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INDEX

1. Course structure and Credit Template 2–5

Development Course)

Course)

6. Model Question Papers (Semester V) 68 - 76

1

(AUTONOMOUS)

COURSES STRUCTURE

&

CREDIT TEMPLATES

FOR

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission to the B.Sc. Physics Course in the

academic year 2009-10

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

Courses of Study for B.Sc (Pass Course)

2

Six Semester Programme

. code title paper marks marks

Per Per

Semester Week

1. PHY- Mechanics Theory 45 3 3 100 36

101

2. PHY- Electromagn Theory 45 3 3 100 36

102 etism

3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36

103

code title paper marks marks

Per Per

Semester Week

1. PHY- Oscillations Theory 45 3 3 100 36

201 and Waves

202

3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36

203

code title paper marks marks

Per Per

Semester Week

1. PHY- Statistical Theory 45 3 3 100 36

301 Physics &

Thermodynamics

2. PHY- Electronics Theory 45 3 3 100 36

302

3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36

303

3

code title paper Per Per marks marks

Semester Week

1. PHY- Mathematical Theory 45 3 3 100 36

401 Physics &

Numerical

Methods

2. PHY- Condensed Theory 45 3 3 100 36

402 Matter

Physics and

Devices

3. PHY- Practicals & Practical 60 4 2 100 36

403 Project

code title paper marks marks

Per Per

Semester Week

1. PHY- Quantum Theory 45 3 3 100 36

501 Physics

2. PHY- Nuclear & Theory 45 3 3 100 36

502 Particle

Physics

3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36

503

. code title paper Per Per marks marks

Semester Week

1. PHY- Atomic & Theory 45 3 3 100 36

601 Molecular

Spectrosc

opy

2. PHY- Communi Theory 45 3 3 100 36

602 cation

Systems

3. PHY- Practicals Practical 60 4 2 100 36

603

4

INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE FOR GIRLS

U.G. Programme

Six Semesters

Session 2009-10

Hrs./Week Hrs./Week

I year I 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week

90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.

II 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week

90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.

II year III 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week

90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.

IV 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week

90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.

III year V 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week

90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.

VI 6 6 4 2 10 hrs/week

90 hrs/sem. 60 hrs/sem. 150 hrs/sem.

5

(AUTONOMOUS)

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

FOR

II Semester Examination April 2010

III Semester Examination November 2010

IV Semester Examination April 2011

V Semester Examination November 2011

VI Semester Examination April 2012

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission to the B.Sc. Physics Course in the

academic session 2009-10

6

INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE FOR GIRLS

B.Sc. Physics

Scheme of Examination

Continuous Semester End

Semester Paper code Credits Hrs/ m m

Assessment Exam (70 %)

week Marks Marks

30 %

I PHY – 101 3 3 100 36 30 70

PHY – 102 3 3 100 36 30 70

PHY – 103 2 4 100 36 30 70

PHY – 202 3 3 100 36 30 70

PHY – 203 2 4 100 36 30 70

PHY – 302 3 3 100 36 30 70

PHY – 303 2 4 100 36 30 70

PHY – 402 3 3 100 36 30 70

PHY – 403 2 4 100 36 30 70

PHY – 502 3 3 100 36 30 70

PHY – 503 2 4 100 36 30 70

PHY – 602 3 3 100 36 30 70

PHY – 603 2 4 100 36 30 70

Note:

• Time duration of C.A. tests will be 45 minutes.

• Home assignments shall be given on descriptive questions.

• Time duration of SEE will be three hours.

• Passing percentage in continuous assessment and semester end exam is 36 % individually i.e. 11 marks in

C.A. test and 25 marks in SEE.

B.Sc. Physics

7

Scheme of Examination

Theory Exam (70 %)

Time Duration: 3 hrs.

Section A 15 Multiple choice Questions 15 marks

Section B 8 Short Answer Questions 2 x 8 = 16

Section C 3 Numericals 5 x 3 = 15

Section D 3 Long Answer Questions 8 x 3 = 24

Final Outcome 70

Practical (70 %)

Time Duration: 5 hrs.

Expt.1 Expt. 2 Total

Viva-voce

30 30 10 70

Theory (30%)

Time Duration: 45 minutes

Home

Test Class room Total

Assignment Attendance

Interaction

15 05 05 05 30

Practical (30 %)

Time Duration: 90 minutes

Practical

Test Viva Voce Attendance Total

Record

10 10 05 05 30

8

(AUTONOMOUS)

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

FOR

INSTRUMENTATION

9

INSTRUMENTATION (INS)

These are carrier and skill oriented courses, which a regular student in UG or PG

programmed can peruse simultaneously. The certificate holder shall be eligible for

admission to diploma and the diploma holder shall be eligible for admission to advance

diploma Course. Candidates who have passed 10+2 examination with physics and math’s

as their subjects shall be considered eligible for admission to the Certificate Course.

the course instruction

Certificate in 1 English 10+2 from any

instrumentation academic recognized Board

year with Physics and

Maths as Electives

Diploma in 1 English Certificate in

instrumentation academic instrumentation

year

Advance diploma in 1 English Diploma in

instrumentation academic instrumentation

year

Teaching Schedule

The classes shall be conducted in the morning hours. Apart from the regular faculty,

senior professionals and academicians shall be invited to offer guidance on the

contemporary and technical aspect of the subjects under study .

Pedagogical Strategies

Apart from classroom lectures, activities and assignments, students shall be given

opportunities to present and participate in seminars and symposia.

10

Annual Scheme of Examination

1. Each theory exam shall be 3 hours duration and practical exam shall be of 5 hours

duration.

each paper (theory and practical) separately.

3. Candidate needs to clear all papers in order to be eligible for promotion to the next

level of courses.

4. Internal assessment will constitute 30% marks based on the internal examination

and regularity in attendance.

5. A candidate passing the certificate course shall be admitted to the Diploma Course.

6. A candidate passing the Diploma course shall be admitted to the Advance Diploma

Course.

vocational programme(Certificate, Diploma and Advance Diploma) by the internal

examiner.

11

Mark Distribution

1. Section 1 will consist of 20 Objective type questions of 1 mark each (Total

marks: 20)

2. Section 2 will consist of 10 short answer type questions of 2 marks each (Total

marks: 20)

3. Section 3 will consists of 3 long essay type questions (with internal choice) of

10 marks each (Total Marks: 30)

Viva - voce : 10

Practical Record : 10

Practical Work : 50

12

(AUTONOMOUS)

COURSES OF STUDY

FOR

II Semester Examination April 2010

III Semester Examination November 2010

IV Semester Examination April 2011

V Semester Examination November 2011

VI Semester Examination April 2012

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission to the B.Sc. Physics Course in the

academic year 2009-2010

Semester I

13

Paper I

PHY-101

Mechanics

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objectives:

To acquaint the students with the fundamental laws and principles involved in motion and

to introduce some properties of matter like elasticity so that they develop abilities and skill

that are relevant to the study and practice of Physics.

Unit I

Inertial and non inertial frames, examples, Transformation of displacement, velocity and

acceleration between different frames of reference involving translation in uniform

motion, Galilean transformation and invariance of Newton’s laws, Transformation

equations of displacement velocity and acceleration for rotating frames, Fictitious forces

(Coriolis force and centrifugal force), effects of Centrifugal and Coriolis forces due to

earth’s rotation, Focault’s pendulum.

Unit II

Centre of mass of a two particle system, motion of centre of mass and reduced mass

conservation of linear momentum, elastic and inelastic collision of two particles in

laboratory and center of mass frames, motion of a system with varying mass, Angular

momentum conservation with examples, charged particle scattering by nucleus.

Unit III

Motion under central forces, gravitational interaction, general solution under gravitational

interaction, discussion of trajectories, cases of elliptical and circular orbits, Keplers laws.

Unit IV

Postulates of special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations, length

contraction,Time dilation, transformation and addition of velocities, Relativistic Doppler’s

effect, space- like space time interval, time-like space time interval.

14

Unit V

Elastic constants: Young’s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Modulus of Rigidity, Poisson’s ratio.

Relations between the elastic constants, torsion of a cylinder.

Bending of beams: Bending moment, Cantilever, Potential energy and oscillation of a

loaded cantilever, cantilever loaded at one end (i) when weight of beam is negligible

(ii) When weight is considered, Beam supported at both ends and loaded in the middle,

Experimental determination of elastic constants (Y, η ,σ).

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

2. “Elements of Mechanics”, J.C.Upadhyaya ,Himalaya Publishing House,2006.

Reference Books:

Mars, LISA.

2. “Berkley Physics Course”, Vol. I, Mc. Graw Hill, New York.

3. “The Feynmann Lectures in Physics”, Vol. 1, R. P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton and M.

Sands , B.I. Publications, Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Madras.

4. “Physics”,Part 1, David Halliday and Resnick , John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Newyork.

5. “Properties of Matter”, D.S.Mathur, S.Chand & Company.

15

Semester I

Paper II

PHY-102

Electromagnetism

M.M.: 100

(CA-30, SEE-70)

Objectives: This course will acquaint the students with the scalar and vector fields,

gradient, divergence, curl and their physical significance. Students will also learn about

the fields produced by moving charges and magnetic fields in matter, electromagnetic

induction, Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic waves.

Unit I

Partial derivatives, Gradient of a scalar function. Line integral of a vector field,

Divergence and Curl of a vector field, Physical significance of divergence & curl and their

expressions in Cartesian coordinates, Gauss divergence theorem, Stokes curl theorem,

Laplacian operator, Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation.

Unit II

Magnetic forces, Invariance of charge, Electric field measured in different frames of

reference, Field of a point charge moving with constant velocity, Interaction between a

moving charge and other moving charges.

Unit III

Ampere’s law in differential form, Magnetic Vector Potential, Poisson’s equation for

vector potential, magnetic field due to a current carrying wire and deduction of Biot-

Savart’s law.

Electric current due to an orbiting electron, Bohr Magneton, Orbital gyro magnetic ratio,

Electron spin and spin magnetic moment, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic field caused

by magnetized matter, Magnetization current, Free current its H field.

Unit IV

Moments of a charge distribution, Atomic and molecular dipoles, Atomic Polarizability,

Permanent dipole moment, Dielectrics, capacitor filled with dielectric, the potential and

field due to a polarized sphere, dielectric sphere in a uniform electric field, The electric

field of charge in dielectric medium and Gauss law, Relation between electric

susceptibility and atomic polarizability, Polarization due to changing electric field. The

bound charge current.

16

Unit V

Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction, its integral and differential form, Maxwell’s

displacement current, Maxwell’s equations in differential and integral form.

Poynting’s theorem ,Wave equation , EM waves in a non-conducting dielectric medium,

Plane monochromatic waves in a non-conducting medium, Energy flux in a plane

electromagnetic wave, Radiation pressure.

Books Recommended

Essential Readings:

1. “Electricity and Magnetism with Electronics”, K.K.Tewari, S.Chand & Co. Ltd.

(2001)

2. “Electricity and Magnetism”, D.Chattopadhyay, P.C.Rakshit, New Central Book

Agency (P) Ltd.

References Books:

1. “Elements of Electromagnetics”, Mathew, N.D. Sadika, New Delhi, Oxford

University Press.

2. “Electricity and Magnetism”, W.J.Duffin , Mc Graw Hill Book Co., Fourth

edition.

3. “Electromagnetics”, B.B.Laud ,New Age International Publishers, Second edition.

4. “Electromagnetic theory and electrodynamics”, Satya Prakash, Kedar Nath Ram

Nath & Co. Publishers, Meerut, Ninth edition.

5. “Physics Part 2”,D.Halliday and R.Resnick, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Newyork.

6. “Principles of Electricity and Magnetism”,S.Palit, Narosa Publishing House.

17

Semester I

Paper III

PHY-103

PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

2. Distribution of marks will be as follows :

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7

Observations/Calculations : 16

Result / Result Analysis : 5

Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

18

Semester I

Paper III

PHY-103

List of Experiments

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section – A

1. To study the variation of charge and current with time in a R-C circuit for

different time constants using a DC source (charging and discharging

characteristics of a condenser).

determine the difference between two small resistances using Carey Foster’s

bridge.

source. Also to determine power factor , impedance and phase relations.

4. To study the behaviour of RC circuit with varying resistance and capacitance using

AC mains as a power source and also to determine the impedance and phase

relationship between voltage and current in the circuit.

Section – B

Jaeger’s method.

19

Semester II

Paper I

PHY-201

Oscillation and Waves

M.M.:100

(CA –30 , SEE-70)

Objectives:

To familiarize the students with motion of different types of oscillators and also with

wave motion in different medium. This will enable the students to develop abilities and

skill to solve problems related to waves and oscillations.

Unit I

Simple harmonic motion, Differential equation of simple harmonic motion, examples:-

mass on a spring, Torsional oscillator. LC Circuit, Potential energy curve and small

oscillations in one dimensional potential well, Energy of oscillations, mass and two spring

system,anharmonic oscillator.

Damped harmonic oscillator, Mathematical formulation of damped harmonic oscillator,

Energy of damped oscillator, Power dissipation, Relaxation time, Quality factor of

damped harmonic oscillator, Electromagnetic oscillator : Moving coil galvanometer with

small damping.

Unit II

Driven harmonic oscillator , Mathematical formulation of driven harmonic oscillator ,

Frequency response on amplitude and phase, Quality factor of driven oscillator,

Resonance, Sharpness of resonance, Power absorption by forced oscillator, Series and

parallel LCR circuit.

Unit III

Coupled oscillators: ( 10 periods)

Equation of motion of two coupled simple harmonic oscillators, Normal modes, motion in

mixed modes ,dynamics of a linear chain of coupled oscillators with nearest neighbor

interaction, Energy transfer between modes, Electrically coupled circuits (capacitive and

inductive), Reflected impedance, effect of coupling and resistive load.

20

Unit IV

Lattice vibrations and Fourier analysis: (9 periods)

Equation of motion for one dimensional monatomic and diatomic lattice, acoustic and

optical modes, dispersion relation, concept of group and phase velocities, Fourier Analysis

of square, saw tooth and triangular wave forms.

Unit V

Wave motion: (9 periods)

Wave equation, Transverse waves in a string, Elastic waves in a solid rod, Pressure waves

in a gas column, Plane electromagnetic waves, Energy and Momentum of EM waves,

Radiation pressure,Radiation resistance of free space.

Books recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “The Physics of Waves and Oscillations”, N.K.Bajaj, Tata Mc Graw Hill

Publishing Co., 2003.

2. “Oscillations, waves and electromagnetism”, Satya Prakash, Pragati Prakashan,

Meerut.

Reference Books:

1. “Fundamental University Physics”, Vol I and II , M.Alonso & J.Finn, Addisson

Wiesley.

2. “Vibrations and Waves”, A.P. French, CBS Publication and Distributors.

3. “Berkeley Physics Course”, Vol. I , New York, Mc Graw Hill.

4. “Vibrations and waves”, I.G. Main ,Cambridge University Press.

5. “The Physics of Vibrations and Waves”, H.J.Pani, John Wiley & Sons.

6. “Fundamentals of vibrations and Waves”, S.P.Puri, Tata Mc. Graw Hill Pub.

Co.,NewDelhi.

7. “Oscillations and Waves”,K.S.Sharma, M.K.Saxena and G.R.Chhabra ,Rajasthan

Hindi Granth Academy, Jaipur.

8. “Waves and Oscillations”,N.Subramanyam,Vikas Publishing house.

21

Semester II

Paper II

PHY-202

Optics

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objectives:

This course familiarizes the students with the phenomenon of interference, diffraction,

polarization, LASER and holography to enable them to acquire sufficient understanding

and knowledge to recognize the usefulness of these phenomena in everyday life and also

stimulate their interest in Physics.

Unit I

Fermat’s principle extremum path, Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s

principle, Refraction at a spherical surfaces (convex surface and concave surface) cardinal

points ,construction of a image using cardinal points, Newton’s formula; Relationship

between f1 and f2 ;Relationship between f1 , f2 , µ1 and µ2, Cardinal points of a coaxial

system of two thin lens.

Unit II

Interference: (8 periods)

Young’s double slit experiment, types of interference: division of amplitude, division of

wave front, Coherence: temporal and spatial coherence, Interference in thin films, colour

in thin films, Newton’s rings, Determination of wavelength and refractive index of liquid

by Newton’s rings, Michelson interferometer, Applications of Michelson interferometer:

determination of wavelength, difference of wavelength and thickness of thin films.

Unit III

Diffraction: ( 9 periods)

Fresnel diffraction: Fresnel’s assumptions, Half period zones, Distinction between

interference and diffraction, Difference between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, ,

diffraction at a circular aperture, straight edge and thin slit, zone plate, difference between

zone plate and a convex lens.

Franunhoffer diffraction: Diffraction at single slit, Intensity distribution in diffraction

pattern due to a single slit, Diffraction at double slit, Diffraction at N slits( simple

derivation), plane diffraction grating, dispersion by a grating, resolving power of a

grating.

22

Unit IV

Polarization: ( 9 periods)

Plane electromagnetic waves. E and B of linearly, circularly, elliptically polarized

electromagnetic waves.

Polarization by reflection, Huygens theory of double refraction, production and Analysis

of plane, circularly and elliptically polarized light, Quarter and half wave plate.

Optical activity, specific rotation, Biquartz and half shade polarimeters.

Unit V

Difference between ordinary and LASER source, stimulated and spontaneous emission,

Einstein A and B coefficients, Population inversion, Principle of laser action, Metastable

states, Pumping, types of LASER, construction, working and energy levels schemes of

He-Ne and Ruby laser, Applications of LASER.

Basic concepts of holography, construction of hologram and reconstruction of image,

important features of hologram and uses of holography.

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “A textbook of Optics”, Brijlal and Subramaniam, S.Chand & Company Ltd.,23rd

edition.

2. “Essentials of Lasers and non-linear Optics”,G.D.Baruah, Pragati Prakashan,

Meerut.

Reference Books:

1. “Text books of Optics and Atomic Physics”, D.P. Khandelwal, Himalaya

Publishing House.

2. “Optics”, Ajoy Ghatak ,Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub.Co. Ltd, 2007.

3. “Physics Part II”, D.Halliday and R.Resnick, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Newyork.

4. “LASERS: Theory and Applications”, K.Thyagrajan, A.K.Ghatak, Macmillan

India Ltd.

23

Semester II

Paper III

PHY-203

PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

2. Distribution of marks will be as follows :

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7

Observations/Calculations : 16

Result /Result Analysis : 5

Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

24

Semester II

Paper III

PHY-203

List of Experiments

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section – A

4. Using Newton’s rings find out the wavelength of the given monochromatic,

source.

and Polaroids.

Section – B

pulses/alternating voltage pulses and then to integrate them.

torsional wave apparatus.

4. To study the variation of magnetic field along the axis of a current carrying circular

coil. Plot the necessary graph and hence determine the radius of circular coil.

torsional wave apparatus.

25

Semester III

Paper I

PHY-301

Thermodynamics and statistical physics

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objectives:

To acquaint the students with basic laws of thermodynamics and statistical physics,

methods of producing low temperatures, Carnots engine so that they develop the scientific

attitude to relate this knowledge to their daily life experiences.

Unit I

Basic Thermodynamics: ( 9 periods)

The Zeroth law, Various indicator diagrams(P-V diagram), First law of thermodynamics,

Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot’s engine, Carnot’s cycle and efficiency of

Carnot’s engine, reversibility of Carnot’s engine, Carnot’s theorem. Second law of

thermodynamics, (different statements and their equivalence) Entropy, Principle of

increase of entropy, Thermodynamic scale of temperature, Thermodynamic scale as an

absolute scale, Third law of thermodynamics.

Unit II

Thermodynamic Relations: ( 9 periods)

Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations, Triple point, Clausius Clapyron latent heat

equation,Effect of pressure on boiling point of liquids, Helmholtz free energy, Enthalpy,

Gibbs function,Internal energy,Thermodynamic potentials, Deduction of Maxwell’s

relations from thermodynamic potentials.

Unit III

Production of low temperatures: ( 8 periods )

Joule Thomson expansion and JT coefficient for ideal as well as Vander Waals gas,

Porous plug experiment, Temperature of inversion, Regenerative cooling, cooling by

adiabatic expansion and demagnetization, liquid He, He I and He II, Peculiar properties of

He II, Nernst heat theorem.

Unit IV

Distribution of molecular velocities : ( 9 periods)

Distribution law of molecular velocities, Most probable, Average and RMS velocities,

energy distribution function, Experimental verification of Maxwell velocity distribution,

Principle of equipartition of energy.

Mean free path and collision cross section, distribution of mean free path, Transport of

mass, momentum and energy and their interrelationship, (coefficient of viscosity ,thermal

conductivity & diffusion)

26

Unit V

Classical Statistics : ( 10 periods)

Phase space, micro and macro states, Thermodynamic probability, relation between

entropy and thermodynamic probability, Monatomic ideal gas, Barometric equation,

specific heat capacity of diatomic gas and specific heat of solids.

Quantum Statistics :

Failure of classical statistics (Blackbody radiation and various laws of distribution of

radiation, qualitative discussion of Weins and Rayleigh Jeans Law) Postulates of quantum

statistics, Indistinguishability of wave function and exchange degeneracy, Bose Einstein

statistics and its distribution function,. Planck’s distribution function and radiation

formula, Fermi Dirac statistics and its distribution function, specific heat anomaly of

metals.

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

2. “Heat and Thermodynamics”, Brijlal and Subramaniam, S. Chand & Sons.

3. “Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics”, S.L.Kakani, Sultan Chand & Sons.

Reference Books:

1. “Statistical and Thermal Physics”, S. Loknathan and R.S. Gambhir, Prentice

Hall, New Delhi 1991.

2. “Thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases and Statistical Mechanics”, F.W.Sears,

G.L.Salinger, Narosa Pub. House.

3. “Introduction to Statistical Mechanics”, B.B. Laud , Mc Milan India Ltd.

4. “Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics”, Federick Reif, Tata Mc

Graw Hill ,1992.

5. “Heat and Thermodynamics”, M.S.Yadav, Anmol Publications.

6. “Fundamentals of Statistical Physics”, A.K. Das Gupta, New Central Book

Company,Calcutta,2003.

27

Semester III

Paper II

PHY-302

Electronics

M.M.: 100

(CA-30, SEE-70)

learning various topics viz. circuit analysis, network theorems, P-N diode equation,

rectifiers, filters, transistors and transistor amplifiers and their analysis. Students will also

learn feedback amplifiers, logic gates and fabrication of IC’s

Unit I

Open and short circuits, Impedance, Admittance and Hybrid parameters of any four

terminal network, Kirchoff’s laws, Mesh and Node analysis.

Various Circuit theorems:

Superposition theorem, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Maximum power

transformer theorem and Reciprocity theorem.

Unit II

p-n junction diodes, I-V characteristics, diode as a rectifier, half-wave and full-wave

rectifiers : calculations of ripple factor, efficiency and regulation , bridge rectifiers.

Filters: Series inductor, shunt capacitor, L-section and π section filters.

Voltage regulation : Zener diode, breakdown voltage (avalanche and zener effect),

voltage regulation, voltage multipliers.

Unit III

BJT and amplifiers: (9 periods)

Basic construction of pnp and npn transistors and their operation, Input and output

characteristics of CB, CC and CE configurations, active, saturation and cut-off regions,

Load line and Q-point, Two-port analysis of a transistor using h-parameters, Analysis of

CB, CE and CC amplifier for current gain, voltage gain, input and output impedances

using h-parameters,Gain-frequency response of an amplifier.

Unit IV

Concept of feed-back, positive and negative feedback, voltage and current feedback

circuits (series and parallel circuits).

Advantages of negative feedback: Stabilization of gain, effect on input and output

impedances, reduction of non-linear distortion, effect on gain-frequency response.

28

Oscillators: Barkhausen criterion, RC oscillators, Colpitt’s oscillator, Hartley oscillator,

crystal oscillators and its advantages.

Unit V

Transistors as a switch, Logic fundamentals: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR gates.

Boolean algebra, De Morgan’s theorem, positive and negative logic, Logic gates circuit

realization using DTL and TTL logic, Simplification of Boolean expressions.

Integrated Circuit Technology:

Integrated circuit vs. discrete components, Integrated circuit processing, Oxidation,

diffusion, photolithography, epitaxy, chemical vapour deposition, Bipolar transistor

fabrication.

Books recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “Electronic Devices and Circuits”, Jacob Millman and Christos Halkias, TMH , 9th

edition.

2. “Electronic Fundamentals and Applications”, John D. Ryder, Prentice Hall of India

Pvt. Ltd.,(1983) New Delhi.

3. “Digital Computer Electronics”, Albert Paul Malvino, Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub. Co.

Ltd., New Delhi.

4. “Hand book of Electronics”, Kumar and Gupta, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut.

References:

1. “Basic Electronics and Solid State”, B.L. Theraja, S.Chand, 2002.

2. “Integrated Electronics, Analog and Digital circuits and systems”, Millman & Halkias,

Mc Graw Hill Ltd. (1972).

3. “Electronic devices and circuits” , Soni and Gupta, Dhanpat Rai and Sons.

4. “Basic Electronics and Linear circuits”, Bhargava and Kulshreshtha, TMH ,1984.

5. “Principle of Electronics” (for numerical problems) V.K. Mehta, S.Chand ,2002.

6. “Basic Electronics”, Kal, Prentice Hall of India, 2002.

7. “Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory”, Robert Boylestad and Nashelsky, Prentice

Hall of India, Fifth edition.

8. “Engineering Electronics”, John D Ryder, Mc Graw Hill Book Co.

29

Semester III

Paper III

PHY-303

PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

2. Distribution of marks will be as follows:

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7

Observations/Calculations : 16

Result /Result Analysis : 5

Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

30

Semester III

Paper III

PHY-303

List of Experiments

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section – A

1. Using platinum resistance thermometer, find the melting pint of a given substance.

method.

6. To plot thermo emf versus temperature graph for Cu-Fe thermo couple and to

determine temperature of a hot source (use sand bath).

Section – B

verify maximum power transfer theorem.

2. Study of half wave rectification using single diode and application of L & π

section filters.

configuration).

4. Study of single stage transistor audio amplifier (variation of Gain with Frequency).

31

SEMESTER IV

PAPER I

PHY-401

MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS AND NUMERICAL METHODS

M.M.: 100

(CA-30, SEE-70)

Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to acquaint the students with different types

of coordinate systems, tensors, four vectors etc. The students will also learn the Fourier

analysis and various numerical methods.

UNIT I

Orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, scale factors, Expressions for gradient,

divergence and curl and their application to Cartesian, Circular Cylindrical and Spherical

polar coordinate systems.

Tensors:

Coordinate transformations, Transformation of covariant, contra variant and mixed

tensors. Addition, subtraction, outer product , contraction and inner product of tensors,

Quotient law, Symmetric and antisymmetric tensors, Metric tensor.

Dirac delta function and its properties.

UNIT II

Four vector formulation, four velocity vector, energy-momentum four vector, relativistic

equation of motion; invariance of rest mass, orthogonality of four force and four velocity,

Lorentz force as an example of four force, transformation of four frequency vector,

longitudinal and transverse Doppler’s effect.

UNIT III

Techniques of separation of variables and its application to the following boundary value

problems (i) Laplace’s equation in three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system – line

charge between two earthed parallel plates, (ii) Helmholtz equation in circular cylindrical

coordinates-Cylindrical resonant cavity, (iii) Wave equation in spherical polar

coordinates-the vibrations of a circular membrane, (iv) Diffusion equation in two

dimensional Cartesian coordinate system-heat conduction in a thin rectangular plate.

32

UNIT IV

Introduction, Fourier series and coefficients, functions with point of discontinuity,

arbitrary period, even and odd functions, half range expansion, Parseval’s theorem.

UNIT V

Introduction, Finite-Difference Operators, Differential Operator related to the Difference

Operator, Truncation error, Numerical interpolation, Roots of equations, Initial-value

problems –Ordinary Differential equations: Taylor’s method, Euler’s method and direct

method. Trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule for numerical integration.

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “Mathematical Methods” , Potter and Goldberg, Prentice Hall of India (1998).

2. “Mathematical methods in Physics”, D.Biswas, New Central Book Agency (P)

Ltd.

3. “Mathematical Physics”, M.P.Saxena, P.R.Singh, S.S.Rawat, P.K.Sharma, CBH,

Jaipur.

References:

1. “Applied Maths for Engineers and Physicists”,Pipes and Harvill, McGraw Hill.

2. “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”, Ervin Kreyzig 5th Edition, Wiley Eastern

Ltd.

3. “Numerical Methods”, S. Balachandra Rao, C.K. Shantha, University Press, 1992.

4. “Mathematical Physics”,Ellgnine Butkon, Addisson Wiesley.

5. “Mathematical Physics”,Gupta, Vikas Publishing House.

33

Semester IV

Paper II

PHY-402

Condensed Matter Physics and Devices

M.M.: 100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objectives:

To familiarize the students with the basics of condensed matter physics which form the

basic for further studies in condensed matter physics. The students get acquainted with the

crystal structure, properties of solids, superconductivity and magnetism which strengthens

the theoretical base for research in contemporary fields of condensed matter physics like

imperfect solids and nano particle physics..

Unit I

(9 periods)

Crystal structure: Symmetry elements in crystal, Unit cell, Wigner Seitz cell,

fundamental lattice system and types, Miller indices, crystal structures of simple cubic,

FCC, BCC, HCP, diamond.

Crystal Diffraction: Bragg’s law, X-ray and neutron diffraction, Rotating crystal method,

laue Method and Powder method.

Unit II

(9 periods)

Thermal Properties of solids: Concepts of thermal energy and Phonons, Einstein theory

of specific heat, Debye model of lattice specific heat.

Band theory of solids: Formation of bands, distinction between metals, insulators and

semiconductors, periodic potential of a solid, wave function in a periodic lattice and Bloch

theorem, Physical origin of effective mass,negative effective mass and holes.

Unit III

(9 periods)

Electrical conductivity: Drude Lorentz theory of electrical conductivity. Sommerfield

theory of conduction in metals, Mathiessen’s Rule, Thermal conductivity and Wiedemann

– Franz law, The Hall effect.

Meissner effect, Type I and type II superconductors, BCS theory (Basic idea),High Tc

superconductors.

34

Unit IV

(9 periods)

Magnetic Properties: Classification of magnetic material, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism

due to free ions and conduction electrons, Curie’s law, ferromagnetism

Nature and Origin of Weiss molecular field. Domains, hysterisis loop, outline of

antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetisms, ferrites.

Unit V

(9 periods)

Solid State Devices: Light emitting diode, Solar cell, SCR.

Operational amplifier: Differential amplifiers, differential gain and CMRR, inverting

and non-inverting configurations Applications of op-amp: adder, subtractor, differentiator

and integrator.

Field affect Transistor (FET): Classification of various types of FET, constructional

details of FET, drain characteristics and baising of FET, operating regions, pinch-off

voltage, idea of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET).

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, C. Kittel, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi,

Seventh Edition.

2. “Solid State Physics”, S.O. Pillai, 3rd edition 1999, New Age International, New

Delhi.

3. “ElectronicDevices &Circuit Theory”,Boylestad & Nashelsky , Prentice Hall of

India.

Reference Books:

1. “Solid state physics”, A.J Dekker ,Macmilan India Ltd.

2. “Solid state Physics”, R.L. Singhal, Kedar Nath Ram Nath Publishers, 2001.

3. “Theory of solids”, L. Azaraf, Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing Co.

4. “Solid State Physics”, S.L. Gupta and V.Kumar, Kedar Nath RamNath & Co.,

Meerut

6 “Electronic Devices and Circuits” , Soni,Gupta , Dhanpat Rai and Sons.

7 “Elements of Solid State Physics”, J.P.Srivastava, Prentice Hall of India, New

Delhi.

35

Semester IV

Paper III

PHY-403

PHYSICS PRACTICAL

Section A

Students are expected to perform five experiments in all from which they will have

• Figure / Formula/Theory : 7

• Observation / Calculation : 16

• Result /Result Analysis : 5

• Precautions : 2

Total : 35 marks

Section B

Project : 35 marks

• Seminar presentation : 15

• Write up : 10

• Viva –voce : 10

36

Semester IV

Paper III

PHY-403

List of Experiments

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section – A

method) and to determine its band gap.

Section – B

1. Project

37

Details of Project

Students of semester IV are required to choose a topic for the project from a list approved

by the department. They are required to perform a new experiment or carry out studies for

writing a review article on a subject. At the end of the semester, a project report shall be

submitted by each student. This project will be assigned to them in the beginning of the IV

semester.

Evaluation of Project:

A mid term evaluation of the project will be made along with the second CA test. This

will carry 30 % of the total marks assigned for the project. At the end of the semester, the

student shall be examined on the basis of project report submitted by her by a panel of

external and internal examiners. The external appointed for the practical exam shall also

evaluate the project along with the internal project supervisors. The evaluation of project

will be based on presentation / viva-voce.

Total duration of practical exam and project evaluation shall be 5 hours.

38

Semester V

Paper I

PHY-501

Quantum Mechanics

M.M.: 100

(CA-30, SEE-70)

Objectives: This paper aims to develop the basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and

its application to various problems. It also deals with the techniques of wave mechanics

like Schrödinger equation and its solution, angular momentum and spin.

Unit I

(9 periods)

Introduction to Wave mechanics :

Duality of radiation and matter, De broglie’s hypothesis, justification for the relation,

Experimental confirmation of λ = h/p (Davission and Germer experiment).

Uncertainty principle relating to position and momentum, relating to energy and time, its

applications to various quantum mechanical problems such as:

(i) Non-existence of electrons in nucleus

(ii) Ground state energy of H-atom

(iii) Ground state energy of Harmonic oscillator

(iv) Natural width of spectral line

Schrodinger equation:

Wave function and its interpretation, Schrödinger time dependent and time independent

one-dimensional equation, three-dimensional Schrödinger wave equation, probability

current density, physical meaning of ψ, conditions to be satisfied by ψ.

Unit II

Operator formulation in Quantum mechanics: (9 periods)

Operators, algebra of operators, commutative property, linear operators, Commutator

operator, eigen values and eigen functions, operators for momentum, K.E., Hamiltonian,

total energy and angular momentum, Fundamental postulates of Q.M.

Hermitian operators, orthonormality, degeneracy, Commutation relations, Ehrenfest’s

theorem, Bohr’s principle of complementarity, principle of superposition.

Unit III

Simple solutions of Schrödinger equation: (8 periods)

Boundary and continuity conditions on the wave function. Particle in one dimensional

box, eigen function and eigen values, discrete energy levels, generalization to 3-D and

degeneracy of levels

39

Boundary value problems:

Step potential, Penetration through rectangular barrier, calculation of reflection and

transmission coefficients. Quantum mechanical tunneling. Square well potential problem,

reflection and transmission coefficient and resonant scattering.

Unit IV

(9 periods)

Simple harmonic oscillator (1-D Case): Schrödinger equation and its solutions, eigen

function, energy eigen values. Zero point energy, parity, symmetric and anti-symmetric

wave functions with graphical representation.

Rigid rotator: Schrodinger equation and its solution.

Unit V

(10 periods)

Angular Momentum

Introduction: orbital angular momentum,Operators for its Cartesian components,

commutation relations, mutual as well as with L2 ,L+ and L- operators , their interpretation

as step operators, eigen values of Lz, Total angular momentum operators, commutation

relations obeyed by the components of generalized momentum operator. Commutation

relation of Jz with J+ and J- , J+ and J- ,commutation relation of J2 with J+ and J-.

Books Recommended:

Essential readings:

1. “Quantum mechanics” L.L. Schiff, Tata Mc Graw Hill.

2. “Quantum mechanics”, Chatwal and Anand, Himalaya Publishing House.

Bansal, College Book House Jaipur.

References:

1. “Introduction to Modern Physics”,H.S. Mani and G.K. Mehta, East West Press

Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

2. “Quantum Mechanics”, S.P. Singh, M.K. Bagde and Kamal Singh,S. Chand & Co.

3. “Quantum Mechanics”, A Listair, I M Rac, ELBS (low price edition).

4. “Quantum Mechanics”, S.N.Biswas, Books & Allied,Calcutta (P) Ltd.

5. “Perspectives of Modern physics”, A.Beiser, Mc Graw Hill.

6. “Problems on Quantum Mechanics”, Dr. S.L.Kakani, Arihant Publishing House.

40

Semester V

Paper II

PHY-502

Nuclear and Particle Physics

M.M.:100

(CA -30, SEE-70)

Objectives:

To give the students insight into the fundamentals of nuclear and particle physics.

Unit I

(9 periods)

Nuclear Properties: Rutherford’s theory of α particle scattering, Basic properties: charge,

mass, size, spin, magnetic moment, electric quadrupole moment, Parity, Binding energy

per nucleon and its observed variation with mass number of the nucleus. Semi empirical

mass formula –coulomb energy, volume energy, surface energy, other corrections,

explanation of binding energy curve, Liquid drop model ,Nuclear forces and their

properties, Theory of nuclear forces.

Unit II

( 9 periods)

Nuclear Fission: Energy release in fission, Theory of nuclear fission and liquid drop

model, Barrier penetration – Theory of spontaneous fission, Nuclear chain reaction,

condition of controlled chain reaction, Principle of nuclear reactors, classification of

reactors.

Nuclear Fusion: Energy release in fusion, fusion reactions in stars : carbon and pp cycle.

Unit III

( 10 periods)

Particle Physics: Classification of elementary particles, properties of particles.

Fundamental interactions, Conservation laws : Energy ,momentum, angular momentum,

charge, lepton number, Baryon number, isospin, strangeness, Invariance under

charge,parity,C.P.,time and C.P.T.,(Qualitative discussion).

Cosmic rays: Properties of cosmic rays ,properties of secondary radiation, electronic

showers ,geomagnetic effects, cosmic ray stars, the origin of cosmic rays.

41

Unit IV

( 9 periods)

Accelerators: Need for accelerators, Ion sources, Van De graff generator, Drift tube,

linear accelerator, Wave guide accelerator, cyclotron ,synchrocyclotron, electron

synchrotron, proton synchrotron.

Unit V

(8 periods)

Detectors: Ionization chamber , Proportional Counter, Geiger Muller Counter,

Scintillation counter, Cloud chamber, Bubble chamber, Spark chamber , Solid state

detectors.

Nuclear mass spectroscopy: Basic components of mass spectroscope.

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

1. “Nuclear Physics”, D.C. Tayal, 4th rev. edition. 1992,, Himalaya Publishing,

House, Bombay.

2. “Nuclear physics”, Irving Kaplan, 2nd edition, Addition Wiesley Publishing

Company.

Reference books:

1. “Atomic Nucleus”, R.D. Evans ,Mc Graw Hill, New York.

2. “Introduction to Elementary Particles”, D. Griffiths, Harper and Row, New York,

1987.

3. “Elements of Nuclear Physics”, Pandey and Yadav, Kedar Nath Ram Nath,

Meerut, Seventh Edition .

4. “Nuclear Physics : Theory and experiments”, R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam, New Age

International (P) Limited.

5. “Radiation Detectors and Measurement”, F.Knoll, John Wiley & Sons, Second

Edition.

42

Semester V

Paper III

PHY-503

PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

2. Distribution of marks will be as follows :

Figure /Formula/Theory : 7

Observations/Calculations : 16

Result /Result Analysis : 5

Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

43

Semester V

Paper III

PHY-503

List of Experiments

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section A

4. Study of power supply using two diodes/bridge rectifier with various filter circuits.

5. To perform various logic functions using NOR and NAND gates, i.e., OR, NOT,

AND, NOR, NAND, X-OR gates.

6. To measure CMRR and input bias current and offset current using OP-AMP.

Section B

same strength of a radioactive source.

determine its absorption coefficient.

6. Application of operational amplifier as (a) inverting amplifier and (b) non inverting

amplifier

44

Semester VI

Paper I

PHY-601

Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Objective: This course aims to introduce various types of spectra for hydrogen, alkali and

alkaline earth atoms. It also gives an introduction to X-ray spectra. Techniques of

Molecular spectroscopy are also discussed in this paper, which include IR and Raman

spectra.

Unit I

Types of spectra, spectrum of Hydrogen atom, spectral lines, the spinning electron, space

quantization, quantum numbers and their physical interpretation, quantum numbers for

complete atom, magnetic moments of an atom and Landes ‘g’ factor, Larmor’s theorem,

Stern and Gerlach experiment, fine structure of the Hydrogen lines, spectral terms and

their notation.

Unit II

Different series in alkali spectra, Ritz combination formula, spin orbit interaction,

explanation of salient features of alkali spectra, doublet structure in alkali spectra (fine

structure), Transition rules, intensity rules, spectra of alkaline earth metals, coupling

schemes: L.S and j-j coupling, selection rules in atoms of two valence electrons, singlet

and triplet series, spectrum of Helium atom.

Unit III

Continuous x-ray spectrum, characteristic emission and absorption spectrum and their

explanation, energy levels, Moseley’s law, combination principle, fine structure of x-ray

lines, fluorescence yield and Auger effect, soft x-ray emission and structure of absorption

edges.

45

Unit IV

Salient features of vibrational rotational spectra, vibrating diatomic molecules as a

harmonic oscillator, fine structure of vibrational rotational bands, interaction of

vibrational and rotational energies, experimental arrangements for studying IR spectra.

Unit V

Raman effect and its salient features, Observation of Raman spectra, classical theory of

Raman effect, quantum theory of Raman effect, probability of energy transition in Raman

effect, vibrational Raman spectra, Pure rotational Raman spectra, structure determination

from Raman and infra red spectroscopy.

Books Recommended

Essentials Readings

2. “Fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy”, Collin N. Banwell and Elaine M.

McCash, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. New Delhi, 2005.

References

Pub.Co.,Second Edition.

2. “Molecular Spectra and Molecular structure: Spectra of diatomic Molecules”,

Gerhard Herzberg, Dover Publications.

3. “Introduction to Atomic Physics”, Enge, Wehr and Richards, Addison Wiesley,

London.

4. “Atomic and Nuclear Physics”, A.B. Gupta, New Central book agency Pvt. Ltd.

46

Semester VI

Paper II

PHY-602

Information Communication Technology

M.M.:100

(CA –30 , SEE-70)

Objectives:

Information Communications Technology - or technologies (ICT) is an umbrella term that

includes all technologies for the communication of information. This course gives a brief

idea of the technology of wireless communication and networks.The objective of this

course is to provide a comprehensive technical survey of wireless

communication,fundamentals,wireless networks and wireless applications

Unit I

Introduction and Transmission Fundamentals: (9 periods)

Introduction: Wireless comes of age, The Cellular revolution, The global Cellular

network, Broadband, Future trends.

Transmission Fundamentals: Signals for conveying information: Time domain

concepts, Frequency domain concepts, Relationship between data rate and bandwidth.

Analog and Digital data transmission: Analog and digital data, analog and digital

signaling, Analog and digital transmission.

Channel Capacity: Nyquist bandwidth, Shannon capacity formula.

Transmission Media: Terrestrial microwaves, Satellite microwaves, Broadcast radio,

Infrared.

Unit II

Communication Networks and Protocols: (9 periods)

Communication Networks: LANs, MANs and WANs , Switching Techniques, Circuit

Switching, Packet Switching: Basic operation, Packet size .

Protocols: The need for a Protocol architecture, The TCP / IP Protocol Architecture: The

TCP / IP Layers, Operation of TCP and IP, TCP / IP applications. The OSI model,

Internetworking: Routers, Internetworking example.

Unit III

Antennas and Propagation: ( 9 periods)

Antennas: Radiation patterns, Antenna types, Antenna Gain.

Propagation Modes: Ground Wave propagation, Sky Wave propagation, Line of Sight

propagation.

Line of Sight Transmission: Attenuation, Free Space loss, Noise, The expression Eb / N0,

Atmospheric absorption, Multipath, Refraction.

47

Fading in the Mobile Environment: Multipath propagation, Error compensation

Mechanisms.

Unit IV

Satellite Communication: (9 periods)

Satellite parameters and configurations: Satellite Orbits, GEO, LEO, MEO satellites,

frequency bands, transmission impairments, satellite network configurations, Capacity

allocation – Frequency division : Frequency division multiplexing, Frequency division

multiple access(FAMA,DAMA); Capacity Allocation-Time division

Unit V

Cellular Wireless Networks: (9 periods)

Principles of Cellular networks: Cellular network organization, operation of cellular

systems, mobile radio propagation effects, power control; First generation analog :

spectral allocation, operation, AMPS control channels.

Second generation TDMA: Time division multiple access, Mobile wireless TDMA design

considerations, Global system for mobile communications, GSM network architecture.

Second generation CDMA: CDMA, Mobile wireless CDMA design considerations.

Introduction to third generation systems.

Books Recommended:

Essential Readings:

India,2005.

Reference Books:

1985.

2. “Principles of communications – Systems, Modulation and Noise”, R.E. Ziemer

and W.H. Tranter, Jaico Publishing House 1996.

3. “Wireless Communication”, Reppaport, Pearson Education

4. “Digital Satellite Communications”, Tri, Tata Mc Graw Hill International

48

5. “Mobile Cellular Telecommunications”, William C.Y. Lee, Mc Graw Hill

International Edition.

6. “Satellite Communication System”, M. Richharia, Mac Millan.

7. “Introduction to Optical Fiber”, Allen H Cherin, Mc Graw Hill.

8. Principles of communication systems”, Taub. Schilling ,Mc. Graw Hill 2nd edition

1986.

9. “Modern Physics”, S.L. Kakani, Shubhra Kakani , Viva Books private Ltd.,2007

49

Semester VI

Paper-III

PHY-603

PHYSICS PRACTICAL

NOTE - Students are expected to perform eight experiments in all taking four

experiments from each section. One experiment from section A and one from section

2. Distribution of marks will be as follows :

Observations/Calculations : 16

Result /Result Analysis : 5

Precautions : 2

3. Viva -Voce : 10

Total : 70 marks

50

Semester VI

Paper III

PHY-603

List of Experiments

M.M.:100

(CA –30, SEE-70)

Section A

1. Study of Iodine Spectrum with the help of a grating, spectrometer and ordinary

bulb.

Section B

a. At definite frequency

b. At variable frequency

5. Study the frequency response of a transistor wide band amplifier with and without

feedback. Also obtain input and output impedance of the amplifier.

51

(AUTONOMOUS)

COURSES OF STUDY

FOR

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission in the academic year 2009-10

52

Certificate Course in Instrumentation

Code Paper Name Hrs/wee Maximu Minimu External Duration

Continuous

m m Assessme (Hours)

k Assessment

Marks Marks nt

Basic Electronics

INS 131 And Electrical 2 100 40 70 30 3

Measurements

Digital

INS 132 Electronics 2 100 40 70 30 3

Electronics,

Measurement

INS-133 And Digital

4 100 40 70 30 5

Electronics

Laboratory

53

Certificate Course in Instrumentation

Paper I

INS 131

Basic Electronics and Electrical Measurements

UNIT I

Resistors- General Information, Symbol, Colour Code, Types: Carbon, Metal Film, Thin

Film, Thick Film, Physical Properties-temperature dependence (Thermistor)

Inductors- General information, Symbol, Types: air core, iron core, ferrite core, choke

Capacitors- General information, Symbol, Types: Paper, Mica, Electrolytic

UNIT II

Introduction to Semiconductors, N and P Type Of Semiconductors, Mobility and

Conductivity, , Fermi Distribution, Carrier Concentrations and Fermi Levels in

Semiconductor, Hall Effect

Semiconductor Devices

Construction, Working and Characteristics of Junction Diode, Zener Diode, BJT, JFET,

MOSFET, Solar Cells

UNIT III

Measurements, Significance of measurements, Methods of Measurement: Direct method,

indirect methods, Instruments: Mechanical, Electrical and Electronic instruments,

Classification of Instruments, Analog and Digital modes of operation, Functions of

instruments and measurement system, Applications of measurement system, Elements of a

generalized Measurement System .

UNIT IV

Classification of Resistances

Measurement of Medium Resistances: Methods of Measurement of Medium Resistances,

Description of Wheat stone Bridge and Carey-Foster Slide Wire Bridge

Measurement of Low Resistances: Introduction, Methods for Measurement of Low

Resistance: Detailed study of Kelvin Double Bridge method

Measurement of High Resistances: Introduction, Difficulties in Measurement of High

Resistances, Methods for Measurement of High Resistance: Detailed study of Loss of

Charge Method

54

UNIT V

Introduction, Sources and Detectors, General equation for Bridge Balance, General form

of A.C. Bridge

Measurement of Self Inductance: Anderson’s Bridge

Measurement of Capacitance: De Sauty’s Bridge

Measurement of Mutual Inductance: Heaviside Mutual Inductance Bridge

Measurement of Frequency: Wien’s Bridge

Books Recommended:

Essential Reading:

1. “Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation”, A.K.Sawhney,

Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

2. “Basic electronics”, A.P.Malvino, Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub. Co. New Delhi.

References:

1. “Basic Electronics”, B.L.Theraja, S.Chand & Sons.

2. “Electronic Devices”, Floyd, Pearson education.

3. “Electronic Devices and circuit theory”, Robert Boylestad & Nashelsky,

Prentice Hall of India.

55

Paper II

INS 132

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

UNIT I

Number System [No. of Hrs.:10]

Binary numbers, decimal – binary conversion, octal numbers, octal-binary conversion,

hexadecimal numbers, hexadecimal-binary conversion, hexadecimal – octal conversion

Binary Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)

UNIT II

Boolean Algebra [No. of Hrs.:15]

Basics Laws of Boolean Algebra, Logic Gates (NOT, AND,OR, EX-OR, EX-NOR,

NAND. NOR),Boolean algebra, demorgan’s theorem, standards forms for logical

expression, SOP , POS, specification of logical functions in terms of Maxterm and

Minterm, Simplifications of Boolean equations using K-maps, don’t care conditions

Arithmetic Circuits

Half Adder, Full Adder, Half Subtractor, Parallel binary adder/Subtractor, binary

multiplier and divider.

Combinational Circuits

Multiplexers(74151/74150),De-Multiplexers(74154),decoders(74139/74154/7445),

encoders(74148,74147), BCD to seven segment decoder, Parity generator/checkers,

magnitude comparators.

Sequential circuits

Flip-flops , S-R, D, J-K, T, Clocked Flip-flop, Race around condition, Master

slave Flip-Flop(truth table, working )

Logic families, characteristics of digital IC’s, sourcing and sinking, Introduction to bipolar

families(RTL,RCTL,DTL,HTL), TTL : working, totem pole and open collector output

concepts

Shift Registers

Serial-in-serial-out, serial-in-parallel-out, parallel-in-serial-out and parallel-in-parallel-out,

shift right and shift left

Counters

Ripple counter, Synchronous /asynchronous UP/DOWN Counter, Modulo ‘N’ Counters,

Concept of counters as frequency dividers, BCD counters

56

Books Recommended:

Essential Reading:

1. “Digital circuits and design”, S. Salivahanan & S. Arivyhgan,Vikas

Publication,2001.

2. “Modern Digital Electronics”. P. Jain, Tata Mc Graw Hill,2003,Third Edition.

3. “Digital Logic and Computer Design”, Moris Mano, Prentice Hall of India.

References:

1. “Digital Principles and Application”, Malvino Leach,Mc Graw Hill, Fifth Edition.

2. “Digital Computer Electronics” Malvino, Career Education, Third Edition.

3. “Digital Electronics-Principles & applications”,A.K.Maini, Khanna Publications.

4. “Digital Fundamentals”, Floyd, Prentice Hall of India.

57

Paper III

INS 133

Electronics, Measurement and Digital Electronics Laboratory

Section A

1. To identify a Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor and Capacitor from collection

of such items and to find out the value of Resistance of given Resistor by color-

code method, Use of Multimeter to do following-

a. Identify Base of transistor

b. Distinguish between NPN and PNP transistor

2. To study and verify characteristics of NPN transistor in common emitter

configuration.

3. To study the variation of power transfer to different loads by a D.C. source and to

verify maximum power transfer theorem

4. To measure the low Resistance by Kelvin’s Double bridge

5. Measure unknown frequency using Wein’s Bridge

6. Measure unknown capacitance using De Saulty Bridge

Section B

a) AND gate e)NOR gate

b)OR gate f)Ex-OR gate

c)NOT gate g)EX-NOR gate

d)NAND gate

a) UP counter

b) DOWN counter

c) RING counter

3. Study and verify working of RIGHT and LEFT Shift Registers

4. Verify operation of Decoders

a)BCD to Decimal Decoder

b)BCD to 7 Segment Decoder

5. Study working of 16 * 1 digital Multiplexer.

6. Study and verify working of Demultiplexer.

58

Diploma in Instrumentation

Exam

Contact Distribution of Marks Duration

Code Paper Name Hrs/wee Maximu Minimu External (Hours)

Continuous

k m m Assessme

Assessment

Marks Marks nt

Electronic

INS 231 2 100 40 70 30 3

Instrumentation

Instrumentation

INS 233 4 100 40 70 30 5

and Transducer

Lab

Summer Training

1 Month 100 * 40 100 --- ----

Viva : 30

Report writing : 40

Presentation : 30

59

Diploma in Instrumentation

Electronic Instrumentation

INS 231(Paper I)

Characteristics of Instruments and Measurement Systems

Measurement system performance, static calibration, errors in measurement True value ,

static error, Scale range and span, Noise ,Accuracy and Precision, Static Sensitivity,

Instrument Efficiency, Loading effects, Loading effects due to Series connected and Shunt

connected instruments

Electronic Instruments for Measuring Basic Parameters

Electronic voltmeter, Digital voltmeter, Electronic Multimeter, Q meter, Vector

Impedance meter

Oscilloscopes

CRT construction, Basic CRO circuits, Observation of waveforms on CRO, Measurement

of Voltage, Current, Phase Angle, Frequency (Lissajous Patterns), Special Purpose

Oscilloscopes:

Multiple Trace, Sampling and Storage, Calibrators, Probes

Signal Generators

Standard signal generator, sine wave generator, sweep frequency generator, special

waveform generators

Display Devices and Recorders

Digital instruments: Advantages, Digital versus Analog instruments, Accuracy

specification, Sensitivity, Classification of display devices: Nixie tube, LED, LCD

Amplifiers

Different terms used in amplifiers, small signal,source, input, output voltage and current

gain, power gain, decibel, input and output impedance

Differential amplifiers

Black box concept, terms such as common mode and differential signals,CMRR, analysis

of single ended and differential output, differential amplifier

Feedback amplifier

Classification, Feedback concept, general characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers,

basic concept of voltage series, voltage shunt, current series, current shunt feedback

amplifiers, stability criteria

Oscillators

Classification. Criteria for oscillation, tuned collector, Hartley, Colpitts, RC-phase shift,

Wein Bridge and crystal oscillator

60

Books Recommended:

Essential Reading:

1. “Electronic instrumentation and Measurement Techniques”,W.D.Cooper, and A.D.

Heifrick, Prentice Hall of India

2. “Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation”, A.K.Sawhney,

Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

3. “Integrated electronics”, J. Milliman & C. Halkias,TMH.

References:

1. “Electronic Devices and circuit theory”, Robert Boylestad & Nashelsky, Prentice

Hall of India.

2. “Handbook on Electronic Instruments and Measurement Techniques”, H.E.

Thomas and C.A.Clark,PHI.

61

Paper-II

INS 232

Transducers

UNIT I [No. of Hrs.:12]

Introduction-Classification of transducers, Principle of transduction, primary and

secondary transducers, active and passive transducers, analog digital, inverse transducers

Characteristics and choice of transducers: Input, output and transfer characteristics, factors

influencing choice of transducers

Variable Resistance Transducers: Potentiometer loading effect, Power rating, linearity and

sensitivity, construction of Potentiometers, types of potentiometers: strain gauges,

thermistor

Variable Inductance Transducers: LVDT, RVDT, Synchros

arrangement, variation of dielectric constant for measurement of displacement, Frequency

response of capacitive transducers

Frequency Generating and digital transducers: digital encoder. Shaft Encoder

effect and frequency response, impulse response

Vibrations pick up: necessity for measurement of vibrations, nature of vibrations,

quantities involved, types of accelerometers, seismic transducer

Speed pick up: Tachometer, Electrical and mechanical, stroboscope and stroboscopic

methods

Books Recommended:

Essential Reading:

1. “Mechanical industrial measurements”, R.K. Jain, Khanna Publishers.

2. “Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation”, A.K.Sawhney,

Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

References:

1. “Principles of measurement systems”, Bentlex, Pearson Education.

62

Paper III

INS 233

Instrumentation and Transducer Lab

Section A

2. To study characteristics of FET

3. Study Wein Bridge oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R and C on

oscillator frequency

4. Study zener regulated power supply and study regulation with loads

5. Study of analog CRO, measurement of time period, amplitude and frequency.

6. Study the functions of signal generator.

Section B

a) PT-100

b) Thermistor

c) Thermocouple

2. To draw the characteristics of K type thermocouple

3. LVDT kit

a) To study excitation and balancing network

b) To plot curve between displacement and output voltage

4. To draw characteristics of LDR

5. To draw characteristics of variable capacitance type transducer

6. To draw characteristics of variable inductance type transducer

63

Advance Diploma in Instrumentation

Code Paper Name Hrs/wee Maximu Minimu External Duration

Continuous

k m m Assessme (Hours

Assessment

Marks Marks nt

Medical

INS 332 2 100 40 70 30 3

Electronics

Micro Processor

INS 333 and Medical 4 100 40 70 30 5

Electronics Lab

Project

I month 100 * 40 70 30 ---

Continuous Assessment : 30

Project work : 30

Viva and Presentation : 20

Report writing : 20

64

Advance Diploma in Instrumentation

Paper I

INS 331

Microprocessors

UNIT I [No. of Hrs.:12]

Introduction: What is microprocessor, Need of microprocessor in instrumentation,

Advantages of microprocessors based instrumentation over conventional instrumentation

Microprocessor Architecture

Memory organization: types of memories (RAM, EPROM, ROM, PROM, DRAM), Basic

concepts of memory organization( number of address lines required, arrangement of

memory cells, control lines, memory extension), control of control lines such as

Read/write chip enable, register required transfer via data bus

Arithmetic and logic unit:

Functions of ALU, detail design of an ALU which perform basic 4 bit

opertions(ADD,SUBT,OR,AND),Need for instruction Decoder, ALU control signals

Control and timing unit

Need of control unit, sequence of execution of an instruction, detailed design of control

unit

Introduction to 8085 architecture: Block diagram, Address Bus, control bus, data bus,

organization, Demultiplexing address and data bus during memory read or memory write,

Control and timing unit, ALU details, Registers, Flags, memory mapped I/O and I/O

mapped I/O

Instruction set: Classification of instruction set, opcode format , Basic instructions – data

transfer instructions: immediate addressing, Register addressing, direct addressing,

indirect instructions

Advanced Instructions: Branching, Conditional and unconditional subroutines, concept

of stack, need of stack pointer

Control and Timing: Sequence of execution of instructions, concept of instruction cycle

and machine cycle, various types of machine cycles along with associated control and

status signals(opcode fetch, memory read, memory write, I/O read, I/O write, IO/M, MR,

MW)

Books Recommended:

Essential Reading:

1. “Microprocessor architecture, Programming and applications”, R.S. Gaonkar

2. “Digital computer electronics”, Albert Paul Malvino, TMH.

References:

1. “Microprocessor’s and Applications”, A.P.Mathur

65

Paper II

INS 332

Medical Electronics

UNIT I [No. of Hrs:12]

Human Body Subsystems: Brief description of neural, muscular, cardiovascular and

respiratory systems; their electrical, mechanical; and chemical activities

Transducers and Electrodes: Principles and Classification of transducers for biomedical

applications, electrode theory, different types of electrodes, selection criteria for

transducers and electrodes

Cardiovascular System Measurements: Measurement of blood pressure, blood flow,

cardic output, cardic rate, heart sounds, electrocardiograph, phonocardiograph, Plethysmo

graph, Echocardiograph

Instrumentation for Clinical Laboratory: Measurement of pH value of blood, ESR

measurement, hemoglobin measurement,O2 and CO2 concentration in blood

Measurement of Electrical Activity in Neuromuscular System and Brain: Neuron

potential, muscle potential, brain potentials, electro-encephalography, electromyography

Medical Imaging: Diagnostic X-rays, CAT, MRI, Thermography, Ultrasonography,

medical use of isotopes, Endoscopy

Patient Care, Monitoring and Safety Measures: Elements of intensive care, monitoring

basic hospital systems and components, physiological effect of electric current shock

hazards from electrical equipment, safety measures, standards and practices

Computer Applications and Bio Telemetry: Real time computer applications, data

acquisition and processing, remote data recording and management

Therapenutic and Prosthetic Devices: Introduction to cardiac pacemakers. defibrillators,

ventilators, muscle simulators, diathermy, heart lung machine, hemodialysis, application

of laser

Books Recommended:

Essential Reading:

1. “Medical instrumentation, application and Design”,J.G. Webster, John Wiley and

Sons

2. “Introduction to Biomedical equipments”, Carr, Pearson education.

3. “Handbook of biomedical instrumentation”, R.S.Khandpur, Tata Mc Graw Hill.

References:

1. “Medical and Clinical engineering”, B.Jacobson, J.G. Webster, Prentice hall

International.

2. “Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements”, Cromwell, Prentice hall

International.

66

Paper III

INS 333

Microprocessor and Medical Electronics Lab

Section A

a) Addition

b) Subtraction

c) Multiplication

d) Average

e) Key board recognition techniques

2. Study the hardware, functions, memory structure and operation of 8085

microprocessor kit.

3. Program to perform integer division (8 bit)

4. Transfer of a block of data in memory to another place in direct order.

5. Perform conversion (BCD to ASCII)

6. Perform conversion (BCD to Hexadecimal)

Section B

2. Blood pressure measurements, introduction to haemodynamics

3. Introduction to

a) Ultrasound techniques

b) Tomographic techniques

4. Interpretation of data and precaution for measurements

a) Pacemakers

b) Defibrillators

c) Heart-lung

6. Other ICU instrumentation

67

(AUTONOMOUS)

FOR

B.Sc. PHYSICS EXAMINATION

Syllabus applicable for the students seeking admission to the B.Sc. Physics Course in the

academic year 2009-10

68

B.Sc.

Physics

PHY-501

(Quantum Mechanics)

Maximum Marks: 70

Note:- The question paper consists of four sections. All sections are compulsory. All the

symbols have their usual meanings.

Section I consists of 15 objective type questions with 1 mark each.

Section II consists of 10 short answer questions with 2 marks each from which you have

to attempt any eight questions. .

Section III consists of 5 numerical with 5 marks each from which attempt any three

questions. .

Section IV consists of 5 long answer questions with 8 marks each from which attempt any

three questions.

Section I

∞ ∞

2

(a) ∫ | ψ(x,y,z) | dv = 0 (b) ∫ | ψ(x,y,z) |2 dv = N

-∞ -∞

∞ ∞

( c) ∫ | ψ(x,y,z) |2 dv = 1 (d) ∫ | ψ(x,y,z) |2 dv = 1/N

-∞ -∞

(a) Uncertainity principle

(b) Davission and Germer Experiment

(c) Frank-Condon experiment

(d) G.P.Thomson Experiment

(a) 3.6 eV (b) -3.6 eV

(c) 13.6eV (d) -13.6 eV

69

iv. Sin 2x is an eigen function for the operator

(a) d/dx (b) d2/dx2

(c) d/dt (d) d2/dt2

(a) linear operators (b) non-commutating operators

(c) commutating operators (d) reciprocal operators

(a) iћ ∂ / ∂ x (b) ћ ( ∂/ ∂ x) /i

(c) ћ (∂/ ∂ y) /i (d) ћ (∂/ ∂ z) /i

vii. Which of the following boundary conditions is satisfied by the wave function?

(a) Both ψ and (∂ ψ/ ∂ x) should be continuous, finite and single valued

(b) Only ψ should be continuous and finite

(c) Only (∂ψ/ ∂ x) should be continuous and finite

(d) Both ψ and ( ∂ψ/ ∂ x) should be single valued

viii. The ground state energy of the particle in one dimensional box is given by

(a) E1 = π2ћ2/ma2 (b) E1 = π2ћ2/2ma2

2 2 2

(c) E1 = 8π ћ /ma (d) E1 = π2ћ2/8ma2

ix. For a single step potential barrier the value of reflectance ‘R’ is given by

(a) ( p1 + p2 )2/ ( p1- p2 )2 (b) ( p1 - p2 )2/ ( p1+ p2 )2

(c) ( p1 + p2 ) / ( p1-p2 ) (d) ( p1 - p2 ) / ( p1+ p2 )

(a) is zero (b) remains same

(c) increases with ‘n’ (d) decreases with ‘n’

xi. The wave function for the ground state of the harmonic oscillator is

(a) Ψ0 (x) = (α /π)1/4 e(- αx2 /2) (b) Ψ0 (x) = (α /π) e(- αx2 /2)

1/2 (- αx2 /2)

(c) Ψ0 (x) = (α /π) e (d) Ψ0 (x) = (α /π)1/4 e(αx2 /2)

(a) ћ2 ( l + 1 ) / 2I (b) ћ2 l( l + 1 ) / I

2

(c) ћ ( l + 1 ) / I (d) ћ2 l( l + 1 ) / 2I

(a) i ћ (∂ / ∂ φ) (b) - i ћ (∂ / ∂ φ)

(c) 1/ ћ (∂ / ∂ φ) (d) - 1 / ћ ∂ / ∂ φ

2

xiv. The eigen value of L is

(a) l (l + 1) ћ2 (b) l ћ2

2

(c) (l + 1) ћ (d) l (l + 1)

(a) i ћ Lx (b) i ћ Ly

(c) i ћ Lz (d) i ћ L

70

.

Section II

3. Write the physical significance of wave function Ψ.

4. Write any two postulates of Quantum mechanics.

5. State Bohr’s principle of complimentarity.

6. Write a short note on the tunnel effect.

7. What do you understand by degeneracy of levels?

8. Explain the significance of zero point energy of an oscillator.

9. What are symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions? Write down the parity of each.

10. What do you mean by Ladder’s operator?

11. What is the total angular momentum operator?

Section III

12. The life time of a nucleus in an excited state is 10-12 sec. Calculate the probable

uncertainity in the energy and frequency of a γ –ray photon emitted by it.

13. Prove that the two eigenfunctions of a hermitian operator belonging to different eigen

values are orthogonal.

14. Find out the lowest energy of an electron confined to move in a one-dimensional

potential box of length 1Ấ.

15. Normalize the ground state wavefunction for the one-dimensional oscillator so that the

total probability of finding the particle is unity.

(a) Lz , LI (b) L+ , L-

Section IV

17. Separate the wave function into time dependent and time independent parts and obtain

the steady state Schrödinger’s equation.

71

19. Discuss the quantum mechanical scattering of a particle of mass ‘m’ and energy ‘E’ by

the square potential well

0, x<0

V(x) = -V0, 0 < x < a

0, x>a

Obtain the reflection and transmission coefficient and show that their sum is unity.

20. Solve the Schrödinger’s equation for the linear harmonic oscillator and obtain the

energy values. In what way is this quantum mechanical description different from

classical description.

72

B.Sc.

Physics

PHY-502

Maximum Marks: 70

Note:- The question paper consists of four sections. All sections are compulsory. All the

symbols have their usual meanings.

Section I consists of 15 objective type questions with 1 mark each.

Section II consists of 10 short answer questions with 2 marks each from which you have

to attempt any eight questions. .

Section III consists of 5 numerical with 5 marks each from which attempt any three

questions. .

Section IV consists of 5 long answer questions with 8 marks each from which attempt any

three questions.

Section I

i. The nuclear force between two nucleons is due to exchange of _______

(a)Pions (b)Gluons (c)Photons (d)Phonons

(a) Z is even but N is odd

(b) Z is odd but N is even

(c) Both Z and N are odd

(d) Both Z and N are even

iii. Asymmetry energy EA of a nucleus having atomic number A and Z protons is proportional

to

(a) (A-2Z)2 (b) (A-2Z) (c) (A-Z) 2 (d) (A-Z)

iv. In the p-p fusion cycle, the energy produced per cycle is

(a) 24.7 MeV (b) 12-8 MeV (c) 5.5 MeV (d) 0.42 MeV

(a) Nuclear Fission (b) Nuclear Fusion (c) Stellar energy (d) nucleon size

(a) 94 Pu 239 (b) 94 Pu 238 (c) 92 U 235 (d)92 U 233

73

vii. The weakest type of particle interaction is

(a) Strong (b) Electromagnetic (c) Weak (d) Gravitational

(a) S= Y-B (b) S= Y+B (c) S=Y + B (d) S=Y+B

2 2

ix. Minimum intensity of cosmic rays is observed

(a) above 40o latitude (b) above 50o latitude (c) Pole (d)Equator

(a) electron (b) proton (c)α-particle (d)deutron

xi. The electrons moving in a stable orbit of fixed radius are accelerated by increasing the magnetic

flux through the orbit. This is the working principle of

(a) Cyclotron (b) Synchroton (c) Betatron (d) Proton synchrotron

(a)Em = ½ B2 e 2R (b)Em = ½ B e 2 R

m m

(c)Em = ½ B e R (d)Em = 2 Be 2R2

m m

xiii. The electric field strength E at a point distant ‚r’ from the axis of cylinder in G M counter is

(a) Er = __Vo (b) Er = Vo

r log (a) r log (a)

b b

(c) Er = Vo log a (d) Er = Vo r log a

b b

(a) α Particle (b) β Particles (c) γ Particles (d)gravitons

xv. The liquids preferred in bubble chamber should have _____ surface tension

and _______ vapour pressure.

(a) low, high (b) high, high (c) low, low (d) high, low

74

Section II

significance?

3. What is meant by parity?.

4. What are the conditions of a self sustained chain reaction and how are they

achieved. .

5 On the basis of liquid drop model of a nucleus, explain nuclear fission

6. What is cosmic ray shower?.

7. Define strangeness quantum number, Baryon number, hypercharge and isotopic spin.

8. Give the principle of proton synchrotron.

9. Derive the expression for cyclotron frequency.

10. State the difference between proportional counter and Geiger Muller counter.

11. Write the principle of cloud chamber.

Section III

12. What is the distance of closest approach of a 2 MeV (i) α particle (ii) proton to a gold

nucleus? For gold Z = 79.

13. If 200 M eV energy is obtained from fission of nucleus of 92U235 ,calculate how

many fissions will occur in one second so that 2 KW power could be obtained.

14. Which of the following reactions can / cannot occur and why ?

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

15. A halogen quenched GM tube operates at 1 KV has a wire of diameter 0.2 mm. The

radius of the cathode is 20 mm and the tube has a guaranteed life of 109 counts.What

is the maximum radial field and how long will the counter last, if it is used on an

average of 30 hours per week at 3000 counts /minute.

16. Calculate the frequency of electric field that must be applied between the dees of a

cyclotron in which (a)proton (b) α particles are accelerated. The applied magnetic

flux is 3.5 weber/m2.

75

Section IV

17. Write down the semi empirical mass formula for nucleus and explain various terms

present in it . Also discuss the stability of even A and odd A isobars on its basis.

(b) What is a nuclear reactor? Give their classification.

a) Matter and anti matter

b) Quark theory

c) Conservation laws in particle physics

(b) Describe a betatron.Obtain an expression for total energy of electron accelerated by

a betatron.

21.(a)Give a sketch of scintillation counter. How does it work ?What phosphors are used

to detect different radiations?

(b) Describe the action of solid state detector.

76

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