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Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements For the award of the
Degree of

Submitted By: Guided By:

Manas Pratim Dadhara Dr. Bharati Medhi Das
M.Tech 3rd Semester Assistant Professor
Roll No. PG/CE/18/24

Department of Civil Engineering

Assam Engineering College
Jalukbari, Guwahati-781013
Session: 2018-2020

The work contained in the report “Water Logging and its control” has been carried out by me
under the supervision of Dr Bharati Medhi Das, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil
Engineering, Assam Engineering College, Guwahati.

Dated: Manas Pratim Dadhara

Roll No: PG/CE/18/24

Department of Civil Engineering

Assam Engineering College


Session (2018-2020)


This is certified that the work contained in the report entitled “Water Logging and its control”
has been carried out by Manas Pratim Dadhara, Roll No PG/CE/18/24, a student of 3 rd semester
in the Department of Civil Engineering, Assam Engineering College, Guwahati for the award of
degree of Masters of Technology under my supervision.

Dated: Dr. Bharati Medhi Das

Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Assam Engineering College

Session (2018-2020)


This is to certify that Manas Pratim Dadhara of 3rd Semester, M.Tech, Civil Engineering has
submitted his seminar report on “Water Logging and its control” in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of the Masters of Technology in Water Resource Engineering under
Assam Science and Technology University.

Dated: Dr. Palash Jyoti Hazarika

Professor & Head
Department of Civil Engineering
Assam Engineering College

I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Dr. Bharati Medhi Das for his
guidance, advice and encouragement. The confidence and firm belief that he had bestowed upon
me and the amount of patience and the endurance she had, cannot be adequately expressed. The
various values I have learned from her shall remain a source of inspiration for me forever.

I am indebted to all the faculties of Department of Civil Engineering for the deep insights and
discernment given through the various courses they had taught.

I also owe to all my friends who have supported me during the course of my study.

Date: Manas Pratm Dadhara

M. Tech 3rd Semester
Department of Civil Engineering
Assam Engineering College

Water logging is one of the major land degradation processes that restrict the economic and efficient
utilization of soil and land resources in command areas. The natural land physiography, climate and
geomorphology play important roles in the development of this problem, independently or in combination.
The application of excess irrigation and recharge from irrigation causes gradual rise of ground water table
and creates water logging. The excess soil moisture affects crop growth because of deficient aeration.
Reliable and accurate mapping of areas affected by this process with their location and extent can be
extremely useful in chalking out suitable water management strategies and also to undertake remedial
measures to prevent their advancement.


Sl No. Description Page No


1.1 General
3.1 Causes of waterlogging
3.2 Effects of waterlogging
3.3 Remedial measures
4.1 Definition
4.2 Methods of reclamation of waterlogged and saline soil

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Data required
5.3 Methodology


Figure No Description Page No.

1 Waterlogged agricultural field 1

4.1 Root zone of waterlogged soil 9

4.2 Random field-drain (shallow surface drain) 12

4.3 Surface Inlet 13

4.4 French Drain 13

4.5 Root development of crops grown on drained and undrained land 14

4.6 Cross-section of a tile drain in pervious soils (without any filter). 15

4.7 Cross-section of a tile drain in pervious soils (with any filter). 15

4.8 Gravity outlet for tile drains 16

4.9 Pump outlet for tile drain 16

4.10 Drawdown curve with a single tile drain 17

4.11 Drawdown curve with a series of tile drain 17

4.12 Spacing of tile drain 18


Table No Description Page No

1.1 Norms for identification of waterlogged areas adopted by

Ministry of Water Resources 1

1.2 Areas affected by waterlogging 2


a Depth of impervious stratum from the center of the drain

A Cross sectional area of aquifer

b Maximum height of drained watertable above the impervious layer

Cu Consumptive use

Dd Depth of water drained out per unit area

Di Depth of irrigation water applied per unit area

K Permeabilty co effiecient

LR Leaching requirement

NDWI Normalized Difference Water Index

Q Discharge

q Total discharge per unit length carried by the drain

qy Discharge per unit length of the drain passing at a section y

RG Reflectance at green band

RNIR Reflectance at NIR band

S Spacing between drains



1.1 General

Waterlogging is a condition of land in which the soil profile is saturated with water either
temporarily or permanently. The water table rises to an extent that the soil pores in the crop root
zone are saturated resulting in restriction of the normal circulation of air. The water logging
affects the productivity or fertility of the land and thus leads to reduction in the crop yield. The
water logging is generally caused by a rise of sub soil water table. The depth of water table at
which it tends to make the land waterlogged and starts harming the crops depends on the height
of capillary fringe and the type of crop.

Fig 1: Waterlogged agricultural field

The height of capillary fringe is the height to which water will rise above the water table due to
capillary action. For most of the agricultural soils the height of capillary fringe varies from 0.9 to
1.5 m.

Table1.1: Norms for identification of waterlogged areas adopted by Ministry of Water Resources

Areas Depth of Watertable

Waterlogged area Within 2 m from land surface
Potential area for waterlogging In between 2-3 m from land surface
Safe area More than 3 m from land surface

The National Commission on Agriculture assessed in 1976 that an area of about 6.0 million
hectare was waterlogged in the country. Out of this, an area of 3.4 Mha was estimated to be
suffering from surface water stagnation and 2.6 Mha through rise in water table. The Ministry of
Agriculture estimated in 1984-85 that an area of 8.53 Mha was suffering from the problem of
waterlogging including both irrigated and un-irrigated areas.

Table 1.2: Areas affected by waterlogging (source: mowr.gov.in)

Area Affected by waterlogging

Waterlogged Areas (both irrigated
(both irrigated and
State and unirrigated areas)(Ministry of
unirrigated)(National Commission
Agriculture – 1984-85) in lakh ha
on Agriculture – 1976) in lakh ha
Andhra Pradesh 3.39 3.39
Assam Not Recorded 4.50
Bihar 1.17 7.07
Haryana 6.20 6.20
Punjab 10.90 10.90
Uttar Pradesh 8.10 19.80
West Bengal 18.50 21.80
All over India 59.86 85.26



In this chapter, an attempt has been made to review some earlier important studies relating to
waterlogging and soil salinity.

Cox George W. and Atkins Michael D. (1979) analysed effect of waterlogging and salinity on
the production of various crops. They found that in United States including Central and Southern
Arizona and Southeastern California, crop yield of various crops such as Barley, Cotton, Wheat,
Soyabean, Rice, Corn Beans, Carrot, Onion etc. declined due to salinity. According to them
salinity, waterlogging, soil pollution were outcome of misuse of irrigation and fertilization on
agro ecosystem.

Patil Prakash B. (1988) pointed out that the quantity of water used in irrigation was immense
significance in the context of land degradation. He pointed out that indiscriminate consumption
of water and fertilizers, absence of field drainage and intensity of sugarcane cropping were some
of the reasons for emergence of salt affected and waterlogged area, which is a common feature in
sugarcane field, resulting in declining yield.

Chopra Kanchan (1989) studied the degradation of land that irrigation leads to takes the form
waterlogging and salinity in Punjab. He pointed out that large tract of land in Punjab go out of
cultivation due to waterlogging and salinity consequently productivity of cultivated area

Choubey V.K (1989) studied to delineate waterlogged areas in the Tawa command using IRS-
1A-LISS-1 data. Land use and drainage maps were also prepared using IRS- 1A-LISS-1, FCC of
November 20, 1988 and March 23, 1989. Digital data was analysed to delineate areas affected by
water logging and areas sensitive to water logging. An attempt was made to validate the IRS
derived water logged area with available water table depth data

Datta, K. K. and de Jong C. (1997) focused on adverse effect of waterlogging and salinity in
Haryana. According to them, at the farm level, the productivity of land resources was reduced

which in turn reduced the farm level production, cut in the resource use which indirectly threaten
the sustainability of land resources and finally abandonment of land .

Reddy V. Ratna (2003) estimated the cost of salinity and waterlogging in case of India. He
pointed out that an aggregate estimate for all India, 25 percent productivity losses was due to
salinity. He also pointed out that average of 40 percent loss in paddy production because of
waterlogging. According to him the whole cost of land degradation range between Rs. 448680
million and Rs. 75183 in the case of loss of production whereas the replacement cost of
degradation ranges between Rs. 185910 million and Rs. 25597 million.

Datta, K. K., de Jong C. and Rajashekharappa M. T. (2004) analysed the trends of

waterlogging and salinity and quality of the economic loss especially in agriculture due to
waterlogging and salinity in North-West India. They also assessed the scope of salinity control
measures at the farm level. They showed that incidence of soil salinity is considerably higher in
rabi, than in kharif. In kharif 30 to 35 percent of the area was affected by soil salinity. In rabi, it
was 50 to 60percent.



A high water table increases the moisture content of the unsaturated surface soil and thus
increases the permeability. There may be advantages of having water table close to the surface as
it may result in higher crop yield due to favorable moisture supply. This may, however, be true
only for few years after water table has risen from great depths. The favorable condition may be
followed by serious decrease in the crop yield in areas where alkali salts are present. With slight
increase in inflow to the ground, the high water table may become too close to the ground
surface and when this happens the land gets waterlogged and becomes unsuitable for cultivation .

3.1. Causes of waterlogging

When an unlined canal is introduced, water percolates from the channels and is added to the
ground water reservoir. This causes a general rise in the water table.

3.1.2 Over irrigation

When irrigation water is liberally applied to the fields the excess water percolates deep into the
ground which results in augmenting the ground water storage and rising up of the water table in
the area.

3.1.3 Inadequate surface drainage

Heavy precipitation with inadequate surface drainage causes flooding of land. The prolonged
flooding or inundation of land results in heavy percolation of water into the ground.

3.1.4 Obstruction of natural drainage

If in any area natural drainage is obstructed due to the construction of irrigation channel and road
or rail embankment, it will not able pass the rain water. This results waterlogging problem in this

3.1.5 Obstruction of subsoil drainage

If an impermeable stratum exist at a relatively low depth below the ground surface it will prevent
downward movement of water in the subsoil and result in the creation of high false or perched
water table which may cause waterlogging

3.1.6 Nature of soil

A soil having low permeability such as black cotton soil is prone to waterlogging

3.1.7 Construction of reservoir

The seepage from reservoir enhances the ground water storage and consequent rise in water table
and cause waterlogging.

3.1.8 Incorrect method of cultivation

It may result in creating pools of stagnant water and consequent water logging of land.

3.2 Effects of waterlogging

3.2.1. Absence of soil aeration

In waterlogged lands, the soil pores within the root zone of crops are saturated and air circulation
is cut off. Waterlogging, therefore, prevents free circulation of air in the root zone. Thus,
waterlogging adversely affects the chemical processes and the bacterial activities which are
essential for the proper growth of a plant. As a result, the yield of the crop is reduced

3.2.2. Difficulty in cultivation

For optimum results in crop production, the land has to be prepared. The preparation of land (i.e.,
carrying out operations such as tillage, etc.) in wet condition is difficult and expensive. As a
result, cultivation may be delayed and the crop yield adversely affected. The delayed arrival of
the crop in the market brings less returns to the farmer.

3.2.3. Weed growth

There are certain types of plants and grasses which grow rapidly in marshy lands. In waterlogged
lands, these plants compete with the desired useful crop. Thus, the yield of the desired useful
crop is adversely affected.

3.2.4. Accumulation of Salts

As a result of the high water table in waterlogged areas, there is an upward capillary flow of
water to the land surface where water gets evaporated. The water moving upward brings with it
soluble salts from salty soil layers well below the surface. These soluble salts carried by the
upward moving water are left behind in the root zone when this water evaporates. The
accumulation of these salts in the root zone of the soil may affect the crop yield considerably.

3.2.5 Restricted root growth

If the water table is high the root of the plants are confined to the top layer of the soil above the
water table and hence growth is restricted.

3.3. Remedial measures

3.3.1 Reducing percolation from irrigation channels

a) Lining of channel

By providing a more or less impervious lining for channel bed and sides the percolation of water
from channel can be considerably reduced. The lining of channels consider to be an effective
method to control waterlogging.

b) Lowering of full supply level of irrigation channel

By designing channel with their full supply level as low as possible consistent with flow
irrigation for most of their command, the percolation of water from channel may be reduced.

3.3.2 Controlling intensity of irrigation

It means permitting only a fraction of the total culturable commanded area to receive water from
irrigation channel in any one year. In areas where there is a possibility of waterlogging a lower
intensity of irrigation should be adopted.

3.3.3 Encouraging economical use of water

a) Educating the cultivator to use water economically

b) Changing the crop pattern

In areas susceptible to waterlogging it will be desirable to introduce only those crops which need
light irrigation.

c) Changing revenue policy

Volumetric assessment should be introduced to provide an incentive for economical use of water.

3.3.4 Increasing outflow from ground water reservoir

a) Providing a drainage system

The provision of a properly designed drainage systems is one of the most effective method of
controlling the waterlogging.

b) Pumping ground water

If ground water is pumped through open or tube wells and is utilized for irrigation it would be a
very effective anti- waterlogging measure.



4.1 Definition

Land reclamation is a process by which an unculturable land is made fit for cultivation. Saline
and water logged lands give very less crop yields, and are, therefore, almost for cultivation,
unless they are reclaimed. Every agricultural soil contains certain mineral salts in it.
it Some of
these salts are beneficial for plants as they provide the plant foods, while certain others prove
injurious to the plant growth These injurious salts are called alkali salts and their common
xamples are Na2S04, and NaCl. Na2C03 or black alkali iss the most harmful; and NaCl is the
least harmful. These salts are soluble .in water
water.. If the water table rises up, or if the its roots
happen to come within the capillary fnnge, water from the water table starts rising
ris upward. The
soluble alkali salts also move up with water and get deposited in the soil within the plant roots as
well as on the surface off the
he land. This phenomenon of salts coming up iin
n solution
solut and forming
a thin (5
5 to 7.5 cm) crust on the surface, after the evaporation of water, is called efflorescence.
Land affected by efflorescence is called saline soil. The salty water surrounding the roots of the
plants reduces the osmotic activity of th
the plants.

Fig 44.1: Root zone of waterlogged soil

Since the plant roots act as semi-permeable membranes, so we have almost pure water on one
side of the membrane (i.e. the water already extracted by the roots) and highly concentrated salt
solution on the other side. Now, from the knowledge of physical chemistry, we can conclude that
pure water from within the roots will start flowing out of the roots by 'osmosis' towards the salt
solution, until the pres-sure on pure water side becomes equal to the osmotic pressure of the salt
solution. It is evident from the above discussion that efflorescence can be avoided if the
watertable is maintained sufficiently (about 3m) below the roots, so that the capillary water is not
able to reach the root zone of the plant. -Hence, all those measures which were suggested for
preventing water-logging hold good for preventing salinity of lands also. An efficient drainage
system consisting of surface drains as well as sub-surface drains (explained in the next article)
must be provided in order to control and lower the watertable in saline lands. After the high
watertable has-been lowered by suitable drainage, the soil is ·freed from the existing salts by a
process, called Leaching.
4.2 Methods of reclamation of waterlogged and saline Soil
4.2.1 Leaching
In this process, the land is flooded with adequate depth of water.The alkali salts present in the
soil, get dissolved in this water, which percolate down to join the watertable or drained away by
surface and sub-surface drains. The process is repeated till the salts in the top layer of the land
are reduced to such as extent that some salt resistant crop can be grown. This process is Imown
as leaching;-High salt resistant crops like fodder, berseem, bajra etc., are now grown on this
leached land for one or two seasons or till the salinity is reduced to such an extent that an
ordinary crop likes wheat, cotton, citrus garden crops, etc. can be grown. The land is then said to
have been reclaimed.
When sodium carbonate (Na2C03) is present in the saline soil, gypsum (CaS04) is generally
added to the soil before leaching and thoroughly mixed with water. Na2Co3 reacts with CaS04
forming Na2S04, which can be leached out as mentioned earlier. Leaching requirement (LR) of a soil.
In order to maintain status quo on the salinity of a given soil, and to avoid any further increase in
its salinity, it is necessary to apply water to the soil in excess of the consumptive use (i.e. the
requirement to meet evapotranspiration needs). This excess water, which is required to meet the
leaching needs, is generally expressed as the percentage of the total irrigation water applied to

the soil (field) to meet the consumptive use as well as the leaching needs. This percentage
quantity of water required for maintaining equilibrium in the salt content of the soil has been
computed to be expressed by the following equation.
ୈୣ୮୲୦ ୭୤ ୵ୟ୲ୣ୰ ୢ୰ୟ୧୬ୣୢ ୭୳୲ ୮ୣ୰ ୳୬୧୲ ୟ୰ୣୟ ሺୈୢሻ
LR (Leaching requirement=
ୈୣ୮୲୦ ୭୤ ୧୰୰୧୥ୟ୲୧୭୬ ୵ୟ୲ୣ୰ ୟ୮୮୪୧ୣୢ ୮ୣ୰ ୳୬୧୲ ୟ୰ୣୟ ሺୈ୧ሻ

where Di = Total irrigation water depth applied

= C u + Dd
LR = Dd / Di
= (Di – Cu) / Di
Cu = Consumptive use
4.2.2 Land drainage
Surface irrigation is a blessing only. if it is practised with great care. Only optimum amount of
water should be supplied to the crop; in accordance with the requirement of that crop, and the
properties of the soil must be given full consideration. Excess water, which the root zone of the
soil fails to absorb, may percolate and help in raising the watertable. Sometimes, this gravity
water may .encounter an impervious stratum and may not be drained up to the watertable. Hence,
while designing a canal irrigation network, it is sometimes desirable to provide a suitable
drainage system, for removing the excess irrigation water.Two types of drainage can be provided
(a) Surface drainage,
(b) Sub-surface drainage, called Tile- drainage or Underground drainage. Surface drainage or open drainage
Surface drainage is the removal of excess rain water falling on the fields or the excess irrigation
water applied to the fields, by constructing open ditches, field drains, and other related structures.
The land is sfoped towards these ditches or drains, as to make the excess water flow in to these
The open drains, which are constructed to remove the excess irrigation water collected in the
depressions on the fields, as well as the storm (rain) water, are broad and shallow and are called
shallow surface drains. The shallow surface drains are trapezoidal in cross-section. Many a
times, the excess irrigation water is neglected and these drains are designed only for the runoff
resulting from the average storms. It is neither economical nor desirable to design these-drains-
for exceptional storm. Kutters or Manning's equations may be used to design these drains,

keeping the velocity within the limits of the critical velocity,
ty, and thereby avoiding silting or
Deep surface drains or outlet drains carry the storm water discharge from the shallow surface
drains, and the seepage water coming from the underground tile drains.
They are, therefore, designed for the combined discharge of the shallow surface drains as well as
that of the tile drains.

Fig 4.2: Random field

field-drain (shallow surface drain)

Surface Inlet
A surface inlet is a structure constructed to carry the pit water into the sub-surface
surface or tile drain. A
cast iron pipe or a manhole constructed of brick or monolithic concrete is sufficient and
satisfactory. Manholes with sediment basins are sometimes used as ·surface inlets.

Fig 4.3: Surface Inlet
French drain

When the quantity of water to be removed from the pits or depressions is small, a blind inlet may
be installed over the tile drain. The.blind inlet is also called french drain. These are constructed
by back filling the trench of the tile drain with graded materials, such as gravel and coarse
or with corn ·cobs, straw and similar substances
bstances Such inlets are .not permanently effective.
The voids in the backfill of the blind inlet become filled up with the passage of time, thereby
reducing its effectiven.ess. Even though they are not permanently effective, they are economical
to be installed and do not interfere with the farming operations.

Fig 4.4: French Drain

ub surface drainage or Tile d
4.2.3 Sub drain
Plants need air as well as moisture in their root zones for their survival. Excess irrigation farm
water is free to move into the underground tile drains,·if provided. This water, if not removed,
retards the plant growth, because it fills the soil voids an
andd restricts proper aeration. Sub~surface
drains, on the other hand, are required for soils with poor internal drainage and a high watertable.

Fig 4.5: Root development of crops grown on drained and undrained land
Sub surface drainages have some advantage
advantages. These are mentioned below

i) Removes the free gravity water that is not directly available to the plants

ii) Increases the volume of soil from which roots can obtain food.

iii) Increases air circulation.

iv) Increases bacterial activity in the soil, thu

thus improving soil structure and making the plant food
more readily available.
v) Reduces soil erosion. A well drained soil has more capacity to hold rainfall, resulting in less
runoff and hence, reduced erosion.
Tile drains permit deep roots development by lowering the watertable, especially during
spring months. Envelope filters
Tile drains, are usually, pipe drains made up of porous earthen ware and .are circular in section.
The diameters may vary from 10 to 30 cm or so. These drains are laid be
low the ground level,
butting each other with open joints. The trenches, in which they are laid, are back filled with
sand and excavated material. As far as possible, the tile drains should not be placed below less

pervious strata. Because in that case, th
they may remain dry even though the land above the
impervious strata may be water--logged, as the water will not be able to reach the drain. When tile

drains are placed in less pervious soils, they are generally surrounded by graded gravel filters,
called envelope filters. The envelope filter serves two functions: (i) it prevents the inflow of the
soil into the drain, and (ii) it increases the effective tile diameter, and thus increases the inflow
rate. The filter consists of different gradations, such as gravel, coarse sand etc. The coarsest
material is placed immediately over the tile, and the size is gradually reduced towards the
surface. The minimum thickness of the filter is about 7.5 cm. The graded filter may sometimes
be substituted by a single
gle gradation, depending upon the availability and cost considerations.

Fig 4.6: Cross-section

section of a tile drains in pervious soils (without any filter).

Fig 4.7: Cross-section

section of a tile drains in pervious soils (with filter). Outlets for Tile drains or closed d

The water drained by the .tile drains is discharged into' some bigger drains, called deep surface
drains. The water from a tile drain may be discharged into an outlet drain either by gravity or by
pumping, depending upon which, we can have gravity outlet or pump outlet, as described below

(a) Gravity outlet.
If the bed level and the full supply level (FSL) of the outlet drain is lower than the invert level of
the tile drain, then the water can be discharged
discharged.easily into the outlet drain by the action of
b) Pump outlet
When the bed level. of the outlet drain .is higher than that of the discharging tile drain; a pump
outlet has to be installed.It consists of an automatic controlled pump with a small sump for
storage. Pump outlets
lets are costly and require technicality. Possibility of deepening the outlet drain
should, therefore, be investigated. The cost of installing and maintaining a pump outlet should be
compared with that of excavating and maintaining a deeper outlet drain, bbefore
efore making a final

Fig 44.8: Gravity outlet for tile drains

Fig 44.9: Pump outlet for tile drains

16 Drawdown curve or movement of water into the tile d
In a fully saturated soil, water flows into the tile drain along the path is shown below. Since the
quantity of water moving between any two flow lines is the same, the drawdown will be more
near the tile than at the points farther away. After the saturated soil has drained for a day or so,
the resulting watertable will be, as shown in fig 11. With the series of tile drains, the subsoil
water·level directly over the drain
drain, is lower than the level midway between them as shown
sh in
Fig. 12. ·
When a filter is provided around the tile drains to surround the drains with more pervious soil,
then the overall drawdown will be more. The rate of drop of watertable mainly depends upon the
soil permeability and spacing of the drains. In this case, the water has to travel more distance
horizontally than vertically before it reaches the drain, the horizontal permeability of the soil is
more important. The permeabilities of most of the soils decrease with depth. This change in
permeability affects the shape of the flow lines and the rate of the fall of watertable.

Fig 4.10:: Drawdown curve with a single tile drain

Fig 4.11: Drawdown curve with a series of tile drains

17 Depth and spacing of the tile d
The closed drains are generally spaced at such a distance as to be capable of lowering the
watertable sufficiently below the root zone of the plants. For most of the plants, the top point of
the watertable must be at least 1.0 to 1.
1.5 metres below the ground level;
evel; although this distance
may vary from 0.7 to 2.5 m., depending upon the soil and the crop. The tile drains may be placed
at about 0.3 metre below the desired highest level of the watertable. A fair idea of the spacing
between the tile drains can be obtained based on the above theory, as follows

Fig 4.12: Spacing of tile drains

Let S be spacing between the drains, and a be the depth of impervious stratum from the centre of
the drains, as shown in Fig.12. Let the maximum height of the drained watertable above the
impervious layer be b. At any distance x from the centre of a drain. Let the height of the
watertable above the impervious stratum. be y. Then, according to Darcy's Law, we have
Where K= permeability coefficient in m/sec.
Discharge per unit length of the drain passing the section at y (qy) is given as
qy=K(dy/ds) y
when x= 0; qy = q/2
where q is the total discharge per unit length carried by the drain, so that q/2
/2 enters the drain
from either side.
Spacing S= ሺܾ ଶ െ ܽଶ ሻ



5.1 Introduction
Remote sensing (RS) combined with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) offers fabulous
contrasting option to routine mapping strategies in observing and mapping of surface and sub-
surface waterlogged areas. In general, for mapping of waterlogged areas, ground survey
technique is used. While looking at national and provincial level, these conventional techniques
are very time consuming as well as have a sufficient cost impact. In the past, several studies have
demonstrated the usefulness of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques in detecting and monitoring
waterlogged and salinization. Previous researcher analyzed and mapped the salt affected and
waterlogging areas by using Thematic Map data in India and found that these areas can be
defined and classified with an exactness of about 96% using bands three to seven. The seasonal
waterlogging situation measured as a danger to the local inhabitants as it interrupts the surface
transport system. To assess the small patches of waterlogging areas, satellite remote sensing data
may be effective. The aims of salt accumulation and waterlogging mapping and monitoring are
to know temporal salt accumulation and waterlogging differences in the landscape and to
develop salt and waterlogging zones to help design management plans for sustainable use of soil
resources. In agriculture regions, salt accumulation and waterlogging varies widely vertically,
horizontally, and temporally, depending on such conditions as variation in soil texture, plant
growth, quality of irrigation water, hydraulic conductivity and irrigation and drainage systems in
5.2 Data Required

5.2.1 Remote Sensing Data

Remote sensing data from IRS satellite image is used for the delineation and mapping of pre and
post monsoon surface waterlogging areas.

5.2.2 Piezometric Data

To estimate the sub-surface waterlogging areas caused by increase in the water table depth near
to ground surface. The Piezometric readings data is acquired for the period of pre and post
monsoon for all the observation wells.

5.2.3 Collateral Data

Survey of India toposheets of suitable scale is used for preparation of the base maps and for
remote sensing data interpretation.

5.3 Methodology

5.3.1 Image geo referencing

Pre-monsoon season satellite data are geo-referenced with respect to the control points taken
from Survey of India map .Distinct control points such as sharp road intersections, canal–road
intersections should be taken as ground control points, as they appear clearly both on the map
and satellite image, respectively. It should be ensure that the ground control points are uniformly
distributed on the image. Subsequently, post-monsoon season satellite data are geo-referenced.

5.3.2 Mapping of surface waterlogged area

The digital data of IRS-1D LISS-III sensor are processed and analyzed for delineation of the
surface waterlogged area using the ERDAS Imagine 8.7 digital image processing software. FCC
images constituted by NIR, R and G bands were analysed visually for probable areas of
waterlogging from image tone, texture and association for both the seasons. In general, the
waterlogged areas exhibit sharp contrast with the adjacent areas on the satellite data and these
spectral properties of waterlogged areas can be easily picked by visible and infrared domain of
optical sensors. The standing water areas appear as dark blue to black depending upon the depth
of water, while the wet areas appear as dark grey to light grey in color/tone on the imagery.
Spatial and temporal variability in the ground water levels were studied by integrating the ground
water level data with satellite data observation under GIS environment. For delineation of water
spread area, various digital image processing techniques such as thresholding, modeling
techniques and classification techniques were used in the past. Used multiband modeling criteria

for identification of water spread areas, in order to avoid confusion between land and water
boundary. Misclassification of shallow water as soil and saturated soil as water may induce
classification errors in maximum likelihood classification technique. Often, the land/water
demarcation is confusing in a single NIR band, and hence, two band data such as G and NIR
bands can be used in such situations. Thus, ratioing of the two band data takes advantage of the
difference in the reflectances of different wavelengths in enhancing a particular feature from the
satellite data. Hence the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) developed by McFeeters
(1996) is used for delineation of waterlogged areas and to enhance their presence in remotely
sensed digital imagery while simultaneously eliminating soil and terrestrial vegetation features.
This index is calculated as follows


Where, RG is spectral reflectance in G band and RNIR is spectral reflectance in NIR band. The
range of NDWI is from zero to one.

5.3.3 Delineation of sub-surface waterlogged areas

The collected ground water data are checked for anomaly/inconsistency, abrupt changes in the
depth. Subsequently, sub-sets of the original data, which are consistent in all respects are used for
generating point coverage in GIS and projected to desired projection. Point attributes such as
pre-monsoon water table depth and postmonsoon water table depths are added to all the points.
The water table depth values for both the pre- and post-monsoon seasons are extrapolated
spatially using the point locations in GIS to generate Digital Water Depth Grid (DWDG). The
TOPOGRID command is an interpolation method specifically designed for the creation of digital
elevation models (DEMs). This method uses an iterative finite difference interpolation technique
and is optimized to have the computational efficiency of local interpolation methods such as
inverse distance weighted interpolation. The Digital Water Depth Grid (DWDG) is a ground
water table representation and is then reclassified into four classes viz. most critical (GWT < 1
m), critical (1 < GWT < 2), less critical (2 < GWT < 3) and not critical (GWT > 3).


Waterlogging and soil salinity are major problems associated with land degradation in irrigated
agriculture and are adversely affecting a portion of utilized irrigation potential of major and
medium irrigation projects in India. The rising water table, a consequence of excessive deep
percolation losses from irrigation fields and/or seepage from irrigation networks results in
waterlogging in root zone leading to build-up of soluble salts causing twin problems of
waterlogging and soil salinity simultaneously.
A properly designed drainage system is an effective means to prevent land from getting
waterlogged as well as to relieve the land already waterlogged. The importance of drainage is so
well recognized in developed countries that it is always considered as an intregral part of any
irrigation scheme.Before undertaking a drainage project; investigation should be carried out
which include topographical, geological and soil surveys. A knowledge of water table and its
fluccuations and the quality of groundwater in the area proposed fro irrigation is also essential.
These studies helps in assessing the possibility of waterlogging.


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