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SERV18XX

December 2006

GLOBAL SERVICE LEARNING

TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

777F (JRP)
OFF-HIGHWAY TRUCK
POWER TRAIN, STEERING, HOIST, AND BRAKING
SYSTEMS

Service Training Meeting Guide


(STMG)
SERV18xx -2- Text Reference
12/06

TABLE OF CONTENTS

POWER TRAIN ...........................................................................................................................3


Torque Converter Hydraulic System ......................................................................................6
Transmission Hydraulic System ...........................................................................................17
Rear Axle ..............................................................................................................................29
Transmission/Chassis Electronic Control System ................................................................31

STEERING SYSTEM ................................................................................................................42

HOIST SYSTEM ........................................................................................................................57

BRAKE SYSTEM ......................................................................................................................77


Brake Electronic Control System .......................................................................................104
Automatic Retarder Control System...................................................................................109
Traction Control System .....................................................................................................111

CONCLUSION.........................................................................................................................118
SERV18xx -3- Text Reference
12/06

6 9
5

7 8
2 1
3
4

POWER TRAIN

The 777F Off-highway Truck power train is electronically controlled. The


Transmission/Chassis ECM controls the ECPC transmission shifting and the torque converter
lockup clutch operation. The transmission has seven forward speeds and one reverse speed.

Power flows from the engine to the rear wheels through the power train. The main power train
components are:
- Torque converter (1)
- Drive shaft (2)
- Transfer gears (3)
- Transmission (4)
- Differential (5)
- Final drives (6)

Other power train components visible in this illustration are the transmission charge filters (7),
torque converter charging filter (8), and two-section hydraulic tank (9).
SERV18xx -4- Text Reference
12/06

2
3

These illustrations show the location of the main electronic components in the power train. The
Transmission/Chassis ECM (1) is located behind the cab seat and is accessed by removing a
panel at the rear of the cab. The transmission modulating valves (2) are located on top of the
transmission planetary gears and are accessed by removing a cover plate. The torque converter
lockup clutch solenoid valve (3) is located on the rear of the torque converter.

NOTE: The Transmission/Chassis ECM receives input signals from several


components located on the machine to control transmission shifting and the torque
converter lockup clutch operation. The electronic components will be covered later in
the presentation.
SERV18xx -5- Text Reference
12/06

POWER TRAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


To
Torque Brake
Converter Cooling
Outlet Relief
Valve
To
Variable To To
Speed Hoist Pilot Traction Transmission
Clutch Signal Control Charge Filters
Control Resolver Pilot

Lockup
Valve To
Brake
Cooling
Lockup
Lockup Clutch Relief
Clutch Valve Valve
Torque Filter
Converter
Torque Converter
Charge Filter
Hydraulic
Controls

Transmission

Torque
Converter
Inlet Relief
Valve

Transmission Oil
Level Switch

Shown is the transmission and torque converter hydraulic system for the 777F. A five section
pump is located at the rear of the torque converter housing. The first section (attached to pump
drive at rear of torque converter) scavenges oil from the bottom of the torque converter case
and returns the oil to the hoist, torque converter, and brake hydraulic tank. The second section
pumps charge oil through the torque converter filter to the torque converter. The third section
sends oil through the lockup clutch filter and provides pilot oil to the following circuits:
- Lockup clutch valve
- Variable speed fan clutch control
- Hoist pilot signal resolver
- Traction control valve

The fourth section scavenges oil from the transmission sump and sends oil to the transmission
oil cooler and the transmission hydraulic tank.

The fifth section sends charge oil through the transmission oil filters to the transmission control
valves.
SERV18xx -6- Text Reference
12/06

TORQUE CONVERTER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


To Brake Cooling

Torque Converter
Charging Filter

To Brake
Cooling Inlet
Relief Valve

Outlet
Relief Valve
Lockup
Clutch
Valve
Lockup
Relief
Valve Lockup
Clutch
To
Filter
Variable
Speed
Fan To TCS
Clutch Valve
Control
Converter
To Hoist Pilot Scavenge Screen
Signal Resolver

Torque Converter Hydraulic System

This schematic shows the oil flow from the torque converter pump through the torque converter
hydraulic system.

The scavenge pump section pulls oil through a screen from the torque converter housing and
sends the oil to the hoist, torque converter, and brake hydraulic tank.

The torque converter charging pump section sends oil through the torque converter charging
filter to the torque converter inlet relief valve. Oil flows from the inlet relief valve through the
torque converter to the outlet relief valve. Oil flows from the outlet relief valve to the brake oil
cooling circuit.

The lockup clutch valve pump section sends oil through the lockup clutch valve filter to the
torque converter lockup clutch valve. When oil pressure in the lockup clutch valve circuit is
too high, the lockup clutch relief valve allows oil to flow to the brake cooling circuit.

Oil from the lockup clutch valve pump section also flows to the TCS valve, variable speed
clutch control and hoist pilot signal resolver.
SERV18xx -7- Text Reference
12/06

3 2 1
5 4

The five sections of the power train pump (from the front to the rear) are:

- Torque converter scavenge (1)


- Torque converter charging (2)
- Lockup clutch valve, hoist pilot circuit, TCS valve, and variable speed fan clutch (3)
- Transmission scavenge (4)
- Transmission charging (5)
SERV18xx -8- Text Reference
12/06

Lockup Piston Turbine Impeller


TORQUE CONVERTER
CONVERTER DRIVE
Stator Torque Converter
Inlet Oil

Torque Converter
Freewheel Lockup Oil Passage
Assembly

This sectional view shows a torque converter in CONVERTER DRIVE. The lockup clutch
(yellow piston and blue discs) is not engaged. During operation, the rotating housing and
impeller (red) can rotate faster than the turbine (blue). The stator (green) remains stationary
and multiplies the torque transfer between the impeller and the turbine. The output shaft rotates
slower than the engine crankshaft, but with increased torque.

Lockup Piston Turbine Impeller


TORQUE CONVERTER
DIRECT DRIVE
Stator Torque Converter
Inlet Oil

Torque Converter
Freewheel Lockup Oil Passage
Assembly

In DIRECT DRIVE, the lockup clutch is engaged by hydraulic pressure and locks the turbine to
the impeller. The housing, impeller, turbine, and output shaft then rotate as a unit at engine
rpm. The stator, which is mounted on a one-way clutch, is driven by the force of the oil in the
housing. The one-way clutch permits the stator to turn freely in DIRECT DRIVE when torque
multiplication is not required.
SERV18xx -9- Text Reference
12/06

4 8
5
1

The five section power train pump (1) is located at the bottom rear of the torque converter.

The inlet relief valve (2) limits the maximum pressure of the supply oil to the torque converter.
The torque converter inlet relief pressure can be checked by removing a plug and installing a
pressure tap. Normally, the inlet relief pressure will be slightly higher than the outlet relief
valve pressure.

Oil flows through the inlet relief valve and enters the torque converter. Some of the oil will
leak through the torque converter to the bottom of the housing to be scavenged. Most of the oil
in the torque converter is used to provide a fluid coupling and flows through the torque
converter outlet relief valve (3).
SERV18xx - 10 - Text Reference
12/06

The outlet relief valve maintains the minimum pressure inside the torque converter. The main
function of the outlet relief valve is to keep the torque converter full of oil to prevent
cavitation. The outlet relief pressure can be measured at the tap (4) on the outlet relief valve.

The torque converter lockup clutch valve (5) directs oil to engage the torque converter lockup
clutch. The torque converter lockup clutch pressure can be checked at the tap (6) on top of the
lockup clutch valve.

Excess oil that accumulates in the bottom of the torque converter is scavenged by the first
section of the pump through a screen behind the access cover (7) and returned to the hoist,
torque converter, and brake hydraulic tank.
SERV18xx - 11 - Text Reference
12/06

LOCKUP CLUTCH MODULATING VALVE


TORQUE CONVERTER DRIVE

Lockup Clutch
Pressure Tap

T/C Lockup
Solenoid
From Lockup
Clutch Pump
To Lockup Clutch

10

The torque converter lockup clutch modulating valve contains a proportional solenoid that
receives a signal from the Transmission/Chassis ECM to engage and release the torque
converter lockup clutch.

In this illustration, the lockup clutch modulating valve is shown with no current signal applied
to the solenoid (TORQUE CONVERTER DRIVE or NEUTRAL). The Transmission/Chassis
ECM controls the rate of oil flow through the lockup clutch modulating valve to the lockup
clutch by changing the signal current strength to the solenoid. With no current signal applied to
the solenoid, the transmission modulating valve is DE-ENERGIZED and oil flow to the clutch
is blocked.

Pump oil flows into the valve body around the valve spool and into a drilled passage in the
center of the valve spool. The oil flows through the drilled passage and orifice to the left side
of the valve spool to a drain orifice. Since there is no force acting on the pin assembly to hold
the ball against the drain orifice, the oil flows through the spool and the drain orifice past the
ball to the tank.

The spring located on the right side of the spool in this view holds the valve spool to the left.
The valve spool opens the passage between the clutch passage and the tank passage and blocks
the passage between the clutch passage and the pump supply port. Oil flow to the clutch is
blocked. Oil from the clutch drains to the tank preventing clutch engagement.
SERV18xx - 12 - Text Reference
12/06

LOCKUP CLUTCH MODULATING VALVE


DIRECT DRIVE

Lockup Clutch
Pressure Tap

T/C Lockup
Solenoid
From Lockup
Clutch Pump
To Lockup Clutch

11

In this illustration, the modulating valve is shown with a maximum current signal commanded
to the solenoid. When the modulation cycle stops, the Transmission/Chassis ECM sends the
maximum specified current signal to fully engage the lockup clutch (DIRECT DRIVE).

The constant current signal pushes the pin firmly against the ball in the solenoid valve. The pin
force against the ball blocks more oil from flowing through the drain orifice. This restriction
causes an increase in pressure on the left side of the valve spool. The valve spool moves to the
right to allow pump flow to fully engage the clutch.

In a short period of time, maximum pressure is felt at both ends of the proportional solenoid
valve spool. This pressure along with the spring force on the right end of the spool cause the
valve spool to move to the left until the forces on the right end and the left end of the valve
spool are balanced.

The valve spool movement to the left (balanced) position reduces the flow of oil to the engaged
clutch. The Transmission/Chassis ECM sends a constant maximum specified current signal to
the solenoid to maintain the desired clutch pressure.
SERV18xx - 13 - Text Reference
12/06

12

A torque converter outlet temperature sensor (arrow) provides an input signal to the
Transmission/Chassis ECM, which sends a signal to the monitoring system to inform the
operator of the torque converter outlet temperature.
SERV18xx - 14 - Text Reference
12/06

13

2
1

Oil from the lockup clutch valve pump section flows to the lockup valve oil filter (1) and then
to the lockup clutch modulating valve (2). The filter is located inside of the left frame rail.

4 5 14

The filter has a bypass switch (3) which provides an input signal to the monitoring system, via
the Transmission/Chassis ECM, to inform the operator if the filter is restricted. The filter
housing has an S•O•S tap (4) and a lockup clutch circuit pressure tap (5).
SERV18xx - 15 - Text Reference
12/06

1
2

15

The lockup clutch relief valve (1) is located inside the left frame rail in front of the lockup
clutch filter (2). This view is looking up from the bottom of the truck. When oil pressure in
the lockup clutch valve circuit is too high, the lockup clutch relief valve allows oil to flow to
the brake cooling circuit.
SERV18xx - 16 - Text Reference
12/06

16

The torque converter charging filter (1) is located on the right frame rail, behind the right front
tire. Oil from the torque converter charging pump section flowS through the torque converter
filter to the torque converter inlet relief valve.

17

The torque converter filter includes an S•O•S port (2) located on the bottom of the filter.
SERV18xx - 17 - Text Reference
12/06

TRANSMISSION HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


NEUTRAL

Transmission 1
5
Oil Temperature
Sensor

Bypass
Switch
Transmission
Cooler
Transmission
Transmission Charge
Scavenge Pump 2
Pump
6
Screen
Screen

Transmission Transmission
Sump Hydraulic Tank
Main
Relief
Valve
3

Transmission
Lube Relief
7
Valve

18

Transmission Hydraulic System

The transmission scavenge pump section pulls oil from the bottom of the transmission case
through a magnetic screen and sends the oil through the transmission oil cooler to the
transmission tank. The magnetic screen should always be checked for debris if a problem with
the transmission is suspected.

The transmission charging pump section pulls oil from the transmission hydraulic tank.
Charging oil flows from the pump through two transmission charging filters to the transmission
main relief valve and seven modulating valves.

The main relief valve regulates the supply pressure inside the transmission hydraulic system.
Oil unseats the check ball and forces the spool to the right if the transmission system pressure
becomes greater than the spring force on the right of the spool. Excess oil will flow to the
lubrication circuit and the lube relief valve. The lubrication circuit oil and oil from the lube
relief valve flows to the transmission sump. The relief valve is adjustable by turning the
adjusting screw on the right end of the valve.
SERV18xx - 18 - Text Reference
12/06

The clutch modulating valves control the engagement of the transmission clutches. The
solenoids are controlled by a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal from the
Transmission/Chassis ECM. Supply oil flows into the clutch modulating valves and through a
passage in the center of the spool. Oil then flows to the tank if the solenoid is not energized.
Oil flow is blocked by a ball and seat if the solenoid is energized. The spool will shift down
and the clutch will begin to fill. The signal from the Transmission/Chassis ECM determines
how long it takes to fill each clutch.

The transmission lubrication relief valve limits the transmission lubrication oil pressure.
SERV18xx - 19 - Text Reference
12/06

19

3 1

20

The transmission scavenge pump section (1) pulls oil from the bottom of the transmission case
through a magnetic screen and sends the oil through the transmission oil cooler (2) to the
transmission tank. The oil cooler is located on the right side of the engine.

The transmission charging pump section (3) pulls oil from the bottom of the transmission
hydraulic tank through a magnetic screen and sends the oil through the transmission filters to
the transmission hydraulic controls.
SERV18xx - 20 - Text Reference
12/06

2 3

8 9
5 7

21

Oil from the transmission charging pump section is sent to the transmission charge oil
filters (1) located on the cross member on the right side of the machine.

The rear filter housing has an S•O•S tap (2) and a charge pressure tap (3). The rear filter
housing also has a bypass switch (4) which provides an input signal to the monitoring system,
via the Transmission/Chassis ECM, to inform the operator if the filter is restricted.

The ECPC transmission hydraulic controls can be accessed by removing a cover plate (5) on
top of the transmission. The transmission input speed sensor (6) is located on top of the
transfer gear housing. The transmission input speed sensor sends an input to the
Transmission/Chassis ECM which checks the speed of the drive shaft to the speed of the
engine.

The transmission has pressure taps located on the outside of the transmission which aids in
preventing contamination from entering the transmission as well as saving time when checking
the pressures on the 777F transmission.

Shown in the lower right illustration are the transmission control valve pressure taps. The lube
oil pressure tap (7) and the transmission hydraulic system pressure tap (8) are located toward
the rear of the transmission. Oil pressure for the seven clutches can be checked at the
remaining seven taps (9) on the transmission.
SERV18xx - 21 - Text Reference
12/06

2 4 5
6

3 8
1

22

The transmission modulating valves control the oil to corresponding transmission clutches. The
solenoid valves are:

- Clutch No. 1 Solenoid valve (1)


- Clutch No. 2 Solenoid valve (2)
- Clutch No. 3 Solenoid valve (3)
- Clutch No. 4 Solenoid valve (4)
- Clutch No. 5 Solenoid valve (5)
- Clutch No. 6 Solenoid valve (6)
- Clutch No. 7 Solenoid valve (7)
The main relief valve (8) controls the transmission hydraulic pressure, and the lubrication relief
valve (not visible) controls the lubrication pressure. The lubrication relief valve is located
below the main relief valve.

Also located on the transmission hydraulic control valve is the transmission hydraulic oil
temperature sensor (9). The temperature sensor sends a signal to the Transmission/Chassis
ECM indicating transmission oil temperature.
SERV18xx - 22 - Text Reference
12/06

ENGAGEMENT OF TRANSMISSION CLUTCHES

Engaged Clutches in
Transmission Speed
the Transmission

NEUTRAL 1

REVERSE 1 and 7

FIRST speed 2 and 6

SECOND speed 1 and 6


THIRD speed 3 and 6
FOURTH speed 1 and 5
FIFTH speed 3 and 5

SIXTH speed 1 and 4

SEVENTH speed 3 and 4

23

The table in this illustration lists the solenoids that are energized and clutches that are engaged
for each transmission speed. This table can be useful for transmission diagnosis.
SERV18xx - 23 - Text Reference
12/06

TRANSMISSION MODULATING VALVE


NO COMMANDED SIGNAL
Test Port

Valve
Ball Orifice Spool Spring

Solenoid Pin Drain From


Orifice Pump
To To
Tank Clutch

24

In this illustration, the transmission modulating valve is shown with no current signal applied to
the solenoid. The Transmission/Chassis ECM controls the rate of oil flow through the
transmission modulating valves to the clutches by changing the signal current strength to the
solenoid. With no current signal applied to the solenoid, the transmission modulating valve is
DE-ENERGIZED and oil flow to the clutch is blocked.

Pump oil flows into the valve body around the valve spool and into a drilled passage in the
center of the valve spool. The oil flows through the drilled passage and orifice to the left side
of the valve spool to a drain orifice. Since there is no force acting on the pin assembly to hold
the ball against the drain orifice, the oil flows through the spool and the drain orifice past the
ball to the tank.

The spring located on the right side of the spool in this view holds the valve spool to the left.
The valve spool opens the passage between the clutch passage and the tank passage and blocks
the passage between the clutch passage and the pump supply port. Oil flow to the clutch is
blocked. Oil from the clutch drains to the tank preventing clutch engagement.
SERV18xx - 24 - Text Reference
12/06

TRANSMISSION MODULATING VALVE


COMMANDED SIGNAL BELOW MAXIMUM
Test Port

Valve
Ball Orifice Spool Spring

Solenoid Pin Drain From


Orifice Pump
To To
Tank Clutch

25

In this illustration, the modulating valve is shown with a signal to the solenoid that is below the
maximum current. Clutch engagement begins when the Transmission/Chassis ECM sends an
initial current signal to ENERGIZE the solenoid. The amount of commanded current signal is
proportional to the desired pressure that is applied to the clutch during each stage of the
engagement and disengagement cycle.

The start of clutch engagement begins when the current signal to the solenoid creates a
magnetic field around the pin. The magnetic force moves the pin against the ball in proportion
to the strength of the current signal from the Transmission/Chassis ECM.

The position of the ball against the orifice begins to block the drain passage of the oil flow from
the left side of the valve spool to the tank. This partial restriction causes the pressure at the left
end of the valve spool to increase. The oil pressure moves the valve spool to the right against
the spring. As the pressure on the right side of the valve spool overrides the force of the spring,
the valve spool shifts to the right.

The valve spool movement starts to open a passage on the right end of the valve spool for pump
supply oil to fill the clutch. Oil also begins to fill the spring chamber on on the right end of the
spool.
SERV18xx - 25 - Text Reference
12/06

In the initial clutch filling stage, the Transmission/Chassis ECM commands a high current pulse
to quickly move the valve spool to start filling the clutch. During this short period of time, the
clutch piston moves to remove the clearances between the clutch discs and plates to minimize
the amount of time required to fill the clutch. The ECM then reduces the current signal which
reduces the pressure setting of the proportional solenoid valve. The change in current signal
reduces the flow of oil to the clutch. The point where the clutch plates and discs start to touch
is called TOUCH-UP.

Once TOUCH-UP is obtained, the Transmission/Chassis ECM begins a controlled increase of


the current signal to start the MODULATION cycle. The increase in the current signal causes
the ball and pin to further restrict oil through the drain orifice to tank causing a controlled
movement of the spool to the right. The spool movement allows the pressure in the clutch to
increase.

During the MODULATION cycle, the valve spool working with the variable commanded
current signal from the Transmission/Chassis ECM acts as a variable pressure reducing valve.

The sequence of partial engagement is called desired slippage. The desired slippage is
controlled by the application program stored in the Transmission/Chassis ECM.
SERV18xx - 26 - Text Reference
12/06

TRANSMISSION MODULATING VALVE


COMMANDED SIGNAL AT MAXIMUM
Test Port

Ball Orifice Valve


Spool Spring

Solenoid Pin Drain From


Orifice Pump
To To
Tank Clutch

26

In this illustration, the modulating valve is shown with a maximum current signal commanded
to the solenoid. When the modulation cycle stops, the Transmission/Chassis ECM sends the
maximum specified current signal to fully engage the clutch.

The constant current signal pushes the pin firmly against the ball in the solenoid valve. The pin
force against the ball blocks more oil from flowing through the drain orifice. This restriction
causes an increase in pressure on the left side of the valve spool. The valve spool moves to the
right to allow pump flow to fully engage the clutch.

In a short period of time, maximum pressure is felt at both ends of the proportional solenoid
valve spool. This pressure along with the spring force on the right end of the spool cause the
valve spool to move to the left until the forces on the right end and the left end of the valve
spool are balanced.

The valve spool movement to the left (balanced) position reduces the flow of oil to the engaged
clutch. The Transmission/Chassis ECM sends a constant maximum specified current signal to
the solenoid to maintain the desired clutch pressure.
SERV18xx - 27 - Text Reference
12/06

The different maximum specified pressures for each clutch is caused by different maximum
current signals being sent by the Transmission/Chassis ECM to each individual modulating
valve. The different maximum signal causes a difference in the force pushing the pin against
the ball to block leakage through the drain orifice in each solenoid valve. The different rate of
leakage through the spool drain orifice provides different balance positions for the proportional
solenoid valve spool. Changing the valve spool position changes the flow of oil to the clutch
and the resulting maximum clutch pressure.

The operation of the proportional solenoid to control the engaging and releasing of clutches is
not a simple on and off cycle. The Transmission/Chassis ECM varies the strength of the
current signal through a programmed cycle to control movement of the valve spool.

The clutch pressures can be changed using Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) during the
calibration procedure.
SERV18xx - 28 - Text Reference
12/06

MAIN RELIEF VALVE


Adjusting
Screw

Ball

Slug

From
Pump

27

The transmission hydraulic control relief valve is used to regulate the pressure to the main
components in the transmission.

Oil enters the relief valve at the supply port. The pressure of the oil unseats the ball and moves
the spool toward the right. Oil flows past the spool and to the tank to regulate transmission oil
pressure.

The adjustment screw alters the preload on the spring to adjust the relief pressure.
SERV18xx - 29 - Text Reference
12/06

5
7

4
2
1

4
6
1

5
2

28

Rear Axle

Check the differential oil level by removing the magnetic inspection plug (1). The oil should
be level with the bottom of the fill plug opening. The magnetic inspection plug should be
removed at regular intervals and checked for metal particles. The plug (2) at the bottom of the
differential housing is used to drain the oil.

The optional remote grease fittings (3) are located on top of the differential.

Inspect the condition of the rear axle breather (4) at regular intervals. The breather prevents
pressure from building up in the axle housing. Excessive pressure in the axle housing can
cause brake cooling oil to leak through the Duo-Cone seals in the wheel brake assemblies. The
brake cooling oil pressure can be checked at the pressure taps (5) on top of the axle.

A differential carrier thrust pin is located behind the small cover (6). The thrust pin prevents
movement of the differential carrier during high thrust load conditions.

The backup alarm (7) is located on top of the rear frame. When the machine is in reverse, the
Transmission/Chassis ECM sends a signal to sound the backup alarm.
SERV18xx - 30 - Text Reference
12/06

29

Shown is the differential removed from the rear axle housing. The differential is located in the
rear axle housing behind the transmission. Power flows from the transmission to the
differential. The differential divides the power to the right and left axle shafts. Torque is
transmitted equally from the differential through the two axle shafts to the final drives. The
differential adjusts the speed of the axle shafts for vehicle cornering, therefore, the power
delivered to the axle shafts is unequal during cornering.

The differential thrust pin contacts the differential carrier at the location shown (arrow). When
high thrust loads are transmitted from the differential pinion to the differential ring gear, the
carrier tries to move away from the pinion. The thrust pin prevents movement of the
differential carrier during high thrust load conditions.
SERV18xx - 31 - Text Reference
12/06

TRANSMISSION/ C HASSIS CONTROL MODULE SYSTEM DIAGRAM

Cat Data Link

INPUTS OUTPUTS

Key Start Switch Torque Converter Oil Start Relay


Temperature Sensor
Machine Lockout Switch
Transmission Oil Transmission
Temperature Sensor Solenoids 1-7
Starter Lockout Switch
Primary Steering
Pressure Switch
QuickEvac Service
Tool Input Secondary Steering
Motor State Steering System
Disable Solenoid
Secondary Steer Test Switch Transmission Input
Speed Sensor
Service Brake Accumulator
Drive Gear Select Switches Alternator R-Terminal Bleed Solenoid
Lockup Clutch
Shift Lever Position Sensor Solenoid
Transmission
Charge Filter
Bypass Switch
Hoist Raise Solenoid
Hoist Lever Position Sensor
Transmission Output
Speed Sensor 1
Hoist Lower Solenoid
Fuel Level Sender
Transmission Output
Secondary Steering /
Speed Sensor 2
QuickEvac /
Engine Speed Sensor Prelube Relay
Transmission Oil
Level Switch
Back-up Alarm
Head Lamp Sense
Location Codes
Autolube Relay
Inclinometer
Secondary Steering
Body Pressure Switch Stop Lamp Relay
Up Switch
Secondary Brake Backup Lamp Relay
Autolube Pressure Sensor Pressure Switch

Service Brake Secondary Steering Relay


Pressure Switch

Lockup Clutch Starter Lockout Lamp


Filter Bypass Switch

Machine Lockout Lamp

Backlight Intensity

30

Transmission/Chassis Electronic Control System

Shown in this illustration are the transmission/chassis electronic control system inputs and
outputs for the 777F trucks.

The main purpose of the Transmission/Chassis ECM is to determine the desired transmission
gear and energize the appropriate solenoids to shift the transmission up or down as required
based on information from both the operator and machine. The Transmission/Chassis ECM
also controls all the hoist functions, the steering disable function, and other functions as
described in this presentation.

The Transmission/Chassis ECM receives information from various input components such as
the shift lever switch and the transmission output speed sensors.

Based on the input information, the Transmission/Chassis ECM determines whether the
transmission should upshift, downshift, engage the lockup clutch, or limit the transmission gear.
These actions are accomplished by sending signals to various output components.
SERV18xx - 32 - Text Reference
12/06

Power train output components include the transmission modulating valve solenoids and lockup
clutch solenoid. Several other Transmission/Chassis ECM output components are covered
throughout the presentation.

The Engine ECM, the monitoring system, the Transmission/Chassis ECM, and the Brake ECM
all communicate with each other through the CAT Data Link. Communication between the
electronic control modules allows the sensors of each system to be shared. Many additional
benefits are provided, such as Controlled Throttle Shifting (CTS). CTS occurs when the
Transmission/Chassis ECM tells the Engine ECM to reduce or increase engine fuel during a
shift to lower stress to the power train.

The Electronic Technician (ET) Service Tool can be used to perform several diagnostic and
programming functions.

NOTE: Some of the Transmission/Chassis ECM input and output components are
shown during the discussion of other systems.
SERV18xx - 33 - Text Reference
12/06

31

The Transmission/Chassis ECM (arrow) is located in the compartment at the rear of the cab.
The Transmission/Chassis ECM performs the transmission control functions, plus some other
machine functions (hoist and secondary steering control). Because of the functionality of the
control, it is referred to as the Transmission/Chassis ECM.

The Transmission/Chassis ECM is an A4M1 module with two 70-pin connectors. The
Transmission/Chassis ECM communicates with the Engine ECM, Brake ECM, and monitoring
system over the CAT Data Link and can communicate with some attachments over the CAN
Datalink.
SERV18xx - 34 - Text Reference
12/06

7
6 8

2 4

5
3

32

At the base of the shift lever (1) is a position sensor (2) which provides input signals to the
Transmission/Chassis ECM when the operator moves the lever. The shift lever position sensor
is a Hall-Effect position sensor. The shift lever is connected to a device which contains two
magnets. One magnet (3) is visible in the bottom left view.

As the lever is moved, the magnets pass over the Hall Cell (4) and the change in the magnetic
field produces a signal. The internal electronics (5) of the sensor process the signal and send a
PWM signal to the ECM.

The lever position sensor receives 24 VDC from the machine electrical system. The sensor
contains a fourth pin that is used for calibration on some machine applications.

The following measurements would be typical for the position sensor with the sensor connected
to the Transmission/Chassis ECM and the key switch turned ON:

• Pin 1 to Pin 2 -- Supply Voltage


• Pin 3 to Pin 2 -- .7 - 6.9 DCV on DC volts scale
• Pin 3 to Pin 2 -- 4.5 - 5.5 KHz on the KHz scale
• Pin 3 to Pin 2 -- 5% - 95% duty cycle on the % scale
SERV18xx - 35 - Text Reference
12/06

Also shown in the top right illustration is the drive gear UP switch (6) and the drive gear
DOWN switch (7). The drive gear switches are toggle switches that send a signal to the
Transmission/Chassis ECM. When the drive gear UP switch is pressed, the high gear limit can
be increased up to seventh gear. When the drive gear DOWN switch is pressed, the high gear
limit can be decreased down to third gear.

The transmission shift lever lock button (8) unlocks the transmission shift lever when pressed.
SERV18xx - 36 - Text Reference
12/06

33

The transmission output speed sensors are located on the transfer gear housing on the input end
of the transmission behind a cover (arrow). Although the sensors are physically located near
the input end of the transmission, the sensors are measuring the speed of the transmission
output shaft. The sensors are two wire passive sensors. The passive speed sensor uses the
passing teeth of the output shaft to provide a frequency signal. The signal from the sensor is
used for automatic shifting of the transmission. The signal is also used to drive the
speedometer and as an input to other electronic controls.

The Transmission/Chassis ECM also performs a check between the two measured transmission
output speeds and the transmission input speed to ensure that the ECM calculates an accurate
transmission speed. This check also uses the speeds to determine the direction of motion of the
machine.
SERV18xx - 37 - Text Reference
12/06

34

The engine speed sensor (arrow) is located at the rear of the engine on the left side of the gear
housing. The engine speed sensor sends a frequency signal to the Transmission/Chassis ECM
indicating engine speed. The Transmission/Chassis ECM uses the engine speed signal input to
determine actual engine speed. The actual engine speed is one of the parameters used to
determine the proper transmission shift points.
SERV18xx - 38 - Text Reference
12/06

35

The transmission oil level switch (arrow), located near the bottom of the transmission tank,
sends a signal to the Transmission/Chassis ECM indicating the hydraulic oil level in the
transmission tank.
SERV18xx - 39 - Text Reference
12/06

36

The body up switch (1) is located on the frame near the body pivot pin. This magnetic switch
is normally open. When the body is raised, a magnet (2) mounted on the body passes the
switch and causes the switch to close. The resulting ground signal is sent to the
Transmission/Chassis ECM. This signal is used to limit the top gear into which the
transmission will shift when the body is up.

The body up top gear value is programmable from FIRST to THIRD utilizing the Cat ET
Service Tool. The ECM comes from the factory with this value set to FIRST gear. When
driving away from a dump site, the transmission will not shift past FIRST gear until the body is
down. If the transmission is already above the set limit gear when the body is raised, no
limiting action will take place.

The body up switch signal is also used to control the SNUB position of the hoist control valve.
As the body is lowered and the magnet passes the body up switch, the Transmission/Chassis
ECM signals the hoist lower solenoid to move the hoist valve spool to the SNUB position. In
the SNUB position, the body float speed is reduced to prevent the body from making hard
contact with the frame.

The body up switch input provides the following functions:


- Body up gear limiting
- Body up sound reduction
- Hoist snubbing
- Lights the body up dash lamp
- Signals a new load count (after 10 seconds in the RAISE position)
SERV18xx - 40 - Text Reference
12/06

A diagnostic code occurs if the Transmission/Chassis ECM does not receive a closed (ground)
signal from the switch within four hours of operation time or an open signal from the switch
within one hour of operation time. The body up switch must be adjusted properly for all of the
functions to operate correctly.

Two LEDs are located on the body up switch. The green LED indicates that battery power is
present. The amber LED indicates that the switch is closed (grounded).

The body position switch can be raised or lowered slightly in the bracket notches to start the
SNUB feature sooner or later.

NOTE: The snub feature can also be adjusted in the Cat ET hoist configuration screen
by selecting the "Hoist lower valve adjustment status".
SERV18xx - 41 - Text Reference
12/06

TRANSMISSION/CHASSIS ECM
SYSTEMS CONTROLLED BY ECM
• Transmission Shifting • Torque Converter Lockup
• Top Gear Limit • Machine Overload Speed Limit
• Anti-hunt • Machine Speed Limit
• Reverse Inhibitor • Body Hoist
• Machine Lockout • Engine Oil Pre-lubrication
• Engine Lockout • Sound Reduction
• Neutral Start • Backup Alarm
• Shift Counter • Control Throttle Shifting (CTS)
• Throttle Lock • Directional Shift Management
• Secondary Steering • Neutral Coast Inhibiting

37

Besides controlling the Transmission Shifting and Torque Converter Lockup, the
Transmission/Chassis ECM also controls other functions as shown above, such as Control
Throttle Shifting (CTS), Directional Shift Management, and Top Gear Limit.

There are several programmable parameters available with the Transmission/Chassis ECM.

NOTE: Refer to the Transmission/Chassis Electronic Control System Operation,


Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjusting manual (RENR8342) for more information on
the additional Transmission/Chassis ECM functions and programmable parameters.
SERV18xx - 42 - Text Reference
12/06

5 1

38

STEERING SYSTEM

The steering system on the 777F is similar to the 777D except a steering disable solenoid valve
has been added and some of the component locations have changed.

When energized, the steering disable solenoid valve stops the oil flow coming from the steering
pump. This prevents the front wheels from turning to allow servicing to be conducted safely in
the front wheel area.

The steering system uses a load sensing, pressure compensated pump. Minimal horsepower is
used by the steering system when the truck is traveling in a straight path. Steering hydraulic
horsepower requirements depend on the amount of steering pressure and flow required by the
steering cylinders.

This illustration shows the following main steering components:

- Steering pump (1) - HMU (3)


- Steering disable valve and - Steering tank (4)
steering valve (2)
- Secondary steering pump (5)
SERV18xx - 43 - Text Reference
12/06

1 39

40
2

The steering system tank is located on the right platform

Check the steering system oil level at the sight gauge (1).

The steering system oil filter (2) is located on the side of the steering tank.

The steering system uses a pressure compensated piston type pump. Case drain oil from the
steering pump returns to the hydraulic tank through a case drain filter (3) on the side of the
steering tank.

Before removing the cap to add oil to the steering system, depress the pressure release
button (4) on the breather to release any remaining pressure from the tank.
SERV18xx - 44 - Text Reference
12/06

The steering system filter base and the case drain filter base have bypass valves that allow the
steering oil to bypass the filters if they are plugged.
SERV18xx - 45 - Text Reference
12/06

2
1

41

The 777F Trucks are equipped with a load sensing, pressure compensated, piston-type pump.
The steering pump operates only when the engine is running and provides the necessary flow of
oil for steering system operation. The steering pump contains a load sensing controller with
two valves. The high pressure cutoff valve (1) functions as the primary steering system relief
valve.

The flow compensator valve (2) is used to adjust the low pressure standby setting. When the
truck is traveling in a straight path, virtually no flow or pressure is sent to the steering
cylinders, and the pump destrokes to low pressure standby.
SERV18xx - 46 - Text Reference
12/06

Load Sensing To Steering


Pressure Valve STEERING PUMP
from HMU and HMU
LOW PRESSURE STANDBY

High Pressure
Cutoff Valve Actuator
Piston

Flow
Compensator

Load Sensing
Controller

Swashplate
Piston
Case Drain
Filter

42

When the truck is traveling in a straight path, the steering cylinders require virtually no flow or
pressure. The HMU provides a very low pressure load sensing signal to the flow compensator
in the load sensing controller.

Pump oil (at low pressure standby) flows to the swashplate piston and past the lower end of the
displaced flow compensator spool to the actuator piston. The actuator piston has a larger
surface area than the swashplate piston. The oil pressure at the actuator piston overcomes the
spring force and the oil pressure in the swashplate piston and moves the swashplate to destroke
the pump. The pump is then at minimum flow, low pressure standby.

Pump output pressure is equal to the setting of the flow compensator plus the pressure required
to compensate for system leakage.
SERV18xx - 47 - Text Reference
12/06

Load Sensing
Pressure
To Steering STEERING PUMP
Valve
from HMU and HMU MAXIMUM FLOW

High Pressure
Cutoff Valve
Actuator Piston

Flow
Compensator

Load Sensing
Controller

Swashplate
Piston
Case Drain
Filter

43

During a turn, when steering pressure and flow are required, pressure increases in the HMU
load sensing signal line. The pressure in the signal line is equal to the pressure in the steering
cylinders. The pump load sensing controller is spring biased to vent the actuator piston
pressure to drain. Venting pressure from the load sensing controller and the actuator piston
positions the spring biased swashplate to maximum displacement (maximum flow).

As pressure increases in the HMU load sensing signal line, pump supply pressure is sensed on
both ends of the flow compensator. When pressure is present on both ends of the flow
compensator, the swashplate is kept at maximum angle by the force of the spring in the pump
housing and pump discharge pressure on the swashplate piston. The pistons reciprocate in and
out of the barrel and maximum flow is provided through the outlet port. Since the pump is
driven by the engine, engine rpm also affects pump output.
SERV18xx - 48 - Text Reference
12/06

44

45
2
3

The steering disable valve (1) is located behind the shock on the right frame rail.

When the steering disable solenoid valve (2) is energized, oil flow from the steering pump to
the steering valve is blocked by the steering disable valve, which allows servicing behind the
front wheels with the machine running.

When the machine lockout switch, located under a panel on the left stairway, is toggled, a
signal is sent to the Transmission/Chassis ECM. The Transmission/Chassis ECM energizes the
steering disable solenoid allowing service to be performed behind the front wheels safely.

Also located on the steering disable valve is a pressure tap (3) for checking the load sensing
signal to the pump, and an S•O•S tap (4).
SERV18xx - 49 - Text Reference
12/06

2 5 1
3

46

6
4
7

47

Steering oil flows from the pump through the steering disable valve to the steering valve (1)
located on the frame behind the right front suspension cylinder. The primary steering pressure
switch (2) monitors the output of the steering pump. The steering pressure switch provides
input signals to the Transmission/Chassis ECM which sends a signal to the monitoring system
to inform the operator of the steering system condition. A steering system warning is displayed
if the pressure is too low.

The steering pressure switch cannot tolerate high steering system pressures. A pressure
reducing valve (not visible) reduces the steering system pressure to the steering pressure
switch.
SERV18xx - 50 - Text Reference
12/06

Two relief valves are located on the left side of the steering valve. The top relief valve (3) is a
back-up relief valve for the secondary steering system. The secondary steering back-up relief
valve protects the secondary steering system if the relief valve on the secondary steering pump
malfunctions.

The lower relief valve (4) is a back-up relief valve for the primary steering system. The
primary steering back-up relief valve protects the primary steering system if the high pressure
cutoff valve on the steering pump malfunctions. Primary steering pressure is first controlled by
the high pressure cutoff valve located on the steering pump.

Check valves are used to separate the primary and secondary steering systems. The secondary
check valve (5) is behind the left plug, and the primary check valve (6) is behind the right plug.

Steering system pressures can be measured at the steering system pressure tap (7).
SERV18xx - 51 - Text Reference
12/06

48

This illustration shows the location of the HMU (arrow) for the 777F. Serviceability has
improved for the HMU on the 777F due to the redesigned walkways. The HMU is connected
to the steering wheel and controlled by the operator.

The HMU meters the amount of oil sent to the steering cylinders by the speed at which the
steering wheel is turned. The faster the HMU is turned, the higher the flow sent to the steering
cylinders, and the faster the wheels will change direction.

The steering system is referred to as "Q-amp" which means flow amplification. During a
sudden steering change (steering wheel speed greater than 10 rpm), additional steering pump oil
flow will bypass the gerotor pump in the HMU and flow directly to the steering cylinders.
Steering oil flow to the cylinders is equal to the gerotor pump oil flow plus the bypass oil flow
from the steering pump. The steering oil flow is amplified up to 1.6 to 1. The purpose of the
flow amplification is to provide quick steering response when sudden steering changes are
needed.

Two crossover relief valves are installed in the top of the HMU. The crossover relief valves are
installed in series with the left and right turn ports. If an outside force is applied to the front
wheels while the steering wheel is stationary, the crossover relief valves provide circuit
protection for the steering lines between the steering cylinders and the HMU. The crossover
relief valves allow oil to transfer from one end of the steering cylinders to the opposite end of
the cylinders.
SERV18xx - 52 - Text Reference
12/06

To test the right crossover relief valve, install two tees with pressure taps in the right turn
steering hose at the steering cylinders. Steer the truck completely to the right against the stops,
and shut off the engine. An external pump supply must be connected to one of the pressure
taps on the right turn hose. Connect a pressure gauge to the other pressure tap on the right turn
hose. Pressurize the steering system, and the reading on the gauge will be the setting of the
right crossover relief valve.

To test the left crossover relief valve, install two tees with pressure taps in the left turn steering
hose at the steering cylinders. Steer the truck completely to the left against the stops, and shut
off the engine. An external pump supply must be connected to one of the pressure taps on the
left turn hose. Connect a pressure gauge to the other pressure tap on the left turn hose.
Pressurize the steering system, and the reading on the gauge will be the setting of the left
crossover relief valve.
SERV18xx - 53 - Text Reference
12/06

49

2 3 1
4

2
5
4
6
50

3 1

The electric secondary steering pump (1) and motor (2) on the 777F are the same as the 777D,
however the location has changed. The pump and motor are now located on the front of the
front crossmember. The pump and motor assembly also includes the brake release pump
section (3) and the prelubrication (QuickEvac) pump section (4).

The secondary pressure switch (5) is also mounted next to the secondary steering pump. The
pressure switch detects if the wheels are being turned via the steering wheel when secondary
steering is activated. When the wheel is turned in a secondary steering condition, the pressure
switch will signal the Transmission/Chassis ECM and the QuickEvac function will be disabled.
SERV18xx - 54 - Text Reference
12/06

If the primary steering pressure switch signals the Transmission/Chassis ECM that the steering
system pressure is low, the ECM will energize the secondary steering relay located behind the
cab. The secondary steering relay will then energize a second larger relay located on the frame
above the steering valve, which will then energize the secondary steering motor.

The primary relief valve for the secondary steering is accessible through the small allen head
plug (6). To check the setting of the secondary steering primary relief valve, do not start the
truck. Turn ON the key start switch and depress the secondary steering switch in the cab. Turn
the steering wheel hard to the left or right while the secondary steering pump is running.
Secondary steering system pressures can be measured at the steering system pressure tap.
SERV18xx - 55 - Text Reference
12/06

Crossover
Relief Valves

STEERING HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM
HMU

Primary Steering
Back-up Relief Valve
Pressure
Reducing Valve
Load Primary Steering
Sensing Valve Pressure Switch
Secondary Secondary Steering
Pressure Back-up Relief Valve
Switch

Transmission
Chassis Steering
ECM Valve
Piston Pump and
M Load Sensing
Controller

Secondary Secondary
Steering Steering
Primary Relief Pump
Valve
Flow
Compensator

Steering
Disable Valve Actuator
Piston

Swashplate
Piston
Steering
Filter

Case Drain
Filter

51

Shown is a schematic of the steering hydraulic system in the HOLD position. The primary
steering pump pulls oil from the steering tank. All piston-type pumps produce a small amount
of leakage to the case drain circuit for lubrication and cooling. The case drain oil flows to the
steering tank through a case drain filter.

Steering oil flows from the pump to the steering disable valve. When the steering disable valve
is energized, oil is allowed to flow to the steering valve.

In the steering valve, a steering pressure switch monitors the output of the steering pump. The
steering pressure switch cannot tolerate high steering system pressures. A pressure reducing
valve lowers the steering system pressure to the steering pressure switch.

If the steering pressure switch signals the Transmission/Chassis ECM that the steering system
pressure is low, the ECM will then energize the secondary steering motor. Secondary steering
supply oil will flow to the steering valve.
SERV18xx - 56 - Text Reference
12/06

Two relief valves are installed in the steering valve. The secondary steering back-up relief
valve protects the secondary steering system if the relief valve on the secondary steering pump
malfunctions. The primary steering back-up relief valve protects the primary steering system if
the high pressure cutoff valve on the steering pump malfunctions.

Two check valves are located on the steering valve. The check valves are used to separate the
primary and secondary steering systems.

Steering supply oil flows to the HMU from the steering valve. Return oil from the HMU flows
through the steering valve and the steering filter to the steering tank.

The HMU meters the amount of oil sent to the steering cylinders by the speed at which the
steering wheel is turned. The faster the HMU is turned, the higher the flow sent to the steering
cylinders, and the faster the wheels will change direction.

Two crossover relief valves are installed in the top of the HMU. The crossover relief valves are
installed in series with the left and right turn ports. If an outside force is applied to the front
wheels while the steering wheel is stationary, the crossover relief valves provide circuit
protection for the steering lines between the steering cylinders and the HMU. The crossover
relief valves allow oil to transfer from one end of the steering cylinders to the opposite end of
the cylinders.

When the Transmission/Chassis ECM energizes the secondary steering motor, load sensing
signal oil will flow from the secondary steering load sensing valve through the load sensing
resolver to the HMU. The load sensing valve uses the load sensing signal pressure to control
the amount of flow from the secondary steering pump to the steering valve.

The 777F Trucks use a dynamic load sensing steering system the same as the late model
"D Series" Trucks. In a dynamic system, there is load sensing pressure and flow between the
HMU and the steering pumps.

A load sensing pilot signal resolver valve is located in the steering disable valve. The resolver
valve allows load sensing signal oil to flow between the HMU and the primary steering pump
or the secondary steering pump. In the NO STEER position, oil flows to the HMU. In a LEFT
or RIGHT STEER position, oil also flows from the HMU to the resolver valve.

Normally, the secondary steering pump is OFF and the resolver is closed from the HMU to the
secondary steering pump. The flow from the primary steering pump holds the resolver open
and load sensing pilot signal pressure is present between the HMU and the piston pump flow
compensator.

The load sensing signal flow from the primary steering pump is also used for "thermal bleed"
through the HMU. The "thermal bleed" is used to keep the HMU temperature the same as the
rest of the steering system. Keeping the HMU the same temperature prevents sticking.
SERV18xx - 57 - Text Reference
12/06

4
3

2
3

52

HOIST SYSTEM

The hoist system on the 777F Update trucks is electronically controlled by the
Transmission/Chassis ECM. The hoist control system operates similar to the 777D trucks.

The main components in the hoist system are:

- Hoist control lever and position sensor (in cab)


- Hoist pump (1)
- Hoist control valve (2)
- Hoist cylinders (3)
- Hydraulic oil tank (4)
SERV18xx - 58 - Text Reference
12/06

53

The operator controls the hoist lever (arrow). The four positions of the hoist lever are RAISE,
HOLD, FLOAT and LOWER. The hoist valve has a fifth position referred to as the SNUB
position. The operator is unaware of the SNUB position because a corresponding lever position
is not provided. When the body is being lowered, just before the body contacts the frame, the
Transmission/Chassis ECM signals the hoist lower solenoid to move the hoist valve spool to the
SNUB position. In the SNUB position, the body float speed is reduced to prevent the body
from making hard contact with the frame.

The hoist system can be enabled or disabled using ET. All trucks shipped from the factory
without bodies installed are set at the Hoist Enable Status 2. The Hoist Enable Status 2 is a test
mode only and will prevent the hoist cylinders from accidentally being activated. After the
body is installed, change the Hoist Enable Status to 1 for the hoist system to function properly.

The truck should normally be operated with the hoist lever in the FLOAT position. Traveling
with the hoist in the FLOAT position will make sure the weight of the body is on the frame and
body pads and not on the hoist cylinders. The hoist control valve will actually be in the SNUB
position.

If the transmission is in REVERSE when the body is being raised, the hoist lever sensor is used
to shift the transmission to NEUTRAL. The transmission will remain in NEUTRAL until the
hoist lever is moved into the HOLD or FLOAT position and the shift lever has been cycled into
and out of NEUTRAL.

NOTE: If the truck is started with the body raised and the hoist lever in FLOAT, the
lever must be moved into HOLD and then FLOAT before the body will lower.
SERV18xx - 59 - Text Reference
12/06

54

The hoist lever (1) controls a position sensor (2). The PWM sensor sends duty cycle input
signals to the Transmission/Chassis ECM. The hoist lever position sensor is a Hall-Effect
position sensor and operates the same as the transmission shift lever sensor (3) previously
described. Depending on the position of the sensor and the corresponding duty cycle, one of
the two solenoids located on the hoist valve is energized.

The four positions of the hoist lever are RAISE, HOLD, FLOAT, and LOWER, but since the
sensor provides a duty cycle signal that changes for all positions of the hoist lever, the operator
can modulate the speed of the hoist cylinders.

The hoist lever sensor performs three functions:

- Raises and lowers the body


- Neutralizes the transmission in REVERSE
- Starts a new TPMS cycle
SERV18xx - 60 - Text Reference
12/06

55

Shown is the hoist, converter, and brake hydraulic tank. The oil level is checked by opening
the small door (1) and looking at the sight gauge. The oil level should first be checked with
cold oil and the engine stopped. The level should again be checked with warm oil and the
engine running.

The lower sight gauge (2) can be used to fill the tank when the hoist cylinders are in the
RAISED position. When the hoist cylinders are lowered, the hydraulic oil level will increase.
After the hoist cylinders are lowered, check the hydraulic tank oil level with the upper sight
gauge as explained above.

Check the hoist, converter, and brake hydraulic tank breather (3) for restriction. Clean the filter
if it is restricted.
SERV18xx - 61 - Text Reference
12/06

1 6 7 8

56

Shown is the rear of the hoist, converter, and brake hydraulic tank. The hoist pump pulls oil
from the tank through the suction screen (1) located in the rear of the tank. Oil returns from the
hoist valve through the port (2).

Brake cooling oil returns to the hydraulic tank through the three upper ports (3).

Other ports located on the hydraulic tank are:

- Transmission charging pump suction (4)


- Transmission return (5)
- Torque converter pump suction (6)
- Brake cooling pump suction (7)
- Torque converter inlet relief valve return (8)
SERV18xx - 62 - Text Reference
12/06

57

58
2

The hoist pump (1) is a gear type pump that is attached to the drive gear at the rear of the
engine. Mounted to the hoist pump is the brake cooling pump and the brake charging pump.
Oil flows from the hoist pump to the hoist control valve.

The hoist system relief pressures are different in the RAISE and LOWER positions.

The body up switch must be in the RAISE position before the LOWER relief valve setting can
be tested. Move a magnet past the body up switch until the body up alert indicator on the dash
turns ON. If the body up switch is in the LOWER position, the Transmission/Chassis ECM
will hold the hoist valve in the SNUB position and the LOWER relief valve will not open.
SERV18xx - 63 - Text Reference
12/06

In the HOLD, FLOAT and SNUB positions, the gauge will show the brake cooling system
pressure, which is a result of the restriction in the coolers, brakes and hoses (normally much
lower than the actual oil cooler relief valve setting). The maximum pressure is limited by the
oil cooler relief valve.

Hoist pump pressure can be checked at the pressure tap (2) on the pump.
SERV18xx - 64 - Text Reference
12/06

59

The hoist control valve (1) is located behind the engine on the right side of the frame. The
hoist valve is the same as the hoist control valve on the 777D.

The hoist valve uses torque converter lockup clutch pump oil as the pilot oil to shift the
directional spool inside the hoist valve. Lockup clutch pump oil enters the hydraulic
actuators (2) on both ends of the hoist valve.
SERV18xx - 65 - Text Reference
12/06

7
6

2 1
4

3 5

60

Pilot oil pressure is always present at both ends of the directional spool. Two solenoid valves
are used to drain the pilot oil from the ends of the directional spool, which then allows the
spool to move. The solenoid on the right is the RAISE solenoid valve (1), and the solenoid on
the left is the LOWER solenoid valve (2).

The left pressure tap (3) is used to check the pilot pressure of the hoist lower solenoid. The
right pressure tap (4) is used to check the pilot pressure of the raise solenoid.

When the Transmission/Chassis ECM receives an input signal from the hoist lever sensor, the
ECM sends an output signal current between 0 and 1.9 amps to one of the solenoids. The
amount of current sent to the solenoid determines how much pilot oil is drained from the end of
the directional spool and, therefore, how far the directional spool travels toward the solenoid.

An oil cooler relief valve is located in the hoist control valve behind the large plug (5). The
relief valve limits the brake oil cooling pressure when the hoist valve is in the HOLD, FLOAT
or SNUB position.

The hoist system relief pressures are controlled by the two relief valves located on top of the
hoist valve. The RAISE relief valve (6) limits the pressure in the hoist system during RAISE.
The LOWER relief valve (7) limits the pressure in the hoist system during LOWER.

NOTE: The hoist valve LOWER position (snub adjustment) is an adjustable parameter
in the Transmission/Chassis ECM using Cat ET. The slight adjustment provides a
means to compensate for valve differences. This is the snub adjustment.
SERV18xx - 66 - Text Reference
12/06

1
2

61

The hoist cylinder lower circuit pressure tap (1) and raise circuit pressure tap (2) are located on
the cross-tube between the lower hoist cylinder mounts.

The relief valve pressure setting is tested with the engine at HIGH IDLE and the hoist valve in
the RAISE or LOWER position.

The body up switch at the frame near the body pivot pin must be in the RAISE position before
the LOWER relief valve setting can be tested. Move a magnet past the body up switch until the
body up alert indicator on the dash turns ON. If the body up switch is in the LOWER position,
the Transmission/Chassis ECM will hold the hoist valve in the SNUB position and the LOWER
relief valve will not open.

An orifice plate is installed between the upper hose and the rod end port on both hoist
cylinders. The orifice plate restricts the flow of oil from the rod end of the hoist cylinders.

The orifice plate also prevents cavitation of the cylinders when the body raises faster than the
pump can supply oil to the cylinders (caused by a sudden shift of the load).

NOTE: If the snub feature is not adjusted correctly, residual pressure will exist in the
head side of the cylinders and the body will not rest on the frame. The raise circuit
pressure tap should be used to ensure there is no residual pressure in the head side of
the cylinders.

Otherwise, when checking the raise (high) circuit pressure, the pressure tap on the hoist pump
is easier to access.
SERV18xx - 67 - Text Reference
12/06

Raise Brake Cooling


Solenoid Relief Valve

Low Parking Brake


Pressure Release Pressure
Relief Valve

Main Relief
Dump Valve
To Brake
High Cooling
Pressure
Relief Valve

To Hoist Cylinder
Dual Stage Rod End
Relief Valve
Signal Stem

To Hoist Cylinder
Load Head End
Check
Valve

HOIST CONTROL VALVE


HOLD
Parking Brake
Release Pressure

Lower
Solenoid

62

This illustration shows a sectional view of the hoist control valve in the HOLD position. Pilot
oil pressure is present at both ends of the directional spool. The spool is held in the centered
position by the centering springs and the pilot oil. Passages in the directional spool vent the
dual stage relief valve signal stem to the tank. All the hoist pump oil flows through the brake
oil coolers to the rear brakes.

The position of the directional spool blocks the oil in the head end and rod end of the hoist
cylinders.

A gauge connected to a pressure tap at the pump while the hoist valve is in the HOLD position
will show the brake cooling system pressure, which is a result of the restriction in the coolers,
brakes and hoses. The maximum pressure in the circuit should correspond to the setting of the
brake oil cooler relief valve.
SERV18xx - 68 - Text Reference
12/06

ON
Raise Brake Cooling
Solenoid Relief Valve

Low Parking Brake


Pressure Release Pressure
Relief Valve

Main Relief
Dump Valve
To Brake
High Cooling
Pressure
Relief Valve

Dual Stage From Hoist Cylinder


Relief Valve Rod End
Signal Stem

To Hoist Cylinder
Load Head End
Check
Valve

HOIST CONTROL VALVE


RAISE
Parking Brake
Release Pressure
Lower
Solenoid

63

In the RAISE position, the raise solenoid is ENERGIZED and drains pilot oil from the upper
end of the directional spool. The directional spool moves up. Pump oil flows past the load
check valve and the directional spool to the head end of the hoist cylinders.

When the directional spool is initially shifted, the load check valve remains closed until the
supply pressure is higher than the pressure in the hoist cylinders. The load check valve
prevents the body from dropping before the RAISE pressure increases.

The directional spool also sends hoist cylinder raise pressure to the dual stage relief valve
signal stem. The dual stage relief valve signal stem moves down and blocks the supply
pressure from opening the low pressure relief valve.

Oil flowing from the rod end of the hoist cylinders flows freely through the brake oil cooler to
the brakes.

If the pressure in the head end of the hoist cylinders exceeds the relief valve settings, the high
pressure relief valve will open. When the high pressure relief valve opens, the dump valve
moves to the left and pump oil flows to the tank.
SERV18xx - 69 - Text Reference
12/06

The high pressure hoist relief valve setting is checked at the hoist pump pressure tap or the
head end pressure tap. Check the relief pressure with the hoist lever in the RAISE position and
the engine at HIGH IDLE.
SERV18xx - 70 - Text Reference
12/06

Raise Brake Cooling


Solenoid Relief Valve

Low Parking Brake


Pressure Release Pressure
Relief Valve

Main Relief
Dump Valve
To Brake
High Cooling
Pressure
Relief Valve

To Hoist Cylinder
Dual Stage Rod End
Relief Valve
Signal Stem

From Hoist Cylinder


Load Head End
Check
Valve

HOIST CONTROL VALVE


LOWER/POWER DOWN
Parking Brake
Release Pressure

Lower
Solenoid

ON

64

In the LOWER (power down) position, the LOWER solenoid is energized and drains pilot oil
from the lower end of the directional spool. The directional spool moves down.

Supply oil from the pump flows past the load check valve and the directional spool to the rod
end of the hoist cylinders. Oil in the head end of the hoist cylinders flows to the tank through
holes in the directional spool. The supply oil in the rod end of the cylinders and the weight of
the body move the cylinders to their retracted positions.

Just before the body contacts the frame, the body up switch sends a signal to the
Transmission/Chassis ECM to move the directional spool to the SNUB position. In the SNUB
position, the directional spool moves slightly to restrict the flow of head end oil through only
some of the holes in the spool which allows the body to lower gradually.

The directional spool also vents the passage to the dual stage relief valve signal stem. The dual
stage relief valve signal stem allows supply pressure to be limited by the low pressure relief
valve.

If the pressure in the rod end of the hoist cylinders is too high, the low pressure relief valve will
open. When the low pressure relief valve opens, the dump valve moves to the left and pump oil
flows to the tank.
SERV18xx - 71 - Text Reference
12/06

The low pressure hoist relief valve setting is checked at the rod end pressure tap. Check the
relief pressures with the hoist lever in the LOWER position and the engine at HIGH IDLE.

The body up switch must be in the RAISE position before the LOWER relief valve setting can
be tested. Move a magnet past the body up switch until the body up alert indicator on the dash
turns ON. If the body up switch is in the LOWER position, the Transmission/Chassis ECM
will hold the hoist valve in the SNUB position and the LOWER relief valve will not open.
SERV18xx - 72 - Text Reference
12/06

Raise Brake Cooling


Solenoid Relief Valve
Low Parking Brake
Pressure Release Pressure
Relief Valve

Main Relief
Dump Valve
To Brake
High Cooling
Pressure
Relief Valve

To Hoist Cylinder
Dual Stage Rod End
Relief Valve
Signal Stem

From Hoist Cylinder


Load Head End
Check
Valve

HOIST CONTROL VALVE


FLOAT
Parking Brake
Release Pressure

Lower
Solenoid

ON

65

In the FLOAT position, the LOWER solenoid is partially energized and drains some of the pilot
oil at the lower end of the directional spool to the tank. The directional spool moves down.
Because the pilot oil is only partially drained, the directional spool does not move down as far
as during LOWER (power down).

Pump supply oil flows past the load check valve and the directional spool to the rod end of the
hoist cylinders. Oil in the head end of the hoist cylinders flows to the tank. The position of the
directional spool permits the pressure of the oil flowing to the brake oil cooler to be felt at the
rod end of the hoist cylinders.

The truck should normally be operated with the hoist lever in the FLOAT position. Traveling
with the hoist in the FLOAT position will make sure the weight of the body is on the frame and
body pads and not on the hoist cylinders. The hoist valve will actually be in the SNUB
position.
SERV18xx - 73 - Text Reference
12/06

Raise Brake Cooling


Solenoid Relief Valve
Low Parking Brake
Pressure Release Pressure
Relief Valve

Main Relief
Dump Valve
To Brake
High Cooling
Pressure
Relief Valve

To Hoist Cylinder
Dual Stage
Rod End
Relief Valve
Signal Stem

From Hoist Cylinder


Load Head End
Check
Valve

HOIST CONTROL VALVE


SNUB
Parking Brake
Release Pressure

Lower
Solenoid

ON

66

In the SNUB position as the body is lowered, just before the body contacts the frame, the body
up switch sends a signal to the Transmission/Chassis ECM to move the directional spool to the
SNUB position. In the SNUB position, the directional spool moves slightly to a position
between HOLD and FLOAT. The SNUB position restricts the flow of oil and lowers the body
gradually.

The operator does not control the SNUB position. When the hoist lever is in the LOWER or
FLOAT position and the body up switch is in the DOWN position, the hoist control valve is in
the SNUB position.

A gauge connected to the rod end pressure tap while the hoist control valve is in the SNUB
position will show the brake cooling system pressure, which is a result of the restriction in the
coolers, brakes and hoses. The maximum pressure in the circuit should correspond to the
setting of the brake oil cooler relief valve.
SERV18xx - 74 - Text Reference
12/06

67

Two-stage hoist cylinders (1) are used to raise the body. Oil flows from the hoist control valve
to the two hoist cylinders when the directional spool in the hoist control valve is not in HOLD.

Check the condition of the body pads (2) for wear or damage.

Hoist pilot pressure is required to lower the body with a dead engine. The towing pump can be
used to provide the hoist pilot oil.
SERV18xx - 75 - Text Reference
12/06

Left
Front
777F HOIST AND BRAKE COOLING SCHEMATICS

From Torque Converter Right


Lockup Clutch Pilot Front

Main Relief Dump Spool


From Tow Pump Circuit

Left
Rear
Lower /
Float /
Snub
Solenoid
From
Torque Converter From From
Lockup Clutch Torque Brake
Pump Converter System

RAISE

Right SNUB
Rear Brake Cooling
Pressure
Test Port Cylinder FLOAT
Rod End
Pressure
Test Port
LOWER
Brake
Cooling
Relief

68

This illustration shows the hoist hydraulic system in the HOLD position. The hoist pump pulls
oil from the hydraulic tank through the suction screen located in the rear of the tank. Oil flows
from the hoist pump to the hoist control valve.

When the hoist control valve is in the HOLD, FLOAT or SNUB position, all the hoist pump oil
flows through the brake oil coolers located on the right side of the engine. Oil flows from the
oil coolers, through the brakes, and returns to the hydraulic tank.

NOTE: If the truck is equipped with the optional caliper type front brake system, the
brake cooling pump is not installed and oil from the hoist pump will flow to only the
rear brakes.

A brake cooling relief valve is located in the hoist control valve. The relief valve limits the
brake oil cooling pressure when the hoist control valve is in the HOLD, FLOAT or SNUB
position.

The hoist valve uses torque converter lockup clutch pump oil as the pilot oil to shift the
directional spool inside the hoist control valve. Oil flows from the lockup clutch pump to both
ends of the hoist control valve.
SERV18xx - 76 - Text Reference
12/06

Pilot pressure is always present at both ends of the directional spool. Two solenoid valves are
used to drain the pilot oil from the ends of the directional spool, which then allows the
centering springs and the pressure on the opposite end of the spool to move the spool. When
the RAISE solenoid is energized, the directional spool will move toward the RAISE solenoid.

The RAISE and LOWER solenoid valves constantly receive approximately 300 millivolts at a
frequency of 80 Hz from the Transmission/Chassis ECM when they are in any position except
HOLD. The excitation, referred to as "dither," is used to keep the solenoids in a ready state for
quick response.

When the Transmission/Chassis ECM receives an input signal from the hoist lever sensor, the
ECM sends an output signal current between 0 and 1.9 amps to one of the solenoids. The
amount of current sent to the solenoid determines how much pilot oil is drained from the end of
the directional spool and, therefore, the distance that the directional spool travels.

The truck should normally be operated with the hoist lever in the FLOAT position. Traveling
with the hoist in the FLOAT position will make sure the weight of the body is on the frame and
body pads and not on the hoist cylinders. The hoist valve will actually be in the SNUB
position.

When the hoist control valve is in the RAISE position, pump supply oil flows to the head end
of the hoist cylinders. Pump supply oil also flows to the dual stage signal spool and moves the
spool to the left. When the dual stage signal spool moves to the left, pump supply oil is
blocked from the LOWER relief valve, and the RAISE relief valve will limit the hoist system
pressure.

When the hoist control valve is in the LOWER (power down), FLOAT or SNUB position,
pump supply oil flows to the rod end of the hoist cylinders. Pump supply oil is blocked from
the dual stage signal spool and the spring holds the spool in the right position. When the dual
stage signal spool is in the right position, pump supply oil can flow to the LOWER relief valve,
and hoist system pressure is controlled by the LOWER relief valve.

An orifice plate is installed between the upper hose and the rod end port on both hoist
cylinders. The orifice plate prevents cavitation of the cylinders when the body raises faster
than the pump can supply oil to the cylinders (caused by a sudden shift of the load).
SERV18xx - 77 - Text Reference
12/06

1 3 9 4 5 6
2

69

BRAKE SYSTEM

Two separate brake systems are used on the 777F. The two brake systems are the
service/retarder brake system and the parking/secondary brake system. The parking/secondary
brakes are spring engaged and hydraulically released. The service/retarder brakes are
hydraulically engaged and spring released.

The braking system is also equipped with a Brake ECM that controls the braking system
functions, including the Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) and the Traction Control
System (TCS).

The air system on the previous model trucks has been completely removed.

The main components in the braking system are:

- Brake charging pump (1) - Cab brake manifold (5)


- Brake cooling pump (standard oil - Service brake valve (6)
cooled front brakes) (2)
- Brake oil filter (7)
- Accumulator charging valve (3)
- Front slack adjuster (8)
- Brake accumulators (4)
- Brake accumulator check valve (9)
SERV18xx - 78 - Text Reference
12/06

70

The rear brakes on the 777F Trucks are oil cooled. Shown is a cutaway illustration of an oil
cooled brake assembly. The brakes are environmentally sealed and adjustment free. Oil
continually flows through the brake discs for cooling. Duo-Cone seals prevent the cooling oil
from leaking to the ground or transferring into the axle housing. The wheel bearing adjustment
must be maintained to keep the Duo-Cone seals from leaking.

The smaller piston (yellow) is used to engage the secondary and parking brakes. The parking
brakes are spring engaged and hydraulically released.

The larger piston (purple) is used to engage the service and retarder brakes. The service and
retarder brakes are engaged hydraulically and released by spring force.
SERV18xx - 79 - Text Reference
12/06

Brake Actuation
Pressure
777F
STANDARD
FRONT BRAKE

Disassembly
Service Plug

71

The standard oil cooled front brakes are also environmentally sealed and adjustment free. The
piston (yellow) is used to ENGAGE the service/retarder brakes. The front brakes do not have a
second piston for the parking/secondary brakes.

When the wheel is removed for service, the small plug at the lower left must be removed (the
brake assembly is equipped with two similar plugs). Two 3/8 inch bolts must be installed at the
plug locations to hold the brake discs and plates in position during wheel removal. The bolts
ensure proper alignment of the teeth on the discs and plates during installation.
SERV18xx - 80 - Text Reference
12/06

777F OPTIONAL CALIPER DISC BRAKE

Piston
Bleed Valve

Caliper

Carrier Lining
From Brake Cylinder

Disc

72

With the optional disc and caliper design brakes, the brake caliper assemblies are fastened to
the spindle and do not rotate. The brake disc is fastened to the wheel and rotates with the
wheel. Air can be bled from the front brakes through the bleed valves.

During brake application, hydraulic oil from the brake cylinders forces the brake pistons against
the brake carrier linings (brake pads). The brake linings are forced against the disc to stop the
rotation of the wheel.
SERV18xx - 81 - Text Reference
12/06

3
2
1

73

1
74

The brake charging pump (1), the brake oil cooling pump (2), and the hoist pump (3) are
mounted to the pump drive gear on the left rear side of the engine. The 777F brake system
accumulators are charged by the brake charging pump, which supplies oil to the accumulator
charging valve. The oil cooling pump sends oil to the oil coolers before the oil flows to the
front and rear brakes for brake cooling.

NOTE: The brake oil cooling pump is not installed on trucks with the optional caliper
type front brakes.
SERV18xx - 82 - Text Reference
12/06

75

The brake system filter (1) is located on the left outer rear frame next to the left rear strut
mount. The brake filter includes a filter bypass switch (2), which sends a signal to the Brake
ECM if the filter is restricted. The Brake ECM sends a signal to the monitoring system, which
illuminates the brake system-check indicator lamp.
SERV18xx - 83 - Text Reference
12/06

76

4
1

77

The accumulator charging valve (1) is located on the left side of the frame near the brake
accumulators. The accumulator charging valve directs oil to the brake accumulators, brake oil
coolers, and the tank. Once the accumulators are charged, the excess oil flow is sent to cool the
brakes before returning to the tank.

The Brake ECM monitors the pressure in the service brake accumulators with the brake
accumulator pressure switch (2). If the pressure in the service brake accumulators is low, the
Brake ECM will signal the monitoring system to turn on the brake system-check indicator
lamp. A relief (3) valve limits the pressure in the brake charging circuit.

A pressure tap (4) on the line between the brake charging pump and the accumulator charging
valve is used to check the charge oil pressure from the pump. The pressure tap (5) on the
charging valve is used to check the oil pressure in the service brake accumulators.
SERV18xx - 84 - Text Reference
12/06

ACCUMULATOR CHARGING VALVE


CUT-IN
To Brake
Accumulators Accumulator
Oil Pressure Switch

Cut-In /
Cut-Out
Spool

Unloading Relief
Valve Valve

To Brake
Cooling System
From Brake
Charging Pump

78

The accumulator charging valve maintains the pressure in the accumulators at a constant rate
while the engine is running. If the machine has lost power or the hydraulic pump has failed, the
pressure in the accumulators will permit several applications of the service brakes.

This illustration shows the accumulator charging valve in the CUT-IN position. When the
accumulator oil pressure decreases below a certain point, the accumulator charging valve
reaches the cut-in pressure setting. The pressure decrease allows spring force to move the
cut-in/cut-out spool to the left and oil flows to the right end of the unloading valve. The orifice
in the unloading valve restricts the pump flow to the brake cooling system. Oil flow to the
brake accumulators increases and the accumulators are charged.

The accumulator oil pressure switch sends a signal to the Brake ECM to alert the operator when
the brake oil pressure drops below the minimum operating pressure.
SERV18xx - 85 - Text Reference
12/06

ACCUMULATOR CHARGING VALVE


CUT-OUT
To Brake
Accumulators Accumulator
Oil Pressure Switch

Cut-In /
Cut-Out
Spool

Unloading Relief
Valve Valve

To Brake
Cooling System
From Brake
Charging Pump

79

This illustration shows the accumulator charging valve in the CUT-OUT position. When the
accumulator oil pressure increases to the cut-out pressure setting, the increased pressure causes
the cut-in/cut-out spool to move right against spring force. Oil at the right end of the unloading
valve flows to the tank. Oil pressure on the left end of the unloading spool overcomes the
decreased oil pressure on the right end of the spool and spring force. Most of the brake
charging pump oil now flows to the brake cooling system.

The check valve prevents high accumulator oil pressure from flowing to the brake cooling
system.

The accumulator charging valve remains in the CUT-OUT position until the pressure in the
accumulators decreases to the cut-in pressure setting.

The pressure relief valve regulates the oil pressure in the brake circuit. Any excess oil that is
not required by the brake cooling system or the brake circuit is diverted back to the hydraulic
oil tank.
SERV18xx - 86 - Text Reference
12/06

80

1 1

81
1 1

There are the three brake accumulators for the 777F located on the left side of the frame. The
service brake accumulators (1) and parking brake accumulator (2) are charged by the brake
charging pump and supply the required oil flow to engage the front and rear service brakes and
release the rear parking brakes.

A check valve in the circuit between the parking brake accumulator and the service brake
accumulators allows only the parking brake accumulator to be charged when using the electric
brake release pump.
SERV18xx - 87 - Text Reference
12/06

3
2
82

83
1

3
2

The cab brake manifold (1) is mounted below the cab on the left upper frame. The cab brake
manifold contains the ARC control solenoid (2) and the front service brake solenoid (3).

The ARC control solenoid is part of the ARC system. The ARC system uses the rear service
brakes and the front oil cooled brakes to automatically control the speed of the truck.

The service brake pressure switch (4) is located near the cab brake manifold toward the front of
the machine. The service brake pressure switch sends a signal to the Brake ECM when the
service brakes are engaged. The Brake ECM will use the signal from the pressure switch to
energize the stop lamp relay (located in cab) and turn on the brake lights. In a low pressure
situation, the Brake ECM will signal the monitoring system to activate the brake system-check
indicator.
SERV18xx - 88 - Text Reference
12/06

2
84

85

The service brake valve (1) is mounted below the floor of the operator’s cab. When the service
brake pedal (2) is depressed, an internal spool directs oil flow from the service brake
accumulators to the rear service brakes.

The amount of oil flow to the front service brakes is determined by the Brake ECM based on a
signal from the service brake pedal position sensor (3). The Brake ECM allows some oil from
the brake accumulators to flow to the front brakes by controlling the position of the front brake
solenoid located in the cab brake manifold.

NOTE: If the front brake switch (optional front caliper type brakes only) is activated,
the Brake ECM will command all oil to flow to the rear brakes.
SERV18xx - 89 - Text Reference
12/06

4
1

86

When the manual retarder lever (1) is activated, a PWM signal is sent to the Brake ECM. The
Brake ECM sends a signal to the ARC solenoid and the front brake solenoid. The solenoids
control the amount of oil flow to the service brakes based on the position of the retarder lever.

If the ARC switch (2) is activated, the Brake ECM sends a signal to the ARC solenoid and the
front brake solenoid. The solenoids control the amount of oil flow to the service brakes based
upon the input signals that the Brake ECM receives from the engine speed sensor.

NOTE: If the truck is equipped with the optional front caliper type brakes, the Brake
ECM will command all oil to flow to the rear brakes when the retarder lever is moved
or the ARC switch is activated.

The optional engine brake switch (3) is also an input to the Brake ECM. The Brake ECM
communicates the status of the brake switch to the Engine ECM via the Cat Data Link. The
Engine ECM controls the compression brake application (if equipped).

The front brake switch (4) is installed on machines with caliper type front brakes. When
activated, the front brake switch sends a signal to the Brake ECM which allows the front brakes
to be engaged when the brake pedal is depressed. When the front brake switch is in the OFF
position, only the rear brakes will be engaged when the brake pedal is depressed.
SERV18xx - 90 - Text Reference
12/06

87

2 3

88

The 777F has two slack adjusters. The top illustration shows the rear slack adjuster (1). The
rear slack adjuster is located above the rear differential. The bottom illustration shows the front
slack adjuster (2). The front slack adjuster is located on the left strut frame support.

The slack adjusters compensate for brake disc wear by allowing a small volume of oil to flow
through the slack adjuster and remain between the slack adjuster and the brake piston under
low pressure. The slack adjusters maintain a slight pressure on the brake piston at all times.

Brake cooling oil pressure maintains a small clearance between the brake discs.

The service brake oil pressure can be tested at the taps (3) located on top of the slack adjusters.
SERV18xx - 91 - Text Reference
12/06

BRAKE SLACK ADJUSTER

Oil Flow Oil Flow


To Brake From Brake
Cylinder Small Large Cylinder
Piston Piston

From From To
Wheel Wheel Wheel
Brakes Brakes Brakes

To
Wheel
Brakes

BRAKES RELEASED BRAKES ENGAGED

89

This illustration shows sectional views of the slack adjuster when the brakes are RELEASED
and ENGAGED.

When the brakes are ENGAGED, oil from the brake cylinder enters the slack adjuster and the
two large pistons move outward. Each large piston supplies oil to one wheel brake. The large
pistons pressurize the oil to the service brake pistons and ENGAGE the brakes.

Normally, the service brakes are FULLY ENGAGED before the large pistons in the slack
adjuster reach the end of their stroke. As the brake discs wear, the service brake piston will
travel farther to FULLY ENGAGE the brakes. When the service brake piston travels farther,
the large piston in the slack adjuster moves farther out and contacts the end cover. The pressure
in the slack adjuster increases until the small piston moves and allows makeup oil from the
brake cylinder to flow to the service brake piston.

When the brakes are RELEASED, the springs in the service brakes push the service brake
pistons away from the brake discs. The oil from the service brake pistons pushes the large
pistons in the slack adjuster to the center of the slack adjuster. Makeup oil that was used to
ENGAGE the brakes is replenished at the brake cylinder from the makeup tank.
SERV18xx - 92 - Text Reference
12/06

The spring behind the large piston causes some oil pressure to be felt on the service brake
piston when the brakes are RELEASED. Keeping some pressure on the brake piston provides
rapid brake engagement with a minimum amount of brake cylinder piston travel.

The slack adjusters can be checked for correct operation by opening the service brake bleed
screw with the brakes RELEASED. A small amount of oil should flow from the bleed screw
when the screw is opened. The small flow of oil verifies that the spring behind the large piston
in the slack adjuster is maintaining some pressure on the service brake piston.

A more accurate test for the slack adjuster is discussed on the next page.
SERV18xx - 93 - Text Reference
12/06

90

The service brake bleed screw (1) is identified by an "S" on the brake anchor plate casting next
to the screw. The parking brake bleed screw (2) is identified by a "P" on the casting.

Another check to verify correct slack adjuster operation is to connect a gauge to the pressure
tap on top of the slack adjuster and another gauge at the service brake bleed screw location on
the brake anchor plate casting.

With the service brake pedal depressed, the pressure reading on both gauges should be
approximately the same. When the brakes are RELEASED, the pressure at the slack adjuster
should return to zero. The pressure at the service brake bleed screw location should return to
the residual pressure held on the brakes by the slack adjuster piston.

If the slack adjuster residual pressure is too low, it could indicate a failed slack adjuster. High
residual pressure may indicate a failed slack adjuster or warped brake discs. To check for
warped brake discs, rotate the wheel to see if the pressure fluctuates. If the pressure fluctuates
while rotating the wheel, the brake discs are probably warped and should be replaced.

To check for brake cooling oil leakage, block the brake cooling ports and pressurize each brake
assembly to a maximum of 138 kPa (20 psi). Close off the air supply source and observe the
pressure trapped in the brake assembly for five minutes. The trapped pressure should not
decrease.
SERV18xx - 94 - Text Reference
12/06

91

4
3 1

92

The parking brake valve (1) is located on the inside left frame rail behind the center cross
member. The parking valve receives oil flow from the parking brake accumulator. Contained
within the valve is a parking brake solenoid valve (2) and a purge solenoid valve (3).

When the parking brake solenoid is energized by the Brake ECM, the parking brake valve
directs oil flow through the TCS valve to release the rear parking brakes. There are no parking
brakes on the front wheels. When the transmission shift lever is moved to PARK a signal is
sent to the Brake ECM to engage the parking brakes. There is not a separate parking brake
control switch. The secondary brake pressure switch (4) sends a signal to inform the
Transmission/Chassis ECM that the secondary/parking brake is engaged.
When the machine is shut down, the purge solenoid is energized by the Transmission/Chassis
ECM and the purge valve drains the brake accumulators to tank.
SERV18xx - 95 - Text Reference
12/06

93

The parking brake pressure can be checked at the left parking brake tap (1) and at the right
parking brake tap (2).
SERV18xx - 96 - Text Reference
12/06

94

The secondary brake pedal position sensor (arrow) is located on the back of the secondary
brake pedal. The position sensor sends a signal to the Brake ECM indicating the position of the
secondary brake pedal. The Brake ECM sends a signal to the parking brake solenoid which
controls the secondary brake application at the rear brakes.
SERV18xx - 97 - Text Reference
12/06

95

The secondary steering/brake release/QuickEvac pump and motor are located on the front of the
front crossmember as previously shown. The brake retract pump section (arrow) provides oil to
release the parking brakes and hoist pilot oil for lowering the body on trucks with a dead
engine.
SERV18xx - 98 - Text Reference
12/06

96

The diverter (towing) valve (arrow) is located on the left hoist cylinder frame support. The
diverter valve is used to unlock the brakes for towing and must be manually shifted before
towing.

Once the valve is shifted, oil flow from the electric secondary steering/brake retract pump is
directed to the parking brake valve to release the parking brake.

To release the parking brakes for service work or towing, the electric motor on the pump is
energized by the brake release switch located in the cab.

When the key start switch is turned ON, the secondary steering system is energized for three
seconds to check the system. Since the towing pump is driven by the same electric motor as
the secondary steering pump, the diverter valve allows the towing pump oil to flow directly to
the hydraulic tank during the secondary steering test.

To shift the diverter valve, loosen the two diverter valve clamp bolts and slide the plate and the
spool to the left. After the spool is shifted, tighten the diverter valve clamp bolts. When the
electric motor is energized, supply oil can flow from the towing pump, through the diverter
valve, to the parking brake valve.

The brake release pump is also used to provide pilot oil to lower the body when the engine is
off.
SERV18xx - 99 - Text Reference
12/06

BRAKE COOLING SYSTEM


Front Brakes OIL COOLED FRONT BRAKES

Right Hoist, Converter, and


Brake Oil Coolers

Rear
Brakes
Left Screen

Right
Hoist Valve

From Brake Cooling Pump Screen

Left
Torque Converter
Charging Filter

Inlet
Relief Valve
Lockup
Outlet Clutch Valve
Lockup Relief Valve
Relief Valve

To Lockup
Variable Speed Clutch
Clutch Control Filter

To Hoist Pilot To TCS Converter


Signal Resolver Valve Scavenge
Screen

97

This schematic shows the oil flow through the brake cooling system on the 777F Trucks with
standard oil cooled front brakes. The brake cooling pump supplies oil to the brake coolers and
the front and rear brakes. The brake cooling system also receives oil from the following
components:

- Hoist valve (in the HOLD, FLOAT, and SNUB positions)


- Accumulator charging valve
- Torque converter lockup clutch relief valve
- Torque converter outlet relief valve

The pressure in the brake cooling system is limited by a relief valve located in the hoist valve.
The relief valve is usually needed only when the brake cooling oil is cold. When brake cooling
oil is at operating temperature, the brake cooling oil pressure is usually much lower than the
setting of the oil cooling relief valve.

NOTE: On trucks equipped with the optional caliper type front brakes, the brake
cooling system oil flows only to the rear brakes.
SERV18xx - 100 - Text Reference
12/06

1
98
3

The brake cooling pump (1) is a gear type pump that is attached to the drive gear at the rear of
the engine. The brake cooling pump is located between the hoist pump (2) and the brake
charging pump (3). Oil flows from the brake cooling pump to the brake oil coolers.

NOTE: The brake oil cooling pump is not installed on trucks with the optional caliper
type front brakes.

99

The brake oil coolers (arrows) are located on the right side of the engine. Engine coolant from
the water pump flows around the brake oil coolers and back to the cylinder block. The engine
coolant transfers the heat from the brake oil system to the engine coolant.

Oil from the brake cooling pump flows through screens (not shown) before flowing through the
brake oil coolers.
SERV18xx - 101 - Text Reference
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100

Shown is the left rear brake housing. Brake cooling oil pressure can be tested at the two
taps (arrows) located in the brake cooling oil tubes. One tap is located on the brake cooling
inlet tube and another tap is located on the brake cooling outlet tube. The pressure measured at
the brake inlet tube (from the oil coolers) will always be higher than the pressure measured at
the brake outlet tube.

A brake oil temperature sensor is located in a brake oil cooling tube on the truck. The brake oil
temperature sensor sends a signal to the Brake ECM indicating brake oil temperature. The
Brake ECM will send a signal over the Cat Data Link, which informs the monitoring system to
display the temperature on the brake temperature gauge.

The most common cause of high brake cooling oil temperature is operating the truck in a gear
range which is too high for the grade and not maintaining a high enough engine speed. The
engine speed should be maintained at approximately 1900 rpm during long downhill hauls.

Make sure the oil cooling relief valve is not stuck open. Also, make sure the pistons in the
slack adjuster are not stuck and holding too much pressure on the brakes.
SERV18xx - 102 - Text Reference
12/06

BRAKE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Service Brake
ARC Service Pedal Position Sensor
Purge Brake
Control
Valve Valve

Secondary Brake
Diverter
Pedal Position Sensor
Parking Brake Valve
Left ECM
Rear Brake Solenoid Relief
Parking Brake Valve Valve
Left
Front Brake
Cab Brake
M
Manifold
Secondary Parking Brake
Pump Accumulator
Service Brake
From TC Lockup
Accumulators Switch
Clutch Pump
TCS Valve
Cut-In /
Cut-Out
Spool Accumulator
Charging Valve
Unloading
Valve
Relief
Slack Adjuster
Valve

Brake
To Brake Filter
Cooling

Right
From TC Valve Front Brake

Right
Rear Brake

101

This schematic shows the major components of the brake system with the standard oil cooled
front brakes. The front slack adjuster is not included on the optional caliper type front brake
system.

Oil is drawn from the hydraulic tank by the brake charging pump. Oil flows through the brake
filter to the accumulator charging valve. The accumulator charging valve directs supply oil to
the brake accumulators. The accumulator charging valve also controls the cut-in and cut-out
pressure. When the accumulators are charged, the charging valve will direct excess pump flow
to the brake cooling system.

The service brake accumulators provide oil flow through the cab manifold to the service brake
control valve. Oil flowing into the cab manifold also flows to the ARC control solenoid and
front brake solenoid. When the operator depresses the service brake pedal, the service brake
control valve directs pump flow to the rear service brakes to stop the truck.

The front brakes are only engaged when the Brake ECM energizes the front brake solenoid.
With the standard oil cooled front brakes, the Brake ECM determines when to energize the
front brake solenoid when the service brake pedal is depressed. With the optional caliper type
front brakes, the Brake ECM will energize the front brake solenoid when the front brake
lockout switch in the cab is activated.
SERV18xx - 103 - Text Reference
12/06

The Brake ECM controls the modulation of the ARC solenoid and front brake solenoid, which
controls truck braking when the ARC system is ON.

Oil from the parking brake accumulator flows to the parking brake valve and the towing
diverter valve. When the parking brake is activated, the supply oil for releasing the parking
brakes is directed to the tank and the parking brakes are engaged by spring force. When the
parking brake solenoid is energized (parking brake de-activated), the parking brake valve
directs oil to the TCS valve. The pressure reducing valves in the TCS valve direct oil to release
the parking brakes.

The diverter valve, under normal operation, is closed and blocks the oil flow from the electric
brake retract pump. If the truck is to be towed with a dead engine, the diverter valve must be
shifted manually. When manually shifted, the diverter valve directs oil flow from the electric
brake retract pump to the parking brake valve to release the rear brakes.
SERV18xx - 104 - Text Reference
12/06

BRAKE CONTROL MODULE SYSTEM DIAGRAM

Cat Data Link

INPUTS OUTPUTS

Key Start Switch


ARC Control Solenoid
Accumulator Oil Secondary Brake Pedal
Pressure Switch Position Sensor
Front Service
Brake Filter Service Brake Pedal Brake Solenoid
Bypass Switch Position Sensor
Parking Brake
Retarder Lever Solenoid
TCS Test Switch
TCS Proportional
Engine Speed Sensor Solenoid

ARC ON/OFF Switch


Left Rear Wheel TCS Selector
Speed Sensor Solenoid
Compression
ON/OFF Switch Right Rear Wheel
Speed Sensor

Front Brake Brake Oil


Lockout Switch Temperature Sensor

102

Brake Electronic Control System

The 777F Trucks are equipped with a Brake ECM for controlling the parking brake and front
service brake applications, the ARC system, and the TCS. Two possible arrangements can be
installed on a truck:

- ARC only
- ARC and TCS

The Brake ECM receives information from various input components such as the engine speed
sensor, the service brake pedal position sensor, the ARC switch, and the wheel speed sensors.

Based on the input information, the Brake ECM controls the front service brake application
when the service brake pedal is depressed or the front and rear service brake application when
the ARC system is activated. The Brake ECM also controls when the parking brakes should
engage for the TCS and parking brake application when the parking brake is manually
activated.
SERV18xx - 105 - Text Reference
12/06

Output components include the ARC solenoid, the front service brake solenoid, the TCS
selector and proportional solenoids, and the parking brake solenoid.

The compression brake switch is also an input to the Brake ECM. When the compression
brake switch is activated, the Brake ECM sends a signal over the Cat Data Link to the Engine
ECM. The Engine ECM controls the engine compression brake, which was covered earlier in
the presentation.
SERV18xx - 106 - Text Reference
12/06

103

The Brake ECM (arrow) is located in the compartment at the rear of the cab. The Brake ECM
performs the brake control functions, and controls the ARC system and TCS.

The Brake ECM is an A4M1 module with two 70-pin connectors. The Brake ECM
communicates with the Engine ECM, Transmission/Chassis ECM, and monitoring system over
the CAT Data Link and can communicate with some attachments over the CAN Datalink.
SERV18xx - 107 - Text Reference
12/06

SERVICE / RETARDER BRAKE CIRCUIT


BRAKES RELEASED

Service Brake Pedal


Position Sensor

To Rear
Service Brakes
ARC
Service
Solenoid
Brake
Valve

From Service
Brake Retarder Lever
Accumulators Brake ECM

Front Brake
Front Service Lockout Switch
Brake Solenoid To Front (Caliper Type Front Brakes)
Service Brakes

Cab Manifold

104

When the service brake pedal is depressed, the service brake valve directs oil from the service
brake accumulators to the rear brakes and sends a PWM signal to the Brake ECM via the
service brake pedal position sensor. The Brake ECM then determines what signal to send to the
front service brake solenoid based on the following conditions:

1. If the truck is equipped with the standard oil cooled front brakes, the Brake ECM
signals the front service brake solenoid to direct oil from the service brake accumulators
to the front and rear brakes.
2. If the truck is equipped with the optional caliper type front brakes, the Brake ECM
receives a signal from the front brake lockout switch in the cab. If the lockout switch is
OFF, the Brake ECM signals the front service brake solenoid to direct oil from the
service brake accumulators to the front and rear brakes the same as the oil cooled front
brakes.

NOTE: Oil flow to the front and rear brakes may not be proportional. When the pedal
is initially depressed, more oil is directed to the rear brakes. As the pedal is depressed
farther more oil is sent to the front brakes in proportion to the rear until full front brake
pressure is present at full pedal travel.
SERV18xx - 108 - Text Reference
12/06

3. If the truck is equipped with the optional caliper type front brakes, and the lockout
switch is ON, the Brake ECM de-energizes the front service brake solenoid. Oil flow to
the front brakes is blocked and only the rear brakes are used to stop the truck.

The Brake ECM also de-energizes the ARC solenoid when the ARC switch in the cab is OFF
and the manual retarder lever is in the NEUTRAL position. The manual retarder lever also
controls the service brake application using the front brake solenoid and the ARC solenoid.

When the retarder lever is moved, a PWM signal is sent to the Brake ECM. The Brake ECM
then determines what signal to send to the ARC solenoid and front service brake solenoid based
on the following conditions:

1. If the truck is equipped with the standard oil cooled front brakes, the Brake ECM
signals the ARC solenoid and the front service brake solenoid to divide the oil flow
from the service brake accumulators between the front and rear brakes.
2. If the truck is equipped with the optional caliper type front brakes, the Brake ECM
de-energizes the front service brake solenoid. Oil flow to the front brakes is blocked
and only the rear brakes are used to stop the truck with the retarder lever.
SERV18xx - 109 - Text Reference
12/06

AUTOMATIC RETARDER CONTROL


(ARC)

To Rear
Service Brakes
ARC
Service
Solenoid
Brake
Valve

From Service Engine Speed


Brake Sensor
Accumulators Brake ECM

ARC ON/OFF
Front Service Switch
Brake Solenoid To Front
Service Brakes

Cab Manifold

105

Automatic Retarder Control (ARC)

The ARC system receives signals from several switches and sensors. The main inputs to the
Brake ECM for the ARC system are the ARC switch and engine speed sensor. The Brake ECM
analyzes the various input signals and sends output signals to the ARC solenoid and front
service brake solenoid.

NOTE: If the truck is equipped with the optional front caliper type brakes, the Brake
ECM will de-energize the front service brake solenoid when the ARC system is
activated.

The ARC system function is to modulate truck braking (retarding) when descending a long
grade to maintain a constant engine speed. The ARC system engages the rear service brakes
and the front oil cooled service brakes. If the ARC switch is moved to the ON position, the
ARC system will be activated if the throttle pedal is not depressed and the parking/secondary
brakes are RELEASED. The ARC system is disabled when the throttle is depressed or when
the parking/secondary brakes are ENGAGED.
SERV18xx - 110 - Text Reference
12/06

The ARC is set at the factory to maintain a constant engine speed of 1900 ± 50 rpm (engine
speed setting is programmable). When the ARC initially takes control of retarding, the engine
speed may oscillate out of the ± 50 rpm target, but the engine speed should stabilize within a
few seconds.

For proper operation of the ARC system, the operator needs only to activate the control with
the ARC switch and select the correct gear for the grade, load, and ground conditions. The
ARC system is designed to allow the transmission to upshift to the gear selected by the shift
lever. After the transmission shifts to the gear selected by the operator and the engine speed
exceeds 1900 rpm, the ARC system will apply the retarder as needed to maintain a constant
engine speed.

The ARC system also provides engine overspeed protection. If an unsafe engine speed is
reached, the ARC will engage the brakes, even if the ARC switch is in the OFF position and the
throttle is depressed.

Trucks approaching an overspeed condition will sound a horn and activate a light at 2100 rpm.
If the operator ignores the light and horn, the ARC will engage the retarder at 2180 rpm. If the
engine speed continues to increase, the Transmission/Chassis ECM will either upshift (one gear
only above shift lever position) or unlock the torque converter (if the shift lever is in the top
gear position) at 2300 rpm.

The ARC also provides service personnel with enhanced diagnostic capabilities through the use
of onboard memory, which stores possible faults, solenoid cycle counts and other service
information for retrieval at the time of service.
SERV18xx - 111 - Text Reference
12/06

TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM


( TCS)

INPUTS OUTPUTS

Left Rear Wheel


TCS Proportional Solenoid
Speed Sensor

Right Rear Wheel


Speed Sensor TCS Selector Solenoid

TCS Test Switch

Service Brake Cat Data Link


Pressure Switch

Transmission Output
Speed Sensor 1

Transmission Output
Speed Sensor 2

106

Traction Control System (TCS)

The Traction Control System (TCS) uses the rear parking/secondary brakes (spring engaged and
hydraulically released) to decrease the revolutions of a spinning wheel. The TCS allows the tire
with better underfoot conditions to receive an increased amount of torque. The system is
controlled by the Brake ECM and operates the same as the 777D TCS.

The Brake ECM monitors the drive wheels through three input signals: one at each drive axle,
and one at the transmission output shaft. When a spinning drive wheel is detected, the Brake
ECM sends a signal to the selector and proportional valves which ENGAGE the brake of the
affected wheel. When the condition has improved and the ratio between the right and left axles
returns to 1:1, the Brake ECM sends a signal to RELEASE the brake.
SERV18xx - 112 - Text Reference
12/06

The service brake pressure switch provides an input signal to the Brake ECM from the
Transmission/Chassis ECM through the CAT Data Link and performs two functions:

1. When the service brakes or retarder are ENGAGED, the TCS function is stopped.
2. The service brake pressure switch provides the input signal needed to perform a
diagnostic test. When the TCS test switch and the retarder lever are ENGAGED
simultaneously, the TCS will engage each rear brake independently. Install two
pressure gauges on the TCS valve, and observe the pressure readings during the test
cycle. The left brake pressure will decrease and increase. After a short pause, the right
brake pressure will decrease and increase. The test will repeat as long as the TCS test
switch and the retarder lever are ENGAGED.

The TCS valve has left and right brake release pressure taps. Cat ET can also be used to view
the left and right parking brake pressures during the test discussed above in function
No. 2. When the proportional solenoid is ENERGIZED, Cat ET will show 44% when the
brake is FULLY ENGAGED.

NOTE: During the diagnostic test, the parking/secondary brakes must be released.
SERV18xx - 113 - Text Reference
12/06

107

Shown is the right rear wheel speed sensor (arrow) looking toward the rear of the truck. The
TCS monitors the drive wheels through four input speed signals: one at each drive axle, and
two at the transmission output shaft.

The transmission output speed sensors monitor the ground speed of the machine and provide
input signals to the Brake ECM through the CAT Data Link. The TCS uses the transmission
output speed sensors to disable the TCS when ground speed is above 19.3 km/h (12 mph).
SERV18xx - 114 - Text Reference
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108

The TCS valve is mounted inside the left frame rail toward the rear of the machine. Two
solenoids are mounted on the valve.

Electrical signals from the Brake ECM cause the selector solenoid valve (1) to shift and select
either the left or right parking brake. If the selector valve shifts to the left parking brake
hydraulic circuit, the control oil is drained. The left reducing spool of the control valve can then
shift and engage the parking brake.

The proportional solenoid valve (2) controls the volume of oil being drained from the selected
parking brake control circuit. The rate of flow is controlled by a signal from the Brake ECM.

The pressure taps (3) can be used to test the left and right brake release pressures when
performing diagnostic tests on the TCS. At HIGH IDLE, the pressure at the taps in the TCS
valve will be approximately 138 kPa (20 psi) less than the brake release pressure tested at the
wheels.

The pressure taps are also used to provide parking brake dragging information to the service
technician. If the parking brakes are released, as sensed by the secondary brake pressure switch
on the parking brake control valve, and parking brake pressure is below 3445 kPa (500 psi), a
parking brake dragging event will be logged in the Brake ECM. The event can be viewed with
Cat ET.
SERV18xx - 115 - Text Reference
12/06

TCS VALVE
ENGINE RUNNING / BRAKES RELEASED
To Left From TC Lockup
Rear Brake Clutch Pump
From Parking
Brake Valve

Brake Reducing
Valve

Proportional
Solenoid

Selector
Solenoid

Brake Reducing
Valve

To Right
Rear Brake

109

This illustration shows the TCS valve with the engine running and the brakes RELEASED.

With the engine running, oil flows from the brake charging pump to the parking brake valve.
When the operator moves the transmission lever out of the PARK position, the Brake ECM
energizes the parking brake solenoid which directs oil flow to the TCS valve.

In the TCS valve, oil flows through a screen and orifices to the selector solenoid and the brake
reducing valves. When the TCS is not activated, the oil is blocked at the selector solenoid. Oil
pressure moves the brake reducing solenoids to the left and oil from the brake charging pump is
directed to the parking brakes. The parking brakes are RELEASED.
SERV18xx - 116 - Text Reference
12/06

TCS VALVE
ENGINE RUNNING / LEFT BRAKE ENGAGED
To Left From TC Lockup
From Parking Rear Brake Clutch Pump
Brake Valve

Brake Reducing
Valve

Proportional
Solenoid

Selector
Solenoid
Brake Reducing
Valve

To Right
Rear Brake

110

This illustration shows the TCS valve with the engine running and the left brake ENGAGED.

When signals from the sensors indicate that the left wheel is spinning 60% faster than the right
wheel, the Brake ECM sends a signal to the selector solenoid valve and the proportional
solenoid valve. The selector solenoid valve shifts up to open a passage between the right end
of the left brake pressure reducing valve and the proportional solenoid valve.

The torque converter lockup pump oil provides signal oil to the drain ball check which allows
oil from the TCS valve to return to the tank.

The proportional solenoid valve opens a passage from the selector solenoid valve to drain
through the drain ball check. The proportional solenoid valve also controls the rate at which
the oil is allowed to drain. Control circuit oil drains through the selector valve and enters the
proportional valve.
SERV18xx - 117 - Text Reference
12/06

The reducing valve spool for the left parking brake shifts and blocks oil flow to the parking
brake. Oil in the left parking brake control circuit begins to drain and the left parking brake
begins to ENGAGE. The left brake orifice restricts the flow of oil from the parking brake
valve.

When the signals from the sensors indicate that the left wheel is no longer spinning, the Brake
ECM stops sending signals to the selector solenoid and the proportional solenoid. The selector
solenoid valve and proportional solenoid valve block the passage to drain and allow the control
circuit pressure to increase.

The left brake reducing valve spool shifts to the left and blocks the passage to drain. Parking
brake oil is directed to the left parking brake and the brake is RELEASED.
SERV18xx - 118 - Text Reference
12/06

111

CONCLUSION

This presentation has provided a basic introduction to the Caterpillar 777F Off-highway Truck.
All the major component locations were identified and the major systems were discussed.
When used in conjunction with the service manual, the information in this package should
permit the technician to analyze problems in any of the major systems on these trucks.