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The Piyyutim of R.

Pinhas Ha-kohen
Critical edition, introduction, and commentaries, by Shulamit Elizur

World Union of Jewish Studies


The David Moses and Amalia Rosen Foundation

Jerusalem, 2004
Table of Contents
Preface

Introduction
Chapter I: R. Pinhas Ha-kohen: The man and his era
1. History of the scholarship
2. The time and place of R. Pinhas
3. The question of the identity of R. Pinhas Ha-kohen

Chapter II: The extent of R. Pinhas’s output, and the genres of piyyut in which he wrote
1. The survival of the material
2. Qedushtaot
3. Shiv‘atot
4. Qedushtaot of 18 benedictions
5. Other qerovot of 18 benedictions
6. Teqi‘atot and Sidré ‘Avoda
7. Yotzrot
8. Piyyuté Ma‘ariv
9. Piyyutim for settings outside the synagogue
10. Late genres of piyyut

Chapter 3: The functions of the piyyutim, and questions of attribution


1. Piyyutim for Passover:
a. Yotzrot
b. Qedushta for the First Day of Passover
c. Shiv‘ata for Tal
d. Qedushtaot 18 for the Hol Hammo‘ed days of Passover
e. Qedushta for ‘Asser Te‘asser
f. Seder Le-vayyosha‘, for the Seventh Day of Passover
2. Piyyutim for Shavu‘ot
a. Fragments from a Yotzer sequence
b. Qedushta
c. Another piyyut for Shavu‘ot
3. Piyyutim for Rosh Ha-shana
a. Qedushta for Shaharit of the second day of Rosh Hashana
b. Silluq
c. “Rahitim” for after the Silluq
d. Teqi‘atot
4. Piyyutim for Yom Kippur
5. Piyyutim for Sukkoth
a. Zulat
b. Qedushta for the First Day
c. Qedustha for the Sabbath of Hol Hammo‘ed
6. Piyyutim for Shemini ‘Atzeret
a. Qedushta for Shemini ‘Atzeret
b. Shiv‘ata for Geshem
7. Piyyutim for Hanukka
8. Piyyyutim for Purim
a. Ma‘ariv
b. A piyyut from a Qerova
9. Piyyutim for regular Sabbaths
a. A qiqlar or guf yotzer for the Sabbath
b. A Qedushta for the Sabbath
c. Piyyutim for Torah-readings of certain regular Sabbaths
d. The Sabbath of “Ve-zot Ha-berakha” (conclusion of the Torah)
e. Piyyutim for the 24 Priestly Divisions (mishmarot)
10. Piyyutim for special Sabbaths
a. A fragment from a Yotzer for “Shabbat Tequfot” (the Sabbath nearest
to the equinox or solstice)
b. A fragment from a Qedushta for Shabbat Zakhor
c. Yotzer for Shabbat Para
d. Qedushta for Shabbat Divré (the first Sabbath of Rebuke, after the 17th
of Tammuz)
e. Shiv‘ata for Shabbat Divré
f. Fragments from a Qedushta for Shabbat Nahamu
g. Qedushta for Shabbat ‘Aniyya So‘ara (third Sabbath of consolation)
when it coincides with Rosh Hodesh
h. Ma‘ariv for Shabbat Shuva
11. Piyyutim for Rosh Hodesh
a. Qedushtaot of 18 benedictions
b. “Qiddush Yerahim” piyyutim
12. Qerovot for weekdays
13. Piyyutim for lifecycle events
a. Circumcision
b. Wedding
c. Mourning
14. Piyyutim of uncertain function

Chapter IV: The structures of the various piyyutim


1. The Qedushta
a. The first section: The Magen, Mehayye, and Meshallesh
b. The second section: Piyyut 4 and Piyyut 5
c. The third section
d. The piyyutim within the qedusha
e. Paytanic expansions after the end of the third benediction
f. Conclusions
2. The Shiv‘ata
a. The simple Shiv‘ata
b. Shiv‘atot with secondary stanzas
c. The ‘Ose Shalom piyyutim for the Priestly Divisions (mishmarot)
d. Shiv‘atot for Tal and Geshem
3. The Qerova of 18 benedictions
a. Qerovot of 5 benedictions, for weekdays
b. The expansion for Purim
4. The Qedushta of 18 benedictions
a. The basic stanzas
b. The expansions before the qedusha
c. The piyyutim within the qedusha
5. The Yotzer
a. The guf yotzer
b. The me’ora and ahava
c. The zulat
6. The Ma‘ariv
7. Piyyutim for Birkat Ha-mazon
8. Piyyutim for “Qiddush Yerahim”
9. The Zemer
10. Conclusions

Chapter V: Poetic features


1. Acrostics, both alphabetical and signature
2. Structural ornaments
a. Anadiplosis (shirshur)
b. Fixed words (i.e., the use of the same word in a certain position in
each stanza)
c. Ornamental refrain
d. Ornamental use of biblical verses
3. Epithets
4. Picturesque language
5. Parallelism
6. Plays on similar-sounding words
7. The analogical homily
8. Unique construction of strophes in a few compositions
9. Dramatic development

Chapter VI: Meter and rhyme


1. The meter of the piyyutim
2. The rhyme of the piyyutim
a. The norms of the rhyme-scheme
b. The definition of the “final syllable” in the line
c. The incorporation of two root-consonants
d. Piyyutim with one consistent rhyme from beginning to end, but
nonetheless divided into stanzas.
e. Rhymes of the identical word, or words with the same root
f. Interchange of consonants or vowels in rhyme

Chapter VII: Linguistic issues


1. Vocabulary
a. Biblical Hebrew, interpretation of it, and expansions of it
b. Rabbinic Hebrew
c. Foreign languages
d. Paytanic language
e. Palestinian linguistic usages, and unique expressions
2. Morphology
a. Shortened (“jussive”) and lengthened (“cohortative”) verb-forms
b. Changes in the formation of verb-conjugations
c. Pronominal suffixes
d. Inflection of the noun
3. Notes on syntax and phrases
4. R. Pinhas’s style

Chapter VIII: The content and sources of the piyyutim


1. Content
2. Sources of the piyyutim: rabbinic literature
3. Midrashim whose source is not known
4. Difficult halakhic sources
5. Midrashic lists
a. Four Kingdoms, which have become expanded to eight
b. Lists of topics, and various incarnations of such traditions
c. The stones of the high priest’s breastplate, and the twelve tribes
6. Pinhas’s methods of incorporating the sources into the poetry

Chapter IX: Palestinian minhagim


1. Introduction
2. Hints to minhagim
3. Customs related to prayer
4. Customs of reading the Torah and the Haftara
a. Torah- and Haftara-readings on festivals
b. Torah- and Haftara-readings on Sabbaths
5. Psalms for particular days
6. The calculation of the calendar, and customs of Rosh Hodesh
7. Customs of fast-days

Chapter X: The place of R. Pinhas Ha-kohen in the history of piyyut.

Chapter XI: This edition.