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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

MICROWAVES AND ANTENNAS


COURSE OUTLINE

B.E., VII Semester, Electronics &Communication Engineering


[As per Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) scheme]
Subject Code 15EC71 IA Marks 20
Number of Lecture Hours/Week 04 Exam Marks 80
Total Number of 50 (10 Hours / Module) Exam Hours 03
Faculty: Prof. Jyothi
M.P.
CREDITS – 04

% of Cumulative %
Modules No. of
Topics Hours
portions of portions
covered covered
Microwave Tubes: Introduction, Reflex Klystron
Oscillator, Mechanism of Oscillations, Modes of
5
Oscillations, Mode Curve (Qualitative Analysis
only). (Text 1: 9.1, 9.2.2)
Microwave Transmission Lines: Microwave
Frequencies, Microwave devices, Microwave
Module 1 20 20
Systems, Transmission Line equations and
solutions, Reflection Coefficient and Transmission
5
Coefficient, Standing Wave and Standing Wave
Ratio, Smith Chart, Single Stub matching. (Text 2:
0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5, 3.6 Except Double
stub matching)
Microwave Network theory: Symmetrical Z and
Y-Parameters for Reciprocal Networks, S matrix
5
representation of Multi-Port Networks. (Text 1:
6.1, 6.2, 6.3)
Module 2 Microwave Passive Devices: Coaxial Connectors 20 40
and Adapters, Attenuators, Phase Shifters,
Waveguide Tees, Magic tees. (Text 1: 6.4.2, 6.4.14, 5
6.4.15, 6.4.16)
Strip Lines: Introduction, Micro Strip lines,
Parallel Strip lines, Coplanar Strip lines, Shielded 5
Strip Lines. (Text 2: Chapter 11)
Antenna Basics: Introduction, Basic Antenna 20 60
Parameters, Patterns, Beam Area, Radiation
Module 3
Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity and Gain,
Antenna Apertures, Effective Height, 5
Bandwidth, Radio Communication Link,
Antenna Field Zones & Polarization. (Text 3:
2.1- 2.11, 2.13,2.15)

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Point Sources and Arrays: Introduction, Point
Sources, Power Patterns, Power Theorem,
Radiation Intensity, Field Patterns, Phase Patterns,
Arrays of Two Isotropic Point Sources, Pattern
Multiplication, Linear Arrays of n Isotropic Point
Sources of equal Amplitude and Spacing.(Text 3:
Module 4 5.1 – 5.9, 5.11,5.13) 10 20 80
Electric Dipoles: Introduction, Short Electric
Dipole, Fields of a Short Dipole (General and Far
Field Analyses), Radiation Resistance of a Short
Dipole, Thin Linear Antenna (Field Analyses),
Radiation Resistances of Lambda/2 Antenna.
(Text 3: 6.1 -6.6)
Loop and Horn Antenna: Introduction, Small
loop, Comparison of Far fields of Small Loop and
Short Dipole, The Loop Antenna General Case, Far
field Patterns of Circular Loop Antenna with
Uniform Current, Radiation Resistance of Loops,
Directivity of Circular Loop Antennas with
Module 5 Uniform Current, Horn antennas Rectangular 10 20 100
Horn Antennas.(Text 3: 7.1-7.8, 7.19, 7.20)
Antenna Types: Helical Antenna, Helical
Geometry, Practical Design Considerations of
Helical Antenna, Yagi-Uda array, Parabola General
Properties, Log Periodic Antenna. (Text 3: 8.3, 8.5,
8.8, 11.7)

Course objectives: This course will enable students to:


 Describe the microwave properties and its transmission media
 Describe microwave devices for several applications
 Understand the basics of antenna theory
 Select antennas for specific applications
Course Outcomes: At the end of the course, students will be able to:
 Describe the use and advantages of microwave transmission .
 Analyze various parameters related to microwave transmission lines and
waveguides
 Identify microwave devices for several applications
 Analyze various antenna parameters necessary for building an RF system
 Recommend various antenna configurations according to the applications
Graduating Attributes (as per NBA)
 Engineering Knowledge.
 Problem Analysis.
 Design / development of solutions (partly).
 Interpretation of data.

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Question paper pattern:
 The question paper will have ten questions
 Each full question consists of 16 marks.
 There will be 2 full questions (with a maximum of Three sub questions) from
each module.
 Each full question will have sub questions covering all the topics under a module
 The students will have to answer 5 full questions, selecting one full question from
each module

Text Books:
1. Microwave Engineering – Annapurna Das, Sisir K Das TMH Publication, 2nd, 2010.
2. Microwave Devices and circuits- Liao, Pearson Education.
3. Antennas and Wave Propagation, John D. Krauss, Ronald J Marhefka and Ahmad S
Khan,4th Special Indian Edition , McGraw- Hill Education Pvt. Ltd., 2010.

Reference Books:
1. Microwave Engineering – David M Pozar, John Wiley India Pvt. Ltd. 3rdEdn, 2008.
2. Microwave Engineering – Sushrut Das, Oxford Higher Education, 2ndEdn, 2015.
3. Antennas and Wave Propagation – Harish and Sachidananda: Oxford University
Press,
2007.

COURSE OVERVIEW

Micro waves and Antennas is the fundamental theory for the branch of Electronics and
communication engineering. This course provides knowledge of the microwave properties
and its transmission media. Microwave devices for several applications.

This course provides basic knowledge of antenna theory. This course provides knowledge of
the Basic Antenna Parameters such as Patterns, Beam Area, Radiation Intensity, Beam
Efficiency, Directivity and Gain, Antenna Apertures, Effective Height, Bandwidth. Radio
Communication Link, Antenna Field Zones & Polarization.. The another application is oscillator
circuits. Study the different types of antennas.

Module 1: Microwave Tubes and Microwave Transmission Lines

Introduction: Microwaves refer to the electromagnetic rays with frequencies between


300MHz and 300GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. Microwaves are small when
compared with the waves used in radio broadcasting. Their range is in between the radio
waves and infrared waves. Microwaves travel in straight lines and they will be affected
lightly by the troposphere. They don’t require any medium to travel. Metals will reflect these
waves totally. Nonmetals such as glass and particles are partially transparent to these waves.

Microwaves are suitable for wireless transmission of signals of having larger bandwidth.
Microwaves are most commonly used in satellite communications, radar signals, phones,

Prof. Jyothi M.P. MRIT, Mandya. 3


Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
and navigational applications. Other applications where the microwaves used are medical
treatments, drying materials, and in households for the preparation of food.

Advantages of using Microwave technology:


1. It does not require any cable connection.
2. They can carry high quantities of information due to their high operating frequencies.
3. We can able to access more numbers of channels.
4. Low cost land purchase: each tower occupies small area.
5. High frequency/short wavelength signals require small antenna.

Disadvantages:
1. Attenuation by solid objects: birds, rain, snow and fog.
2. It’s much expensive to build long towers.
3. Reflected from flat surfaces like water and metal.
4. Diffracted (split) around solid objects.
5. Refracted by atmosphere, thus causing beam to be projected away from receiver.

Microwave Transmission Lines


A transmission line is a connector which transmits energy from one point to another. The
study of transmission line theory is helpful in the effective usage of power and equipment.

There are basically four types of transmission lines −


 Two-wire parallel transmission lines
 Coaxial lines
 Strip type substrate transmission lines
 Waveguides
While transmitting or while receiving, the energy transfer has to be done effectively, without
the wastage of power. To achieve this, there are certain important parameters which have to
be considered.

Main Parameters of a Transmission Line


The important parameters of a transmission line are resistance, inductance, capacitance and
conductance.
 Resistance and inductance together are called as transmission line impedance.
 Capacitance and conductance together are called as admittance.

Impedance Matching
To achieve maximum power transfer to the load, impedance matching has to be done.

Reflection Co-efficient
The parameter that expresses the amount of reflected energy due to impedance mismatch in
a transmission line is called as Reflection coefficient.

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
The standing wave is formed when the incident wave gets reflected. The standing wave
which is formed contains some voltage. The magnitude of standing waves can be measured
in terms of standing wave ratios.
The ratio of maximum voltage to the minimum voltage in a standing wave can be defined as
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). It is denoted by "S".

VSWR describes the voltage standing wave pattern that is present in the transmission line
due to phase addition and subtraction of the incident and reflected waves.

Efficiency of Transmission Lines


The efficiency of transmission lines is defined as the ratio of the output power to the input
power.

%efficiency of transmission line η=(Power delivered at reception / Power sent from the
transmission end)×100

Attenuation Loss
The loss that occurs due to the absorption of the signal in the transmission line is termed as
Attenuation loss.

Reflection Loss
The loss that occurs due to the reflection of the signal due to impedance mismatch of the
transmission line is termed as Reflection loss.

Transmission Loss
The loss that occurs while transmission through the transmission line is termed as
Transmission loss.

Stub Matching
If the load impedance mismatches the source impedance, a method called "Stub Matching" is
sometimes used to achieve matching.

The process of connecting the sections of open or short circuit lines called stubs in the shunt
with the main line at some point or points, can be termed as Stub Matching.

At higher microwave frequencies, basically two stub matching techniques are employed.

Single Stub Matching


In Single stub matching, a stub of certain fixed length is placed at some distance from the
load. It is used only for a fixed frequency, because for any change in frequency, the location of
the stub has to be changed, which is not done. This method is not suitable for coaxial lines.
Double Stub Matching
In double stud matching, two stubs of variable length are fixed at certain positions. As the
load changes, only the lengths of the stubs are adjusted to achieve matching. This is widely
used in laboratory practice as a single frequency matching device.
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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Module 2: Microwave Network theory and Microwave Passive Devices

The Main objective of this module is to study about Microwave Network theory and
Microwave Passive Devices. In Microwave Network theory provides knowledge about
Symmetrical Z and Y-Parameters for Reciprocal Networks and S matrix representation of
Multi-Port Networks.

Microwave passive devices are used inside microwave measurement instruments, and they
are used to combine instruments to create more complex measurement systems. In all cases,
these devices will split, combine, filter, attenuate, and/or shift the phase of a microwave
signal as it propagates through a particular transmission system. This chapter describes the
most useful and prevalent transmission systems for microwave signals and the passive
devices that are most effectively achieved in each system. This module provides Study of
Microwave Passive Devices such as Coaxial Connectors and Adapters, Attenuators, Phase
Shifters, Waveguide Tees and Magic tees.

A coaxial transmission line, or coaxial cable, is used to transport electromagnetic power


from one place to another (one device to another) with minimum loss of power and
maximum isolation from other electromagnetic signals that may be present.

Attenuators
 attenuators are 2-port devices designed to reduce the transferred signal power
 the power reduction is achieved by dissipation
 impedance match is required at both ports
 attenuators of fixed attenuation are called pads

Phase shifters are devices utilized in high frequency RF designs to provide a phase shift to
the signal by adding propagation delay. They are used in applications including satellite
communications, beamforming modules, phase cancellation, communications antennas and
phased-array radar. Phase shifters can be analog or digital, active or passive.

A Waveguide Tee is a 3-port device that can be used to either divide or combine power in a
waveguide system. It is formed when three waveguides tubes are connected in the form of
the English alphabet 'T'. This is where its name is derived from.

E-Plane Waveguide Tee

A waveguide tee is a 3 port device that is similar to a power divider. When the axis of the
side arm is parallel to the Electric Field (E) of the collinear, then the tee is called a E-Plane
Tee Junction. The outputs we get in this type of tee are 180° out of phase with each other,
irrespective of from which port the input is fed.
If the input signal is fed to port 3, then the output will be split across port 1 and 2 and will be
180 degrees out of phase with each other.

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

H-Plane Waveguide Tee

When the axis of the side arm of the waveguide tee is parallel to the flow of the Magnetic
Field (H) from port 1 and is perpendicular to the flow of the Electric Field (E), then the tee is
called a H-Plane Waveguide Tee.
An H-Plane Waveguide Tees can be thought of as a two way in-phase power
divider/combiner i.e it is additive in nature. When two input signals are fed to port 1 & 2, the
output at port 3 is in phase and additive and when the input signal is fed to port 3, the signal
is split in to two equal parts that are in-phase at port 1 & 2.

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

A Magic Tee or Hybrid Tee is a 4 port waveguide tee that is a combination of an E-Plane
and H-Plane Waveguide Tee. A magic tee has four ports:
Port 1 - Co-linear
Port 2 - Co-linear
Port 3 - Difference Port
Port 4 - Sum Port

Operation of a Magic Tee:

Case 1: When two signals of equal magnitude are fed from port 1 and 2, we get a zero at port
3 and the sum of the two signals at port 4.

Case 2: When a signal is fed through port 4, it gets divided equally between port 1 & 2 and
both the outputs are in phase. No output comes from port 3.

Case 3: When a signal is fed through port 3, we get an output of equal magnitude but
opposite phase at port 1 & 2 (the signals are 180 degrees out of phase). Output at port 4 is
zero.

A magic tee is ideally lossless. But the biggest disadvantage of magic tee is that reflections
arise within it due to impedance mismatches, which causes some level of power loss. These
reflections can be minimized by optimizing matching.

Module 3: Strip Lines and Antenna Basics


The Main objective of this module is to study about Micro Strip lines, Parallel Strip lines,
Coplanar Strip lines, Shielded Strip Lines.
This module provides knowledge of the Basic Antenna Parameters such as Patterns, Beam
Area, Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity and Gain, Antenna Apertures, Effective
Height, Bandwidth. Radio Communication Link, Antenna Field Zones & Polarization.. Another
application is oscillator circuits. Study the different types of antennas.

Microstrip line is used to carry Electro-Magnetic Waves (EM waves) or microwave frequency
signals. It consists of 3 layers, conducting strip, dielectric and Ground plane. It is used to design

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
and fabricate RF and microwave components such as directional coupler, power
divider/combiner, filter, antenna, MMIC etc.

fig: Micro strip line

Micro strip line will have low to high radiation, will support 20 to 120 ohm impedance ,
supports Q factor of about 250. Difficult to mount chip in shunt mode but easy in series mode.
The RF/microwave product made using micro strip line is less expensive and lighter in weight
compare to its waveguide counterpart.
The disadvantages of micro strip compared with waveguide are the generally lower power
handling capacity, and higher losses. Also, unlike waveguide, micro strip is not enclosed, and is
therefore susceptible to cross-talk and unintentional radiation.

A Parallel Strip line is similar to a two conductor transmission line. It can support quasi TEM
mode.

A Coplanar strip line is formed by two conducting strips with one strip grounded, both
being placed on the same substrate surface, for convenient connections.

Shielded microstrip transmission line is a member of the family of planar microwave


transmission lines. Open micro strip line(fig a), shielded slot-line (b) shielded fin-line (fig.c) or
coplanar waveguide (fig. d) belong to the most common planar transmission lines .
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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

fig a: Open micro strip line, (b) shielded slot-line (c) shielded fin-line(d) coplanar waveguide

Basic Antenna Parameters


Antenna Radiation Pattern: An antenna radiation pattern or antenna pattern is defined as
a mathematical function or a graphical representation of the radiation properties of the
antenna as a function of space coordinates.

“Beam area is the solid angle through which all the power radiated by the antenna would
stream if P (θ, Ø) maintained its maximum value over ΩA and was zero elsewhere.”

Beamwidth

• The beamwidth of an antenna is a very important figure of merit and often is used as a
trade-off between it and the side lobe level; that is, as the beamwidth decreases, the side
lobe increases and vice versa.

• The beamwidth of the antenna is also used to describe the resolution capabilities of the
antenna to distinguish between two adjacent radiating sources or radar targets.

Half-Power Beam Width (HPBW): In a plane containing the direction of the maximum of a
beam, the angle between the two directions in which the radiation intensity is one-half value
of the beam.

Directivity: The ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the
radiation intensity averaged over all directions.

• The average radiation intensity: total power radiated by the antenna divided by 4π.

• Stated more simply, the directivity of a nonisotropic source is equal to the ratio of its
radiation intensity in a given direction over that of an isotropic source.

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Module 4: Point Sources and Arrays and Electric Dipoles


The Main objective of this module is to study about Point Sources, Power Patterns, Power
Theorem, Radiation Intensity, Field Patterns, Phase Patterns, Arrays of Two Isotropic Point
Sources, Pattern Multiplication, Linear Arrays of n Isotropic Point Sources of equal
Amplitude and Spacing.

This module provides knowledge of the Electric Dipoles such as Short Electric Dipole, Fields
of a Short Dipole (General and Far Field Analyses), Radiation Resistance of a Short Dipole,
Thin Linear Antenna (Field Analyses), Radiation Resistances of Lambda/2 Antenna.

A dipole antenna is the simplest type of radio antenna, consisting of a conductive wire rod
that is half the length of the maximum wavelength the antenna is to generate. This wire rod
is split in the middle, and the two sections are separated by an insulator. Each rod is
connected to a coaxial cable at the end closest to the middle of the antenna.

Radio frequency voltages are applied to dipole antennas at the center, between the two
conductors. They are used alone as antennas, especially in rabbit-ear television antennas
and as the driven elements in other types of antennas.

Module 5: Loop and Horn Antenna and Antenna Types

This module provides basic knowledge of different types of antenna and its properties such
as Small loop, Comparison of Far fields of Small Loop and Short Dipole, The Loop Antenna
General Case, Far field Patterns of Circular Loop Antenna with Uniform Current, Radiation
Resistance of Loops, Directivity of Circular Loop Antennas with Uniform Current, Horn
antennas Rectangular Horn Antennas.

The different types of antenna are Helical Antenna, Yagi-Uda array, Parabola antenna, Log
Periodic Antenna.

The small loop antenna is a closed loop. These antennas have low radiation resistance and
high reactance, so that their impedance is difficult to match to a transmitter. As a result,
these antennas are most often used as receive antennas, where impedance mismatch loss
can be tolerated.

A horn antenna is used for the transmission and reception of microwave signals. It derives
its name from the characteristic flared appearance. The flared portion can be square,
rectangular, or conical. The maximum radiation and response corresponds with the axis of
the horn. In this respect, the antenna resembles an acoustic horn. It is usually fed with a
wave guide.

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

A helical antenna is a specialized antenna that is considered as a hybrid of the radiating


elements — loop antennas and the dipole. In a helical antenna, the conducting wire is wound
in the form of a helix. The antenna, in most cases, is mounted over a ground plane with a
feed line connected between the ground plane and the bottom of the helix. As it is a traveling
wave antenna, the current and phase vary continuously along the helical antenna. Because of
their unique and special properties, helical antennas are widely used in simple and practical
applications such as in radios and satellite communications.

A Yagi antenna, also known as a Yagi-Uda array or simply a Yagi, is


a directional antennacommonly used in communications when a frequency is above 10 MHz.
This type of antenna is popular among Amateur Radio and Citizens Band radio operators. It
is used at some surface installations in satellite communications systems.

A parabola antenna is
1: a plane curve generated by a point moving so that its distance from a fixed point is equal
to its distance from a fixed line : the intersection of a right circular cone with a
plane parallel to an element of the cone
2: something bowl-shaped (such as an antenna or microphone reflector)

A log-periodic antenna is an antenna that can operate on a wide frequency band and has
the ability to provide directivity and gain. It has radiation and impedance characteristics that
are repeated as a logarithmic function of excitation frequency. These antennas are fractal
antenna (self-similar antenna) arrays.
A log-periodic antenna may also be referred to as a log-period array or a log-periodic beam
antenna.

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Question Bank

Module -1
1. Explain velocity modulation of electrons. 4
2. Explain functional diagram of a reflex klystron oscillator. 4
3. Explain mechanism of oscillation of a reflex klystron oscillator. 4
4. Explain reflex klystron modes of oscillation. 4
5. A reflex klystron is to be operated at frequency of 10GHz, with dc beam voltage 300V,
repeller space 0.1cm for 1(3/4) mode. Calculate PRFmax and corresponding repeller 4
voltage for a beam current of 20mA.
6. A reflex klystron is operated at frequency of 5GHz, with dc beam voltage 350V,
repeller spaceing 0.5cm for N=3(3/4) mode. Calculate beam width over ΔV R=1V. 4

7. Discuss the different micro wave frequencies. 4


8. With a neat diagram explain micro wave system. 4
9. Explain micro wave devices. 4
10. Define reflection coefficient. Derive the equation for reflection coefficient at the load
10
end and at a ‘d’ from load end.
11. A transmission line has the following primary constants per km of the line R=8Ω,
5
G=0.1µmho, L=3.5mH, C=9nF. Calculate Zo, 𝞪, β, up and 𝞬 at W=5000rad/sec.
12. A transmission line and characteristic impedance of 73-j42.5 Ω. Calculate reflection
5
coefficient and standing wave ratio.
13. Derive equations for voltage and current at any point on a transmission line. 10
14. What are standing waves and SWR? 4
15. Explain in brief single stub matching. State the important expressions related to it. 5
16. A load impedance of ZR=60-j80 Ω is required to be matched to a 50Ω coaxial line by
using a short circuited stub of length L located at a distance ‘d’ from the load. 6
𝛌=1m.using smith chart find d and L.
17. A transmission line has the following primary constants per km of the line R=2Ω,
4
G=0.5mmho, L=8nH, C=0.23pF,f=1GHz. Calculate Zo and 𝞬
18. Define transmission coefficient. Derive the equation for transmission coefficient. 6
19. A transmission line and characteristic impedance of 50+j0.01Ω and is terminated in
a load impedance of 73-j42.5 Ω. Calculate reflection coefficient and standing wave 6
ratio.
20. A lossless line of characteristic impedance Ro=50Ω is to be matched to a load Z l=50/
[2+j(2+√3)] Ω by means of a lossless short circuited stub. The characteristic
10
impedance of the stub is 100Ω.find the stub position (closest to the load) and length
so that a match is obtained.

Question Bank

Module -2
21. Discuss the properties of Z and Y matrices for reciprocal networks. 6
22. Discuss S-matrix representation of multiport networks. 6
23. Find the S-matrix of a length l of a lossless transmission line terminated by matched
6
impedance.
24. Write a brief note on coaxial connectors and adapters. 6
25. With a diagram Explain micro wave fixed attenuator. 6
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26. With a diagram Explain micro wave precision type variable attenuator. 6
27. Explain micro wave dielectric phase shifters. 6
28. Explain micro wave precision dielectric rotary phase shifters. 6
29. Explain micro wave ferrite phase shifters. 6
30. Explain micro wave MIC ferrite phase shifters. 6
31. Explain micro wave reciprocal phase shifters. 6
32. Explain micro wave non-reciprocal phase shifters. 6
33. Discuss wave guide Tees. List and state the basic types of wave guide Tees 6
34. Discuss wave guide E-plane Tees. 6
35. Discuss wave guide H-plane Tees. 6
36. Discuss hybrid or magic-T. 6
37. Discuss the applications of magic-T. 6
38. A 20mW signal is fed into one of the collinear(port 1) of a lossless H-plane T-
junction. Calculate the power delivered through each port when other ports are 6
terminated in matched load.
39. In an H-plane T-junction, compute power delivered to the loads of 40Ω and 60Ω
6
connected to arms 1 and 2 when a 10mW power is delivered to the matched port 3.
40. A magic-T is terminated at collinear ports 1 and 2 and difference port 4 by
impedance of reflection coefficients 𝞒1=0.5, 𝞒2=0.6 and 𝞒4=0.8, respectively. If 1W
10
power is fed at the sum port 3, calculate the power reflected at port 3 and power
transmitted to the other three ports.

Question Bank

Module -3
41. Explain characteristic impedance of micro strip lines. 6
42. With the neat schematic diagram explain strip lines. 6
43. Write the limitations of micro strip lines. 6
44. A certain micro strip line has the following parameters: �r=5.23, h=7mils, t=2.8mils,
6
w=10mils, calculate the characteristic impedance of the line.
45. List and discuss the losses in micro strip lines. 10
46. Obtain the quality factor equation of micro strip lines. 8
47. Explain the following of parallel strip lines:
12
a)Distributed parameters b) characteristic impedance c) Attenuation losses.
48. A lossless parallel strip line has a conducting strip width w. the substrate dielectric
separating the two conducting strips has relative dielectric constant � rd of 6 and a
thickness d of 4mm calculate a)The required width w of the conducting strip in 8
order to have a characteristic impedance of 50Ω. b) The strip line capacitance. c)The
strip line impedance d) The phase velocity of the wave in the parallel strip line.
49. Write a short note on a) coplanar strip lines b) Shielded strip lines. 8
50. A coplanar strip line carries an average power of 250mW and the peak current of
2
100mA. Determine the characteristic impedance of the coplanar strip lines.
51. A shielded strip line has the following parameters �r=2.56, w=25mils, t=14mils,
d=70mils calculate a) The K factor b) The fringe capacitance c) The characteristic 3
impedance of the line.
52. Explain the following antenna parameters:
a) Radiation Pattern b) Beam Area c) Radiation Intensity
6
d) Beam Efficiency e) Directivity and Gain f) Antenna Apertures
g) Effective Height h) Bandwidth
53. Derive friis transmission formula 6
54. Explain the following 6
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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
a) Antenna Field Zones
b) Polarization
55. Explain the oscillator circuit 6
56. Discuss Radio Communication Link 6

Question Bank

Module -4
57. Discuss antenna and observation circle of point source. 5
58. With the neat diagram explain power pattern of the antenna. 6
59. State a power theorem and discuss the application to an isotropic source. 6
60. Write a note on radiation intensity. 6
61. Explain source with unidirectional and bidirectional cosine power pattern. 6
62. Explain source with sine (Doughnut) power pattern. 4
63. Explain source with sine-squared (Doughnut) power pattern. 6
64. Explain source with unidirectional cosine-squared power pattern. 6
65. Explain pencil beam with minor lobes. 6
66. Discuss field patterns of antenna. 6
67. Explain source with cosine field pattern. 6
68. Explain source with sine field pattern. 6
69. Discuss the phase patterns of antenna. 6
70. Explain any two of the following for arrays of two isotropic point sources.
a) Two isotropic point sources of same amplitude and phase.
b) Two isotropic point sources of same amplitude and opposite phase
8
c) Two isotropic point sources of same amplitude and inphase quadrature
d) Two isotropic point sources of same amplitude and any phase difference
e) Two isotropic point sources of unequal amplitude and any phase difference
71. Discuss pattern multiplication. 8
72. Write a short note on a) Short electric diploe b) Radiation resistance of 𝛌/2
8
antenna.
73. Explain the thin linear antenna. 6
74. Discuss radiation resistance of short electric dipole. 6
75. Write the general expression, far field and quasi stationary equations for fields of a
6
short electric dipole.

Question Bank

Module -5
76. Considering the general case derive the far-field equations for loop antenna. 6
77. Show that the radiation resistance of loop antenna is given by 31200(nA/(𝛌 2))2 6
78. Explain the concept of Babinet’s principle with neat figure 6
79. Write a note on horn antenna with design equations. 6
80. Calculate the maximum effective aperture of a short dipole 6
81. Derive the far field components of short dipole 6
82. Compare the far fields of small small loop and short dipole. 6
83. Obtain Far field Patterns of Circular Loop Antenna with Uniform Current. 6
84. Explain Directivity of Circular Loop Antennas with Uniform Current. 6
85. Discuss the features of helical antenna. Give the constructional details of helical
6
antenna.

Prof. Jyothi M.P. MRIT, Mandya. 15


Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
86. Write a short note on :
6
a) Log periodic antenna b) loop antenna c) yagi-uda array
87. Discuss the Practical Design Considerations of Helical Antenna 6
88. Discuss the general properties of parabola antenna 6
89. Write a short note on :
a) Horn antennas b Rectangular Horn Antennas c) Radiation Resistance of 6
Loops

Prof. Jyothi M.P. MRIT, Mandya. 16