non-conducting dielectric medium,
Plane monochromatic waves in a non-conducting medium, Energy flux in a plane
electromagnetic wave, Radiation pressure.

Books Recommended
Essential Readings:
1. “Electricity and Magnetism with Electronics”, K.K.Tewari, S.Chand & Co. Ltd.
(2001)
2. “Electricity and Magnetism”, D.Chattopadhyay, P.C.Rakshit, New Central Book
Agency (P) Ltd.

References Books:
1. “Elements of Electromagnetics”, Mathew, N.D. Sadika, New Delhi, Oxford
University Press.
2. “Electricity and Magnetism”, W.J.Duffin , Mc Graw Hill Book Co., Fourth
edition.
3. “Electromagnetics”, B.B.Laud ,New Age International Publishers, Second edition.
4. “Electromagnetic theory and electrodynamics”, Satya Prakash, Kedar Nath Ram
Nath & Co. Publishers, Meerut, Ninth edition.
5. “Physics Part 2”,D.Halliday and R.Resnick, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Newyork.
6. “Principles of Electricity and Magnetism”,S.Palit, Narosa Publishing House.

17
Semester I
Paper III
PHY-103
PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

B will be set in the examination paper.

The duration of the Practical Examination shall be 5 hours.

The distribution of marks in the practical examination will be as follows:

1. Two experiments: 30 marks each .


2. Distribution of marks will be as follows :

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7
Observations/Calculations : 16
Result / Result Analysis : 5
Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

18
Semester I
Paper III
PHY-103
List of Experiments

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 60 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)
Section – A

1. To study the variation of charge and current with time in a R-C circuit for
different time constants using a DC source (charging and discharging
characteristics of a condenser).

2. To determine the specific resistance of the material of a resistance wire and to


determine the difference between two small resistances using Carey Foster’s
bridge.

3. To study the behavior of voltage and current in a LR circuit with AC power


source. Also to determine power factor , impedance and phase relations.

4. To study the behaviour of RC circuit with varying resistance and capacitance using
AC mains as a power source and also to determine the impedance and phase
relationship between voltage and current in the circuit.

5. To study the electromagnetic induction and to verify Faraday’s Law.

6. To study the characteristics of a junction diode .

Section – B

1. To determine Y ,η and σ by Searl’s method.

2. To determine Young’s modulus by bending of beam.

3. To determine modulus of rigidity of a wire using Maxwell’s needle.

4. To determine the surface tension of given liquid at room temperature using


Jaeger’s method.

5. To convert Galvanometer into an ammeter of given range.

6. To convert Galvanometer into a Voltmeter of given range.

19
Semester II
Paper I
PHY-201
Oscillation and Waves

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration : 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30 , SEE-70)

Objectives:
To familiarize the students with motion of different types of oscillators and also with
wave motion in different medium. This will enable the students to develop abilities and
skill to solve problems related to waves and oscillations.

Unit I

Simple harmonic and damped oscillator: (9 periods)


Simple harmonic motion, Differential equation of simple harmonic motion, examples:-
mass on a spring, Torsional oscillator. LC Circuit, Potential energy curve and small
oscillations in one dimensional potential well, Energy of oscillations, mass and two spring
system,anharmonic oscillator.
Damped harmonic oscillator, Mathematical formulation of damped harmonic oscillator,
Energy of damped oscillator, Power dissipation, Relaxation time, Quality factor of
damped harmonic oscillator, Electromagnetic oscillator : Moving coil galvanometer with
small damping.

Unit II

Driven harmonic oscillator: (8 periods)


Driven harmonic oscillator , Mathematical formulation of driven harmonic oscillator ,
Frequency response on amplitude and phase, Quality factor of driven oscillator,
Resonance, Sharpness of resonance, Power absorption by forced oscillator, Series and
parallel LCR circuit.

Unit III
Coupled oscillators: ( 10 periods)
Equation of motion of two coupled simple harmonic oscillators, Normal modes, motion in
mixed modes ,dynamics of a linear chain of coupled oscillators with nearest neighbor
interaction, Energy transfer between modes, Electrically coupled circuits (capacitive and
inductive), Reflected impedance, effect of coupling and resistive load.

20
Unit IV
Lattice vibrations and Fourier analysis: (9 periods)
Equation of motion for one dimensional monatomic and diatomic lattice, acoustic and
optical modes, dispersion relation, concept of group and phase velocities, Fourier Analysis
of square, saw tooth and triangular wave forms.

Unit V
Wave motion: (9 periods)
Wave equation, Transverse waves in a string, Elastic waves in a solid rod, Pressure waves
in a gas column, Plane electromagnetic waves, Energy and Momentum of EM waves,
Radiation pressure,Radiation resistance of free space.

Books recommended:

Essential Readings:
1. “The Physics of Waves and Oscillations”, N.K.Bajaj, Tata Mc Graw Hill
Publishing Co., 2003.
2. “Oscillations, waves and electromagnetism”, Satya Prakash, Pragati Prakashan,
Meerut.

Reference Books:
1. “Fundamental University Physics”, Vol I and II , M.Alonso & J.Finn, Addisson
Wiesley.
2. “Vibrations and Waves”, A.P. French, CBS Publication and Distributors.
3. “Berkeley Physics Course”, Vol. I , New York, Mc Graw Hill.
4. “Vibrations and waves”, I.G. Main ,Cambridge University Press.
5. “The Physics of Vibrations and Waves”, H.J.Pani, John Wiley & Sons.
6. “Fundamentals of vibrations and Waves”, S.P.Puri, Tata Mc. Graw Hill Pub.
Co.,NewDelhi.
7. “Oscillations and Waves”,K.S.Sharma, M.K.Saxena and G.R.Chhabra ,Rajasthan
Hindi Granth Academy, Jaipur.
8. “Waves and Oscillations”,N.Subramanyam,Vikas Publishing house.

21
Semester II
Paper II
PHY-202
Optics

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objectives:
This course familiarizes the students with the phenomenon of interference, diffraction,
polarization, LASER and holography to enable them to acquire sufficient understanding
and knowledge to recognize the usefulness of these phenomena in everyday life and also
stimulate their interest in Physics.

Unit I

Geometrical Optics: (10 periods)


Fermat’s principle extremum path, Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s
principle, Refraction at a spherical surfaces (convex surface and concave surface) cardinal
points ,construction of a image using cardinal points, Newton’s formula; Relationship
between f1 and f2 ;Relationship between f1 , f2 , µ1 and µ2, Cardinal points of a coaxial
system of two thin lens.

Unit II

Interference: (8 periods)
Young’s double slit experiment, types of interference: division of amplitude, division of
wave front, Coherence: temporal and spatial coherence, Interference in thin films, colour
in thin films, Newton’s rings, Determination of wavelength and refractive index of liquid
by Newton’s rings, Michelson interferometer, Applications of Michelson interferometer:
determination of wavelength, difference of wavelength and thickness of thin films.

Unit III

Diffraction: ( 9 periods)
Fresnel diffraction: Fresnel’s assumptions, Half period zones, Distinction between
interference and diffraction, Difference between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, ,
diffraction at a circular aperture, straight edge and thin slit, zone plate, difference between
zone plate and a convex lens.
Franunhoffer diffraction: Diffraction at single slit, Intensity distribution in diffraction
pattern due to a single slit, Diffraction at double slit, Diffraction at N slits( simple
derivation), plane diffraction grating, dispersion by a grating, resolving power of a
grating.

22
Unit IV

Polarization: ( 9 periods)
Plane electromagnetic waves. E and B of linearly, circularly, elliptically polarized
electromagnetic waves.
Polarization by reflection, Huygens theory of double refraction, production and Analysis
of plane, circularly and elliptically polarized light, Quarter and half wave plate.
Optical activity, specific rotation, Biquartz and half shade polarimeters.

Unit V

LASER and holography: ( 9 periods)


Difference between ordinary and LASER source, stimulated and spontaneous emission,
Einstein A and B coefficients, Population inversion, Principle of laser action, Metastable
states, Pumping, types of LASER, construction, working and energy levels schemes of
He-Ne and Ruby laser, Applications of LASER.
Basic concepts of holography, construction of hologram and reconstruction of image,
important features of hologram and uses of holography.

Books Recommended:
Essential Readings:
1. “A textbook of Optics”, Brijlal and Subramaniam, S.Chand & Company Ltd.,23rd
edition.
2. “Essentials of Lasers and non-linear Optics”,G.D.Baruah, Pragati Prakashan,
Meerut.

Reference Books:
1. “Text books of Optics and Atomic Physics”, D.P. Khandelwal, Himalaya
Publishing House.
2. “Optics”, Ajoy Ghatak ,Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub.Co. Ltd, 2007.
3. “Physics Part II”, D.Halliday and R.Resnick, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Newyork.
4. “LASERS: Theory and Applications”, K.Thyagrajan, A.K.Ghatak, Macmillan
India Ltd.

23
Semester II

Paper III
PHY-203
PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

B will be set in the examination paper.

The duration of the Practical Examination shall be 5 hours.

The distribution of marks in the practical examination will be as follows:

1. Two experiments: 30 marks each .


2. Distribution of marks will be as follows :

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7
Observations/Calculations : 16
Result /Result Analysis : 5
Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

24
Semester II
Paper III
PHY-203
List of Experiments

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 60 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section – A

1. To determine wavelength of Sodium light by grating.

2. To determine wavelength of Sodium light by Fresnel’s Biprism.

3. To determine dispersive power of a prism using Mercury light.

4. Using Newton’s rings find out the wavelength of the given monochromatic,
source.

5. Using Michelsons’s interferometer, find out λ and ∆λ for Sodium Light.

6. To determine Brewster’s angle and refractive index of glass by using spectrometer


and Polaroids.

Section – B

1. To study damping of a compound pendulum and to determine the quality factor.

2. To study the charging of a condenser by unidirectional varying voltage


pulses/alternating voltage pulses and then to integrate them.

3. Study of dependence of velocity of wave propagation on line parameter using


torsional wave apparatus.

4. To study the variation of magnetic field along the axis of a current carrying circular
coil. Plot the necessary graph and hence determine the radius of circular coil.

5. To study resonance in a series L C R circuit and determine Q factor of the circuit.

6. To study the variation of reflection coefficient of nature of termination using


torsional wave apparatus.

25
Semester III
Paper I
PHY-301
Thermodynamics and statistical physics

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)
Objectives:
To acquaint the students with basic laws of thermodynamics and statistical physics,
methods of producing low temperatures, Carnots engine so that they develop the scientific
attitude to relate this knowledge to their daily life experiences.

Unit I
Basic Thermodynamics: ( 9 periods)
The Zeroth law, Various indicator diagrams(P-V diagram), First law of thermodynamics,
Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot’s engine, Carnot’s cycle and efficiency of
Carnot’s engine, reversibility of Carnot’s engine, Carnot’s theorem. Second law of
thermodynamics, (different statements and their equivalence) Entropy, Principle of
increase of entropy, Thermodynamic scale of temperature, Thermodynamic scale as an
absolute scale, Third law of thermodynamics.

Unit II
Thermodynamic Relations: ( 9 periods)
Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations, Triple point, Clausius Clapyron latent heat
equation,Effect of pressure on boiling point of liquids, Helmholtz free energy, Enthalpy,
Gibbs function,Internal energy,Thermodynamic potentials, Deduction of Maxwell’s
relations from thermodynamic potentials.

Unit III
Production of low temperatures: ( 8 periods )
Joule Thomson expansion and JT coefficient for ideal as well as Vander Waals gas,
Porous plug experiment, Temperature of inversion, Regenerative cooling, cooling by
adiabatic expansion and demagnetization, liquid He, He I and He II, Peculiar properties of
He II, Nernst heat theorem.

Unit IV
Distribution of molecular velocities : ( 9 periods)
Distribution law of molecular velocities, Most probable, Average and RMS velocities,
energy distribution function, Experimental verification of Maxwell velocity distribution,
Principle of equipartition of energy.
Mean free path and collision cross section, distribution of mean free path, Transport of
mass, momentum and energy and their interrelationship, (coefficient of viscosity ,thermal
conductivity & diffusion)

26
Unit V
Classical Statistics : ( 10 periods)
Phase space, micro and macro states, Thermodynamic probability, relation between
entropy and thermodynamic probability, Monatomic ideal gas, Barometric equation,
specific heat capacity of diatomic gas and specific heat of solids.
Quantum Statistics :
Failure of classical statistics (Blackbody radiation and various laws of distribution of
radiation, qualitative discussion of Weins and Rayleigh Jeans Law) Postulates of quantum
statistics, Indistinguishability of wave function and exchange degeneracy, Bose Einstein
statistics and its distribution function,. Planck’s distribution function and radiation
formula, Fermi Dirac statistics and its distribution function, specific heat anomaly of
metals.

Books Recommended:
Essential Readings:

1. “Heat and Thermodynamics”, Singhal, Agarwal and Prakash , Pragati Prakashan.


2. “Heat and Thermodynamics”, Brijlal and Subramaniam, S. Chand & Sons.
3. “Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics”, S.L.Kakani, Sultan Chand & Sons.

Reference Books:
1. “Statistical and Thermal Physics”, S. Loknathan and R.S. Gambhir, Prentice
Hall, New Delhi 1991.
2. “Thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases and Statistical Mechanics”, F.W.Sears,
G.L.Salinger, Narosa Pub. House.
3. “Introduction to Statistical Mechanics”, B.B. Laud , Mc Milan India Ltd.
4. “Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics”, Federick Reif, Tata Mc
Graw Hill ,1992.
5. “Heat and Thermodynamics”, M.S.Yadav, Anmol Publications.
6. “Fundamentals of Statistical Physics”, A.K. Das Gupta, New Central Book
Company,Calcutta,2003.

27
Semester III
Paper II
PHY-302
Electronics

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.: 100
(CA-30, SEE-70)

Objectives: This course aims to develop the fundamental knowledge of electronics by


learning various topics viz. circuit analysis, network theorems, P-N diode equation,
rectifiers, filters, transistors and transistor amplifiers and their analysis. Students will also
learn feedback amplifiers, logic gates and fabrication of IC’s

Unit I

Basic Circuit Analysis: (10 periods)


Open and short circuits, Impedance, Admittance and Hybrid parameters of any four
terminal network, Kirchoff’s laws, Mesh and Node analysis.
Various Circuit theorems:
Superposition theorem, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Maximum power
transformer theorem and Reciprocity theorem.

Unit II

Semi conductor diode and rectification: (9 periods)


p-n junction diodes, I-V characteristics, diode as a rectifier, half-wave and full-wave
rectifiers : calculations of ripple factor, efficiency and regulation , bridge rectifiers.
Filters: Series inductor, shunt capacitor, L-section and π section filters.
Voltage regulation : Zener diode, breakdown voltage (avalanche and zener effect),
voltage regulation, voltage multipliers.

Unit III
BJT and amplifiers: (9 periods)
Basic construction of pnp and npn transistors and their operation, Input and output
characteristics of CB, CC and CE configurations, active, saturation and cut-off regions,
Load line and Q-point, Two-port analysis of a transistor using h-parameters, Analysis of
CB, CE and CC amplifier for current gain, voltage gain, input and output impedances
using h-parameters,Gain-frequency response of an amplifier.

Unit IV

Feed-back amplifier: (8 periods)


Concept of feed-back, positive and negative feedback, voltage and current feedback
circuits (series and parallel circuits).
Advantages of negative feedback: Stabilization of gain, effect on input and output
impedances, reduction of non-linear distortion, effect on gain-frequency response.

28
Oscillators: Barkhausen criterion, RC oscillators, Colpitt’s oscillator, Hartley oscillator,
crystal oscillators and its advantages.

Unit V

Digital Electronics: (9 periods)


Transistors as a switch, Logic fundamentals: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR gates.
Boolean algebra, De Morgan’s theorem, positive and negative logic, Logic gates circuit
realization using DTL and TTL logic, Simplification of Boolean expressions.
Integrated Circuit Technology:
Integrated circuit vs. discrete components, Integrated circuit processing, Oxidation,
diffusion, photolithography, epitaxy, chemical vapour deposition, Bipolar transistor
fabrication.

Books recommended:

Essential Readings:
1. “Electronic Devices and Circuits”, Jacob Millman and Christos Halkias, TMH , 9th
edition.
2. “Electronic Fundamentals and Applications”, John D. Ryder, Prentice Hall of India
Pvt. Ltd.,(1983) New Delhi.
3. “Digital Computer Electronics”, Albert Paul Malvino, Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub. Co.
Ltd., New Delhi.
4. “Hand book of Electronics”, Kumar and Gupta, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut.

References:
1. “Basic Electronics and Solid State”, B.L. Theraja, S.Chand, 2002.
2. “Integrated Electronics, Analog and Digital circuits and systems”, Millman & Halkias,
Mc Graw Hill Ltd. (1972).
3. “Electronic devices and circuits” , Soni and Gupta, Dhanpat Rai and Sons.
4. “Basic Electronics and Linear circuits”, Bhargava and Kulshreshtha, TMH ,1984.
5. “Principle of Electronics” (for numerical problems) V.K. Mehta, S.Chand ,2002.
6. “Basic Electronics”, Kal, Prentice Hall of India, 2002.
7. “Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory”, Robert Boylestad and Nashelsky, Prentice
Hall of India, Fifth edition.
8. “Engineering Electronics”, John D Ryder, Mc Graw Hill Book Co.

29
Semester III
Paper III
PHY-303
PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

B will be set in the examination paper.

The duration of the Practical Examination shall be 5 hours.

The distribution of marks in the practical examination will be as follows:

1. Two experiments : 30 mark each.


2. Distribution of marks will be as follows:

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7
Observations/Calculations : 16
Result /Result Analysis : 5
Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

30
Semester III
Paper III
PHY-303
List of Experiments

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 60 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section – A

1. Using platinum resistance thermometer, find the melting pint of a given substance.

2. To determine thermal conductivity of a bad conductor by Lee’s method.

3. To determine ‘J’ by Calender and Barne’s method.

4. Determine the thermodynamic constant = Cp/Cv using Clement’s and Desorm’s


method.

5. Study of variation of total thermal radiation with temperature.

6. To plot thermo emf versus temperature graph for Cu-Fe thermo couple and to
determine temperature of a hot source (use sand bath).

Section – B

1. To study the variation of power transfer to different loads by a D. C. source and to


verify maximum power transfer theorem.

2. Study of half wave rectification using single diode and application of L & π
section filters.

3. To study characteristics of a given transition PNP/NPN (CE, CB & CC


configuration).

4. Study of single stage transistor audio amplifier (variation of Gain with Frequency).

5. To verify laws and network theorems in D C circuits.

6. Using discrete components, study OR, NOT, AND logic gates.

31
SEMESTER IV
PAPER I
PHY-401
MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS AND NUMERICAL METHODS

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.: 100
(CA-30, SEE-70)
Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to acquaint the students with different types
of coordinate systems, tensors, four vectors etc. The students will also learn the Fourier
analysis and various numerical methods.

UNIT I

Orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system : (10 periods)


Orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, scale factors, Expressions for gradient,
divergence and curl and their application to Cartesian, Circular Cylindrical and Spherical
polar coordinate systems.
Tensors:
Coordinate transformations, Transformation of covariant, contra variant and mixed
tensors. Addition, subtraction, outer product , contraction and inner product of tensors,
Quotient law, Symmetric and antisymmetric tensors, Metric tensor.
Dirac delta function and its properties.

UNIT II

Four vectors: (8 periods)


Four vector formulation, four velocity vector, energy-momentum four vector, relativistic
equation of motion; invariance of rest mass, orthogonality of four force and four velocity,
Lorentz force as an example of four force, transformation of four frequency vector,
longitudinal and transverse Doppler’s effect.

UNIT III

Boundary value problems: (9 periods)


Techniques of separation of variables and its application to the following boundary value
problems (i) Laplace’s equation in three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system – line
charge between two earthed parallel plates, (ii) Helmholtz equation in circular cylindrical
coordinates-Cylindrical resonant cavity, (iii) Wave equation in spherical polar
coordinates-the vibrations of a circular membrane, (iv) Diffusion equation in two
dimensional Cartesian coordinate system-heat conduction in a thin rectangular plate.

32
UNIT IV

Fourier Series and Integrals: (8 periods)


Introduction, Fourier series and coefficients, functions with point of discontinuity,
arbitrary period, even and odd functions, half range expansion, Parseval’s theorem.

UNIT V

Numerical Methods: (10 periods)


Introduction, Finite-Difference Operators, Differential Operator related to the Difference
Operator, Truncation error, Numerical interpolation, Roots of equations, Initial-value
problems –Ordinary Differential equations: Taylor’s method, Euler’s method and direct
method. Trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule for numerical integration.

Books Recommended:
Essential Readings:
1. “Mathematical Methods” , Potter and Goldberg, Prentice Hall of India (1998).
2. “Mathematical methods in Physics”, D.Biswas, New Central Book Agency (P)
Ltd.
3. “Mathematical Physics”, M.P.Saxena, P.R.Singh, S.S.Rawat, P.K.Sharma, CBH,
Jaipur.

References:
1. “Applied Maths for Engineers and Physicists”,Pipes and Harvill, McGraw Hill.
2. “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”, Ervin Kreyzig 5th Edition, Wiley Eastern
Ltd.
3. “Numerical Methods”, S. Balachandra Rao, C.K. Shantha, University Press, 1992.
4. “Mathematical Physics”,Ellgnine Butkon, Addisson Wiesley.
5. “Mathematical Physics”,Gupta, Vikas Publishing House.

33
Semester IV
Paper II
PHY-402
Condensed Matter Physics and Devices

Credits assigned: 03 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.: 100
(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objectives:
To familiarize the students with the basics of condensed matter physics which form the
basic for further studies in condensed matter physics. The students get acquainted with the
crystal structure, properties of solids, superconductivity and magnetism which strengthens
the theoretical base for research in contemporary fields of condensed matter physics like
imperfect solids and nano particle physics..

Unit I
(9 periods)

Crystal structure: Symmetry elements in crystal, Unit cell, Wigner Seitz cell,
fundamental lattice system and types, Miller indices, crystal structures of simple cubic,
FCC, BCC, HCP, diamond.
Crystal Diffraction: Bragg’s law, X-ray and neutron diffraction, Rotating crystal method,
laue Method and Powder method.

Unit II
(9 periods)

Thermal Properties of solids: Concepts of thermal energy and Phonons, Einstein theory
of specific heat, Debye model of lattice specific heat.
Band theory of solids: Formation of bands, distinction between metals, insulators and
semiconductors, periodic potential of a solid, wave function in a periodic lattice and Bloch
theorem, Physical origin of effective mass,negative effective mass and holes.

Unit III
(9 periods)
Electrical conductivity: Drude Lorentz theory of electrical conductivity. Sommerfield
theory of conduction in metals, Mathiessen’s Rule, Thermal conductivity and Wiedemann
– Franz law, The Hall effect.

Superconductivity: Zero resistivity, Critical temperature, critical magnetic field,


Meissner effect, Type I and type II superconductors, BCS theory (Basic idea),High Tc
superconductors.

34
Unit IV
(9 periods)
Magnetic Properties: Classification of magnetic material, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism
due to free ions and conduction electrons, Curie’s law, ferromagnetism
Nature and Origin of Weiss molecular field. Domains, hysterisis loop, outline of
antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetisms, ferrites.

Unit V
(9 periods)
Solid State Devices: Light emitting diode, Solar cell, SCR.
Operational amplifier: Differential amplifiers, differential gain and CMRR, inverting
and non-inverting configurations Applications of op-amp: adder, subtractor, differentiator
and integrator.
Field affect Transistor (FET): Classification of various types of FET, constructional
details of FET, drain characteristics and baising of FET, operating regions, pinch-off
voltage, idea of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET).

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:
1. “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, C. Kittel, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi,
Seventh Edition.
2. “Solid State Physics”, S.O. Pillai, 3rd edition 1999, New Age International, New
Delhi.
3. “ElectronicDevices &Circuit Theory”,Boylestad & Nashelsky , Prentice Hall of
India.
Reference Books:
1. “Solid state physics”, A.J Dekker ,Macmilan India Ltd.
2. “Solid state Physics”, R.L. Singhal, Kedar Nath Ram Nath Publishers, 2001.
3. “Theory of solids”, L. Azaraf, Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing Co.
4. “Solid State Physics”, S.L. Gupta and V.Kumar, Kedar Nath RamNath & Co.,
Meerut
6 “Electronic Devices and Circuits” , Soni,Gupta , Dhanpat Rai and Sons.
7 “Elements of Solid State Physics”, J.P.Srivastava, Prentice Hall of India, New
Delhi.

35
Semester IV
Paper III
PHY-403
PHYSICS PRACTICAL

Section A

Students are expected to perform five experiments in all from which they will have

to perform one experiment in the semester end exam..

The distribution of marks in the practical examination will be as follows:

1. One experiment : 30 marks.

Distribution of marks will be as follows:

• Figure / Formula/Theory : 7
• Observation / Calculation : 16
• Result /Result Analysis : 5
• Precautions : 2

2. Viva –Voce : 5 marks

Total : 35 marks

Section B

Project : 35 marks

Distribution of marks will be as follows:

• Seminar presentation : 15
• Write up : 10
• Viva –voce : 10

36
Semester IV
Paper III
PHY-403
List of Experiments

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 60 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section – A

1. To determine band gap using a junction diode.

2. To study the Zener regulated power supply with different loads.

3. To study the characteristics of F E T.

4. Study of the temperature dependence of resistance of a semiconductor (four probe


method) and to determine its band gap.

5. To study FET as an amplifier.

6. To study a voltage multiplier circuit to generate high voltage DC from AC.

Section – B

1. Project

37
Details of Project
Students of semester IV are required to choose a topic for the project from a list approved
by the department. They are required to perform a new experiment or carry out studies for
writing a review article on a subject. At the end of the semester, a project report shall be
submitted by each student. This project will be assigned to them in the beginning of the IV
semester.

Evaluation of Project:

A mid term evaluation of the project will be made along with the second CA test. This
will carry 30 % of the total marks assigned for the project. At the end of the semester, the
student shall be examined on the basis of project report submitted by her by a panel of
external and internal examiners. The external appointed for the practical exam shall also
evaluate the project along with the internal project supervisors. The evaluation of project
will be based on presentation / viva-voce.
Total duration of practical exam and project evaluation shall be 5 hours.

38
Semester V
Paper I
PHY-501
Quantum Mechanics

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration:45 hours


M.M.: 100
(CA-30, SEE-70)
Objectives: This paper aims to develop the basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and
its application to various problems. It also deals with the techniques of wave mechanics
like Schrödinger equation and its solution, angular momentum and spin.

Unit I
(9 periods)
Introduction to Wave mechanics :
Duality of radiation and matter, De broglie’s hypothesis, justification for the relation,
Experimental confirmation of λ = h/p (Davission and Germer experiment).
Uncertainty principle relating to position and momentum, relating to energy and time, its
applications to various quantum mechanical problems such as:
(i) Non-existence of electrons in nucleus
(ii) Ground state energy of H-atom
(iii) Ground state energy of Harmonic oscillator
(iv) Natural width of spectral line
Schrodinger equation:
Wave function and its interpretation, Schrödinger time dependent and time independent
one-dimensional equation, three-dimensional Schrödinger wave equation, probability
current density, physical meaning of ψ, conditions to be satisfied by ψ.

Unit II
Operator formulation in Quantum mechanics: (9 periods)
Operators, algebra of operators, commutative property, linear operators, Commutator
operator, eigen values and eigen functions, operators for momentum, K.E., Hamiltonian,
total energy and angular momentum, Fundamental postulates of Q.M.
Hermitian operators, orthonormality, degeneracy, Commutation relations, Ehrenfest’s
theorem, Bohr’s principle of complementarity, principle of superposition.

Unit III
Simple solutions of Schrödinger equation: (8 periods)
Boundary and continuity conditions on the wave function. Particle in one dimensional
box, eigen function and eigen values, discrete energy levels, generalization to 3-D and
degeneracy of levels

39
Boundary value problems:
Step potential, Penetration through rectangular barrier, calculation of reflection and
transmission coefficients. Quantum mechanical tunneling. Square well potential problem,
reflection and transmission coefficient and resonant scattering.

Unit IV
(9 periods)
Simple harmonic oscillator (1-D Case): Schrödinger equation and its solutions, eigen
function, energy eigen values. Zero point energy, parity, symmetric and anti-symmetric
wave functions with graphical representation.
Rigid rotator: Schrodinger equation and its solution.

Unit V
(10 periods)

Angular Momentum
Introduction: orbital angular momentum,Operators for its Cartesian components,
commutation relations, mutual as well as with L2 ,L+ and L- operators , their interpretation
as step operators, eigen values of Lz, Total angular momentum operators, commutation
relations obeyed by the components of generalized momentum operator. Commutation
relation of Jz with J+ and J- , J+ and J- ,commutation relation of J2 with J+ and J-.

Books Recommended:
Essential readings:
1. “Quantum mechanics” L.L. Schiff, Tata Mc Graw Hill.
2. “Quantum mechanics”, Chatwal and Anand, Himalaya Publishing House.

3. “Elementary Quantum Mechanics and Spectroscopy” Kakani, Hemrajani and


Bansal, College Book House Jaipur.

References:

1. “Introduction to Modern Physics”,H.S. Mani and G.K. Mehta, East West Press
Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
2. “Quantum Mechanics”, S.P. Singh, M.K. Bagde and Kamal Singh,S. Chand & Co.
3. “Quantum Mechanics”, A Listair, I M Rac, ELBS (low price edition).
4. “Quantum Mechanics”, S.N.Biswas, Books & Allied,Calcutta (P) Ltd.
5. “Perspectives of Modern physics”, A.Beiser, Mc Graw Hill.
6. “Problems on Quantum Mechanics”, Dr. S.L.Kakani, Arihant Publishing House.

40
Semester V
Paper II
PHY-502
Nuclear and Particle Physics

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA -30, SEE-70)

Objectives:
To give the students insight into the fundamentals of nuclear and particle physics.

Unit I
(9 periods)
Nuclear Properties: Rutherford’s theory of α particle scattering, Basic properties: charge,
mass, size, spin, magnetic moment, electric quadrupole moment, Parity, Binding energy
per nucleon and its observed variation with mass number of the nucleus. Semi empirical
mass formula –coulomb energy, volume energy, surface energy, other corrections,
explanation of binding energy curve, Liquid drop model ,Nuclear forces and their
properties, Theory of nuclear forces.

Unit II
( 9 periods)
Nuclear Fission: Energy release in fission, Theory of nuclear fission and liquid drop
model, Barrier penetration – Theory of spontaneous fission, Nuclear chain reaction,
condition of controlled chain reaction, Principle of nuclear reactors, classification of
reactors.

Nuclear Fusion: Energy release in fusion, fusion reactions in stars : carbon and pp cycle.

Unit III
( 10 periods)
Particle Physics: Classification of elementary particles, properties of particles.
Fundamental interactions, Conservation laws : Energy ,momentum, angular momentum,
charge, lepton number, Baryon number, isospin, strangeness, Invariance under
charge,parity,C.P.,time and C.P.T.,(Qualitative discussion).
Cosmic rays: Properties of cosmic rays ,properties of secondary radiation, electronic
showers ,geomagnetic effects, cosmic ray stars, the origin of cosmic rays.

41
Unit IV
( 9 periods)
Accelerators: Need for accelerators, Ion sources, Van De graff generator, Drift tube,
linear accelerator, Wave guide accelerator, cyclotron ,synchrocyclotron, electron
synchrotron, proton synchrotron.

Unit V
(8 periods)
Detectors: Ionization chamber , Proportional Counter, Geiger Muller Counter,
Scintillation counter, Cloud chamber, Bubble chamber, Spark chamber , Solid state
detectors.
Nuclear mass spectroscopy: Basic components of mass spectroscope.

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “Nuclear Physics”, D.C. Tayal, 4th rev. edition. 1992,, Himalaya Publishing,
House, Bombay.
2. “Nuclear physics”, Irving Kaplan, 2nd edition, Addition Wiesley Publishing
Company.

Reference books:
1. “Atomic Nucleus”, R.D. Evans ,Mc Graw Hill, New York.
2. “Introduction to Elementary Particles”, D. Griffiths, Harper and Row, New York,
1987.
3. “Elements of Nuclear Physics”, Pandey and Yadav, Kedar Nath Ram Nath,
Meerut, Seventh Edition .
4. “Nuclear Physics : Theory and experiments”, R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam, New Age
International (P) Limited.
5. “Radiation Detectors and Measurement”, F.Knoll, John Wiley & Sons, Second
Edition.

42
Semester V
Paper III
PHY-503
PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

B will be set in the examination paper.

The duration of the Practical Examination shall be 5 hours.

The distribution of marks in the practical examination will be as follows:

1. Two experiments: 30 marks each .


2. Distribution of marks will be as follows :

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7
Observations/Calculations : 16
Result /Result Analysis : 5
Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

43
Semester V
Paper III
PHY-503
List of Experiments

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section A

1. Determination of Stefan’s constant.

2. Determination of Planck’s constant using a Photocell.

3. Determination of Planck’s constant using a solar cell.

4. Study of power supply using two diodes/bridge rectifier with various filter circuits.

5. To perform various logic functions using NOR and NAND gates, i.e., OR, NOT,
AND, NOR, NAND, X-OR gates.

6. To measure CMRR and input bias current and offset current using OP-AMP.

Section B

1. Study of characteristics of GM counter and verification of inverse square law for


same strength of a radioactive source.

2. Study of absorption of β-rays in Aluminum foil using GM counter and to


determine its absorption coefficient.

3. Determine ballistic constant of a ballistic galvanometer.

4. To determine self-inductance of a given coil by Anderson’s bridge using AC.

5. To study Hall Effect and to determine Hall coefficient.

6. Application of operational amplifier as (a) inverting amplifier and (b) non inverting
amplifier

44
Semester VI
Paper I
PHY-601
Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objective: This course aims to introduce various types of spectra for hydrogen, alkali and
alkaline earth atoms. It also gives an introduction to X-ray spectra. Techniques of
Molecular spectroscopy are also discussed in this paper, which include IR and Raman
spectra.

Unit I

Introduction to Atomic Spectra (8 periods)


Types of spectra, spectrum of Hydrogen atom, spectral lines, the spinning electron, space
quantization, quantum numbers and their physical interpretation, quantum numbers for
complete atom, magnetic moments of an atom and Landes ‘g’ factor, Larmor’s theorem,
Stern and Gerlach experiment, fine structure of the Hydrogen lines, spectral terms and
their notation.

Unit II

Spectra of alkali and alkaline atoms (9 periods)


Different series in alkali spectra, Ritz combination formula, spin orbit interaction,
explanation of salient features of alkali spectra, doublet structure in alkali spectra (fine
structure), Transition rules, intensity rules, spectra of alkaline earth metals, coupling
schemes: L.S and j-j coupling, selection rules in atoms of two valence electrons, singlet
and triplet series, spectrum of Helium atom.

Unit III

X-ray spectra (9 periods)


Continuous x-ray spectrum, characteristic emission and absorption spectrum and their
explanation, energy levels, Moseley’s law, combination principle, fine structure of x-ray
lines, fluorescence yield and Auger effect, soft x-ray emission and structure of absorption
edges.

45
Unit IV

Infra red spectroscopy (vibrational and rotational spectra) (9 periods)


Salient features of vibrational rotational spectra, vibrating diatomic molecules as a
harmonic oscillator, fine structure of vibrational rotational bands, interaction of
vibrational and rotational energies, experimental arrangements for studying IR spectra.

Unit V

Raman Spectra (10 periods)


Raman effect and its salient features, Observation of Raman spectra, classical theory of
Raman effect, quantum theory of Raman effect, probability of energy transition in Raman
effect, vibrational Raman spectra, Pure rotational Raman spectra, structure determination
from Raman and infra red spectroscopy.

Books Recommended

Essentials Readings

1. “Elements of Spectroscopy”, Gupta, Kumar, Sharma, Pragati Prakashan, 2006.


2. “Fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy”, Collin N. Banwell and Elaine M.
McCash, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. New Delhi, 2005.

References

1. “Atomic Spectra and Atomic structure”, Gerhard Herzberg , Kreiger


Pub.Co.,Second Edition.
2. “Molecular Spectra and Molecular structure: Spectra of diatomic Molecules”,
Gerhard Herzberg, Dover Publications.
3. “Introduction to Atomic Physics”, Enge, Wehr and Richards, Addison Wiesley,
London.
4. “Atomic and Nuclear Physics”, A.B. Gupta, New Central book agency Pvt. Ltd.

46
Semester VI
Paper II
PHY-602
Information Communication Technology

Credits assigned: 03 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30 , SEE-70)
Objectives:
Information Communications Technology - or technologies (ICT) is an umbrella term that
includes all technologies for the communication of information. This course gives a brief
idea of the technology of wireless communication and networks.The objective of this
course is to provide a comprehensive technical survey of wireless
communication,fundamentals,wireless networks and wireless applications

Unit I
Introduction and Transmission Fundamentals: (9 periods)
Introduction: Wireless comes of age, The Cellular revolution, The global Cellular
network, Broadband, Future trends.
Transmission Fundamentals: Signals for conveying information: Time domain
concepts, Frequency domain concepts, Relationship between data rate and bandwidth.
Analog and Digital data transmission: Analog and digital data, analog and digital
signaling, Analog and digital transmission.
Channel Capacity: Nyquist bandwidth, Shannon capacity formula.
Transmission Media: Terrestrial microwaves, Satellite microwaves, Broadcast radio,
Infrared.

Unit II
Communication Networks and Protocols: (9 periods)
Communication Networks: LANs, MANs and WANs , Switching Techniques, Circuit
Switching, Packet Switching: Basic operation, Packet size .
Protocols: The need for a Protocol architecture, The TCP / IP Protocol Architecture: The
TCP / IP Layers, Operation of TCP and IP, TCP / IP applications. The OSI model,
Internetworking: Routers, Internetworking example.

Unit III
Antennas and Propagation: ( 9 periods)
Antennas: Radiation patterns, Antenna types, Antenna Gain.
Propagation Modes: Ground Wave propagation, Sky Wave propagation, Line of Sight
propagation.
Line of Sight Transmission: Attenuation, Free Space loss, Noise, The expression Eb / N0,
Atmospheric absorption, Multipath, Refraction.

47
Fading in the Mobile Environment: Multipath propagation, Error compensation
Mechanisms.

Unit IV
Satellite Communication: (9 periods)
Satellite parameters and configurations: Satellite Orbits, GEO, LEO, MEO satellites,
frequency bands, transmission impairments, satellite network configurations, Capacity
allocation – Frequency division : Frequency division multiplexing, Frequency division
multiple access(FAMA,DAMA); Capacity Allocation-Time division

Unit V
Cellular Wireless Networks: (9 periods)
Principles of Cellular networks: Cellular network organization, operation of cellular
systems, mobile radio propagation effects, power control; First generation analog :
spectral allocation, operation, AMPS control channels.
Second generation TDMA: Time division multiple access, Mobile wireless TDMA design
considerations, Global system for mobile communications, GSM network architecture.
Second generation CDMA: CDMA, Mobile wireless CDMA design considerations.
Introduction to third generation systems.

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “Wireless Communication and Networks”, William Stallings, Prentice Hall of


India,2005.

Reference Books:

1. “Electronic communication systems”, George Kennedy, Mc Graw Hill, 3rd edition


1985.
2. “Principles of communications – Systems, Modulation and Noise”, R.E. Ziemer
and W.H. Tranter, Jaico Publishing House 1996.
3. “Wireless Communication”, Reppaport, Pearson Education
4. “Digital Satellite Communications”, Tri, Tata Mc Graw Hill International

48
5. “Mobile Cellular Telecommunications”, William C.Y. Lee, Mc Graw Hill
International Edition.
6. “Satellite Communication System”, M. Richharia, Mac Millan.
7. “Introduction to Optical Fiber”, Allen H Cherin, Mc Graw Hill.
8. Principles of communication systems”, Taub. Schilling ,Mc. Graw Hill 2nd edition
1986.
9. “Modern Physics”, S.L. Kakani, Shubhra Kakani , Viva Books private Ltd.,2007

49
Semester VI
Paper-III
PHY-603
PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

B will be set in the examination paper.

The duration of the Practical Examination shall be 5 hours.

The distribution of marks in the practical examination will be as follows:

1. Two experiments: 30 marks each .


2. Distribution of marks will be as follows :

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7
Observations/Calculations : 16
Result /Result Analysis : 5
Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

50
Semester VI
Paper III
PHY-603
List of Experiments

Credits assigned: 3 Course duration: 45 hours


M.M.:100
(CA –30, SEE-70)
Section A

1. Study of Iodine Spectrum with the help of a grating, spectrometer and ordinary
bulb.

2. To determine the specific rotation of sugar by polarimeter.

3. To verify Malus cosine law with the help of a photo-voltaic cell.

4. To determine curie temperature of monel alloy.

5. Measurement of capacitance by De-Sauty bridge.

6. Measurement of electronic charge by Millikans’s oil drop method.

Section B

1. Study of R-C Transmission Line.

2. Study of L-C Transmission Line.


a. At definite frequency
b. At variable frequency

3. To study amplitude modulation and demodulation and measure modulation index.

4. To study single side band AM using balanced modulator.

5. Study the frequency response of a transistor wide band amplifier with and without
feedback. Also obtain input and output impedance of the amplifier.

6. To determine the recovery time of a diode.

51
(AUTONOMOUS)

SFS, GURUKUL MARG, MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

COURSES OF STUDY

FOR

Career and Skill Development Course in Instrumentation

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission in the academic year 2009-10

52
Certificate Course in Instrumentation

Contact Distribution of Marks Exam


Code Paper Name Hrs/wee Maximu Minimu External Duration
Continuous
m m Assessme (Hours)
k Assessment
Marks Marks nt
Basic Electronics
INS 131 And Electrical 2 100 40 70 30 3
Measurements

Digital
INS 132 Electronics 2 100 40 70 30 3

Electronics,
Measurement
INS-133 And Digital
4 100 40 70 30 5
Electronics
Laboratory

53
Certificate Course in Instrumentation
Paper I
INS 131
Basic Electronics and Electrical Measurements

UNIT I

Resistors, Inductors And Capacitors [No. of Hrs.:11]


Resistors- General Information, Symbol, Colour Code, Types: Carbon, Metal Film, Thin
Film, Thick Film, Physical Properties-temperature dependence (Thermistor)
Inductors- General information, Symbol, Types: air core, iron core, ferrite core, choke
Capacitors- General information, Symbol, Types: Paper, Mica, Electrolytic

UNIT II

Semiconductor Physics [No. of Hrs.:13]


Introduction to Semiconductors, N and P Type Of Semiconductors, Mobility and
Conductivity, , Fermi Distribution, Carrier Concentrations and Fermi Levels in
Semiconductor, Hall Effect
Semiconductor Devices
Construction, Working and Characteristics of Junction Diode, Zener Diode, BJT, JFET,
MOSFET, Solar Cells

UNIT III

Measurements And Measuring Systems [No. of Hrs.:09]


Measurements, Significance of measurements, Methods of Measurement: Direct method,
indirect methods, Instruments: Mechanical, Electrical and Electronic instruments,
Classification of Instruments, Analog and Digital modes of operation, Functions of
instruments and measurement system, Applications of measurement system, Elements of a
generalized Measurement System .

UNIT IV

Measurement of Resistances [No. of Hrs.:14]


Classification of Resistances
Measurement of Medium Resistances: Methods of Measurement of Medium Resistances,
Description of Wheat stone Bridge and Carey-Foster Slide Wire Bridge
Measurement of Low Resistances: Introduction, Methods for Measurement of Low
Resistance: Detailed study of Kelvin Double Bridge method
Measurement of High Resistances: Introduction, Difficulties in Measurement of High
Resistances, Methods for Measurement of High Resistance: Detailed study of Loss of
Charge Method

54
UNIT V

A.C. Bridges [No. of Hrs.:13]


Introduction, Sources and Detectors, General equation for Bridge Balance, General form
of A.C. Bridge
Measurement of Self Inductance: Anderson’s Bridge
Measurement of Capacitance: De Sauty’s Bridge
Measurement of Mutual Inductance: Heaviside Mutual Inductance Bridge
Measurement of Frequency: Wien’s Bridge

Books Recommended:

Essential Reading:
1. “Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation”, A.K.Sawhney,
Dhanpat Rai & Sons.
2. “Basic electronics”, A.P.Malvino, Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub. Co. New Delhi.

References:
1. “Basic Electronics”, B.L.Theraja, S.Chand & Sons.
2. “Electronic Devices”, Floyd, Pearson education.
3. “Electronic Devices and circuit theory”, Robert Boylestad & Nashelsky,
Prentice Hall of India.

55
Paper II
INS 132
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

UNIT I
Number System [No. of Hrs.:10]
Binary numbers, decimal – binary conversion, octal numbers, octal-binary conversion,
hexadecimal numbers, hexadecimal-binary conversion, hexadecimal – octal conversion
Binary Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)

UNIT II
Boolean Algebra [No. of Hrs.:15]
Basics Laws of Boolean Algebra, Logic Gates (NOT, AND,OR, EX-OR, EX-NOR,
NAND. NOR),Boolean algebra, demorgan’s theorem, standards forms for logical
expression, SOP , POS, specification of logical functions in terms of Maxterm and
Minterm, Simplifications of Boolean equations using K-maps, don’t care conditions

UNIT III [No. of Hrs.:13]


Arithmetic Circuits
Half Adder, Full Adder, Half Subtractor, Parallel binary adder/Subtractor, binary
multiplier and divider.
Combinational Circuits
Multiplexers(74151/74150),De-Multiplexers(74154),decoders(74139/74154/7445),
encoders(74148,74147), BCD to seven segment decoder, Parity generator/checkers,
magnitude comparators.

UNIT IV [No. of Hrs.12]


Sequential circuits
Flip-flops , S-R, D, J-K, T, Clocked Flip-flop, Race around condition, Master
slave Flip-Flop(truth table, working )
Logic families, characteristics of digital IC’s, sourcing and sinking, Introduction to bipolar
families(RTL,RCTL,DTL,HTL), TTL : working, totem pole and open collector output
concepts

UNIT V [No. of Hrs.10]


Shift Registers
Serial-in-serial-out, serial-in-parallel-out, parallel-in-serial-out and parallel-in-parallel-out,
shift right and shift left
Counters
Ripple counter, Synchronous /asynchronous UP/DOWN Counter, Modulo ‘N’ Counters,
Concept of counters as frequency dividers, BCD counters

56
Books Recommended:
Essential Reading:
1. “Digital circuits and design”, S. Salivahanan & S. Arivyhgan,Vikas
Publication,2001.
2. “Modern Digital Electronics”. P. Jain, Tata Mc Graw Hill,2003,Third Edition.
3. “Digital Logic and Computer Design”, Moris Mano, Prentice Hall of India.

References:
1. “Digital Principles and Application”, Malvino Leach,Mc Graw Hill, Fifth Edition.
2. “Digital Computer Electronics” Malvino, Career Education, Third Edition.
3. “Digital Electronics-Principles & applications”,A.K.Maini, Khanna Publications.
4. “Digital Fundamentals”, Floyd, Prentice Hall of India.

57
Paper III
INS 133
Electronics, Measurement and Digital Electronics Laboratory
Section A

1. To identify a Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor and Capacitor from collection
of such items and to find out the value of Resistance of given Resistor by color-
code method, Use of Multimeter to do following-
a. Identify Base of transistor
b. Distinguish between NPN and PNP transistor
2. To study and verify characteristics of NPN transistor in common emitter
configuration.
3. To study the variation of power transfer to different loads by a D.C. source and to
verify maximum power transfer theorem
4. To measure the low Resistance by Kelvin’s Double bridge
5. Measure unknown frequency using Wein’s Bridge
6. Measure unknown capacitance using De Saulty Bridge

Section B

1. Understand the construction, working and Truth table of


a) AND gate e)NOR gate
b)OR gate f)Ex-OR gate
c)NOT gate g)EX-NOR gate
d)NAND gate

2. Construct and understand the working of sequential logic circuits such as


a) UP counter
b) DOWN counter
c) RING counter
3. Study and verify working of RIGHT and LEFT Shift Registers
4. Verify operation of Decoders
a)BCD to Decimal Decoder
b)BCD to 7 Segment Decoder
5. Study working of 16 * 1 digital Multiplexer.
6. Study and verify working of Demultiplexer.

58
Diploma in Instrumentation

Exam
Contact Distribution of Marks Duration
Code Paper Name Hrs/wee Maximu Minimu External (Hours)
Continuous
k m m Assessme
Assessment
Marks Marks nt

Electronic
INS 231 2 100 40 70 30 3
Instrumentation

INS 232 Transducers 2 100 40 70 30 3

Instrumentation
INS 233 4 100 40 70 30 5
and Transducer
Lab
Summer Training
1 Month 100 * 40 100 --- ----

• Marks distribution for summer training

Viva : 30
Report writing : 40
Presentation : 30

59
Diploma in Instrumentation
Electronic Instrumentation
INS 231(Paper I)

UNIT I [No. of Hrs.8]


Characteristics of Instruments and Measurement Systems
Measurement system performance, static calibration, errors in measurement True value ,
static error, Scale range and span, Noise ,Accuracy and Precision, Static Sensitivity,
Instrument Efficiency, Loading effects, Loading effects due to Series connected and Shunt
connected instruments

UNIT II [No. of Hrs.12]


Electronic Instruments for Measuring Basic Parameters
Electronic voltmeter, Digital voltmeter, Electronic Multimeter, Q meter, Vector
Impedance meter
Oscilloscopes
CRT construction, Basic CRO circuits, Observation of waveforms on CRO, Measurement
of Voltage, Current, Phase Angle, Frequency (Lissajous Patterns), Special Purpose
Oscilloscopes:
Multiple Trace, Sampling and Storage, Calibrators, Probes

UNIT III [No. of Hrs.:14]


Signal Generators
Standard signal generator, sine wave generator, sweep frequency generator, special
waveform generators
Display Devices and Recorders
Digital instruments: Advantages, Digital versus Analog instruments, Accuracy
specification, Sensitivity, Classification of display devices: Nixie tube, LED, LCD

UNIT IV [No. of Hrs.:14]


Amplifiers
Different terms used in amplifiers, small signal,source, input, output voltage and current
gain, power gain, decibel, input and output impedance
Differential amplifiers
Black box concept, terms such as common mode and differential signals,CMRR, analysis
of single ended and differential output, differential amplifier

UNIT V [No. of Hrs.:12]


Feedback amplifier
Classification, Feedback concept, general characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers,
basic concept of voltage series, voltage shunt, current series, current shunt feedback
amplifiers, stability criteria
Oscillators
Classification. Criteria for oscillation, tuned collector, Hartley, Colpitts, RC-phase shift,
Wein Bridge and crystal oscillator

60
Books Recommended:
Essential Reading:
1. “Electronic instrumentation and Measurement Techniques”,W.D.Cooper, and A.D.
Heifrick, Prentice Hall of India
2. “Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation”, A.K.Sawhney,
Dhanpat Rai & Sons.
3. “Integrated electronics”, J. Milliman & C. Halkias,TMH.

References:
1. “Electronic Devices and circuit theory”, Robert Boylestad & Nashelsky, Prentice
Hall of India.
2. “Handbook on Electronic Instruments and Measurement Techniques”, H.E.
Thomas and C.A.Clark,PHI.

61
Paper-II
INS 232
Transducers
UNIT I [No. of Hrs.:12]
Introduction-Classification of transducers, Principle of transduction, primary and
secondary transducers, active and passive transducers, analog digital, inverse transducers

Characteristics and choice of transducers: Input, output and transfer characteristics, factors
influencing choice of transducers

UNIT II [No. of Hrs.08]


Variable Resistance Transducers: Potentiometer loading effect, Power rating, linearity and
sensitivity, construction of Potentiometers, types of potentiometers: strain gauges,
thermistor

UNIT III [No. of Hrs.14]


Variable Inductance Transducers: LVDT, RVDT, Synchros

Variable capacitance Transducers: Transducers using change in area of plates, differential


arrangement, variation of dielectric constant for measurement of displacement, Frequency
response of capacitive transducers

UNIT IV [No. of Hrs.12]


Frequency Generating and digital transducers: digital encoder. Shaft Encoder

Piezo electric transducers: modes of operation, Properties, equivalent circuit, loading


effect and frequency response, impulse response

UNIT V [No. of Hrs.14]


Vibrations pick up: necessity for measurement of vibrations, nature of vibrations,
quantities involved, types of accelerometers, seismic transducer

Photo detector: Photo diode, phototransistor, photo multiplier, Solar cell


Speed pick up: Tachometer, Electrical and mechanical, stroboscope and stroboscopic
methods

Books Recommended:
Essential Reading:
1. “Mechanical industrial measurements”, R.K. Jain, Khanna Publishers.
2. “Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation”, A.K.Sawhney,
Dhanpat Rai & Sons.
References:
1. “Principles of measurement systems”, Bentlex, Pearson Education.

62
Paper III
INS 233
Instrumentation and Transducer Lab

Section A

1. Study of single stage audio amplifier


2. To study characteristics of FET
3. Study Wein Bridge oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R and C on
oscillator frequency
4. Study zener regulated power supply and study regulation with loads
5. Study of analog CRO, measurement of time period, amplitude and frequency.
6. Study the functions of signal generator.

Section B

1. To dram characteristics of following temperature transducers


a) PT-100
b) Thermistor
c) Thermocouple
2. To draw the characteristics of K type thermocouple
3. LVDT kit
a) To study excitation and balancing network
b) To plot curve between displacement and output voltage
4. To draw characteristics of LDR
5. To draw characteristics of variable capacitance type transducer
6. To draw characteristics of variable inductance type transducer

63
Advance Diploma in Instrumentation

Contact Distribution of Marks Exam


Code Paper Name Hrs/wee Maximu Minimu External Duration
Continuous
k m m Assessme (Hours
Assessment
Marks Marks nt

INS 331 Microprocessors 2 100 40 70 30 3

Medical
INS 332 2 100 40 70 30 3
Electronics

Micro Processor
INS 333 and Medical 4 100 40 70 30 5
Electronics Lab

Project
I month 100 * 40 70 30 ---

• Marks distribution for project

Continuous Assessment : 30
Project work : 30
Viva and Presentation : 20
Report writing : 20

64
Advance Diploma in Instrumentation
Paper I
INS 331
Microprocessors
UNIT I [No. of Hrs.:12]
Introduction: What is microprocessor, Need of microprocessor in instrumentation,
Advantages of microprocessors based instrumentation over conventional instrumentation
Microprocessor Architecture
Memory organization: types of memories (RAM, EPROM, ROM, PROM, DRAM), Basic
concepts of memory organization( number of address lines required, arrangement of
memory cells, control lines, memory extension), control of control lines such as
Read/write chip enable, register required transfer via data bus

UNIT II [No. of Hrs.:10]


Arithmetic and logic unit:
Functions of ALU, detail design of an ALU which perform basic 4 bit
opertions(ADD,SUBT,OR,AND),Need for instruction Decoder, ALU control signals
Control and timing unit
Need of control unit, sequence of execution of an instruction, detailed design of control
unit

UNIT III [No. of Hrs.:14]


Introduction to 8085 architecture: Block diagram, Address Bus, control bus, data bus,
organization, Demultiplexing address and data bus during memory read or memory write,
Control and timing unit, ALU details, Registers, Flags, memory mapped I/O and I/O
mapped I/O

UNIT IV [No. of Hrs.:10]


Instruction set: Classification of instruction set, opcode format , Basic instructions – data
transfer instructions: immediate addressing, Register addressing, direct addressing,
indirect instructions
Advanced Instructions: Branching, Conditional and unconditional subroutines, concept
of stack, need of stack pointer

UNIT V [ No. of Hrs.:14]


Control and Timing: Sequence of execution of instructions, concept of instruction cycle
and machine cycle, various types of machine cycles along with associated control and
status signals(opcode fetch, memory read, memory write, I/O read, I/O write, IO/M, MR,
MW)

Books Recommended:
Essential Reading:
1. “Microprocessor architecture, Programming and applications”, R.S. Gaonkar
2. “Digital computer electronics”, Albert Paul Malvino, TMH.
References:
1. “Microprocessor’s and Applications”, A.P.Mathur

65
Paper II
INS 332
Medical Electronics
UNIT I [No. of Hrs:12]
Human Body Subsystems: Brief description of neural, muscular, cardiovascular and
respiratory systems; their electrical, mechanical; and chemical activities
Transducers and Electrodes: Principles and Classification of transducers for biomedical
applications, electrode theory, different types of electrodes, selection criteria for
transducers and electrodes

UNIT II [No. of Hrs.:10]


Cardiovascular System Measurements: Measurement of blood pressure, blood flow,
cardic output, cardic rate, heart sounds, electrocardiograph, phonocardiograph, Plethysmo
graph, Echocardiograph
Instrumentation for Clinical Laboratory: Measurement of pH value of blood, ESR
measurement, hemoglobin measurement,O2 and CO2 concentration in blood

UNIT III [No. of Hrs.:12]


Measurement of Electrical Activity in Neuromuscular System and Brain: Neuron
potential, muscle potential, brain potentials, electro-encephalography, electromyography
Medical Imaging: Diagnostic X-rays, CAT, MRI, Thermography, Ultrasonography,
medical use of isotopes, Endoscopy

UNIT IV [No. of Hrs.:12]


Patient Care, Monitoring and Safety Measures: Elements of intensive care, monitoring
basic hospital systems and components, physiological effect of electric current shock
hazards from electrical equipment, safety measures, standards and practices

UNIT V [No. of Hrs.:14]


Computer Applications and Bio Telemetry: Real time computer applications, data
acquisition and processing, remote data recording and management
Therapenutic and Prosthetic Devices: Introduction to cardiac pacemakers. defibrillators,
ventilators, muscle simulators, diathermy, heart lung machine, hemodialysis, application
of laser

Books Recommended:
Essential Reading:
1. “Medical instrumentation, application and Design”,J.G. Webster, John Wiley and
Sons
2. “Introduction to Biomedical equipments”, Carr, Pearson education.
3. “Handbook of biomedical instrumentation”, R.S.Khandpur, Tata Mc Graw Hill.

References:
1. “Medical and Clinical engineering”, B.Jacobson, J.G. Webster, Prentice hall
International.
2. “Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements”, Cromwell, Prentice hall
International.

66
Paper III
INS 333
Microprocessor and Medical Electronics Lab

Section A

1. Microprocessor 8085: Simple Examples on


a) Addition
b) Subtraction
c) Multiplication
d) Average
e) Key board recognition techniques
2. Study the hardware, functions, memory structure and operation of 8085
microprocessor kit.
3. Program to perform integer division (8 bit)
4. Transfer of a block of data in memory to another place in direct order.
5. Perform conversion (BCD to ASCII)
6. Perform conversion (BCD to Hexadecimal)

Section B

1. EEG, ECG and other potentials: working principles and precaution


2. Blood pressure measurements, introduction to haemodynamics
3. Introduction to
a) Ultrasound techniques
b) Tomographic techniques
4. Interpretation of data and precaution for measurements

5. Introduction to working principles and operations of


a) Pacemakers
b) Defibrillators
c) Heart-lung
6. Other ICU instrumentation

67
(AUTONOMOUS)

SFS, GURUKUL MARG, MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

MODEL QUESTION PAPER


FOR
B.Sc. PHYSICS EXAMINATION

V Semester Examination November 2009

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission to the B.Sc. Physics Course in the
academic year 2009-10

68
B.Sc.

B.Sc. Semester V Examinations, 2009

Physics

PHY-501

(Quantum Mechanics)

Time Allowed: Three Hours

Maximum Marks: 70

Note:- The question paper consists of four sections. All sections are compulsory. All the
symbols have their usual meanings.
Section I consists of 15 objective type questions with 1 mark each.
Section II consists of 10 short answer questions with 2 marks each from which you have
to attempt any eight questions. .
Section III consists of 5 numerical with 5 marks each from which attempt any three
questions. .
Section IV consists of 5 long answer questions with 8 marks each from which attempt any
three questions.

Section I

1. Attempt all questions (1x15) = 15

i. The normalization condition for the wave function is:


∞ ∞
2
(a) ∫ | ψ(x,y,z) | dv = 0 (b) ∫ | ψ(x,y,z) |2 dv = N
-∞ -∞

∞ ∞
( c) ∫ | ψ(x,y,z) |2 dv = 1 (d) ∫ | ψ(x,y,z) |2 dv = 1/N
-∞ -∞

ii. De Broglie’s hypothesis is verified by the following experiment:


(a) Uncertainity principle
(b) Davission and Germer Experiment
(c) Frank-Condon experiment
(d) G.P.Thomson Experiment

iii. The ground state energy of H-atom is


(a) 3.6 eV (b) -3.6 eV
(c) 13.6eV (d) -13.6 eV
69
iv. Sin 2x is an eigen function for the operator
(a) d/dx (b) d2/dx2
(c) d/dt (d) d2/dt2

v. If [A, B] = 0, then the two operators A and B are


(a) linear operators (b) non-commutating operators
(c) commutating operators (d) reciprocal operators

vi. The operator for the momentum px is


(a) iћ ∂ / ∂ x (b) ћ ( ∂/ ∂ x) /i
(c) ћ (∂/ ∂ y) /i (d) ћ (∂/ ∂ z) /i

vii. Which of the following boundary conditions is satisfied by the wave function?
(a) Both ψ and (∂ ψ/ ∂ x) should be continuous, finite and single valued
(b) Only ψ should be continuous and finite
(c) Only (∂ψ/ ∂ x) should be continuous and finite
(d) Both ψ and ( ∂ψ/ ∂ x) should be single valued

viii. The ground state energy of the particle in one dimensional box is given by
(a) E1 = π2ћ2/ma2 (b) E1 = π2ћ2/2ma2
2 2 2
(c) E1 = 8π ћ /ma (d) E1 = π2ћ2/8ma2

ix. For a single step potential barrier the value of reflectance ‘R’ is given by
(a) ( p1 + p2 )2/ ( p1- p2 )2 (b) ( p1 - p2 )2/ ( p1+ p2 )2
(c) ( p1 + p2 ) / ( p1-p2 ) (d) ( p1 - p2 ) / ( p1+ p2 )

x. In a simple harmonic oscillator, the spacing between the energy levels


(a) is zero (b) remains same
(c) increases with ‘n’ (d) decreases with ‘n’

xi. The wave function for the ground state of the harmonic oscillator is
(a) Ψ0 (x) = (α /π)1/4 e(- αx2 /2) (b) Ψ0 (x) = (α /π) e(- αx2 /2)
1/2 (- αx2 /2)
(c) Ψ0 (x) = (α /π) e (d) Ψ0 (x) = (α /π)1/4 e(αx2 /2)

xii. The energy eigen value of a rigid rotator is given by


(a) ћ2 ( l + 1 ) / 2I (b) ћ2 l( l + 1 ) / I
2
(c) ћ ( l + 1 ) / I (d) ћ2 l( l + 1 ) / 2I

xiii. In spherical polar coordinates the value of Lz is written as


(a) i ћ (∂ / ∂ φ) (b) - i ћ (∂ / ∂ φ)
(c) 1/ ћ (∂ / ∂ φ) (d) - 1 / ћ ∂ / ∂ φ
2
xiv. The eigen value of L is
(a) l (l + 1) ћ2 (b) l ћ2
2
(c) (l + 1) ћ (d) l (l + 1)

xv. [ Lx,Ly ] is equal to


(a) i ћ Lx (b) i ћ Ly
(c) i ћ Lz (d) i ћ L
70
.
Section II

Short answer questions. (Attempt any eight) (2x8)= 16

2. State Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.


3. Write the physical significance of wave function Ψ.
4. Write any two postulates of Quantum mechanics.
5. State Bohr’s principle of complimentarity.
6. Write a short note on the tunnel effect.
7. What do you understand by degeneracy of levels?
8. Explain the significance of zero point energy of an oscillator.
9. What are symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions? Write down the parity of each.
10. What do you mean by Ladder’s operator?
11. What is the total angular momentum operator?

Section III

Numericals (Attempt any three) (5x3) =15

12. The life time of a nucleus in an excited state is 10-12 sec. Calculate the probable
uncertainity in the energy and frequency of a γ –ray photon emitted by it.

13. Prove that the two eigenfunctions of a hermitian operator belonging to different eigen
values are orthogonal.

14. Find out the lowest energy of an electron confined to move in a one-dimensional
potential box of length 1Ấ.

15. Normalize the ground state wavefunction for the one-dimensional oscillator so that the
total probability of finding the particle is unity.

16. Evaluate the following commutators:


(a) Lz , LI (b) L+ , L-

Section IV

Long answer questions (Attempt any three) (8x3) = 24

17. Separate the wave function into time dependent and time independent parts and obtain
the steady state Schrödinger’s equation.

18. State and prove Ehrenfest’s theorem.

71
19. Discuss the quantum mechanical scattering of a particle of mass ‘m’ and energy ‘E’ by
the square potential well

0, x<0
V(x) = -V0, 0 < x < a
0, x>a
Obtain the reflection and transmission coefficient and show that their sum is unity.

20. Solve the Schrödinger’s equation for the linear harmonic oscillator and obtain the
energy values. In what way is this quantum mechanical description different from
classical description.

21. Describe the commutation relation of J2 with J+ and J-

72
B.Sc.

B.Sc. Semester V Examinations, 2009

Physics

PHY-502

(Nuclear & Particle Physics)

Time Allowed: Three Hours

Maximum Marks: 70

Note:- The question paper consists of four sections. All sections are compulsory. All the
symbols have their usual meanings.
Section I consists of 15 objective type questions with 1 mark each.
Section II consists of 10 short answer questions with 2 marks each from which you have
to attempt any eight questions. .
Section III consists of 5 numerical with 5 marks each from which attempt any three
questions. .
Section IV consists of 5 long answer questions with 8 marks each from which attempt any
three questions.

Section I

1. Attempt all questions (1x15)= 15


i. The nuclear force between two nucleons is due to exchange of _______
(a)Pions (b)Gluons (c)Photons (d)Phonons

ii. At the peaks of nuclear funding energy curve


(a) Z is even but N is odd
(b) Z is odd but N is even
(c) Both Z and N are odd
(d) Both Z and N are even

iii. Asymmetry energy EA of a nucleus having atomic number A and Z protons is proportional
to
(a) (A-2Z)2 (b) (A-2Z) (c) (A-Z) 2 (d) (A-Z)

iv. In the p-p fusion cycle, the energy produced per cycle is
(a) 24.7 MeV (b) 12-8 MeV (c) 5.5 MeV (d) 0.42 MeV

v. Liquid drop model can be used to explain


(a) Nuclear Fission (b) Nuclear Fusion (c) Stellar energy (d) nucleon size

vi. In breeder reactor, U 238 is converted to _________ which is a fissionable material.


(a) 94 Pu 239 (b) 94 Pu 238 (c) 92 U 235 (d)92 U 233
73
vii. The weakest type of particle interaction is
(a) Strong (b) Electromagnetic (c) Weak (d) Gravitational

viii. Strangeness quantum number ‘S’ is given by


(a) S= Y-B (b) S= Y+B (c) S=Y + B (d) S=Y+B
2 2
ix. Minimum intensity of cosmic rays is observed
(a) above 40o latitude (b) above 50o latitude (c) Pole (d)Equator

x. Synchrotron can not be used for accelerating


(a) electron (b) proton (c)α-particle (d)deutron

xi. The electrons moving in a stable orbit of fixed radius are accelerated by increasing the magnetic
flux through the orbit. This is the working principle of
(a) Cyclotron (b) Synchroton (c) Betatron (d) Proton synchrotron

xii. The maximum energy of cyclotron is


(a)Em = ½ B2 e 2R (b)Em = ½ B e 2 R
m m
(c)Em = ½ B e R (d)Em = 2 Be 2R2
m m

xiii. The electric field strength E at a point distant ‚r’ from the axis of cylinder in G M counter is
(a) Er = __Vo (b) Er = Vo
r log (a) r log (a)
b b
(c) Er = Vo log a (d) Er = Vo r log a
b b

xiv. Cerenkov detector is used to detect


(a) α Particle (b) β Particles (c) γ Particles (d)gravitons

xv. The liquids preferred in bubble chamber should have _____ surface tension
and _______ vapour pressure.

(a) low, high (b) high, high (c) low, low (d) high, low

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Section II

Short answer questions. (Attempt any eight) (2x8)= 16

2. What do you mean by electric quadrupole moment of a nucleus.What is its


significance?
3. What is meant by parity?.
4. What are the conditions of a self sustained chain reaction and how are they
achieved. .
5 On the basis of liquid drop model of a nucleus, explain nuclear fission
6. What is cosmic ray shower?.
7. Define strangeness quantum number, Baryon number, hypercharge and isotopic spin.
8. Give the principle of proton synchrotron.
9. Derive the expression for cyclotron frequency.
10. State the difference between proportional counter and Geiger Muller counter.
11. Write the principle of cloud chamber.

Section III

Numericals (Attempt any three) (5x3) =15

12. What is the distance of closest approach of a 2 MeV (i) α particle (ii) proton to a gold
nucleus? For gold Z = 79.

13. If 200 M eV energy is obtained from fission of nucleus of 92U235 ,calculate how
many fissions will occur in one second so that 2 KW power could be obtained.

14. Which of the following reactions can / cannot occur and why ?
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

15. A halogen quenched GM tube operates at 1 KV has a wire of diameter 0.2 mm. The
radius of the cathode is 20 mm and the tube has a guaranteed life of 109 counts.What
is the maximum radial field and how long will the counter last, if it is used on an
average of 30 hours per week at 3000 counts /minute.

16. Calculate the frequency of electric field that must be applied between the dees of a
cyclotron in which (a)proton (b) α particles are accelerated. The applied magnetic
flux is 3.5 weber/m2.

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Section IV

Long answer questions (Attempt any three) (8x3) = 24

17. Write down the semi empirical mass formula for nucleus and explain various terms
present in it . Also discuss the stability of even A and odd A isobars on its basis.

18.(a)How do stars produce energy. Describe p-p cycle in detail.


(b) What is a nuclear reactor? Give their classification.

19. Write notes on:


a) Matter and anti matter
b) Quark theory
c) Conservation laws in particle physics

20.(a) Describe the working principle of a linear accelerator.


(b) Describe a betatron.Obtain an expression for total energy of electron accelerated by
a betatron.

21.(a)Give a sketch of scintillation counter. How does it work ?What phosphors are used
to detect different radiations?
(b) Describe the action of solid state detector.

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