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AP CHEMISTRY SEMESTER 1 STUDY GUIDE

The topics in bold face are dealt with on the review worksheet.

UNIT TOPICS
FIRST YEAR REVIEW  Write the correct metric unit for a label and be able to convert between units.
 Round off calculations using the correct number of significant digits.
 Classify different forms of matter and describe properties associated with the different forms of matter.
 Identify physical and chemical changes and properties.
 Calculate molar mass of substances.
 Perform mass-mole conversions.
 Balance chemical equations.
 Identify the atomic and mass numbers of elements. Determine the number of protons, electrons and
neutrons in an atom of an element.
NOMENCLATURE  Name and write the symbols of elements.
 Name and write the formula of ionic compounds, molecular compounds, binary acids, oxyacids,
complex ions and coordination compounds.
REACTIONS UNIT  Determine the percent composition of a substance.
 Determine the empirical and molecular formula of a compound given the appropriate data.
 Perform stoichiometry calculations, including the use of: limiting reactants, percent and theoretical
yields, and molarity in reactions involving solutions.
 Explain the difference between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.
 Identify whether an acid or base is strong or weak and explain the difference between them (why they are
strong or weak).
 Identify types of reactions (metathetical—including those that form gases and molecular products, acid-
base, dissociation, redox—synthesis, decomposition, single replacement and combustion) as well predict
the products of these reactions along with the correct physical state.
 Write the dissociation equations for acids and salts.
 Write ionic and net ionic equations for reactions.
 Determine the solubility of a substance in water.
 Identify the substance undergoing oxidation and reduction as well as the oxidizing agent and the
reducing agent in a reaction.
 Balance redox reactions using the ion-electron method.
ATOMIC THEORY  Associate the development of the atomic model with the scientist(s) that did it.
 Perform calculations involving wavelength and frequency of electromagnetic waves.
 Explain how the development of the atomic model was dependent upon the atomic spectra of elements and
the relationship between matter and light.
 Explain the different aspects of Bohr’s atomic model in terms of energy, quantized energy levels, and
movement of the electron within a hydrogen atom. This should also include the flaws with the model in
terms of working with other elements besides hydrogen.
 Use Bohr’s equation to determine the energy, wavelength and frequency of photons emitted by a
hydrogen atom.
 Calculate the wavelength of a particle using de Broglie’s equation.
 Explain the quantum model of the atom in terms of relationship to Bohr’s model, standing waves, wave
functions and orbitals.
 Write the set of 4 quantum numbers possible for specific electrons in polyelectronic atoms by
applying Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule, and to describe what these numbers mean in
terms of energy level, sublevel, orbitals and electron spin.
 Identify orbital types (s, p, d, f) by shapes and how different orbitals (in both the same and different energy
level and within the same sublevel) compare in energy, size and orientation.
 Write orbital diagrams, electron configurations and outer-electron configurations for atoms of an
element when both neutral and as an ion.
 Determine the number of valence electrons and the valence shell for elements and describe the significance
of these electrons in chemical reactions and properties of the elements.
 Make predictions concerning atoms of different elements based on: atomic and ionic radii, ionization energy
(first and consecutive for an element), electron affinity, electronegativity, reactivity, oxidizing and reducing
power, metallic and nonmetallic characteristics, and ionic charges.
CHEMICAL BONDING  Identify ionic, covalent and dative bonds within a substance.
 Calculate the energy of interaction for the bonds in an ionic compound.
 Explain the formation of ionic bonds in terms of energies of processes that lead to gaseous ionic atoms
forming a solid ionic compound with emphasis on lattice energy.
 Make comparisons between ionic substances as to which have the greater lattice energy.
 Explain covalent bonds in terms of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
 Determine ∆E for a reaction using bond energies of the reactants and products.
 Determine the polarity of bonds using electronegativities and draw the dipole moment to indicate the
direction of electron shift.
 Draw Lewis structures of substances, including resonance when applicable.
 Draw the “best” Lewis structure of a substance based on formal charges.
 Use the VSEPR theory to determine the shape of simple molecules and to draw these molecules,
including more complex molecules having more than one central atom.
 Determine the polarity of molecules based on molecular shape and bond polarity and draw the overall
dipole moment for a molecule.
AP CHEMISTRY SEMESTER 1 STUDY GUIDE

UNIT TOPICS
 Use the Hybrid Orbital Theory to determine the hybridization of atomic orbitals (sp, sp2, sp3, dsp3, d2sp3 and
d3sp3) when forming bonds.
 Identify sigma and pi bonds within a substance and explain how they form.
 Identify the type of intermolecular force, IMF, between particles of a substance: hydrogen bonding, dipole-
dipole attraction, London Dispersion Forces, and ionic bonds.
THERMOCHEMISTRY  Explain the nature of energy in terms of conservation and transfers, including the flow between a system
and its surroundings.
 Explain and identify state functions.
 Calculate ∆E for processes based on work (w=−P∆V) by the expansion/compression of gases, and
heat (q=mC∆T). Overall equation is ∆E=q+w.
 Explain the relationship between ∆H and q.
 Use ∆H in stoichiometrical calculations given a thermochemical equation.
 Use Hess’s Law in finding ∆H for a given reaction mechanism and overall reaction.
 Perform calorimetry and specific heat calculations.
 Define the standard conditions.
 Calculate ∆H° for reactions given standard heats of formations of the substances in a reaction.
PHYSICAL STATES: GASES  Identify types of physical state changes and determine if the processes are exothermic or endothermic.
 List the standard pressure values for different pressure units as well as standard temperatures. Use these
values in converting from one unit to another.
 Describe the behavior of ideal gases based on the kinetic molecular theory for gases.
 Perform calculations using: Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, combined gas law, ideal gas law, Dalton’s
law of partial pressure.
 Perform gas density calculations.
 Perform calculations involving pressure and moles of gases in a mixture.

ITEMS GIVEN ON THE EXAM:


 periodic table
 electronegativity chart
 activity series
 list of polyatomic ions
 list of ligands for complex ions
 solubility rules
 numbers from charts (thermodynamic values, vapor pressure of water, etc.)