Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

Hygienic Piping Engineering

Section C
Hygienic Piping Engineering

Learning Objectives

Nowadays due to the growth of biotechnology, the piping engineer's role is

not only limited to petroleum, but has expanded in all other fields of
biotechnology like food, pharmaceuticals and agro industries. Hence for the
doing piping engineering of these sectors the knowledge of hygienic piping
engineering is a must. An attempt is made in this section to give an insight
into the subject.


1. Introduction
2. Application of Hygiene Piping
3. Pipes
4. Precautions in Hygiene Pipe Engineering
5. Good Sanitary Hygienic Design is Essential if
6. Basic Principles of Sanitary Design
7. Pipe Unions
8. Valves
9. Cleaning Station
10. Material of Construction (MOC)
11. Good Sanitary Design Features
12. Pipe Work
13. Surface Finish
14. Sanitary Pumps
15. Glass Pipe and Fittings
16. Plastic Pipe and Tubing
17. Welding of Sanitary Pipe, Fittings
18. Piping System Design for in Place Cleaning
19. Process Piping Requirements
20. Air - actuated Valves and Controls
21. Plant Layout
22. Production Section Layout
23. What Hygienic Design must Deliver?
24. Examples of Equipment/Piping Related Spoilage or Food- Borne Illness
25. Design of Exterior
26. Where to Get Help?
27. How to Avoid Contamination
28. How to Simplify Cleaning?
29. Hygienic Design Standards
30. Cleaning and Disinfection System
31. Maintenance of Hygienic Systems - Theory and Practice
32. Aseptic Product
33. Hygienic Pipes and Fittings Sizes
Summing Up

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

What will the piping engineer learn from this section?

The piping engineer will gain the following skills after studying this section:
1. What is the purpose of hygienic piping?
2. How to apply general piping engineering principles for the hygiene sector
3. Comparison of steel pipe vs glass/plastic.
4. Hygienic piping standards?

1. Introduction

Hygienic piping finds application in Food, Pharma and Beverage industry.

Due to the increase in automation, on-line CIP has come into existence in
these sectors. In hygiene systems, about 4/3rd time is spent on process
engineering and 2/3rd time is devoted for the cleaning and disinfection process.

All surfaces in contact with the product (say food) must be inert to the product
under the conditions, of use and must not be caught, migrate to or be absorbed
by the product.

All surfaces in contact with food must be smooth and non-porous so that tiny
particles of product, bacteria, or insect eggs are not caught in microscopic
surface crevices and become difficult to distodge, thus becoming a potential
source of contamination.

Mechanical considerations of the cleaning-in-place process are seldom of

significance. Adhesive forces must be considerably reduced during cleaning;
this is most often accomplished chemically. Surface active detergents have to
be able to overcome capillary forces. The composition of the ions in solution
also influences the Vander Waals forces and the electrostatic forces.

2. Application of Hygine Piping

Food, Pharma and Beverage Industry: Due to the increase in automation,

online CIP has come into existence. In hygiene systems, about 1/3rd time is
spent on process engineering and 2/3rd time is devoted for cleaning and
disinfection process. The main aim of hygiene piping engineering is to produce
a safe product.

3. Pipes

Standard followed: DIN 11850/ ISO 2037. The piping layout helps to determine
the functional safety of the product transport. It is important that all parts in
the network receive an equally intense treatment with the cleaning detergents,
and that the pipe network can run completely empty.

4. Precautions in Hygiene Pipe Engineering

a) It is difficult to clean dead water zones where the vessels connect to the
main pipe. The use of double sealed vaIves or short T-pieces can avoid
these dead water zones.
b) Leftover product in bent sections of pipe: A bend in the pipe can be
avoided by stationing the supports sufficiently close to one another.

Hygienic Piping Engineering

c) Product leftover in front of symmetrical reducations: Left - over product

can be avoided by using asymmetrical reductions.

5. Good Sanitar y Hygienic Design is Essential if

• The product is to be protected from microbial or other contamination.

• Cleaning effectiveness is to be maximised and cleaning costs reduced.

6. Basic Principles of Sanitar y Design

• AII surfaces in contact with the product (say food) must be inert to the
product under the conditions of use and must not migrate to or be
absorbed by the product.
• All surfaces in contact with food must be smooth and non-porous so
that tiny particles of product, bacteria, or insect eggs are not caught in
microscopic surface crevices and become difficult to dislodge, becoming
a potential source of contamination.
• All surfaces in contact with the product must be visible for inspection
or it must be demonstrated that routine cleaning procedures eliminate
the possibility of contamination from bacteria/insects.
• All surfaces in contact with the product must be readily accessible for
manual cleaning or if not readily accessible, be readily disassembled for
manual cleaning, or if CIP techniques are used, it must be demonstrated
that the results achieved without being disassembled for manual
cleaning, or if CIP techniques are used, it must be demonstrated that
the results achieved without disassembly are the equivalent of those
obtained with disassembly and manual cleaning.
• All interior surfaces in contact with the product must be so arranged
that the equipment/piping is self employing or self draining.
• The piping must be so designed as to protect the contents from external
• The exterior or non-product contact surfaces should be arranged to
prevent harbouring of soils, bacteria or pests in and on the equipment
itself as well as in its contact with other equipment, floors, walls or
hanging supports.
• In design, construction, installation and maintenance, it is important to
avoid dead space or other conditions which trap food, prevent effective
cleaning and may allow microbial growth to take place.
There is no Substitute for Common Sense, and no Specification can be Complete
Enough to Insure a Sanitary (Hygienic) Design

7. Pipe Unions

Pipe unions present a weak point in any system. The DIN 11851 standard is
used for pipe fittings. In hygiene piping design, welded bonds provide an
optimum safety when they are the result of inert gas welding.

Should a solid joint not be desired on whatever technical grounds, screw or

clamp joints now come into consideration.

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

The standard design for a stainless screwed pipe connection (DIN 11851)
requires a profile jacket. In this type of construction, there is always a crack
between the socket and the thread. This disadvantage can be avoided by using
a special profile gasket. An alternative is a clamp union. so-called tri-clamp.
This consists of two identical clamp ferrules and a profile gasket, and is
designed to avoid cracks, having been pre-stressed at a designed tension. The
clamp joint can also be opened and closed without using a tool.

8. Valves

Mainly butterfly or plug valves are used for hygiene application.

9. Cleaning Station

Mechanical considerations of the cleaning - in-place process are seldom of

significance. Adhesive forces must be considerably reduced during cleaning,
this is most often accomplished chemically. Surface active detergents have to
be able to overcome capillar y forces. The composition of the ions in the
solution also influences the Vander Waals force and the electrostatic forces.

10. Material of Construction (MOC)

Good sanitary (hygienic) design of equipment used in the manufacture of

foods and beverages requires that all surfaces in contact with the product
must be non-toxic, inert to the product under conditions of use, must not
have constituents which migrate or are absorbed by the product and, in
addition must be resistant to (i.e. be inert to) cleaning and disinfecting agents
under norma1 or expected conditions of use.

11. Good Sanitar y Design Features

These may be summarised as those which:

• Avoid chemical, physical or microbial contamination of the product.

This means, for example, that there are no places where the product
lodges, builds up and then falls back into the product stream. It also
means that the component parts of the equipment are either accessible
for cleaning and maintenance or are completely sealed.
• Give maximum protection to the product from external contamination.
• Simplifying cleaning.

12. Pipe Work

This requires good sanitar y design and installation because apart from
conveying material it is part of the ‘overheads’ which collect dust and dirt.
Badly installed or maintained pipe work can be expected to leak and may be a
source of direct contamination or, if the material is suitable, e.g. liquid sugar,
be a pest, control problem. Also, pipes going to and from the flow plate should
be stopped otherwise it will contribute to the wastage of the product.

The type of support used is important to minimise dirt accumulation and

making cleaning quicker. Piping should be installed at least 150 mm (6") from
walls and floor to provide for thorough cleaning around it.

Hygienic Piping Engineering

When a pipeline is being installed which has couplings that use gaskets, be
sure that the correct gasket is used and that the pipe work and coupling are
both correctly aligned and tightened,

13. Surface Finish

36 3.8
80 1.9
120 1.45
180 0.85
240 0.42
320 0.35

14. Sanitar y Pumps

Pumps are so made that the impellers, gears or pistons can be easily removed
for cleaning, thus making them adaptable for handling hygiene products. The
pump may be fitted with a friction seal, instead of packing, and the body and
rotors of the pumps are made of white metal, bronze or stainless steel. The
pump housing is fitted with sanitary pipe connections.

3A Standards for Centrifugal and Positive Rotar y Type Pumps

A. Material

1. All metal pump parts having any surface in contact with the product
shall be constructed of metal consisting of stainless steel, nickel alloy,
or equally corrosion resistant material that is non-toxic and non-
a) All product-contact surfaces shall be finished to an equivalent of
not less than, 120 grit finish property applied.
b) All outside surfaces shall be smooth and easily cleanable.

2. Exteriors of structural parts not in contact with the product shall be of

corrosion resistant material with E: smooth finish or shall be rendered
corrosion resistant or painted and shall be so constructed as to be easily

B. Construction

1. Openings: Inlets and outlets shall confirm with the 3A sanitary standards
for fittings.

2. Shaft seal: Seal shall be of the sanitar y type easily removable for
inspection and cleaning, and shall be constructed of material not
injurious to food products.

3. Gaskets: Single-service gaskets of the sanitary type or removable rubber

type gaskets that can be easily cleaned shall be used.

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

15. Glass Pipe and Fittings

Glass sanitary pipe made at a special tough pyrex glass is available in the
market and a good many successful installations are in use in United States
basically for the dairy industry. The glass pipe is of interest for two principal
reasons: first as a substitute for stainless steel and, second because it can be
used in many locations without dismantling for cleaning, thereby saving
considerable labour in clean-up time. The transparent nature of the glass makes
it possible to examine the pipe visually after cleaning by circulatory methods,
and detect deposits if there are any.
Standard stock sizes are 1,11/,6 inches inside diameter.
Lengths are 10 feet; longer or shorter are special.
Normal operating temp: 0 -212 degF.

16. Plastic Pipe and Tubing

Plastic sanitary tubing is now available in a variety of sizes from 1/8 to 4

inches inside diameter and in different weights. A popular brand Tygon B44 -
4X, for example is designed to convey processed milk and milk products. It is
claimed to be non-toxic, fully transparent, and flexible at temp. below, 0 degF.
It will withstand temperature of sterilisation; it is resistant to milk and food
acids and strong sanitising agents. The following are standard sizes: 1", 1 ½”,
2",2½”, 3" and 4".

17. Welding of Sanitar y Pipe, Fittings

The sanitary stainless steel pipe was first used commercially with welded
fittings around 1948.
3A standards for sanitary pipe and fittings:

A. Material

1. All product contact surfaces shall be finished to an equivalent of not

less than 120 grit finish properly applied.
2. All outside surfaces must be smooth.

B. Construction

Fittings shall conform to the specifications of dimension. shown on the 3A

standard drawing established for each fitting.

C. Gaskets

Single service gaskets of the sanitary type or removable rubber type gaskers
that can be easily cleaned shall be used with gasket type fittings.

Solderless or expanded type fittings

The solderless recessless type fittings are sometimes used. The pipe passes
entirely through the fitting and the joint between the pipe and the fitting is
actually on the end of both the fitting and the pipe, out of direct contact with

Hygienic Piping Engineering

any product which passes through the pipe The fitting is attached by slipping
the fitting over the end of the pipe to the proper position and then expanding
the pipe into the fitting by means of an expander of the same general type as
that used in expanding boiler tubes in a boiler.

18. Piping System Design for in Place Cleaning

Many food equipment cleaning processes are now being conducted by re-
circulation techniques, utilising a combination of chemical and physical effects
to remove the soil from the product - contacting surfaces. This procedure is
referred to as a CIP (Cleaned-in - place) operation, and process system, valves,
and process equipment susceptible to this technique are said to be of CIP design.

In - place cleaning is based on taking the detergent to the equipment rather

than taking the equipment to the detergent as has been the case with manually
cleaned “take-down” lines.

The effectiveness of the procedure is largely determined by the factors of

time, temperature, detergency and physical action involved. There are
considerable benefits to be enjoyed through use of these products - with
particular emphasis on reduction of clean - up labour cost, improved sanitation
of the complete system through the ability to use higher temperatures and
stronger detergents, and the elimination of recontamination when assembling
dismantled equipment.

In- place cleaning may be applied to piping systems and associated process
equipment by recirculating detergent, and sanitising solutions through circuits
comprising this equipment from a suitable recirculating unit consisting of a
pump and supply tank. Recirculation cleaning of transport tankers, bulk - milk
pick - up tankers, storage tanks, and processing vats in another reqarding
area, with the cleaning of this equipment is accomplished by spraying the
detergent onto the soiled surface.

The design of piping systems for in-place cleaning involves considerably

different engineering principles than applied for design of “take-down” systems
whish are to be manually dismantled, cleaned, and reassembled daily where
spray cleaning of plant tanks and processing vats is involved, attention must
be given to the development of suitable CIP supply - return line systems in
addition to product piping. Finally, mechanical cleaning lends itself to the
application of automatic control, and considerable refinement of conventional
piping system design is necessary to provide efficient ‘automated systems’.

In general, the development of a CIP program involves 7 steps. These include:

1. The determination of process line requirements.
2. The development of CIP circuits.
3. The design of a suitable supply - return system to clean these circuits
and handle also all mechanical spray - cleaning operations.
4. The selection of materials of construction,
5. The making of the actual installation.
6. The selection and installation of recirculating equipment.
7. The application of instrumentation and controls to assist in continuous
maintenance of the desired, cleaning programme and the desired results.

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

19. Process Piping Requirements

Layout of CIP lines for processing operations requires attention to numerous

details such as :
1. Location and utilisation of every pipe for both cleaning and processing
2. Permanent installation of the greatest possible amount of pipe.
3. Elimination of all unnecessary bypass and return connections, and
4. Provisions to enable all processing to be completed without piping
changes yet permit quick conversion to the cleaning circuit.

This type of planning demands considerable thought but pays off in reduced
product loss improved sanitation, and savings in manhours of clean – up and
processing labour. If it is necessary to conduct product handling operations
and cleaning operations simultaneously, engineering design should make it
possible to do so without any physical connection between product - containing
systems and detergent containing systems.

20. Air-actuated Valves and Controls

Air actuated sanitary valves became available to the dairy and food processing
industr y in 1958. The advantages of air-actuated valves as compared to
conventional plug - type sanitary valves are as follows:
1. They may be remotely actuated by manual or automatic means.
2. They may be mechanically cleaned in conjunction with CIP piping

21. Plant Layout

• The ideal plant layout integrates the departmental areas in a logical way
to provide for a smooth flow of materials and services.
• Plant layout basically depends upon the amount of land space available,
shape of the site particularly with respect to road and rail access.
• It must be noted that a good layout does not require lavish or luxurious
• It does mean spending so as to maximise the probability of good
management producing safe, wholesome food economically.

22. Production Section Layout

• Good production section layout is crucially impor tant in order to

minimise the risk of cross contamination, which has a high risk for
public health and product spoilage.
• It is important to separate microbiologically ‘high’ and ‘low’ risk
materials and processes, personnel working with ‘high’ and ‘low’ risk
materials and processes.
• It is also important to prevent cross traffic between ‘high’ and ‘low’ risk
materials and processes.

Hygienic Piping Engineering

23. What Hygienic Design must Deliver?

• It should be noted that hygienic design is an intrinsic property of

equipment, and later modifications to correct deficiencies are rarely
simple, cheap or wholly successful.
• Good hygienic design must deliver efficient performance of the intended
task, e.g. mixing, heating, etc.
• No additional contamination of the product, chemically, physically or
• Maximum protection of the product from external contamination and
minimum contamination by the product of other equipment and plant
• Cost effectiveness as installed – for production, cleaning and maintenance
over the whole of its intended life when compared with alternative

24. Examples of Equipment/Piping Related Spoilage or Food-

Borne Illness

Equipment Problem Consequences Correction

Grain silo Areas of Moldy grain Proper ventilation
high moisture and grain turnover
Can reformer Holes in cans Botulism Proper maintenance
of salmon of equipment
Gelatin injector Welds difficult Salmonellosis Smooth weld
to clean from meat
Heat Exchanger Cracked cooling Salmonellosis Replace heat
( cooling side) unit permitting from milk exchanger
entrance of powder
Commercial oven Poor heat Areas of Correct heat
distribution undercooking, distribution in oven,
rapid spoilage, monitor temperature
potential to detect failure

25. Design of Exterior

The exterior of the machine is not something that can be tackled in isolation.
It is an integral part of the complete design.

The exterior of a machine, or plant , is those parts of the equipment for which
the operator, or cleaning staff, would normally be responsible. This includes
not only the outer surfaces of the machine, but also the product areas, for
which the operator has responsibility.

If a basic process is, in itself, one which creates dirt, dust and unhygienic
conditions, attempt to replace that process with a cleaner one.

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

26. Where to Get Help?

There may be Research Associations or similar centres of expertise familiar

both with processes and range of equipment available.

It takes a design engineer about two years to develop sanitary design skills.
The engineering criteria are not particularly complex , and they can be mastered
fairly quickly. Nonetheless, more time is needed to acquire a better
understanding of the different manufacturing processes and their particular
design needs.

Basic principles of hygienic design:

The most common design faults which cause poor cleanability are: poor
accessibility, inadequately rounded corners, sharp angles and dead ends.

It must be recognised that there are degrees of sanitary design generally

related to the permitted tolerance of microbial infection in the final product.

Some useful definitions: Accessible: Easily exposed for regular cleaning and
inspecting with simple tools such as those normally carried by cleaning
personnel., Readily accessible: Easily exposed to sight and touch for regular
cleaning and inspecting without the use of tools.

Material of construction: Be prepared to answer these two questions: What

can go wrong?, When it does go wrong, what is the planned action to protect
consumers? Commonly used grades of stainless steels:

AISI Code Properties Remark

304 Moderate corrosion
304 L Variant for welding
without subsequent
316 Good corrosion
316 L Variant for welding
without subsequent

27. How to Avoid Contamination?

One of the common features of poor sanitary design is the existence of inherent
‘dead spots’ or ‘dead ends’. They are better described as ‘filth traps’. It needs
to be remembered that micro-organisms are very small, and that what is
visually small to a human are to microbes the ‘ wide open spaces’ where they
can multiply. Furthermore, if the cleaning does not remove material because
design features shield it, then this becomes a ‘designed in’ source of
contamination. It is therefore axiomatic that sharp corners, crevices and dead
ends anywhere in the product are unsanitary.

Hygienic Piping Engineering

28. How to Simplify Cleaning?

Both design and installation are important to achieve this aim.

Good sanitary design plus good installation , maintenance and cleaning makes
possible maximum efficiency and cost effectiveness.

29. Hygienic Design Standards

Product (s) Organisation Address Publication(s)

Food and American Society American Society Food, Drug and
beverages of Mechanical Of Mechanical Beverage Equipment
Engineers Engineers, 345 (ANSI – ASME
East 47th Street F2.1 –1982)
New York 10017,
Milk International International 3-A Sanitary
Association of Association of Standards and
Milk, Food and Milk, Food, and Accepted
Environmental Environmental Practices
Sanitarians Sanitarians Inc.
Ames, Iowa 50010,
Meat and US department Superintendent Accepted Meat
poultry of Agriculture of Documents, and Poultry
Government Equipment MPI-2
Printing Office,
DC 20402, USA

30. Cleaning and Disinfection Systems - Theor y and Practice

Introduction: Cleaning and disinfection of food contact surfaces and the

environment is done:

• As part of the achievement of overall control (chemical, physical,

microbiological) of a specific ingredient or food product handled by a
particular item or line of equipment.

• To maintain the performance of equipment, e.g. a filler, within design


• Because it is part of good plant management which has an important

effect on employee morale.

• These apparently simple and obvious reasons lead to the development

of cleaning systems which require careful technological study and may
become complex.

Under certain circumstances, it may be best not to attempt to make an

environment aesthetically clean, because more harm than good can be done.
For example, dust which may accumulate on an overhead pipe in a food
handling area might best be left untouched except at special cleaning intervals.
If the dust removal can not be done effectively in the normal time available for
cleaning, the food handling equipment below may become contaminated.

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

The results of microbiological analysis of apparently unclean materials such

as dust or condensing moisture should be interpreted in terms of the hazard
the accumulations pose to the microbiological status of the product, thereby
dictating the frequency and necessity for cleaning.

• Cleaning System:

• It is important to be clear about the meaning of terms in order that

issues may be addressed clearly and rationally.
• It is emphasised that Plant Management has the responsibility and
accountability for ensuring that fully adequate and effective cleaning
systems are developed, used and monitored.
• It is often cost-effective for companies to rely on contract cleaning
ser vices,in the same manner as they employ contract pest control
services. As with the latter, it is the food company’s responsibility to
describe carefully what is expected of the contractor, to determine when
and how frequently cleaning should be carried out, and to monitor the
effectiveness of the cleaning operations that are perfomed. Written
contracts are absolutely essential to ensure that these points are
thoroughly understood by both parties. Naturally, the contractor cannot
do the job thoroughly if they are not provided with essential information
and adequate access to the areas to be cleaned.

• Some important terms:

• Cleaning and Sanitising (or disinfection): Cleaning and sanitising are

technologically distinct operations. However, since the objective is to
achieve chemical, physical and microbiological cleanliness the combined
operations are sometimes called cleansing, a term which is used in
some milk and dairy legislation. Note that cleaning system components
have both cleaning and sanitising functions.
• Bactericide: A chemical agent which under defined conditions of use is
capable of killing bacterial cells, but not necessarily bacterial spores. It
is impor tant to understand that the use of a bactericide will not
effectively remedy poor cleaning.
• Bacteriostat: A chemical agent which under defined conditions of use
inhibits the increase in numbers of a bacterial population.
• Break point chlorination: The point at which the chlorine demand of a
water has been reached, after which the free residual chlorine
concentration increases in nearly direct proportion to additional amounts
of chlorine added.
• Buffer: A chemical agent or agents in solution which stabilise the pH.
This is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. During
cleaning the pH of a buffered cleaner is not much changed by dilution
or small amounts of soil. E.g. acidic tomato paste.
• Chelating power: This enables a cleaning solution to hold unwanted
ions, such as calcium and magnesium , in solution or to re-dissolve
precipitated salts. This property is important with hard waters , as
calcium and magnesium can interfere with cleaning and rinsing.
Chelating agent(s) are organic compounds.

Hygienic Piping Engineering

• Over view of Cleaning Systems

Responsible management accepts that cleaning is an integral par t of

production. It is therefore necessary to develop, implement and maintain
cleaning schemes that can be shown to be fully adequate and cost-effective.
This requires:
• Definition of the cleaning task or job.
• Selection of the optimal cleaning system.
• Application of managerial skills and procedures to define, assess and
change, as necessary, the chosen cleaning system. This will include
written procedures (schedules) and on-going assessment (audit).

“ Be clear that management is accountable for the sanitary status of plant and
equipment. Good sanitar y design together with the proper application of
technically effective cleaning systems are needed to achieve and maintain a
satisfactor y sanitar y status. Poor sanitar y status is caused by the
management's lack of knowledge together with its attitudes and policies.”


HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). The
HACCP system as a way of working is as applicable to cleaning systems as it
is to production systems. HACCP is developed for a specific situation in an
actual plant.

HACCP shows how:

• Its use raises open – ended questions.

• It links to related analysis.
• It can be extended to other issues, e.g. safety issues, but beware when
making the analysis not to lose sight of its primary purpose.

Example: Guard Panels

Guard panels are made from stainless steel sheet about a metre square. One
side (the top) is curved to hook over a supporting tubular rail when the filler
is in use. Handles are provided to lift the panel on and off this rail. The base of
the panel is held in place by a channel section. The panel is not interlocked
with the filler which can therefore be run with the panel removed during

When cleaning of the filler starts , the panels are removed for separate cleaning.
After the line and filler are cleaned, the panels are replaced. The purpose of
cleaning is to remove spillage which if left could cause an offensive smell and
corrode the metal. Visual cleanliness is sufficient. An analysis is given in table
1 below, which may raise some unexpected points. It is worth noting that a
real advantage of the HACCP approach is that it promotes open – ended lateral
( wide – ranging) thinking in a multi-disciplinary team as well as producing a
useful analysis. It is also worth noting that the analysis must be in the detail
needed to deliver the required results.

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

S. Step Concern Control – by Notes

No. training and comment
super vision at
each step plus
1. At start of filler Safety of
cleaning, switch cleaners
off filler
2 Remove guards Mechanical Written Consider
and either place damage to schedule improved
on clean floor guard – it may to specify guard design
away from filler not fit securely correct to increase
back in place practice strength within
thus affecting (This might acceptable
safety of be one or weight limits
operators both options)
Or place against Mechanical - Consider
clean wall damage to wall improved
protection for
3 Use of steam/ 1. Safety of Rules for This may mean
water hose to cleaners. correct that the main
clean guards 2. Hose water operation to boilers are used
pressure or be posted at outside of
temperature steam/ water normal
may be low mixer point production
hours. Consider
provision of
auxiliar y steam
generator for

• Dr y and Wet Cleaning

• Dry cleaning: Dry cleaning methods are used where the products are
hygroscopic or where water can react to form hard deposits which are
difficult to remove. The principal Public Health risk is that failure to
control moisture can permit the growth of pathogens, e.g. Salmonella
spp., in the processing environment which then contaminate any food
being processed. Environments usually dr y cleaned include plants
producing flour, chocolate, peanut butter, dry milk products, dry soup
and snack mixes, and dry infant formulae. Dry cleaning is essentially
the mechanical removal of soils using sweeping, brushing, wiping, and
• Wet cleaning: This may be done out of place or in place or, on large
equipment, by a mixture of both methods as appropriate.

• Clean Out of Place ( COP)

Remove food products and open containers from the area surrounding the
equipment to be cleaned.
Dismantle the equipment to expose the surfaces to be cleaned.

Hygienic Piping Engineering

• Clean in Place ( CIP)

CIP is mainly used for cleaning liquid handling systems. It comprises a number
of steps:
1. Drain the system of product.
2. Prepare the circuit(s), e.g. by switching controls to ‘clean’, installing
key pieces or flowplates, confirming availability of detergents, etc.
3. Pre-rinse to remove product residues (gross soil)
4. Circulate hot detergent to remove residual soil.
5. Rinse with potable water of suitable quality. This rinse is the intermediate
rinse if chemical sanitising and / or acid scale removal is included in
the CIP cleaning. It is the final rinse if there is no further step in the CIP
6. Sanitise to reduce microbial numbers to an acceptable level.
7. Final rinse with potable water of suitable quality.

• Cleaning of Complex Systems

In complex cleaning systems which are often large, a mixture of COP and CIP
methods outlined above are usually used.

• Assessment of Cleaning

There is a great deal more to assessment than simple visual inspection

although this plays an essential part. The first issue to address is ‘ what must
cleaning deliver?’

When cleaning is completed , what assessment must be made to show that it

is satisfactory?

Chemically: - when cleaning and sanitising materials have been removed by


Physically: when all ‘soil’, scale or residue has been removed.

Microbiologically: - when the numbers and kinds of organisms are reduced to

an acceptable level, e.g. for cannery purposes , the following standards apply:

S.No. Grade Total numbers of micro-organisms

per square foot
1 Satisfactory 0-5000
2 Fairly satisfactory 5000 - 25000
3 Unsatisfactory Over 25000

31. Maintenance of Hygenic Systems - Theor y and Practice

• Introduction:
• Maintenance is done to ensure that equipment/ piping system continues
to work within design tolerances or specifications. It must be carried
out in a way which avoids contamination of ingredient materials, products
or packaging materials and also permits effective cleaning before
production re-starts.

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

• Remember, maintenance operations should always be used as an

opportunity to check for machine part wear or other features which
mean that product contamination may have occurred.

• Preventive / Breakdown Maintenance:

• Preventive maintenance is commonly regarded as a necessary element

of high productivity. While its contribution to productivity is undisputed,
it is also paramount for product safety. Preventive maintenance avoids
costly and painstaking product recalls or product defects. Its value can
not be overemphasised.
• When a situation develops in which preventive maintenance is the theory
but breakdown maintenance is the practice , it must be questioned as to
whether the real cost of breakdown is known.
• Experience with running aseptic lines, where very high utilisation rates
are needed for satisfactory running , underlines real costs of equipment
failure. Less obvious but no less real are, for example, the costs of a
conveyor drive failure which stops a line for around two hours.
• Clearly, although it costs money, high quality preventive maintenance
means that breakdown or ‘emergency’ maintenance has hazards which
may be overlooked.
• There is pressure to work fast,which may lead to lack of care.
• Under the pressure, unsuitable materials may be used.
• Temporary repairs once made tend to be forgotten.
• How to minimise contamination from pipeline maintenance:
• Remove all product before starting work.
• Take care to avoid splashing ingredients, product or packaging materials.
• Do not empty waste into ingredient or product containers.
• Cap or protect open ends on lines while working in an area.
• Be sure to clean repaired pipe–lines thoroughly to avoid damage to
equipment, e.g. pumps, and product contamination.
• Fabricate as much as practicable in the engineers’ workshop and weld,
thread or cut in an area screened (isolated) from ingredient or packaging
material storage and product handling.
• Be sure that utility lines have been carefully emptied before starting

32. Aseptic Product

1. By definition “Aseptic” means free from or keeping away disease -

producing of putrefying microorganisms.

2. The basic concept of producing aseptically packaged shelf stable

products calls for the application of heat, chemical sterilant or other
treatments that inactivate microbiological activity which cause spoilage.

Hygienic Piping Engineering

DIN 11850, 1st Serues DIN 11850, 2nd Serues

Nominal Nominal
10 12 10 1.0 10 13 10 1.5
15 18 16 1.0 15 19 16 1.5
20 22 20 1.0 20 23 20 1.5
25 28 26 1.0 25 29 26 1.5
32 34 32 1.0 32 35 32 1.5
40 40 38 1.0 40 41 38 1.5
50 52 50 1.0 50 53 50 1.5
65 70 66 2.0
80 85 81 2.0
100 104 100 2.0
125 129 125 2.0
150 154 152 2.0

33. Hygienic Pipes and Fittings Sizes

Article No./ Material D A B C E Nom

Code No. Size

Product:: Bend 900 Expanding (R = 1 x D) Bend 900 Expanding (R = 1 x D)

190683 AISI 304 25 55 -2 25 1"

31319-0210-1 AISI 304 38 70 -2 38 1½"

31319-0218-1 AISI 304 51 82 -2 51 2"

31319-0226-1 AISI 304 63.5 -05 -6 64 2½"

31319-0234-1 AISI 304 76 -10 -6 76 3"

31317-0852-1 AISI 304 101.6 -50 2.0 149 4"

Product: Bend 900 Expanding (R = 1 x D) Bend 900 Expanding

191507 AISI 316 25 55 -2 25 1"

31319-0211-1 AISI 316 38 70 -2 38 1½"

31319-0219-1 AISI 316 51 82 -2 51 2"

31319-0227-1 AISI 316 63.5 -05 -6 64 2½"

31319-0235-1 AISI 316 76 -10 -6 76 3"

31317-0852-2 AISI 316 101.6 -50 2.0 149 4"

Product: Bend 900 Expanding (R= 1.5 x D) Bend 90 0 Expanding (R = 1.5 x D)

9611-31-001-0 AISI 304 25 65 25 -2 37.5 1

9611-31-002-0 AISI 304 38 85 25 -2 57 1½"

9611-31-003-0 AISI 304 51 -10 00 -2 76.5 2"

9611-31-004-0 AISI 304 63.5 -35 35 -6 95.3 2½"

9611-31-005-0 AISI 304 76.1 -55 38 - 6 114.2 3"

9611-31-006-0 AISI 304 101.6 195 38 2.0 152.5 4"

Thermal Insulation, Cost of Piping, Hygienic Piping Engineering

Summing Up

We have learnt in this lesson about the importance of a hygienic piping system
and the role of piping engineer in it. It is concluded that with proper hygienic
engineering, we can ser ve humanity with safe products in food/
pharmaceuticals and the agro sector.


State whether True/False

1. The 3 step CIP system is recommended for pharmaceutical Co. and 5

step CIP for food processing Co.
2. The standard followed for hygenic piping is ISO 2038
3. All surfaces in contact with the product ( say food) must be inert to the
product under the conditions of use and must not migrate to or be
absorbed by the product.
4. “There is no substitute for common sense, and no specification can be
complete enough to ensure a sanitary (hygienic) design”
5. Mainly globe valves are used for hygiene application.
36 3.8
7. 3A standards are used for centrifugal and positive rotary type pumps.
8. The hygenic pipe is polished from inside as well as outside.
9. Diaphragm valves can be used for hygienic purposes.
10. The fitting standard for the hygienic sector is DIN 11850.



Section A
Thermal Insulation

1. H.F. Rase and M.H. Barrow, Project Engineering of Process Plants, John
Wiley & Sons Inc., New York , 1957 , PP: 476-479
2. W.C. Turner and J.F. Malloy, Thermal Insulation Handbook, Robert E.,
Krieger Publishing Co. Malabar, McGraw-Hill book Co., New York, 1981,
PP 212-263

Section B
Costing of Pipelines

1. Process Plant and Equipment Cost Estimation by O P Kharbanda,

Craftsman Book Company, 542 Stevens Ave., Solana Beach, CA 92075
2. Chilton, C.H. : “ Cost Engineering in the Process Industries”, McGraw
Hill NY ( 1960)

Section C
Hygenic Piping Engineering

1. NFPA FPI ( 1989) Canned Foods – Principles of Thermal Process Control,

5th Ed., The Food Processors Institute, 1401 NY
2. Stumbo, C.R. (1973) , Thermobacteriology in Food Processing, 2nd Edn.,
NewYork Academic Press.
3. Shapton D.A. & Hindes W.R. (1965), Some aspects Post Processing
Infection in Proceedings of the Ist International Congress Of Food
Science and Technology 1962 , Vol 4, edited by J.M. Leitch.