Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 72

Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

INTRODUCTION

1
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

1. INTRODUCTION

Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with


issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization
development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration
and training. Human Resource Management (HRM) is seen by practitioners in the field as a
more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques
force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be
understood and undertaken by the workforce and to provide the resources needed for them to
successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly
practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRMS
also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organizations software
consulting and recruiting agencies match the requirements of the client firms with the skills of
their employees and set up the interview between their employees and set up the interview
between their employees and the client firm. Interviews are then conducted, and the
candidates selected in the interview are recruited as consultants in the client’s firm for the
duration of the project. The recent downsizing in businesses and other organizations has
resulted in an increase in consulting business for two reasons. Many experienced and well
qualified professionals have found that offering their services on a consulting basis meets
booth their career and financial needs.Secondly,after downsizing, organizations find it
economical and flexible to use consultants rather than full-time employees to fill their
fluctuation technical, management and operation needs. The above factors have led to the
consulting industry becoming one of the fastest growing business sectors worldwide. Hence
the consulting firms are attempting to automate as much routine activities as possible. An
effective web application can be a proper medium for bringing all the above parties together.
Web-based applications are web sites with user interactivity.
The key advantage of the web-based application is its availability, as it can be accessed
by anyone connected to the Internet and multiple users can access it at the same time. The
web-application can be designed as a three-tier architecture, which includes a web client,
network servers, and a back-end information system supported by a suite of databases. The
goal of this project is to develop a user friendly web-based application that automates the
activities for an IT consulting firm.

2
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Most of these solutions provide features such as,


• Employee database with the advanced search option
• Company database with the advanced search option
• Job search capability
• Interview scheduling
• Contracts management
• Performance reports
These solutions can also be customized where in any of the above mentioned features
can be selected to suit the recruiting company’s business needs. A package that includes a
minimum set of features could cost approximately $1000 per user. A small size consulting
firm has a minimum of 5 to10administrators who need to be registered users for the
application products, in order to perform different tasks needed for their consulting firm.
Additional features such as automated e-mail notification and calendar updates can be added
for an additional price, which makes this an increasingly expensive product to purchase. This
project implements features such as employee database, company management ,interview
planning and scheduling, job vacancies and contract management and performance review
reports, that are required to perform most of the operations in an IT consulting firm. A
consulting firm has three kinds of users that access the system, the Employee Applicant, the
Employer contact and the Administrator.
Employee Applicants are those who apply for the jobs through the consultancy. The
Applicant can update the existing details in the Applicant’s database including their personal
information, skills and resume. Client is the company that seeks the services of the employees
of a consulting firm. A client firm may have many employees, Employer contacts which
require access to the system in order to add or update job or company information. The
Administrator matches the skill of its employee with the skills required by the client
company for a particular job and arranges an interview process, the Administrator will
facilitate the consummation of the contract between the employee and employer.
To design the application, the relational database must be designed first. The data
model and the process model are part of the design process. The data model focuses on how
the database is structured while the process model deals with how the data is processed. In the
context of the relational database, the data model is used to design the relational tables and
the process model is used to design the queries that access and perform during the initial
phases of the database development process. The data model focuses mainly on what
information

3
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

should be stored in the database. The information needed to build the data model is gathered
during the requirement analysis. A comprehensive data model should take into account the
current and future needs of an organization in order to support the business process within an
organization. In order to protect access to the system, the users such as Employees,
Administrator, and employers must first be authenticated .An employee applicant updates
his/her skill and personal details including the degree attained and experience. An Employer
contacts adds a new job including details like the skill requirements for the job, the start and
the end date, the experience required and the number of vacancies. An administrator
schedules an interview for an applicant, who possesses the skills required for the job. Upon a
successful interview, the applicant and the contact enter into a contract for the job. After
completion of the job, employee applicant is evaluated on his/her performance.
Depending on the role selected in the login page the user is directed to the respective
subsystem, the employee applicant subsystem, the administrator subsystem or the employer
contact subsystem. If the user logs into the system as an employee applicant, then the user is
directed to the page with the applicant menu. The applicant can update his/her profile. They
can also view information about any interview schedule for them. The contact can update
his/her personal or company information, add new job or update existing job and add
evaluations. The contact can also view the interview the interview schedule and evaluation of
the applicants. The pages are displayed with the current user information stored in the
database. If the update button is selected, the new information is updated in the database and
the page is displayed again with this updated information. If the cancel button is selected the
page is redisplayed with the original information. A contact can view the schedule of the
interviews that are yet to be conducted. The contact can also view the details of the
corresponding applicants like experience, degree attained and so on. After completion of a
job, the contact can evaluate an applicant on his/her performance. The contact can select the
applicant from the drop down list and add a performance report for the applicant. The drop
down list contains the name of all the applicants that are presently contracted by the contact
company.
If the user logs into the system as an administrator, the user is directed to the page
with the administrator menu. An authenticated administrator can update his/her personal
information, add new user profiles and terminate existing user logins. Administrator can also
add new or update existing interview schedules. The administrator can also view user

4
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

profiles, job orders, and evaluation of applicants. After an interview is conducted the
administrator can

add the details of the interview such as who conducted the interview, whether the applicant
was selected and if the applicant accepted the job. Upon a successful interview, the applicant
selected in the interview is recruited as consultant by the contact firm for the duration of the
project. The administrator first selects the applicant and based on the selected applicant the
job ID drop-down list is populated. After selecting the job ID the administrator must enter the
start date and end date and the negotiated terms for the project.

5
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

6
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

2. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

INTRODUCTION:-
System is an assembly of methods, procedures or techniques unified by
regulated interaction to form an organized whole. A system means an orderly arrangement of
interrelated components linked together accordingly to a plan to develop an object. The
components may be hardware, software, items etc. System analysis is general term that refers
to an orderly structured process for identifying and solving problems in order to achieve a
specific goal. It is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their
relationships within the system with the goal of determining how to make it work better.
To understand system development, we need to recognize that a candidate system has a life
cycle, just like a living system or a new product. There are many stages of system
development life cycle. The stages are sometimes also referred to as system study. System
analysis and design are keyed to the system life cycle for software engineering. This phased
model is sometimes also called a “Waterfall model”, the implications being that products
cascade from one level to the next in smooth progression. Modeled after the conventional
engineering cycle, the life cycle paradigm encompasses the following activities.

SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS:-


Because software is always a part of a larger system, work begins by
establishing requirements to software. This system view is essential when software must
interface with other elements such as hardware, people and databases.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS:-


The requirement gathering process is concerned with identifying the basic
functions of the software component in a hardware/software/people system. Emphasis is
placed on what the software is to do and the constraints under which it will perform its
function.

DESIGN:-
Design is concerned with identifying the components (functions, data streams,
and data stores), specifying relationships among components, specifying software structure,

7
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

maintaining a record of design decision and proving a blue print for the implementation
phase.

IMPLEMENTATION:-
This involves the translation of design specifications into source code, and
debugging and unit testing of the source code.

TESTING:-
Once code has been generated program testing begins. The testing process
focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring that all programs have been tested,
and on the functional externals, that is conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that the
defined inputs will produce actual result that agree with required results.

MAINTENANCE:-
Software will undoubtedly undergo a change after it delivered to the customer,
change may occur because errors have been encountered, because the software must be
adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment, or because the customer
requires functions or performance enhancements. Software maintenance reapplies each of the
preceding life cycle steps to an existing program rather than a new one.

8
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

FEASIBILITY STUDY

9
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

3. FEASIBILITY STUDY

Depending on the results of the initial investigation the survey is now


expanded to a more detailed feasibility study. “FEASIBILITY STUDY” is a test of system
proposal according to its workability, impact of the organization, ability to meet needs and
effective use of the resources. It focuses on these major questions:
1. What are the user’s demonstrable needs and how does a
candidate system meets them?
2. What resources are available for given candidate system?
3. What are the likely impacts of the candidate system on the organization?
4. Whether it is worth to solve the problem?
During feasibility analysis for this project, following primary areas of interest
are to be considered. Investigation and generating ideas about a new system does this.

Steps in feasibility analysis:-

Eight steps involved in the feasibility analysis are given below.


1) Form a project team and appoint a project leader.
2) Prepare system flowcharts.
3) Enumerate potential proposed system.
4) Define and identify characteristics of proposed system.
5) Determine and evaluate performance and cost effective of each proposed
system.
6) Weight system performance and cost data.
7) Select the best-proposed system.
8) Prepare and report final project directive to management.

Technical feasibility :-
A study of resource availability that may affect the ability to achieve an acceptable system.
This evaluation determines whether the technology needed for the proposed system is
available or not.
 Can the work for the project be done with current equipment
existing software technology & available personal?
10
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

 Can the system be upgraded if developed?


 If new technology is needed then what can be developed?
This is concerned with specifying equipment and software that will
successfully satisfy the user requirement. The technical needs of the system may include

Front-end and back-end selection :-


An important issue for the development of a project is the selection of suitable front-end and
back-end. When we decided to develop the project we went through an extensive study to
determine the most suitable platform that suits the needs of the organization as well as helps
in development of the project. The aspects of our study included the following factors.

Front-end selection :
1. It must have a graphical user interface that assists employees that are not from IT
background.
2. Scalability and extensibility.
3. Flexibility.
4. Robustness.
5. According to the organization requirement and the culture.
6. Must provide excellent reporting features with good printing
support.
7. Platform independent.
8. Easy to debug and maintain.
9. Event driven programming facility.
10. Front end must support some popular back end like My SQL.
According to the above stated features we selected PHP as the front-end for
developing our project.

Back-end Selection:
1. Multiple user support.
2. Efficient data handling.
3. Provide inherent features for security.
4. Efficient data retrieval and maintenance.
5. Stored procedures.
6. Popularity.
11
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

7. Operating System compatible.


8. Easy to install.
9. Various drivers must be available.
10. Easy to implant with the Front-end.
According to above stated features we selected My SQL as the backend.
The technical feasibility is frequently the most difficult area encountered at this
stage. It is essential that the process of analysis and definition be conducted in parallel with an
assessment to technical feasibility. It centre’s on the existing computer system (hardware,
software etc.) and to what extent it can support the proposed system.

Economical feasibility:-

Economic justification is generally the “Bottom Line” consideration for most


systems. Economic justification includes a broad range of concerns that includes cost benefit
analysis. In this we weight the cost and the benefits associated with the candidate system and
if it suits the basic purpose of the organization i.e. profit making, the project is making to the
analysis and design phase.
The financial and the economic questions during the preliminary investigation are
verified to estimate the following:
1) The cost to conduct a full system investigation.
2) The cost of hardware and software for the class of application
being considered.
3) The benefits in the form of reduced cost.
4) The proposed system will give the minute information, as a result the
5) Performance is improved which in turn may be expected to provide
increased profits.
This feasibility checks whether the system can be developed with the available funds. The
HRMS does not require enormous amount of money to be developed. This can be done
economically if planned judicially, so it is economically feasible. The cost of project depends
upon the number of man hours required.
Operational Feasibility:-
It is mainly related to human organizations and political aspects. The points to be
considered are

12
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

 What changes will be brought with the system?


 What organization structures are disturbed?
 What new skills will be required? Do the existing staff members have these skills?
If not, can they be trained in due course of time?
The system is operationally feasible as it very easy for the end users to operate it.
It only needs basic information about Windows platform.

Schedule feasibility
Time evaluation is the most important consideration in the development of project. The
time schedule required for the developed of this project is very important since more
development time effect machine time, cost and cause delay in the development of other
systems. A reliable HRMS can be developed in the considerable amount of time.

13
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

14
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

4. SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Analysis may be defined as the process of dividing into parts, identifying each
part and establishing relationship between the parts. In other words, analysis is taking known
facts concerning a system, breaking these into their elements, and establishing logical
relationships between the elements with the objective of producing a specification of
requirements. At each logical step in analysis, it is necessary to identify the relevant facts, and
establish the relationship between them. Compare that set of facts with the set at each
adjoining step and establish the relationships between the facts in these sets.
Analysis starts with the objective of the systems. In the analysis phase, the entire problem
under consideration is studied, the objective of the system and criteria for the system
effectiveness are systematically investigated and the alternative approaches are evaluated in
terms of effectiveness and cost. The advanced method of system analysis, which is a
development method for the analysis of existing manual system, leading to the development
of specifications for a new modified system. Structured analysis is essential for documenting
an existing system and determining information requirement.
For analyzing the existing system and collecting the needed data, the concerned staff
members are interviewed and a review of the existing system was prepared. In this analysis,
several techniques and graphical tools used in the analysis of the existing system such as Data
Flow Diagram, Data Dictionary etc. The goal of any system development is to develop and
implement the cost effectively; user friendly and most suited to the user’s analysis is the heart
of the process. Analysis is the study of the various operations performed by the system and
their relationship within and outside of the system. During analysis, data collected on the
files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Different kinds of tools
are used in analysis of which interview is a common one.
Existing system:-
System analysis is a detailed study of the various operations performed by a system and their
relationships within and outside of the system and their relationship within and outside of the
system. Here the key question is-What all problems exist in the present system? What must
be done to solve the problem? Analysis begins when a user or manager begins a study of the
program using existing system. During analysis, data collected on the various files, decision
points and transactions handled by the present system. The commonly used tools in the

15
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

system are Data Flow Diagram, interview, etc.Training; experience and common sense are
required for collection of relevant information needed to develop the system. The success of
the system depends largely on how clearly the problem is defined,thoroughlyinvestigated and
properly carried out through the choice of solution.A good analysis model should provide not
only the mechanism of problem understanding but also the frame work of the solution. Then
the proposed system should be analyzed thoroughly in accordance with the needs.
System analysis can be categorized into four parts.
• System planning and initial investigation
• Information gathering
• Applying analysis tools for structured analysis
• Feasibility study

Limitations of existing system:-


• Lack of security of data.
• Time consuming
• Consumes large volume of paper work
• Manual work
• No direct role for the higher officials.
To avoid all these limitations and make the system working more accurately it
needs to be computerized.
PROPOSED SYSTEM:-
The drawback of the existing system is that it is very difficult to retrieve data from case files.
It is difficult to handle the whole system manually and it is less accurate and to keep the data
in case files for future reference because it may get destroyed. Moreover it is very difficult to
retrieve data. Redundancy of data may occur and this may lead to the inconsistency. The
manual system is so time consuming .The proposed system is very easy to operate .Speed and
accuracy are main advantages of proposed system. There is no redundancy of data. The data
are stored in the computer’s secondary memories like hard disk, etc.It can be easily receive
and used at any time. The proposed system will easily handle all the data and the work done
by the existing systems. The proposed systems eliminate the drawbacks of the existing system
to a great extent and it provides tight security to data.
The following are the main advantages:-
• Ensure data accuracy’s.
• Administrator controls the entire system.

16
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

• Reduce the damages of the machines.


• Minimize manual data entry.
• Greater efficiency.
• User friendly and interactive.
• Minimum time required.
• Data security.

Goals of Proposed System


1. Planned approach towards working:-The working in the organization will well plan and
organized. The data will be stored properly in data stores which will help in retrieval of
information as well as its storage.
2. Accuracy:-The level of accuracy in the proposed system will be higher .ALL operation
would be done correctly and it ensures that whatever information is coming from the center is
accurate.
3. Reliability:-The reliability of the proposed system will be high due to the above stated
reasons. The reason for the increased reliability of the system is that now there would be
proper storage of information.
4. No Redundancy:-In the proposed system outmost care would be that no information is
repeated anywhere, in storage or otherwise. This would assure economic use of storage space
and consistency in the data stored.
5. Immediate retrieval of information:-The main objective of proposed system is to provide
for a quick and efficient retrieval of information. Any type of information would be available
whenever the user requires.
6. Immediate storage of information:-In manual system there are many problems to store the
largest amount of information.
7. Easy to operate:-The system should be easy top operate and should be such that it can be
developed within short period of time and fit the limited budget of the user.

17
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

18
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

5.REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS is the first technical step in software process


.It at this point that a general statement of software scope is refined into concrete specification
that becomes the foundation of all software engineering activities that follows. Software
requirement engineering is the process of discovery, refinement, modeling and specification.
The system requirement and the role allocated to the software, initially established by the
system engineer are refined in detail. Models in the required data, information and control
flow and operational behavior are created .Both the developer and customer have to take an
active part in software requirement engineering. Requirement analysis is a software
engineering task that bridges the gap between the customer and developer. Facilitation
Application Specification Techniques (FAST) was applied at the time of requirement analysis
as the developer and the customer or the user worked together as a unit .The success of a
system depends largely on how accurately a problem is defined, thoroughly investigated, and
properly carried out through the choice of solution. User requirement analysis and need
identification are concerned with what the user needs rather than what he/she wants. Not until
the problem has been identified, defined & evaluated should the analyst think about solutions
and whether the problem is worth solving. This step is indented to help the user and the
analyst understand the real problem rather than its symptoms.

What kind of information do we require?


Before one determines where to go for information or what tools to use, the first requirement
is to figure out what information to gather .much of the information we need to analyze
relates to the organization in general, like acknowledge about the people who run the present
system-their job functions and information requirements the relation ship of their job to their
existing system.
For HRMS, system should be interactive and users friendly so that the training period for
users should be less & they can easily learn & use our system, because our job is to reduce
their complexity & workload not to increase it. The data related to the employee changes
frequently because of retirements, deputations, training and new recruitments. So, the system

19
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

should be flexible so that further changes without affecting the current data can be done
easily.
Strategies for determining information requirements:-
There are two key strategies or general approaches for eliciting information regarding the
user’s requirements:
1) Asking
2) Getting information from existing information system.
This strategy obtains information from users by simply asking them about the
requirements. It assumes a stable system where users are well informed and can overcome
biases in defining their problem.
What kind of information is required?
a) What fields should be included in the module?
b) What is qualification for particular designation?
c) What all information they want from the program?
d) What information they want to be automatically generated?
e) Different categories of the departments?
3) Brain stroming is a technique used for generating new ideas and obtaining general
information requirement. This method is appropriate for eliciting non-conventional solutions
to problems.A guided approach to brain stroming asks people involved in the project to define
ideal solutions and then select best feasible one. It works well for users who have difficulty
accepting new ideas. Then with the help of the different methods of feasibility the best or the
most feasible approach is taken. This debate is continued until participants responses have
converged enough. This method has advantages over brainstorming in that participants are
not subjected to psychological pressure from others with presumed authority or influence.
Getting information from the existing information system:-
Determining information from an existing application has been called the data
analysis approach. It simply asks the user what information is currently received and what
other information is required. It relies heavily on the user to articulate information needs. The
analysts examine all reports, discusses with the user each piece of information examined, and
determines unfulfilled information needs by interviewing the existing flow of data to the user.
In contrast to this method is decision analysis. This breaks down a problem into parts, which
allows the user to focus separately on the critical issues. It also determines policy and
organizational objectives relevant to the decision areas identified and the specific step
required to the complete each major decision. Then the analyst and the user refined the

20
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

decision process and the information requirements for the final statement of information
requirements. The data analysis method is ideal for making structured decisions, although it
requires that users articulate their information requirements. A major drawback is a lack of
established rules for obtaining and validating information needs that are not linked to
organizational objectives. In the decision analysis method, information needs are clearly
linked to decision and organizational objectives. It is useful for unstructured decisions and
information tailored to the user’s decision-making style. The major drawback, though, is that
information requirements may change when the user is promoted or replaced .

21
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

SYSTEM REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION

22
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

6. SYSTEM REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION

SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONS:-
Operating System : Win-XP.
Front end : PHP
Back end : My SQL
Design Tool : Data Flow Diagram

HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS:

Processor : Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV or


Higher
RAM : 512 Mb or Higher
Hard disk : 60 GB, 7200 rpm
Monitor : VGA/SVGA
Keyboard : 104 Keys
Mouse : 2 buttons/ 3 buttons

23
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

TECHNOLOGIES TO BE USED
This project will be a desktop application to be developed in PHP having MY SQL as
backend.
Features of PHP
• Public, protected, and private properties and methods: - Allows the use of common OOP
access modifiers to control access to methods and properties.
• Interfaces: - Gives the ability for a class to fulfill more than one is-a relationship. A class
can inherit from one class only but may implement as many interfaces as it wants.
• Abstract classes: - A class may be declared as abstract so as to prevent it from being
instantiated.
• Class type hints: - Function declarations may include class type hints for their
parameters. If the functions are called with an incorrect class type an error occurs.
• Static properties and methods: - Classes definitions can include static members
(properties), accessible via the class. Static methods can be defined which allows them to
be called from non-object context.
• Final properties and methods: -The final keyword allows marking methods so that an
inheriting class can't overload them. After declaring a class as final, it can't be inherited.

Advantages of PHP
• PHP is designed specifically for web development and can also be called a ‘Web oriented
tool’. It is built with the needs of the web developers and solves complex problem
scenarios faster and easier than comparable technologies.
• There is no notion of an application in PHP. Each page is a script, executed in its own
memory environment. That means PHP is great for dynamic web site, whereas server
Java is sold for server-centric applications, which is a different class of problem.
• With the introduction of the PHP 5 version the object oriented programming has been
introduced which makes PHP quite similar to its existing counterparts.
• It also provides separation of layers with neat template systems like Smarty. We can use
Smarty or other template systems to completely separate code from display.

• It is much easier to find a good third-party host for PHP than Java.

24
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

• PHP applications need much fewer resources and PHP environment is much smaller than
a J2EE environment. Many more virtual servers (dynamic websites) can be created on a
single physical server using PHP.
• Most small to medium applications and websites do not need the multithreading, session
pooling, 1000’s of standardized APIs, distributed caching, cluster through multicasting
features of java which makes PHP even more great for implementing websites of
medium size.
• It's fast, easy to use and easy to deploy a PHP application and it is considered to be the
fastest of the scripting languages. One can really feel the speed after implementing the
scripts live on the web.
• Coding a site in PHP is less complicated, less expensive and less bugs in the end. The
PHP APIs are also simpler and productive, unlike Java’s cumbersome and complicated
APIs.
• PHP supports various platforms, which means PHP can be installed on almost all
operating systems such as Windows-x and Linux, we just need to choose the appropriate
version to download and follow the instructions given in the Manual accordingly
• PHP is open source. So the users are given a free license to remodel or recode PHP,
according to their wishes.
• Examples of websites which are using PHP currently are Yahoo and Friendster.

Disadvantages of PHP
• PHP can be used to make very clean, reusable and maintainable software but the level of
discipline needed to do that is way higher than needed when using java. Some rules must
be set for oneself and one must abide by them strictly otherwise the PHP application can
degrade very fast into a bunch of scripts that are not very useful.
• PHP code compiles each time it loads so does not catch errors at compile time as there is
no compile time as opposed to JAVA.
• No control over multi threading, session pooling, distributed caching unlike Java.

MY SQL

25
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

My SQL Data base server is the world’s most widely used open source data base.
Its ingenious software architecture makes it extremely fast and easy to customize. Extensive
reuse of code of code within the software and minimalist approach to produce functionality
rich features have resulted in DBMS unmatched in speed, compactness, stability and ease of
deployment. The unique separation of the core server from the table handler makes it possible
to run My SQL under strict transaction control or with ultra fast transaction less disk access,
whichever most appropriate for the situations.
My SQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs a server
providing multi-user access to a number of databases. My SQL is officially pronounced My
S_Q_L but it also pronounced as My sequel. It is named after developer Michael Widinius’
daughter, My. The SQL phrase stands for structured query language.
My SQL development projects have made its source code available under the forms
of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreement. My
SQL was owned and sponsored by a single for profit firm .The Swedish company My SQL
AB now owned by oracle co-operation. Free software projects that require a full featured
dbms system often use My SQL where the project may lead to something in commercial use,
the license term need careful study.
My SQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications and is a central
component of widely used LAMP web application software stack-LAMP is
acronym for “Linux, Apache, My SQL, PHP/Python My SQL is used in some of the most
frequently visited web sites on internet. It is written in C and C++.Its SQL parser is written
in yacc.My SQL works on different system platforms including AIX,BSDi,Free BSD,HP-US
Microsoft Windows.NET BSD,Novell Netware etc.
Many programming languages with language APIs including libraries for accessing
My SQL database. These include My SQL connector/Net for integration with Microsoft’s
visual studio (Languages such as C and VB are most commonly used) and the ODBC driver
for java. In addition an ODBC interface called My ODBC allows additional programming
languages that support ODBC interface to communicate with My SQL database, such as ASP
or Cold fusion.
Features
• A broad subset of ANSI SQL 99 as well as extensions.
• Cross platform support.

• Stored procedures.
26
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

• Triggers.
• Cursors.
• Updatable views.
• True varchar support.
• Information schema.
• Strict mode.
• X/open XA distributed transaction processing (DTP) support.
• Independent storage engines.
• SSL support.
• Query caching.
• Replication support with one master per slave, many slaves per master, no
automatic support for multiple masters per slave.
• Embedded DB library.
• Partial Unicode support.
• Partial acid compliances.
• Shared nothing clustering through My SQL cluster.

DREAMWEAVER
Adobe Dreamweaver is a web development application originally created by
macromedia, and is now developed by Adobe Systems, which acquired Macromedia in 2005.
Dreamweaver is available for both Mac and Windows operating system. Recent
versions have incorporated support for web technologies such as CSS, Java Scripts, and
various server-side scripting languages and frame works including ASP, Cold Fusion and
PHP.
Dreamweaver allows users to preview websites in locally installed web browsers. It
provides transfer and synchronization features, the ability to find and replace the lines of text
or code by search terms and regular expressions across the entire site, and a templating
feature that allows single-source update of shared code and layout across entire site without
server-side includes or scripting. The behaviors panel also enables use of basic JavaScript
without any coding knowledge, and integration with Adobe’s Spry Ajax framework offer
easy access to dynamically-generated content and interface.

27
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Dreamweaver can use third –party “Extension” to extend core functionality of the
application, which any developer can write (largely in HTML and JavaScript). Dreamweaver
is supported by a large community of extension developers who make extensions available
for most web development tasks from simple rollover effects to full-featured shopping carts.
Dreamweaver, like other HTML editors edits files locally then uploads them to the
remote web server using FTP, SFTP or WebDAV. Dreamweaver CS4 now supports the
Subversion (SVN) version control system.

HTML

HTML, which stands for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant


markup language for web pages. HTML is the basic building-blocks of WebPages. A markup
language is a set of markup tags, and HTML uses markup tags to
describe web pages. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags,
enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content. HTML tags normally
come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the
end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags).
The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them
into visual or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the
tags to interpret the content of the page.
HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images
and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to
create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings,
paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts in languages such as
JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML WebPages.
Web browsers can also refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the
appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both the HTML
and the CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicitly presentational HTML
markup.
An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML document. HTML
documents are composed of a tree of HTML elements and other nodes, such as text nodes.
Each element can have attributes specified. Elements can also have content, including other
elements and text. HTML elements represent semantics, or meaning. For example, the title
element represents the title of the document.

28
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

In the HTML syntax, most elements are written with a start tag and an end tag, with the
content in between. Tags are composed of the name of the element, surrounded by angle
brackets. An end tag also has a slash after the opening angle bracket, to distinguish it from the
start tag. For example, a paragraph, which is represented by the p element, would be written
as

<p>In the HTML syntax, most elements are written ...</p>

However, not all of these elements require the end tag, or even the start tag, to be present.
Some elements, the so-called void elements don't have an end tag. A typical example is the br
element, which represents a significant line break, such as in a poem or an address. For
example, the address of the dentist in Finding Nemo would be written as

<p>P. Sherman<br>42 Wallaby Way<br>Sydney</p>

Attributes are specified on the start tag. For example, the abbr element, which represents an
abbreviation, expects a title attribute with its expansion. This would be written as

<abbr title="Hyper Text Markup Language">HTML</abbr>

HTML
(Hypertext Markup Language)

Filename extension .html, .htm

Internet media type text/html

Type code TEXT

Uniform Type public.html


Identifier

29
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Developed by World Wide Web Consortium &


WHATWG

Type of format Markup language

Extended from SGML

Extended to XHTML

Standard(s) ISO/IEC 15445


W3C HTML 4.01

W3C HTML5 (draft

In 1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, who was a contractor at CERN,


proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN researchers to use and share
documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an Internet-based hypertext
system. Berners-Lee specified HTML and wrote the browser and server software in the last
part of 1990. In that year, Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer Robert Cailliau
Collaborated on a joint request for funding, but the project was not formally adopted by
CERN. In his personal notes from 1990 he lists "some of the many areas in which hypertext is
used" and puts an encyclopedia first.
If you're doing business on the Internet, taking the time to learn how to design your own web site and
write your own HTML code (hypertext markup language) will play a major role in your success. Not
only will learning HTML coding provide you with the freedom to update your own HTML
documents, but it will also save you a great deal of money, as you will be able to avoid hiring a
professional web designer.If you're looking for some HTML tags to spice up your web site, you've
come to the right place.

30
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

You will find a variety of HTML codes and tips to assist you below.
However, before reviewing the HTML tags, if you're new to HTML and web site design, the
following section will assist you in creating an HTML web page. For additional web site
design information, make sure you don't miss the web design articles and tutorials at the
bottom of this page.

Basic HTML Document Code Structure


Begin writing your HTML tags by creating your document's basic layout. Copy
and paste this code into your text or HTML editor.

<html>
<head>
<title>YourPageTitle</title>
</head>
<body>

This area will contain everything that will be visible through a


web browser, such as text and graphics. All of the information will be HTML
coded.

For a complete list of HTML codes, tags and examples, see the HTML
chart below.

</body>
</html>

31
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Apache as a web Server

The Apache HTTP Server commonly referred to as Apache, is web server software
notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. In 2009 it became
the first web server software to surpass the 100 million web site milestone. Apache was the
first viable alternative to the Netscape Communications Corporation web server (currently
known as Oracle iPlanet Web Server), and has since evolved to rival other web servers in
terms of functionality and performance. Typically Apache is run on a Unix-like operating
system.

Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under


the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. The application is available for a wide
variety of operating systems, including Unix, GNU, FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris, Novell
NetWare, AmigaOS, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, OS/2, TPF, and eComStation. Released
under the Apache License, Apache is characterized as open-source software.

Features

Apache supports a variety of features, many implemented as compiled modules which


extend the core functionality. These can range from server-side programming language
support to authentication schemes. Some common language interfaces support Perl, Python,
Tcl, and PHP. Popular authentication modules include mod_access, mod_auth, mod_digest,
and mod_auth_digest, the successor to mod_digest. A sample of other features include SSL
and TLS support (mod_ssl), a proxy module (mod_proxy), a URL rewriter (also known as a
rewrite engine, implemented under mod_rewrite), custom log files (mod_log_config), and
filtering support (mod_include and mod_ext_filter).

Popular compression methods on Apache include the external extension


module, mod_gzip, implemented to help with reduction of the size (weight) of web pages
served over HTTP. ModSecurity is an open source intrusion detection and prevention engine
for web applications. Apache logs can be analyzed through a web browser using free scripts
such as AWStats/W3Perl or Visitors.Virtual hosting allows one Apache installation to serve many
different actual websites. For example, one machine with one Apache installation could
simultaneously serve www.example.com, www.test.com, test47.test-server.test.com, etc.

32
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Apache features configurable error messages, DBMS-based authentication databases, and content
negotiation. It is also supported by several graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

Performance
Although the main design goal of Apache is not to be the "fastest" web server, Apache does
have performance comparable to other "high-performance" web servers. Instead of implementing a
single architecture, Apache provides a variety of Multiprocessing Modules (MPMs) which allow
Apache to run in a process-based, hybrid (process and thread) or event-hybrid mode, to better match
the demands of each particular infrastructure. This implies that the choice of correct MPM and the
correct configuration is important. Where compromises in performance need to be made, the design of
Apache is to reduce latency and increase throughput, relative to simply handling more requests, thus
ensuring consistent and reliable processing of requests within reasonable time-frames.
The Apache version considered by the Apache Foundation as providing high-performances is
the multi-threaded version which mixes the use of several processes and several threads per process
While this architecture works faster than the previous multi-process based topology (because
threads have a lower overhead than processes), it does not match the performances of the event-based
architecture provided by other servers, especially when they process events with several worker
threads.
This difference can be easily explained by the overhead that one thread per connection brings (as
opposed to a couple of worker threads per CPU, each processing many connection events). Each
thread needs to maintain its own stack, environment, and switching from one thread to another is also
an expensive task for CPUs.

DBMS
A Data Base Management System is a set of computer programs that controls the creation,
maintenance and the use of a database. It allows organizations to place control of database development
in the hands of Database administrator and other specialists.
A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated collection of data
records and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the
same database.
DBMS may use any of a variety of data model, such as network model or relational model. In
large systems, a dbms allows users and other software to store retrieve data in a structured way.
Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information’s user can ask simple questions in
a query language. Thus many DBMS packages provide 4th generation programming languages (4GLs)
and other application development features. It helps to specify the logical organization for DB and use
the information with in a DB.

33
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Types of Database
• Numeric & textual data base.
• Multimedia data base.
• Geographic information system data base.
• Data warehouses.
• Real and active data bases.

Features
• Query ability: Querying is the process of requesting attribute information from various
perspective and combinations of factors. A database query language and report writer allow users to
interactively interrogate the data base,analyse its data and update it according to the users privileges on
data.
• Rule enforcement: Often one wants to apply rules to attribute so that the attributes are clean and
reliable.
• Security: For security reasons, it is desirable to limit who can see a change specific attributes a
group of attributes.
• Computation: Common computations request on attributes are counting, summing, averaging,
sorting, grouping, referencing and so on.

• Changes and access logins: This describes who accessed which attributes, what was changed, and
when it was changed. Login services allow this by keeping a record to access occurrences and changes.
• Automated optimization: For frequently occurring usage patterns or requests, some DBMS can
adjust themselves to improve the speed of those interactions. In some cases DBMS will merely
provides tools of monitor performance, allowing a human expert to make the necessary adjustments
after reviewing the statistics collected.

DBMS functionality
• It define data base in terms of data types, structure and constraints.
• It constructs or loads the db on secondary storage medium.
• It can also manipulate the db by querying, generating reports, insertions, deletion and
modification to its content.
• There is a concurrent processing and sharing by a set of users and programs yet DBMS keep
all data valid consistent.
• It provides security or protection to prevent unauthorized access.
• It provides proper presentation and visualization of data.

34
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Scripting Language

A scripting language, script language or extension language is


a programming language that allows control of one or more applications. "Scripts" are distinct
from the core code of the application, as they are usually written in a different language and
are often created or at least modified by the user. Scripts are often interpreted from source
code or byte code, whereas the application is typically first compiled to native machine code.
The name "script" is derived from the written script of the performing arts, in which
dialogue is set down to be spoken by human actors. Early script languages were often
called batch languages or job control languages. Such early scripting languages were created
to shorten the traditional edit-compile-link-run process.

Server-side scripting
Server-side scripting is a web server technology in which a user's request is
fulfilled by running a script directly on the web server to generate dynamic web pages. It is
usually used to provide interactive web sites that interface to databases or other data stores.
This is different from client-side scripting where scripts are run bythe viewing web browser,
usually in JavaScript. The primary advantage to server-side scripting is the ability to highly
customize the response based on the user's requirements, access rights, or queries into data
stores.
From security point of view, server-side scripts are never visible to the browser as these
scripts are executed on the server and emit HTML corresponding to user's input to the page.
When the server serves data in a commonly used manner, for example according to
the HTTP or FTP protocols, users may have their choice of a number of client programs (most
modern web browsers can request and receive data using both of those protocols). In the case
of more specialized applications, programmers may write their own server, client, and
communications protocol that can only be used with one another.

Programs that run on a user's local computer without ever sending or receiving data over a
network are not considered clients, and so the operations of such programs would not be
considered client-side operations.

Client-side scripting
35
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Client-side scripting generally refers to the class of computer programs on


the web that are executed client - side, by the user's web browser, instead of server-side (on
the web server).[1] This type of computer programming is an important part of the Dynamic
HTML (DHTML) concept, enabling web pages to be scripted; that is, to have different and
changing content depending on user input, environmental conditions (such as the time of day),
or other variables.
Web authors write client-side scripts in languages such
as JavaScript (Client-side JavaScript) and VB Script.

JavaScript

JavaScript is an implementation of the ECMAScript language standard and is


typically used to enable programmatic access to computational objects within a host environment. It
can be characterized as a prototype-based object-oriented[6] scripting language that is dynamic, weakly
typed and has first-class functions. It is also considered a functional programming language[1] like
Scheme and OCaml because it has closures and supports higher-order functions.[7]
JavaScript is primarily used in the form of client-side JavaScript, implemented as part of a web
browser in order to provide enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites. However, its use in
applications outside web pages—for example in PDF-documents, site-specific browsers and desktop
widgets—is also significant.
JavaScript uses syntax influenced by that of C. JavaScript copies many names and naming
conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different
semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the Self and Scheme
programming languages.[8]
The primary use of JavaScript is to write functions that are embedded in or included from HTML
pages and that interact with the Document Object Model (DOM) of the page. Some simple examples
of this usage are:

• Opening or popping up a new window with programmatic control over the size, position,
and attributes of the new window (e.g. whether the menus, toolbars, etc. are visible).
• Validating input values of a web form to make sure that they are acceptable before being
submitted to the server.

• Changing images as the mouse cursor moves over them: This effect is often used to draw
the user's attention to important links displayed as graphical elements.
36
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Because JavaScript code can run locally in a user's browser (rather than on a remote server), the
browser can respond to user actions quickly, making an application more responsive. Furthermore,
JavaScript code can detect user actions which HTML alone cannot, such as individual keystrokes.
Applications such as Gmail take advantage of this: much of the user-interface logic is written in
JavaScript, and JavaScript dispatches requests for information (such as the content of an e-mail
message) to the server. The wider trend of Ajax programming similarly exploits this strength

OPERATING SYSTEM

Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on


general purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook
computers and media centers. The letters ‘XP’ stand for experience. Windows XP is the
successor to both Windows 2000 and Windows Me and is first consumer oriented operating
system produced by Microsoft to be built on the Windows NT kernel and architecture. The
most common editions of operating systems are Windows XP home edition, which is targeted
at home users, and Windows XP professional, which has additional features such as, support
for Windows server domain and two physical processors and is targeted at power users and
business clients. Windows XP Tablet PC edition is designed to run the inkaware Tablet PC
platform. Two separate 64 bit versions of Windows XP were also released.

37
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

SYSTEM DESIGN

38
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

7. SYSTEM DESIGN
The most creative and challenging phase of the system life cycle is system design.
The term design describes a final system and the process by which it is developed. It refers to
the technical specifications that will be applied in implementing the candidate system. It also
includes the construction of programs and program testing. The key question involved here is
"How the problem should be solved".
System design is a solution for the question of how to approach to the creation of a
new system. This important phase is composed of several steps. It provides the understanding
and procedural details necessary for implementing the system recommended in the feasibility
study. Emphasis is on translating the performance requirements into design specifications.
Design goes through logical and physical stages of development. Logical reviews the present
physical system, prepares input and output specifications, security and control specifications,
details the implementation plan, and prepares a logical design walk. Physical design maps out
the details of the physical system, plans the system implementation, devices a test and
implementation plan and specify any new hardware and software.
The first step is to determine how the output is to be produced and in what format.
Samples of output and input are presented. Second, input data and master files have to be
designed to meet the requirement of the proposed output. The operational phases are handled
through program construction and testing, including a list of programs needed to meet the
system's objectives and complete documentation. Finally, details related to justification of the
system and estimate of the impact of the candidate system on the user and
organization are documented and evaluated by management.
As a step towards implementation. The final report prior to the implementation phases
includes procedural flowcharts, record layout and a workable plan for implementing the
candidate system.
Information on personal, money, hardware, facilities and their estimated cost
must also be available. At this point, projected costs must be close to actual costs of
implementation.
Logical Design
In logical design the proposed system is pictorially represented. Drawing the
Data Flow Diagrams of the proposed system does this.

39
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Data Flow Diagrams


The DFD is also known as the bubble chart. It is a simple graphical formalism that can be
used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the system, various processing carried
out in these data and the output data generated by the system. The main reason why this DFD
technique is so popular is probably because of the facts that DFD is very simple formalism. It
is simple to understand and use. A DFD model uses a very limited number of primitive
symbols to represent the functions performed by a system and the data flow among these
systems. Starting with a set of high-level functions that a system performance of DFD model
in hierarchically it represents various sub functions. The Data Flow Diagramming technique
also follows a simple a simple set of intuitive concepts and rules.
Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is used to show how data flow through the system and the
processes that transfer the input data into output. Data Flow Diagrams are a way of
expressing system requirements in a graphical manner. DFD represents one of the most
ingenious tools used for structural analysis.
In a normal convention, logical DFD can be completed using only four notations:

Represents source or destination of


data

Represents Data Flow

Represents a process that transforms


incoming data into outgoing data

Represents Data Source

40
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

A function is represented using a circle. This symbol is called a process or


a bubble. Bubbles are annotated with the names of corresponding functions.

External Entity Symbol:-


An external entity such as a librarian, library member etc is represented by a
rectangle. The external entities are essentially those physical entities external to the software
system, which interact with the system by inputting data to the system or by consuming the
data produced by the system. In addition to the human users the external entity symbols can
be used o represent external hardware and software such as application software.

Data Flow Symbol:-


A directed arc or an arrow is used as a Data Flow Symbol. This represents the data
flow occurring between two processes or between an external entity and a process in direction
of the Data Flow Arrow. Data Flow symbols are annotated with corresponding data names.

Data Store Symbol:-


A Data Store represents a logical file; it is represented using two
parallel lines. A logical file can represent either Data Store Symbol, which can represent
either data structure or a physical file on disk. Each data store is connected to a process by
means of a Data Flow Symbol. The direction of the Data Flow Arrow shows whether data is
being read from or written into a Data Store and hence arrows connecting to a data store need
not be annotated with the names of the corresponding data items.

Output Symbol:-
The output symbol is used when a hardcopy is produced and the user of the copies
cannot be clearly specified or there are several users of the output. The DFD at the simplest
level is referred to as the Context Analysis Diagram. These are expanded by level, each
explaining in process in detail. Processes are numbered for easy identification and are
normally labeled in block letters. Each data flow is labeled for easy understanding.

Context Diagram:-
The context diagram is the most abstract data flow representation of a system. It
represents the entire system as a single bubble. This bubble is labeled according to the main

41
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

function of the system. The various external entities with the system interact and the data
input to the system and the data output from the system are represented as incoming and
outgoing arrows. These data flow arrows should be annotated with the corresponding data
names. The name context diagram is well justified because it represents the context in which
the system is to exist, i.e. the external entities who would interact with the system and the
specific data items they would be supplying to the system and the data items they would be
receiving from the system. The context diagram is also called the Level 0 DFD.
To develop the context diagram of the system, we have to analyze the SRS
Document to identify the different types of users who would be using the system and the kind
of data they would be inputting to the system and the data they would be receiving from the
system. Here, the term users of the system, also includes the external systems, which supply
data to or receive data from the system.

Level-1 DFD
To develop the LEVEL-1 DFD, examine the high level functional requirements. It
is between three to seven high-level functional requirements then these can be directly
represented as bubbles as in the LEVEL-1 DFD. We can examine the input data to these
functions and the data output by these functions, and represent them appropriately in the
diagram.
If a system has more than seven high-level requirements, then some of the related
requirements have to be combined represented in the form of a bubble in the level-1 DFD.
These can be split in the lower DFD levels. If a system has less than three high-level
requirements, then some of the high-level requirements need to be split into their sub
functions so that we have roughly about five to seven bubbles on the diagram.
How to develop a DFD model of a system:

1. The SRS document is examined to determine:


• Different high-level functions that the system need to perform.
• Data input to every high-level function
• Data output from every high-level functions
• Interactions among the identified high-level functions

These aspects of the high-level functions are then represented in a diagrammatic form. This

42
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

forms the top level Data Flow Diagram, usually called DFD.
2. The high-level functions described in the SRS Documents, and then each of the high-
level functions can be represented in form of a bubble. If there are more than seven bubbles,
then some of them have to be combined. If there are less than three bubbles, then some of
these are to be split. Each high-level function is decomposed into constituent sun functions
through the following set of activities.
• Different sub functions of the high-level functions are identified.
• Data input to each of these sub functions is identified.
• Data output from each of these sub functions is identified.
• Interactions among these sub functions are identified.
• These aspects are then represented in a diagrammatic form using a DFD.
3. Step three is repeated recursively for each sub function until a simple algorithm can
represent a sub function.

43
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

44
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

8. DATAFLOW DIAGRAMS

LEVEL 0

Report
ADMIN
HRMS

45
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

LEVEL 1.0

Employee
Employee
registratio
n &
updation

Store

Job
Client order
&evalu
Store
ation

Data
Store Base
Appro
Store
ve &
provid
Admin e
messa
ge

46
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

LEVEL 1.1

Employee
Approve
data
Employee
&
Schedule
interview

Approve
Admin client And Employee

employee data

contact

Employee
Add data
evaluation

Provide
message to Employee
employee data

47
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

LEVEL 1.2

Employee Employee
Registration
data

Add skill
experience
and
qualificatio
n
details

48
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

LEVEL 1.3

Register Employee
Employer data
contact

Employee
Client Update
data
Client
details

49
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

DATA BASE DESIGN

50
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

9. DATA BASE DESIGN


1) Employee_details

Field Name Data Type


Emp_id int(20)

first_name Varchar(255)

Last_name Varchar(255)

Middle_name Varchar(255)

Address Text

City Varchar(255)

State Varchar(30)

Country Varchar(35)

Pin_code int(25)

Mobile Varchar(30)

Extension Varchar(30)

Home_phone Varchar(20)

Email Date

Gender Varchar(20)

Dob Date

marital_status Varchar(30)

Resume_name Varchar(255)

Description Text

sector Varchar(30)

Fresher Varchar(25)

ctc Int(20)

51
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

username Varchar(25)

password Varchar(25)

status Varchar(25)

Created_date Date

Modified_date Date

Age Int(11)

2) Client

Field Data Type


Client_id Int(20)

Company_name Varchar(255)

Address Text

City Varchar(255)

Zip_code tiny int(11)

Username Varchar(255)

Password Varchar(255)

Created_date date

Email Varchar(255)

Modified_date date

52
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

3) communication_language_skill

Field Data Type


Emp_communi_id int(20)

Emp_id Varchar(255)

Language Varchar(30)

City Varchar(255)

Level Varchar(30)

status tinyint(1)

Created_date date

modified_date date

4) employee_qualification

Field Data Type


Emp_quali_id Int(20)

Emp_id Int(20)

Course_name Varchar(15)

Marks_percentage Int(11)

Start_year Varchar(15)

End_year Varchar(15)

University_or_school Varchar(15)

No_of_attempt Int(11)

status tinyint(1)

53
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

Created_date Date

Modified_date Date

5) Employer_contact
Field Name Data Type

Emp_id int(20)

Client_id int(20)

Contact_name Varchar(30)

Designation Varchar(30)

Telephone int(20)

Extension int(11)

Fax Varchar(30)

Email Varchar(35)

Status tinyint(1)

Created_date Date

Modified_date date

6)Employee_experience
Field Name Data Type

Emp_exp_id int(20)

emp_id int(20)

firm_name Varchar(30)

Designation Varchar(30)

From_date date

54
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

To_date date

Experience_year Int(20)

Status tinyint(1)

Created_date Date

Modified_date date

7)Emp_tech_skill
Field Name Data Type

Emp_tech_id int(20)

Emp_id Int(20)

skill_name Varchar(30)

No_of_years_experience Int(20)

Last_used_date date

Status tinyint(1)

Created_date Date

Modified_date date

55
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

8) interview_schedule

Field Name Data Type

Interview_id Int(11)

Emp_id Int(11)

Job_id Int(11)

Employee_name Varchar(30)

Job_name Varchar(30)

Company_name Varchar(30)

Interview_type Varchar(30)

Interview_date Date

Interview_time Time

Exam_code Varchar(30)

Selected Varchar(30)

accepted Varchar(30)

remarks text

Message_to_employee text

Message_to_employer text

56
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

9)User

Field Name Data Type


user_id int(15)

user_name Varchar(30)

password Varchar(30)

User_type Varchar(30)

status tinyint(1)

Created_date date

57
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

SYSTEM CODING
AND MAINTENANCE

58
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

10. SYSTEM CODING AND MAINTENANCE

Code Design:-
The purpose of codes is to facilitate the identification and retrieval of items of information. A
code is an ordered collection of symbols designed to provide unique identification of an entity
or attribute. Coding is the process of translation of the detailed design specification into a
programming language that is ultimately transformed into executable instructions. The input
for the coding phase is the detailed design document, which is the output of the design phase.
The coding phase has a major impact on both manual and computer system, that is the
internal structure of modules which will effect the testability and understandability of the
system.
Various principles followed in the coding phase are,
• The coding should be designed to offer uniqueness.
• The codes should be simple and versatile.
• Give specific comments
• Keep the modules small and give appropriate header for each module.
• All the syntax and format errors of the program must be detected and resolved.
• The aim of coding phase is to produce simple and clear programs. The coded procedure
modules should be unit tested. Modules are written in a programming language. In the
coding phase, the output document is the code itself. After the source code generation,
the function of the should be apparent without reference to the design specification. The
variables used in the program should have clear and meaningful names.
Pseudo code:-
Pseudo code is a combination of programming language. Constructs and natural language,
which is used to express a computer design.

59
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

SYSTEM TESTING AND


IMPLEMENTATION

60
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

11. SYSTEM TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION

TESTING:-

The philosophy behind testing was to find errors with a minimum amount of time and
effort. A set of sample data is produced the system as a normal input. The software was tested for two
strategies, code testing and specification testing.
Code testing strategy examines the logic of the program. Runs each program separately did
specification testing and verifies how it performed under various conditions. They where developed
each condition or combination of condition it seemed satisfactory.
Testing is carried in order to ensure that the system does not fail, that is meets the
specification and its satisfies the user. This system testing was carried out in a systematic
Manner with the test data contain all the possible combination of data to check the features of
the system. A test data was prepared for each module, which took care of all possible branches and
sub procedures in the programs. During the list round of testing, each module of testing individually
because the fixing and rectification of errors in this state would be easier.
After its model was checked a second level of rectification was made and structured testing
involving modules and their interfaces with other modules where done.
Then all the main procedures where integrated in order to proceed with the intergration,
testing and testing with sample data. Finally the system was demonstrated to top-level users. Database
loaded with actual data. Acceptance test was also performed.

IMPLEMENTATION AND SYSTEM PROCESSING:-


Implementation is the stage of the Project when the theoretical design includes
adequate procedures to allow users to produce the reports and retrieve the necessary informations.The
design for this system explicitly provides accurate and update information. The initiation of these
actives is under the control of user .The password is designed for security.
Processing initiated form menu form. By selecting necessary topic, the user invokes the
programs necessary to carry out the activity. This system provides user-friendly screen.

USER TRAINING
User training is designed to prepare the user for testing and converting the system.
User involment and training take place parallel with programming for the three reasons.

61
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

• The system group has time available to spend on training while the programs are designed
written.
• Initializing a user-training programming given the system group a clearer image of user’s interest
in a new system.
• A trained user participates more effectively in the system testing.
Menu drive software packages are very help as user training aids. The user selects appropriate option
from the menu. The systems access the necessary description or information for user reference more
interactive button boxes the system.

POST IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION


The implementation was well planned the entire event went smoothly. The objectives
of post implementation renew will be to:

• Determine whether the system goals and objectives has been achieved.
• Determined whether personal procedure and operating activity have improved.
• Determined whether user service requirement have been met while simultaneously reduce errors
and cost.
• Determine whether known or unexpected limitations of the system need attention.

VERIFICATION
Pre-implementation and post implementation verification for done. They are intended
to find errors. Executing the program in a simulated environment did pre-implementation verification.
During this pre-implementation verification several errors occurred and they were rectified.
Using the software in live environment in order to find error did post implementation
and verification. It was discussed detail with implementation that verification no errors were occurred
and the system is working smoothly. The result of verification is that proposed plans and schedules
are matching for user environment and working smoothly.

MAINTENANCE AND ENHANCEMENT


Maintenance covered a wide range of activities including, coding and designing
errors, updating documentation and test data and upgrading user support many activities classified as
maintenance are actually enhancement. Maintenance means restoring something to it is original
condition .It is necessary to changing user needs, and the operations environment .also this software
will change or modified with user, requirement in future.

62
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

CONCLUSION

63
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

12. CONCLUSION

The consulting industry is one of the fastest growing business sectors worlds wide
with new opportunities emerging in different fields including computer related services.
Software consulting and recruiting agencies match the requirements of the client firms with
the skills of their employees and set up the interview between their employees and the client
firm. Interviews are then conducted, and the candidates selected in the interview are recruited
as consultants in the client’s firm for the duration of the project. Computer software engineers
are projected to be one of the fastest growing occupations from 2004 to 2014.Consulting
opportunities for computer software engineers continue to grow as businesses seek help to
manage, upgrade, and customize their increasingly complicated computer systems. This
project implement of a consulting firm that participates in the placement of consultants in
different organizations. The system is implemented using 3-tier architecture .To implement
this application the server side technology used to create the web page is php.PHP has several
advantages such as enhanced performance,scalability,built-in security and simplicity. The
database used to store the data is MySQL database.

64
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

SAMPLE CODES
AND
SAMPLE SNAPSHORT

65
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

13. SAMPLE CODES


Register.php
<? php
$cn=mysql_connect("localhost","root");
mysql_select_db("hrm",$cn) or die ("could not select db");
$rslt=0;
if(isset($_POST['submit']))
{
$date=date('Y-m-d');
$first=$_POST['first'];
$last=$_POST['last'];
$middle=$_POST['middle'];
$address=$_POST['address'];
$city=$_POST['city'];
$state=$_POST['state'];
$country=$_POST['country'];
$zip=$_POST['pin'];
$gender=$_POST['gender'];
$dob1=$_POST['dob'];
$marital=$_POST['marital'];
$mobile=$_POST['mobile'];
$extension=$_POST['extension'];
$homephone=$_POST['homephone'];
$email=$_POST['email'];
$discription=$_POST['discription'];
$sector=$_POST['sector'];
$fresher=$_POST['fresher'];
$ctc=$_POST['ctc'];
$ectc=$_POST['ectc'];
$age=$_POST['age'];
$exe=mysql_query("INSERT INTO `hrm`.`employee_details` (`emp_id` ,`first_name`
,`last_name` ,`middle_name` ,`Address` ,`City` ,`State` ,`Country` ,`pin_code` ,`Mobile`

66
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

,`Extension`,`home_phone` ,`Email` ,`Gender` ,`Dob` ,`marital_status` ,`Description`


,`Sector` ,`Fresher` ,`Ctc` ,`Username` ,`Password` ,`Status` ,`created_date` ,`modified_date`

,`Age` )VALUES ('' , '$first', '$last', '$middle', '$address', '$city', '$state', '$country', '$zip',
'$mobile', '$extension', '$homephone', '$email', '$gender', '$dob1', '$marital', '$discription',
'$sector', '$fresher', '$ctc', '', '', 'inactive', '$date', '$date', '$age');") or die ("query failed");
$rslt =1;
}
?> <html>
<head>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
<title></title>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="application/xhtml+xml; charset=UTF-8" />
<meta name="author" content="Erwin Aligam - styleshout.com" />
<meta name="description" content="Site Description Here" />
<meta name="keywords" content="keywords, here" />
<meta name="robots" content="index, follow, noarchive" />
<meta name="googlebot" content="noarchive" />
</head>
<body>
<h1>FIND YOUR JOB</h1>
<p>Human resource management. </p>
<li ><a href="index.php">Home</a></li>
<li><a href="aboutus.php">About us</a></li>
<li><a href="contactus.php">Contact us</a></li>
<li><a href="register_client.php">Register client</a></li>
<li><a href="login.php">Login</a></li>
</head>
<form id="form1" method="post" action="">
<p>
<label>

67
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

<input type="image" name="imageField" id="imageField"


src="photos/Human_resources_Management.jpg" />
</label>
</p>
</form>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<title></title>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<form method="post" action="" id="registeremployee" >
<table width="" border="0" align="center">
<tr>
<td colspan="2" align="center"><span class="style2"><span class="style9">&nbsp;
REGISTRATION </span></span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" align="center"><font color="#990000"><b>&nbsp;</b></font></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2"><span class="style8">Personal information</span><span
class="style5"> : </span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">First name:</span></td>
<td><input name="first" type="text" class="first" />
<span class="">Last name:</span>
<input type="text" name="last" class="last"/>
&nbsp;<span class="">Middle name:</span>
<input type="text" name="middle" class="middle" /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Address:</span></td>
<td><textarea name="address" cols="20" rows="5" class="address"></textarea></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">City:</span></td>

68
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

<td><input type="text" name="city" class="city"/>


<span class=""> State</span>:
<input type="text" name="state" class="state" />
<span class="">Country:</span>
<select name="country" id="country" class="country" >
<option value="">Select One</option>
<option value="India">India</option>
<option value="USA">USA</option>
<option value="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</option>
<option value="Canada">Canada</option>
<option value="Australia">Australia</option>
<option value="Pakistan">Pakistan</option>
<option value="Saudi Arabia">Saudi Arabia</option>
<option value="Kuwait">Kuwait</option>
<option value="South Africa">South Africa</option>
<option value="Afghanistan">Afghanistan</option>
<option value="Bangladesh">Bangladesh</option>
<option value="Belgium">Belgium</option>
<option value="Bermuda">Bermuda</option>
<option value="Bhutan">Bhutan</option>
<option value="China">China</option>
<option value="Colombia">Colombia</option>
<option value="Cuba">Cuba</option>
<option value="Denmark">Denmark</option>
<option value="Egypt">Egypt</option>
<option value="Ethiopia">Ethiopia</option>
<option value="France">France</option>
<option value="Germany">Germany</option>
<option value="Greece">Greece</option>
<option value="Greenland">Greenland</option>
<option value="Iceland">Iceland</option>
<option value="India">India</option>
<option value="Indonesia">Indonesia</option>
<option value="Iran">Iran</option>
<option value="Iraq">Iraq</option>

69
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

<option value="Japan">Japan</option>
<option value="Malaysia">Malaysia</option>
</select></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Zip code:</span></td>
<td><input type="text" name="pin" id="pin"/></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Gender:</span></td>
<td><span class="">Female
<input type="radio" name="gender" value="female" class="gender" />
male
<input type="radio" name="gender" value="male" />
</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Age:</span></td>
<td><input type="text" name="age" class="age"/></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">DOB:</span></td>
<td><input type="text" name="dob" id="date" />
<a href="javascript:NewCal('demo1','ddmmyyyy')"></a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Marital status:</span></td>
<td><select name="marital" class="marital">
<option>_</option>
<option>Married</option>
<option>Single</option>
</select></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2"><span class="style8">Contact details</span><strong>: </strong></td>

70
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Mobile:</span></td>

<td><input type="text" name="mobile" class="mobile" />


<span class=""> Extention:</span>
<input type="text" name="extension" class="extension" />
<span class="">Home phone:</span>
<input type="text" name="homephone" class="homephone" /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Email:</span></td>
<td><input type="text" name="email" class="email" /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2"><span class="style8">Other information: </span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Discription:</span></td>
<td><textarea name="discription" cols="20" rows="5"
class="discription"></textarea></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Sector:</span></td>
<td><select name="sector" class="sector">
<option value="">Select One</option>
<option value="Accountant">Accountant</option>
<option value="Engineer">Softtware Engineer</option>
<option value="Hardware Engineer">Hardware Engineer</option>
<option value="Journalist">Journalist</option>
<option value="Manager">Manager</option>
<option value="Supervisor">Supervisor</option>
<option value="Technician">Technician</option>
<option value="Other">Other</option>
<option>software engineer</option>

71
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur
Project Report 2012 Human Resource Management System

</select>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="">
Fresher: </span>

<input type="radio" name="fresher" value="yes" class="fresher"/>


<span class="">Yes </span>
<input type="radio" name="fresher" value="no" />
<span class=""> No </span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="">Current salary(CTC): </span></td>
<td><input type="text" name="ctc" />
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span class="">Expected salary:
<input type="text" name="ectc" class="ectc"/>
</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" >&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" />
&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
</table>
<div align="center"></div>
<div align="center"></div>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p align="center">
<?php if($rslt==1)
{
echo " REGISTRATION SUCCESSFUL";
}
?>
</p>
</form>
</body></html>

72
Dept.of Computer Engineering RWPTC,
Payyannur

Оценить