Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14


Markus Piennisch

Dear friends, 1 . THE CONSOLIDA TION OF
At the en d o f this ye ar´s con- WORD OF GOD
ference I would like to highlight
the th eme: „ Christian T he olog y Both in Malaysia as well as in Indo-
in the Islamic Context: Mission- nesia it was conspicuous that the
ary and Hermeneutical Perspec- anglophonic worship culture within
tiv es ” . I n do i n g so, I am prim a- the church service has been assimi-
rily referring to the situation lated to a large extent to the one of
i n sou t h Ea s t Asia with spe cial the European-Western Christianity.
reference to Malaysia and In- This is true even across confessional
donesia. I have given several boundaries, such as Lutheran, Bap-
guest lectures at theological tist or Charismatic churches in the
seminaries in these countries. Asian context.
During my explanations I intend
to l et t h e t h eolog ical voice s of W ORSHIP DURING C HURCH S ERVICE
the n o n - W e s t e rn Christians be Melodies, song texts, musical ac-
heard so that we may have a companying and leadership style
first-hand perception of their of worship times in Ma lay sia and
per s pe c t i ve s . Indonesia are very similar to those
in Germany or England. A Chinese
Against this background, the pastor in Malaysia told me that he
following three aspects become wished that more Christian songs
tr ans pa re n t a s having a parti- would be sung with Chinese me-
cular s i gn i fi c a nce f or m issions lodies and Chi ne se texts. Because
work i n t h e I s l am ic conte xt: until today the anglophonic song
material is very dominant in these
1. The consolidation of native Chris- cultures.
tians in the Word of God
2. The penetration of cultures with Beside this symptom of a lack of
the claim of the Lordship of Christ inculturation of the church service,
3. The analysis of the patterns of another deficit of more serious con-
understanding as the way toward the sequences becomes evident. Native
proclamation of the Gospel Christians in Indonesia including
students in my class told me that diator between the invisible world
the sermon during the church ser- and humans. When a traditional In-
vice is certainly quite motivational. donesian becomes a Christian, he
However, the sermon is not adequa- equates the pastor of a Christian
tely based upon the Biblical text. church with the shaman because of
Too often, the pastor preaches “the his animistic thinking. He will look
right doctrine from the wrong text“. at the pastor as the mediator to the
This means that – and this is true to invisible God and he will encounter
our situation in Germany as well – in him as a “spiritual shaman”. This,
South East Asia, a considerable part however, will mislead him becau-
of evangelical sermons is characte- se the pastor is only the spiritual
rized by a dangerous superficiality shepherd who is called to lead the
in the exposition of the Bible. people to Jesus Christ as the only
mediator between God and men (1
This deficit is very dangerous be- God and ONE mediator between God
cause the native Christians in the and men, the man Christ Jesus, who
churches need a preparation for has given himself as a ransom for
their testimony in their faith and all, as a testimony at its own ap-
practice in view of the challenges of pointed times.”
Islam. Instead, there often is a one-
sided preoccupation with worship Here we see how great and chal-
and praise. This, however, cannot lenging our task is, the task to
replace a thoroughly prepared make, through theological work in
sermon, teaching and counseling. missions, the message of the Bible
Accordingly, one of my Indonesi- understandable to people of other
an students perceptively remarked cultures and religions so that their
in class that many Chri sti ans only whole life will be changed. This is
have a street-understanding of the not only true in the islamic context
Bible. of South East Asia but also in the
Middle East, in our own churches
In other words, they understand and in our own lives with God and
only so much from the Bible as his word.
they have picked up along the way
in their church life. But they did not B IBLE T RANSLATION AND I N TER PRE TA TI ON
receive a foundational systematic The deficits in church practice are
instruction in the Word of God as being aggravated through points of
a good foundation to their faith. weakness in Bible translation and in
Therefore, evangelical proclamation theological education. For example,
needs to return to a thorough ex- during a lecture on the interpreta-
egetical elaboration of the Biblical tion of the Letter to the Romans,
text as the only reliable basis. a severe mistake in the Indonesian
Bible translation became evident. In
T HE FUNCTION OF THE P ASTOR Ro mans 1:17 the Indonesian Bible
Let me give an example for this: In translates the term “righteousness
the traditional thinking of Animism of God” with “truth of God”. Both
in Indonesia the shaman is the me- terms are related in the Indonesi-
an language, however, they have a God“ caused confusion among the
substantially different content of students in class and needed to be
meaning. Particularly in this decisive clarified regarding its content. The
key location of Paul´s argument in error indicates, however, that the
Romans, the correct understanding Bible translations available need to
of “righteousness” is absolutely be tested – and if necessary, cor-
foundational for his entire further rected - again and again through
presentation of the gospel. the comparison with the Hebrew
and Greek original text. However,
Accordingly, the renowned Bri- in theological studies the access
tish New Testament scholar James to the Biblical original languages
Dunn pointedly remarks on the term Greek and Hebrew is mostly very li-
“righteousness of God” (gr. dikaio- mited. Frequently, the instruction in
sune theou) in Romans 1:17: 1 “... in the ori gi nal languages is not provi-
Hebrew thought zedeq/zedaqah is ded for, even as an elective course.
essentially a concept of relation. This is a serious weakness because
Righteousness is not something certain decisions of textual inter-
which an individual has on his or pretation can only be made on the
her own, independently of anyone basis of knowing the original text.
else; it is something which one has However, this weakness is not only
precisely in one's relationships as a present in South East Asia but to a
social being. People are righteous considerable extent also in evange-
when they meet the claims which lical seminaries in German speaking
others have on them by virtue of Europe in the same way.
their relationship ... .So too when
it is predicated of God—in this case CHURCH TRADITION AND BIBLE INTERPRETATION
the relationship being the covenant Another reason for the concern of
which God entered into with his the consolidation of the Christians
people ... .God is "righteous" when in the Word of God is their occa-
he fulfills the obligations he took sional strong fixation upon their
upon himself to be Israel's God, own church tradition. At the semi-
that is, to rescue Israel and punish nary in Indonesia, this tradition was
Israel's enemies (e.g., Exod 9:27; l mainly determined by John Wesley
Sam 12:7; Dan 9:16; Mic 6:5) ... . It is (1703-91) and his understanding of
clearly this concept of God's righte- sanctification. He advanced the view
ousness which Paul takes over here; that the state of sinlessness in this
the "righteousness of God" being his life can be achieved by the Chri s-
way of explicating "the power of God ti an. Accordingly, the sinful deeds
for salvation" ... .It is with this sense of the Christian would only to be
that the phrase provides a key to his considered as “weaknesses”. This
exposition in Romans (3:5, 21-22, position of Wesley, however, is not
25-26; 10:3), as else¬where in his tenable in view of Paul´s understan-
theology (2 Gor 5:21; Phil 3:9).” 2 ding of sin in Romans 6-8. While
in Wesley´s view, the sins of man
I MPORTANCE OF THE B IBLICAL L ANGUAGES express themselves primarily in the
This translation error of „truth of ethical actions, Paul emphasizes
God“ instead of „righteousness of that the sinful actions of man are
an expression of his sinful nature. be introduced to a critical-inde-
The problem is rooted in the sin- pendent thinking which will enable
ful nature of man from which only them to liberate themselves from
Jesus Christ can set free. Through confessional barriers of thinking.
the work of the Holy Spirit he gives The central concern here is to help
the power for the sanctification of them to work through their own
the Chri sti an. During my lecturing world views, their pre-understan-
I discovered that the students re- dings and thought patterns. This is
peatedly tried to interpret Paul and a central and decisive task of the-
the letter to the Romans from the ology in missions.
perspective of Wesley.

Against this background we see the 2. THE PENETRATION OF CULTURES

importance of demonstrating to the WITH CHRIST´S CLAIM
native Christians their individual TO LORDSHIP
pre-understanding which they ap-
ply to the Biblical text, consciously For the reasons mentioned abo-
or unconsciously. But only through ve the general level of reflection
the hermeneutical process of Bib- in evangelical education needs to
le interpretation they will arrive at be increased. Only this way the
their own text-understanding. The Chri sti an faith can be proclaimed
decisive question is not: “What was and defended in the global world
the intention of Wesley?”, but “What of the 21st century in a better and
was the intention of Paul?” This more credible way. A central field of
strong confessional thinking is un- debate is the theological and mis-
derstandable for reasons of church sionary penetration of cultures with
politics. However, with regard to the Gospel. We have to realize that
the progress of understanding and culture is always an ambivalent fac-
theological fertilization it is rather tor which is determined, on the one
impeding. hand, by Christ´s claim to lordship,
on the other hand, by the rule of this
A DVANCEMENT OF THEOLOGICAL COMPETENCE world. These two opposing forces of
Especially in the global world of influence have been captured by Os
today it is necessary to practice Guinness very perceptively: 3
theological education as a giving
and taking within the whole body C HRIST AND C ULTURE
of Christ. In doing so, the refe- From the beginning of salvation
rence to Holy Scripture needs to be history the lordship of Christ over
of central priority, not one´s own the entire creation is operative in
church tradition. Therefore it is all all cultures. At the same time also
the more important in theological the rule of this world is operative in
studies – not only in South East Asia cultures with its sinful force which
but also in our country – to teach is turned against the lordship of
the Biblical languages in order to Christ. As a result there is a spiritual
strengthen the students in their tension in the cultures, and Chris-
competence to interpret the Bible. tians are called to proclaim and to
In addition, the students have to live out the lordship of God. 4
This need for engagement with the To fulfill this task requires that
cultures is not only obvious from Chri sti ans not only proclaim the
the perspective of the Western world Gospel as a presentation but also
view. Also in South East Asia there is that they are able to defend the
a clearer perception than ever before Christian faith: „Given the sophisti-
for the need for thorough theological cation of polemics mounted against
work in church and missions. Thus, Christianity we can no longer rest
for example, the Malaysian theolo- content on the sim ple preaching of
gian Dr. Ng Kam Weng describes the the gospel. This calls for a syste-
central tasks of the Christian witness matic and sustained effort to train
of today on an important website of Christian thinkers and activists who
the Malaysian Christians:5 “So often can defend the integrity of the Bib-
activism replaces serious theologi- le, the plausibility of the Christian
cal reflection when we act under the worldview, and demonstrate Chris-
tyranny of the urgent. But in the ab- tianity as a holistic way of life in
sence of a distinct intellectual frame- cross-cultural apologetics.”
work and with our inability to ferret
out the critique the presuppositions This task can only be accomplished
of dominant thought patterns of the if our theological work really takes
world, we end up merely responding root in the indigenous cultures: „The
to the agenda set by non-Christian availability of theological materials
elites and eventually conform to the that are rooted in cultural contexts
spirit of the age.” has been a desideratum for a long


time. We need to bring together rationality, increasingly yearn for
leaders to formulate strategies for spirituality in the context of au-
social engagement and Christian thentic community. They also want
annexation and repossession of to see the fruits of our belief in em-
culture of Christ. Christian scho- bodied living and compassion for
lars must develop in-depth cultural the needy before examining their
analysis and sophisticated critiques validity. Having been a layperson-
of Asian philosophies.” 6 practitioner in various settings, I am
convinced that apologetic should be
In the same way, one of my students lived out artfully as much as it is ar-
in Kuala Lumpur, David Chong, de- gued rationally, in a trust-building
scribed it in a paper on the theme faith community where Kingdom
„Doing Apologetics in the Malay- perspectives are demonstrated. 9
sian Context“. He is a contributor We should avoid a false dichotomy
to the Internet-Missions work The between truth and grace by follo-
Agora Ministry in Malaysia, which wing Jesus Christ who personified
encourages the discussion of the both (John 1:17).” 10
Christian faith with the indigenous
In doing the task of penetrating
“While there has been a resurgence the cultures with Christ´s claim to
of apologetic works in the American lordship, it is necessary to over-
context, most of the materials were come the subtle mutual prejudices
produced in response to atheistic between Western and non-Western
secularism and naturalism. ... The theology in the context of missions.
Malaysian church has definitely Considerable currents of Western
benefited from growing evangeli- theology oftentimes do not take
cal scholarship in defence of the seriously enough the non-Western,
historicity of the Gospels since indigenously produced theology.
Muslim apologists like Ahmad De- Occasionally it is insinuated that
edat borrowed the tools of liberal non-Western theology is only a
biblical criticism in their attempt to „Photocopy-Theology“, a theology
show that the Gospels are internally copied from the West, without a ge-
inconsistent or textually corrupt ... nuinely own contribution from the
. But what may work for a secular indigenous religious and cultural
atheist may not work for a theistic perspective.
Muslim or pantheistic Hindu. Asi-
an Christians need to rethink our This may have been the case until
rhetorical approach as a series of the 1980s again and again, but in
three-step, logical arguments in the last quarter century real in-
favor of a more dialogical enga- digenous theological approaches
gement, meal hospitality, posing in Africa and Asia have emerged.
questions that invite participation As examples, Tiénou (1984), Bujo
or self-discovery, story-telling that (1986) and Munga (1998) for Africa,
involves the imagination and liste- as well as Devasahayam (1997) and
ning with empathy. 8 Many people, Badrinath (2000) for Asia should be
inundated by totalizing claims of mentioned. 11
But also in reverse direction the in in ter na tio nal missions is quite
dependence of non-Western theo- limited. We should take this fact
logy from Western theology is being as an encouragement for our own
perceived and articulated in South contribution to world missions.
East Asia. This refers mainly to the
predominance of American Evange- M ISSIONS AND A MERICAN W ORLD V IEW
licalism in missions. A central problem is that the
Ame ri can world view provides in-
Here, indigenous Christians often- sufficient sensitivity and engage-
times sense an „American bon- ment with the deep structures of
dage“ because the strong influence indigenous cultures. This strong
of American Evangelicalism is still one-sided influence of American
highly visible in South East Asia. Evangelicalism in missions is also
Until today, Americans provide critically acknowledged by American
the largest number of Protestant Evangelical theologians themsel-
missionaries world wide (64.000), ves. Thus, the renowned American
followed by a wide margin by the Evangelical historian Prof. Mark Noll
South Koreans (12.000). In com- pointedly remarks: “The American
parison, German Evangelicals only circumstance itself makes it harder
provide about 2.500 missionaries for Americans to realize the cul-
world wide, which equals a rather tural effects of personal religious
modest percentage. Accordingly change, because we live in a society
the influence of German theology where change in your religion has


about as much cultural impact as of the Asian Chri sti an Theology in
change in your political affiliation its critical interaction with Western
or maybe changing where you live. theological approaches.13 At the end
These are major changes, but they of his comprehensive investigation
don't disorient life in a sense that a he arrives at the following conclu-
conversion would lead to the cutting sion: “Among the fruits commonly
off from family relationships, from found in tropical Asia are the ba-
accusations that you weren't really nana and the mango. The banana
truly now a Romanian, Chinese or is of uncertain origins, whereas
Indian person. That is a hard re- the mango is an authentic Asian
ality for Americans to understand, fruit. Ripe bananas are yellow, but
because of the nature of American when peeled reveal flesh off-white
religious circumstances.” 12 in color. On the other hand, most
species of mangos when ripe are
With regard to Malaysia and Indone- golden yellow on both the outside
sia the question arises: How strong and the inside. There is a parable in
is the theological and missiological this comparison between the bana-
competence of a one-sided Ame- na and the mango. Most of the post-
ri can-Evangelical understanding World War Two examples of Asian
of Is lam in the Chi ne se context of theology studied here look more
South East Asia? In contrast, the like bananas than mangos—'yellow'
central task of researching the outside, but 'white' inside. Asians
“Semitic Aspect” becomes obvious, may love the banana, but there is
which we would like to work on in no doubt that the sweet, succulent
conjunction with the Eusebia-Onli- flesh of the mango is prized much
ne-Bible School and with our annual more highly. If one has to choose,
conference. the latter is much more likely to be
preferred. ... Yet the fact remains
that Asian Christianity does not
3. THE ANALYSIS OF THE PATTERNS have a very clear sense of its own
OF UNDERSTANDING AS THE WAY self-identity. ... The overwhelming
TOWARD THE PROCLAMATION OF predominance of Western culture
THE GOSPEL in the modern world, and its con-
sequent effect on the development
Another important issue of Chri s- of Christianity in the non-Western
tian Theology in the Islamic context world in the last two hundred years
is the question of hermeneutics. are generally accepted facts today.
The basic issue is the foundatio- As a result non-Western Christians
nal approach of understanding of in general, and Asian Chri sti ans in
the indigenous cultures toward the particular, lost confidence in their
Bible. own cultures and histories. ... The
agenda for Asian theology for the
IN THE ASIAN CONTEXT future therefore seems clear. What
With regard to Asia, already 10 we need are more theological 'man-
years(!) ago the Malaysian theo- gos', and not 'bananas'. When these
logian Hwa Yung presented in his are birthed by the grace of God, they
doctoral thesis the development will bring genuine blessings to the
Asian church. They will first give and translate the Gospel. For Bed-
Asian Christianity a clearer sense iako 16 the phenomenal contextual
of self-identity without which it can impact of the Bible translations in
never fully mature. Secondly, they Africa and their missional radiation
should contribute to the healing of is an impressive example for the
the divisions obtained presently in fact that the Gos pel adapts itself
Asian Christianity, much of which very flexibly to the language world
have been imposed from without. of each ethnic group. This distin-
Finally, they will enable the churches guishes the Gos pel in its claim and
in Asia to proclaim the gospel of its ability for example from Is lam,
the Kingdom by word and deed with where the word of Allah can only be
greater pastoral relevance and mis- understood fully through the me-
siological fruitfulness.” 14 dium of the Arabic language. 17“ 18


This concern of the analysis of The Principal of Malaysia Bible Se-
the patterns of understanding is minary, Dr. Tan Kim Sai, has pu-
of primary importance not only blished a new book in December
in Asia but also in Africa. Accord- 2006. It is called “Gospelogy: The
ingly, Det lef Kapteina in his doc- Content and Nature of the Gospel”
toral thesis on African Evangelical and it contains a Theology of Mis-
Theology draws the following con- si on in the Chinese Context (280
clusion regarding the hermeneuti- pages!). 19 It is very interesting to
cal mistakes of missionaries: „The note that the last chapter is titled:
traditional theological tools which „Sharing the Gospel with Chinese:
were brought along by the mission- How about a Theology of Human
aries did not function. For example, Cultivation?“
proponents of AET 15 discovered in
the area of hermeneutics several Dr. Tan told me that he intended
mistakes of the missionaries: First, to elaborate more on exactly this
they did not seem to have a clear last theme in order to unfold this
concept of the cultural conditioning subject further. The goal is to
of their faith. In many cases, they communicate the Gospel more
prematurely linked the content of effectively to the Chinese, since
the Gospel with their culture, their human cultivation is a profound
civilization and their world view. cultural value of the Chi ne se, and
They demonstrated little readiness the essence of Confucianist tra-
to consciously distinguish between dition could be summed up as “A
the Western terminological cloth- Philosophy of Hu man Cultivation”.
ing of their message and its Biblical Dr. Tan said that it would be a good
substance. A second hermeneuti- contact point to offer the Gospel as
cal mistake was considered to be “A Theology of Human Cultivation”,
the missionaries´ inadequate and complementing, supplementing, as
prejudiced estimation of the African well as completing on what is la-
culture. Thirdly, the missionaries cking in the Chinese “Philosophy
seemed to underestimate in their of Human Cultivation”, which is
proclamation the ability to adapt largely anthropocentric.
THE CHAIN OF COMMUNICATION OF THE GOSPEL tern missionary and theologian ex-
This concern of the Principal ported his theology and culture into
is an outstanding example for the non-Western culture. Since the
the state of theology in today´s non-Western culture did not yet have
missions context. Because his tools to interact critically with this
concern to write a “Chinese export, it behaved to a large extent
Theology of Hu man Cultivation” receptively and imitating. This can be
illustrates the last and final step observed until today, for example in
in the chain of communication the arrangement of the church ser-
of the Gos pel. This is true both vice, in the theological statements
with respect to content as well of doctrine, or in the architecture
as to the historical development. of the church buildings: e.g. in the
Historically, the Pro te stant mis- Anglican Church of Uganda or in the
sions movement can be divided Lutheran Church of Malaysia or in the
into three foundational phases: Reformed Church of Sri Lanka.

First: the colonial phase of We stern Second: the adapted phase of We s-

theology (until 1967) – Six-Day- tern theology (from 1967 to 2000)
War between Israel und the Islamic through education and economic
world, indigenous government development of the independent
takeover in the colonial countries countries
Here, the hermeneutical pattern Here, the hermeneutical pattern
consisted in the fact that the Wes- consisted in the fact that the non-


Western theologian applied the THE NEW BIBLICAL-SEMITIC APPROACH
We stern theology in a way which is This problem has motivated us to em-
more sensitive to his own cultural phasize in our theology and missions
tradition. He critically reflected to the importance of the Biblical aspect
a certain extent Western theol- which of course is of a „Semitic“ ori-
ogy and missions work. During gin. It developed independently from
this phase, more and more non- our Western thinking which is exclu-
We stern theologians studied at sively shaped by Greek philosophy.
universities, seminaries and col- Only this “Biblical-Semitic aspect” will
leges of the We stern world. This allow us to strengthen an “unbiased”
way they had the opportunity to theology in the various missions ar-
critically and scientifically reflect to eas.
a certain extent Western theology
and missions. Nevertheless most Therefore we are working at finding
of the non-Western theologians, a new and foundational level of un-
having been educated in the West, derstanding. We want to show that
went back to their home countries the analysis of the structural “fitting”
with a Western-shaped approach to of the original (semitic) aspects of
thinking. This, however, indicates the Bible to the thought patterns of
that the third step of the chain of the various cultural areas is possible.
communication of the Gospel has Only this way we can minimize the
not yet been taken. distortion of the Biblical message für
the individual ethnic groups.
Third: the integrated phase of in-
digenous theology (from 2001) th- Only the adjustment of our theologi-
rough globalization, internet and cal view of the Biblical aspects from a
satellite TV Western to a Biblical-semitic view will
This third step in the Protestant enable the proclamation and mission
missions movement is still largely to communicate the Gospel effectively
missing and until today only present in non-Western cultural areas, like for
in some few approaches. A positive example, in Islamic countries or in the
example is the approach of Dr. Tan Far East. We would like to strengthen
from Malaysia who has recognized this concern through conferences and
the need to indigenize his “Gospe- training courses and to integrate it
logy”, his “Theology of Mis si on” in through the ministry of the "EUSEBIA
the Chinese world view in a genuine Online Bible School" in the various
and fruitful way. He is interested in missions areas.
answering a central concern of the
Chinese world view, i.e. the ques- THE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURAL FITTING
tion of human cultivation, from the OF THE THOUGHT PATTERNS
perspective of the Gospel of Jesus Regarding this task, Western theology,
Christ. The theological and mis- hermeneutical research and evangeli-
siological implementation of this cal missions are still in their begin-
third step, however, is up to now nings. We have to realize that the pat-
a rare exception in the world wide terns of thinking and understanding
evangelical theology and missions of the cultures of the Old Testament,
work. Judaism, and the New Testament are
considerably different from Western ENDNOTES
and Asian cultures on a foundational 1. Dr. James D.G. Dunn is Professor
structural level. The matrix of un- emeritus of Divinity in the Department
derstanding and the shapings of of Theology at the University of Durham,
perception do not fit together. As England.
long as the fitting of the tought pat-
2. James D.G. Dunn, Romans 1-8, Word
terns is not improved, the content of Biblical Commentary 38A, Milton Keynes:
the Gospel cannot be communicated Word (UK), 1991, pp. 40-41. See also K.
without significant losses, distortions Grünwaldt, „Dikaiosune“, in: Coenen,
and reductions. Languages and cul- L.; Haacker, K. (Hg.), Theo lo gisches
tures are comprehensive systems of Begriffslexikon zum Neuen Testament,
understanding and access to reality. Vol. 1. Wuppertal: Brockhaus, 1997, pp.
These we have to take seriously both
in theology and missions in order to
communicate the salvation in Christ MARKUS PIENNISCH (Dr. theol.)
in word and deed to its full extent. is co-founder and Director of The-
Therefore the outworking and unfold- ological Studies of the EUSEBIA-
ing of the “Biblical-semitic aspect”
will be a central task for the coming Online-Bible School. International
conferences. However, beyond this teaching ministry in the area of
it should also be a serious task of
Systematic Theology, Hermeneu-
Protestant theology and evangelical
missiology as a whole. tics and New Testament.


731, 736. versational and group hospitality around
3. Dr. Os Guinness is a sociologist and co- a meal approach is a right direction for
founder of the Trinity Forum, a Christian food-loving Malaysians.”
institute for leaders in culture, faith and 10. David Chong, „Giving Reason For The
society, London, England. www.ttf.org. Hope: The Possibility and Necessity of the
4. Os Guinness, „Mission modernity: se- Apologetic Task as a Ministry Within The
ven checkpoints on mission in the modern Church And Her Mission (1 Peter 3:15),
world”, in: Sampson, Philip; Samuel, Vinay; Term Paper for the Course “Apologetics”
Sugden, Chris (Hg.), Faith and Modernity. by Dr. Markus Piennisch, Malaysia Bible
Oxford: Regnum, pp. 322-352. Guinness Seminary, 1st Semester 2007, pp. 10-
calls the lordship of Christ the protagonist 12.
principle: „So our engagement, whether in 11. Tite Tiénou, The Problem of Metho-
work, politics, art, voluntary action, recre- dology in African Christian Theologies,
ation, or mission, will only be faithful and Ph.D.-Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary,
effective to the degree that Christ remains School of World Mission, 1984, University
lord of every part of our lives“ (p. 342). In Microfilms International, Ann Arbor. Bé-
opposition stands the antagonist princip- nézet Bujo, African Theology in its Social
le of the rule of this world: “The Lord ... Context. Nairobi: St. Paul, 1992. Stephen
demands of us a decisive contrast with I. Munga, Beyond the Controversy. A Study
everything that is over against him and of African Theologies of Inculturation and
his ways, his ideals, and his institutions. Liberation. Th.D.-Thesis, Lund University,
Most wonderful of all, the deepest reason Faculty of Theology, 1998, Lund Universi-
is personal. It is ‘that you may belong to ty Press. V. Devasahayam (Ed.), Frontiers
me’ ” (p. 342). of Dalit Theology. Gurukul: ISPCK, 1997.
5. Malaysian Evangelicals have founded Chaturvedi Badrinath, Finding Jesus in
a joint initiative in 1982, the „National Dharma. Christianity in India. Delhi: ISP-
Evangelical Christian Fellowship Malaysia“ CK, 2000).
(NECF). They publish numerous missiona- 12. Dr. Mark Noll, Professor of Christian
ry and theological articles and contributi- Thought at Wheaton College. Mark Noll,
ons on their website (www.necf.org.my). „The American Evangelical Missiona-
6. Ng Kam Weng is Research Director of ry Impulse”, Religioscope (29.6.2002).
the Kairos Research Centre in Selangor/ www.religioscope.com.
Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. Ng Kam Weng, 13. Dr. Hwa Yung is Director of the Centre
“Current Concerns for Christian Intellec- for the Study of Christianity in Asia, Trinity
tual Witness”, NECF Malaysia Cross-Cur- Theological College, Singapore.
rents Consultations. www.necf.org.my. 14. Hwa Yung, Mangoes or Bananas? The
7. www.theagora.blogspot.com. Quest for an Authentic Asian Christian
8. Randy Newman, Rabbinic Questioning Theology. Oxford: Regnum, 1997, pp.
– A Better Way To Evangelize, (Christia- 240-241.
nity Today, Faith in the Marketplace, 18 15. African Evangelical Theology.
Dec 2004), www.christianitytoday.com/ 16. Prof. Dr. Kwame Bediako is Executive
workplace/articles/ rabbinicquestionin Director of the Akrofi-Christaller Me-
g.html. morial Centre for Mission Research and
9. Chong remarks: “The weakness in the Applied Theology, Akropong-Akuapem,
Alpha course model is the difficulty to Ghana, as well as Honorary fellow of the
get busy seekers to commit to extended Centre for the Study of Christianity in the
weekly meetings but the relational, con- Non-Western World, New College, School
of Divinity, University of Edinburgh, Scot- neubearbeitete Ausgabe, Band 1. Wup-
land. pertal: Brockhaus, 1997, S. 729-739.
17. Kwame Bediako, „Cry Jesus! Chris- Guinness, Os, „Mission modernity: seven
tian Theology and Presence in Modern checkpoints on mission in the modern
Africa“, Lecture at London Bible College, world”, in: Sampson, Philip; Samuel, Vinay;
5.2.1993, p. 17. Sugden, Chris (Hg.), Faith and Modernity.
18. Detlef Kapteina, Afrikanische Evange- Oxford: Regnum, S. 322-352.
likale Theologie. Plädoyer für das ganze Hwa Yung, Mangoes or Bananas? The
Evangelium im Kontext Afrikas. Nürnberg: Quest for an Authentic Asian Christian
VTR, 2001, pp. 274-275. Theology. Oxford: Regnum, 1997.
19. Dr. Tan Kim Sai is Principal of Malaysia Kapteina, Detlef, Afrikanische Evangeli-
Bible Seminary, Kuala Lumpur. Tan Kim kale Theologie. Plädoyer für das ganze
Sai, Gospelogy: The Content and Nature Evangelium im Kontext Afrikas. Nürnberg:
of the Gospel. Selangor: MBS Publication, VTR, 2001.
2006. Munga, Stephen I., Beyond the Contro-
versy. A Study of African Theologies of
BIBLIOGRAPHY Inculturation and Liberation. Th.D.-The-
sis, Lund University, Faculty of Theology,
Badrinath, Chaturvedi, Finding Jesus 1998, Lund University Press.
in Dharma. Christianity in India. Delhi:
ISPCK, 2000). Newman, Randy, Rabbinic Questioning
– A Better Way To Evangelize, (Christia-
Bediako, Kwame, „Cry Jesus! Christian nity Today, Faith in the Marketplace, 18
Theology and Presence in Modern Af- Dec 2004), www.christianitytoday.com/
rica“, Vortrag am London Bible College, workplace/articles/ rabbinicquestionin
5.2.1993. g.html.
Bujo, Bénézet, African Theology in its So- Ng Kam Weng, “Current Concerns for
cial Context. Nairobi: St. Paul, 1992. Christian Intellectual Witness”, NECF
Chong, „Giving Reason For The Hope: The Malaysia Cross-Currents Consultations.
Possibility and Necessity of the Apologetic www.necf.org.my.
Task as a Ministry Within The Church And Noll, Mark, „The American Evangeli-
Her Mission (1 Peter 3:15), Term Paper for cal Missionary Impulse”, Religioscope
the Course “Apologetics” by Dr. Markus (29.6.2002). www.religioscope.com.
Piennisch, Malaysia Bible Seminary, 1st
Semester 2007. Tan Kim Sai, Gospelogy: The Content
and Nature of the Gospel. Selangor: MBS
Devasahayam, V. (Ed.), Frontiers of Dalit Publication, 2006.
Theology. Gurukul: ISPCK, 1997.
Tiénou, Tite, The Problem of Metho-
Dunn, James D.G., Romans 1-8, Word Bi- dology in African Christian Theologies,
blical Commentary 38A, Milton Keynes: Ph.D.-Thesis, Fuller Theological Semi-
Word (UK), 1991. nary, School of World Mission, 1984,
Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Essays University Microfilms International, Ann
on the Semitic Background of the New Arbor.
Testament (Missoula: Society of Biblical
Literature and Scholars´ Press, 1974).
Grünwaldt, Klaus, „Dikaiosune“, in: Coe-
nen, L.; Haacker, K. (Hg.), Theologisches
Begriffslexikon zum Neuen Testament,