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Optical DWDM

Fundamentals

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Agenda
ƒ Introduction and Terminology
ƒ Optical Propagation and Fiber Characteristics
ƒ Attenuation and Compensation
ƒ Dispersion and Dispersion Compensation
ƒ Non Linearity
ƒ SM Optical Fiber Types
ƒ Simple SPAN Design
ƒ DWDM Transmission
ƒ ROADM: Operational Benefits
ƒ Cisco ONS 15454 MSPP/MSTP Functionality
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Introduction

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Modern Lightwave Eras

10,000 OXC’s

1,000 ROADMs
Capacity (Gb/s)

100 Research Systems Optical Networking


Wavelength Switching

10 Commercial Systems

SONET Rings and


1 Fiberization DWDM Linear
Digitization Systems
0
1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

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Optical Spectrum

UV IR 125 GHz/nm
λ

Visible 850 nm
ƒ Light
980 nm
Ultraviolet (UV) 1,310 nm
Visible 1,480 nm
Infrared (IR) 1,550 nm
1,625 nm
ƒ Communication wavelengths

C =ƒ x λ
850, 1310, 1550 nm
Low-loss wavelengths

ƒ Specialty wavelengths
Wavelength:λ (Nanometers)
Frequency: ƒ (Nerahertz)
980, 1480, 1625 nm
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Terminology

ƒ Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure) –X dB is 10–X/10


ƒ Decibels-milliwatt (dBm): decibel referenced to a milliwatt
dBm used for output power and receive sensitivity (absolute value)
dB used for power gain or loss (relative value)
X mW is 10xlog10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW

ƒ Wavelength (Lambda): length of a wave in a particular medium;


common unit: nanometers, 10–9m (nm)
ƒ Frequency (ν): the number of times that a wave is produced within
a particular time period

Wavelength x frequency = speed of light ⇒ λ x ν = C

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Terminology—Fiber Impairments

ƒ Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km


ƒ Chromatic Dispersion = Spread of light pulse in ps/nm-
km
ƒ Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR) = Ratio of optical
signal power to noise power for the receiver

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ITU Wavelength Grid
ƒ The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has divided the
telecom wavelengths into a grid; the grid is divided into bands;
the C and L bands are typically used for DWDM
ƒ ITU Bands

O E S C L U
λ(nm)

1675
1625
1460
1260

1360

1530

1565
λ0 λ1 λn

1553.86 nm
λ
1530.33 nm
0.80 nm
195.9 THz 193.0 THz ν
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Bit Error Rate (BER)

ƒ BER is a key objective of the optical system design


ƒ Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER < BER
threshold of the Rx
ƒ BER thresholds are on data sheets
ƒ Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10–12

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Optical Power

Definition:
Optical Power Is the Rate at Which
Power Is Delivered in an Optical Beam

Optical Power Measurements:


ƒ Power is measured in watts; however, a convenient way to
measure optical power is in units of decibels (dB)
ƒ The power measured on a particular signal is measured
in dBm
ƒ The gain/loss measured between two points on a fiber is in dB
Power loss is expressed as negative dB
Power gain is expressed as positive dB

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Optical Power Budget

The Optical Power Budget is:


Optical Power Budget = Power Sent – Receiver Sensitivity

ƒ Calculate using minimum transmitter power and


minimum receiver sensitivity
ƒ Attenuation/loss in the link, greater than the power
budget, causes bit errors (dB)
ƒ Design networks with power budgets, not distances

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Optical Power Budget—Example

ƒ Transmitter maximum power = –2 dBm


ƒ Receiver sensitivity = –28 dBm
Transmitter Receiver
–2 dBm –28 dBm
Power Budget = 26 dB

Calculate
CommonPower
PowerBudget
Budgets= ??
Short Reach (SR) 6 dB (75% Power Loss)

Intermediate Reach (IR) 13 dB (95% Power Loss

Long Reach (LR) 26 dB (99.75% Power Loss)

Key: Every 3dB is loss of half of signal


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Eye Diagram

ƒ The vertical eye opening shows the ability to distinguish between a


1 and a 0 bit
ƒ The horizontal opening gives the time period over which the signal
can be sampled without errors

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Eye Diagram

ƒ For a good transmission system, the eye opening


should be as wide and open as possible
ƒ Eye diagram also displays information such as
maximum signal voltage, rise and decay time of pulse,
etc.
ƒ Extinction ratio (ratio of a 1 signal to a 0 signal) is also
calculated from eye diagram

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A Few Words on Optical Safety

ƒ Think optical safety at all times


ƒ Wear specified optical eye protection
ƒ Optical power is invisible to the human eye
ƒ Never stare at an optical connector
ƒ Keep optical connectors pointed away from yourself
and others
ƒ Glass (fiber cable) can cut and puncture
ƒ Fiber splinters are extremely difficult to see
ƒ Damage is usually permanent!

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Laser Classifications/Safety Icons
Class 1
Lasers that are incapable of causing damage when the beam is directed into the eye
under normal operating conditions. These include helium-neon lasers operating at
less than a few microwatts of radiant power.

Class 2 SR and IR Optics, Some LR


Lasers that can cause harm if viewed directly for ¼ second or longer. This includes
helium-neon lasers with an output up to 1 mW (milliwatt).

Class 3A Many LR Optics, CWDM GBICS


Lasers that have outputs less than 5 mW. These lasers can cause injury when the
eye is exposed to either the beam or its reflections from mirrors or other shiny
surfaces. As an example, laser pointers typically fall into this class.

Class 3B Some LR Optics, Amplifier Outputs


Lasers that have outputs of 5 to 500 mW. The argon lasers typically used in laser
light shows are of this class. Higher power diode lasers (above 5 mW) from optical
drives and high performance laser printers also fall into this class.

Class 4
Lasers that have outputs exceeding 500 mW. These devices produce a beam that is
hazardous directly or from reflection and can produce skin burn. Many ruby, carbon
dioxide, and neodymium-glass lasers are class 4.

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Protective Eyewear Available
ƒ Protective goggles or glasses
should be worn for all routine
use of Class 3B and Class 4
lasers
ƒ Remember: eyewear is
wavelength specific, a pair of
goggles that effectively blocks
red laser light affords no
protection for green
laser light

Laser Safety Equipment Can Be


Investigated in Greater Detail at the
Following Link:
http://www.lasersafety.co.uk/frhome.html

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Optical Propagation
in Fibers

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Analog Transmission Effects

ƒ Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

ƒ Dispersion and nonlinearities:


Erodes clarity with distance and speed

ƒ Signal detection and recovery is an analog problem

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Fiber Geometry
An Optical Fiber Is Made of Three Sections:
ƒ The core carries the
light signals
ƒ The cladding keeps the light Core Cladding
in the core
ƒ The coating protects
the glass

Coating

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Fiber Dimensions

ƒ Fiber dimensions are


measured in µm Core
1 µm = 0.000001 meters (8–62.5 µm) Cladding
(10-6) (125 µm)

1 human hair ~ 50 µm

ƒ Refractive Index (n)


n = c/v
n ~ 1.46
n (core) > n (cladding)
Coating
(245 µm)

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Geometrical Optics
Light Is Reflected/Refracted at an Interface
ƒ θ1 = Angle of incidence
ƒ θ1r = Angle of reflection n1 n2
ƒ θ2 = Angle of refraction

θ1 θ1r
n1 n2
θc
>

θ2
θc

θc—Is the Critical Angle


θ2=90

n1 > n2 If Angle of Incidence Is Greater Than Critical Angle,


All the Light Will Reflect (Instead of Refract);
This Is Called Total Internal Reflection

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Wavelength Propagation in Fiber

n2 Cladding

θ0 θ1
n1 Core

Intensity Profile

ƒ Light propagates by total internal reflections


at the core-cladding interface
ƒ Total internal reflections are lossless
ƒ Each allowed ray is a mode

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Different Types of Fiber

ƒ Multimode fiber n2 Cladding


Core diameter varies
50 µm for step index
n1 Core
62.5 µm for
graded index
Bit rate-distance product
> 500 MHz-km
Distance limited
n2 Cladding
ƒ Single-mode fiber
Core diameter is about
9 µm n1 Core
Bit rate-distance product
> 100 THz-km
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Attenuation

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Attenuation in Fiber

ƒ Light loss in fiber is caused by two things


Absorption by the fiber material
Scattering of the light from the fiber

ƒ Light loss causes signal attenuation

Scattering

850 nm Highest

1310 nm Lower

1550 nm Lowest
Rayleigh Scattering

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Other Causes of Attenuation in Fiber
ƒ Microbends—Caused by small
distortions of the fiber in
manufacturing
ƒ Macrobends—Caused by
wrapping fiber around a corner
with too small a bending radius
ƒ Back reflections—Caused by
reflections at fiber ends, like
connectors
ƒ Fiber splices—Caused by poor
alignment or dirt
ƒ Mechanical connections—
Physical gaps between fibers

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Optical Attenuation
ƒ Pulse amplitude reduction limits “how far” Examples
(distance) 10 dBm 10 mW
ƒ Attenuation in dB=10xLog(Pi/Po) 0 dBM 1 mW
ƒ Power is measured in dBm: –3 dBm 500 uW
P(dBm)=10xlog(P mW/1 mW) –10 dBm 100 uW
–30 dBm 1 uW

Pi
P0

T T

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Attenuation Response at
Different Wavelengths

850nm Region 1310 nm Region 1550 nm Region

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Attenuation: Compensated by
Optical Amplifiers

ƒ Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) are the most


commonly deployed optical amplifiers
Commercially available since the early 1990s
Works best in the range 1530 to 1565 nm
Gain up to 30 dB (1000 photons out per one photon in)

ƒ Optically transparent
Wavelength transparent Input
Coupler Isolator
Bit rate transparent
Output
1480 or 980 nm
Pump Laser
Erbium Doped Fiber

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Dispersion

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Types of Dispersion

Chromatic Dispersion
• Different wavelengths travel at different speeds
• Causes spreading of the light pulse

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


• Single-mode fiber supports two polarization states
• Fast and slow axes have different group velocities
• Causes spreading of the light pulse
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A Snapshot on Chromatic Dispersion

Interference

ƒ Affects single channel and DWDM systems


ƒ A pulse spreads as it travels down the fiber
ƒ Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) leads to performance impairments
ƒ Degradation depends on:
Laser used (spectral width)
Bit-rate (temporal pulse separation)
Different SM types

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Limitations from Chromatic Dispersion

ƒ Dispersion causes pulse distortion, pulse “smearing”


effects
ƒ Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less robust to
Chromatic Dispersion
ƒ Limits “how fast” and “how far”

10 Gbps
t
60 Km SMF-28

40 Gbps

4 Km SMF-28 t
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Combating Chromatic Dispersion

ƒ Specialized fibers: DSF and NZDSF fibers


(G.653 and G.655)
Dispersion compensating fiber

ƒ Transmitters with narrow spectral width


ƒ Regenerate pulse (O-E-O)

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Polarization Mode Dispersion
ƒ Caused by ovality of core due to:
Manufacturing process
Internal stress (cabling)
External stress (trucks)

ƒ Only discovered in the 90s


ƒ Most older fiber not characterized for PMD

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Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Ey

nx

Ex ny
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Spreaded Pulse as It Leaves the Fiber

ƒ The optical pulse tends to broaden as it travels down


the fiber; this is a much weaker phenomenon than
chromatic dispersion and it is of some relevance at bit
rates of 10Gb/s or more
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Combating Polarization Mode Dispersion
ƒ Factors contributing to PMD
Bit rate
Fiber core symmetry
Environmental factors
Bends/stress in fiber
Imperfections in fiber

ƒ Solutions for PMD


Improved fibers
Regeneration
Follow manufacturer’s recommended installation techniques for the
fiber cable

ƒ PMD does not need compensation up to 10G in systems up


to about 1600km optical transmission, while compensation
is required for longer systems or 40G
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How Far Can I Go Without Dispersion
Issues?

Specification of Transponder (ps/nm)


Distance (Km) =
Coefficient of Dispersion of Fiber (ps/nm*km)

A Laser Signal with Dispersion Tolerance of


3400 ps/nm Is Sent Across a Standard SM Fiber,
Which Has a Coefficient of Dispersion of 17 ps/nm*km
It Will Reach 200 Km at Maximum Bandwidth

Note That Lower Speeds Will Travel Farther


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Transmission Over SM Fiber—
Without Compensation

Transmission Rate Distance

2.5 Gb/s 980 km


10 Gb/s 60 km
40 Gb/s 4 km

Industry Standard—Not Cisco Specific

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Dispersion Compensation
Total Dispersion Controlled
Cumulative Dispersion

+100
0 No Compensation
With Compensation
–100
(ps/nm)

–200
–300
–400
–500
Distance from Transmitter (km)

Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable

Transmitter

Dispersion
Compensators

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Nonlinearity

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From Linear to Non-Linear Propagation

ƒ As long as optical power within an optical fiber is small,


the fiber can be treated as a linear medium
Loss and refractive index are independent of the
signal power

ƒ When optical power levels gets fairly high, the fiber


becomes a nonlinear medium
Loss and refractive index depend on the optical power

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Effects of Nonlinearity
Self-Phased Modulation (SPM) and Cross Phase
Modulation (XPM)
A Single Channel’s Pulses Are
Self-Distorted as They Travel (SPM)

Interference

Multiple Channels Interact as They Travel (XPM)

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Interference
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Four-Wave Mixing (FWM)

ω1 ω2 2ω1-ω2 ω1 ω2 2ω2-ω1
Into Fiber Out of Fiber

ƒ Channels beat against each other to form


intermodulation products
ƒ Creates in-band crosstalk that cannot be filtered
(optically or electrically)

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Four-Wave Mixing (FWM)

ω1 ω2 2ω1-ω2 ω1 ω2 2ω2-ω1
Into Fiber Out of Fiber

ƒ If you have dispersion the beat signal will not fall on a


real signal
Therefore, some dispersion can be good in preventing FWM in
an optical network

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FWM and Dispersion
Dispersion Washes out FWM Effects

0
D=0
FWM Efficiency (dB)

–10

–20
D=0.2
–30
D=2
–40
D=17
–50
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Channel Spacing (nm)

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The Three “R”s of Optical Networking
The Options to Recover the Signal from
Attenuation/Dispersion/Jitter Degradation Are:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Re-Gen to Boost the Power

Re-Shape DCU

Phase Variation Phase Re-Alignment*

O-E-O
Re-Time
t t t
ts Optimum ts Optimum Re-gen, Re-Shape, and ts Optimum
*Simplification Sampling Time Sampling Time Remove Optical Noise Sampling Time
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SM Optical
Fiber Types

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Types of Single-Mode Fiber
ƒ SMF (standard, 1310 nm optimized, G.65)
Most widely deployed so far, introduced in 1986, cheapest
ƒ DSF (Dispersion Shifted, G.653)
Intended for single channel operation at 1550 nm
ƒ NZDSF (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted, G.655)
For WDM operation in the 1550 nm region only
TrueWave™, FreeLight™, LEAF, TeraLight™, etc.
Latest generation fibers developed in mid 90s
For better performance with high capacity DWDM systems
MetroCor™, WideLight™
Low PMD ultra long haul fibers

TrueWave Is a Trademark of Lucent; TeraLight Is a Trademark of Alcatel;


FreeLight and WideLight Are Trademarks of Pirelli; MetroCor Is a Trademark of Corning
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Fiber Dispersion Characteristics
DS NZDS+ • Normal fiber
• Non-Dispersion Shifted Fiber (NDSF) G.652
NZDS- SMF
• > 90% of deployed plant
25
Dispersion (in ps/nm- km)

20

15

10

–5

–10 DSF G.653


–15 NZDSF G.655
–20
1350 1370 1390 1410 1430 1450 1470 1490 1510 1530 1550 1570 1590 1610 1630 1650
Wavelength (in nm)
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Different Solutions for Different
Fiber Types
ƒ Good for TDM at 1310 nm
SMF
ƒ OK for TDM at 1550
(G.652)
ƒ OK for DWDM (with Dispersion Mgmt)
ƒ OK for TDM at 1310 nm
DSF
ƒ Good for TDM at 1550 nm
(G.653)
ƒ Bad for DWDM (C-Band)
ƒ OK for TDM at 1310 nm
NZDSF
ƒ Good for TDM at 1550 nm
(G.655)
ƒ Good for DWDM (C + L Bands)
Extended Band ƒ Good for TDM at 1310 nm

(G.652.C) ƒ OK for TDM at 1550 nm

(Suppressed Attenuation in the ƒ OK for DWDM (with Dispersion Mgmt


Traditional Water Peak Region) ƒ Good for CWDM (> Eight wavelengths)

The Primary Difference Is in the Chromatic Dispersion Characteristics


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Span Design

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Span Design Limits
Attenuation
ƒ Source and receiver characteristics
Tx: 0dBm
Rx sensitivity: –28dBm
km Rx
120
Dispersion tolerance: 1600ps/nm
OSNR requirements: 21dB km
100
ƒ Span characteristics –30dBm
Distance: 120km
m
Span loss: .25dB/km 20k
(30dB total) –25dBm

Dispersion: 18ps/nm*km

Tx –5dBm

main 0dBm
e Do
Tim th
le ng
ve n
Wa omai
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Span Design Limits
Amplification
ƒ Source and receiver characteristics
Tx: 0dBm
Rx sensitivity: –28dBm km Rx
120
Dispersion tolerance: 1600ps/nm
OSNR requirements: 21dB km
100
–13dBm
ƒ Span characteristics
Distance: 120km m
20k
Span loss: .25dB/km –8dBm
(30dB total) FA
ED
Dispersion: 18ps/nm*km

+12dBm
Bm 6d
B
0d
-6dBm
Tx +17dBm
ƒ EDFA characteristics
in Gain: 23dB (max = 17dBm
oma th
e D le ng Noise figure: < 6dB
Tim ve n
Wa omai Max input: –6dBm
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Span Design Limits
Dispersion
ƒ Source and receiver characteristics
Tx: 0dBm
Rx sensitivity: –28dBm
k m Rx
Dispersion tolerance: 1600ps/nm 120
OSNR requirements: 21dB
k m
ƒ Span characteristics 100
2160ps/nm
Distance: 120km
m
Span loss: .25dB/km 20k
(30dB total) 1800ps/nm
Dispersion: 18ps/nm*km

Tx 360ps/nm

in
oma 0ps/nm
e D
Tim gth
e n
vel n
Wa omai
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Span Design Limits
Dispersion Compensation
ƒ Source and receiver characteristics dB)
(10
F
Tx: 0dBm DC Rx
Rx sensitivity: –28dBm
km
Dispersion tolerance: 1600ps/nm 120
OSNR requirements: 21dB –23dBm
km 1560ps/nm
ƒ Span characteristics 100
–13dBm
Distance: 120km 2160ps/nm
Span loss: .25dB/km m
(30dB total) 20k
–8dBm
Dispersion: 18ps/nm*km 1800ps/nm

DFA
E
ƒ EDFA characteristics
+12dBm
Bm 6d
B
0d 360ps/nm Gain: 23dB (Max +17dBm)
–6dBm
Noise figure: < 6dB
Tx +17dBm
0ps/nm Max input: –6dBm
in ƒ DCF characteristics
oma gth
e D e n Dispersion: –600ps/nm
Tim a vel ain
W om Loss: 10dBo
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Span Design
Limits of Amplification (OSNR)
ƒ Source and receiver characteristics
Tx: 0dBm FA Rx
ED
Rx sensitivity: –28dBm
F
m DC
Dispersion tolerance: 1600ps/nm
FA 60k
OSNR requirements: 21dB ED Noise
F
ƒ Span characteristics 60k
m DC
+17dBm
Distance: 60km x 4 Spans F A
ED OSNR 15dB
Span loss: .25dB/km (15dB/span) Noise Too Low
F
k m DC
Dispersion: 18ps/nm*km A 60 F
+17dBm
ED Noise OSNR 21dB Noise
F +17dBm
60k
m DC
FA OSNR 27dB
ED Noise
Noise

Bm 6d
B +17dBm
0d OSNR 33dB Noise
Tx Noise
+17dBm ƒ EDFA characteristics
OSNR Noise
ain 39dB Gain: 23dB (Max +17dBm)
om ng
th
eD le Noise figure: < 6dB
i m ve n Noise
T Wa omai
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Real Network Design Challenges

ƒ Complicated multi-ring designs


ƒ Multiple wavelengths
ƒ Any to any demand
ƒ Nonlinearities
ƒ Advanced modulation

Simulation and Network


Design Software Is Used
to Simplify Design

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Network Design Tools?
Concept to Creation Easier

• GUI-based network
design entry

• Any-to-any demand

• Comprehensive analysis =
first-time success

• Smooth transition from


design to implementation

• Bill of materials

• Rack diagrams

• Step-by-step interconnect

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DWDM
Transmission

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DWDM Systems
Transponder
Mux-Demux
Amplifier OADM
DCU
Mux-Demux
OA OADM

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More DWDM Components

Optical Amplifier Optical Attenuator


(EDFA) Variable Optical Attenuator

Dispersion Compensator (DCM / DCU)

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Intelligent DWDM Network Architecture

VOA VOA
Intelligent DWDM SYSTEM Intelligent DWDM SYSTEM
OSC OSC
EDFA EDFA

DCM DCM

EDFA EDFA
OSC
OSC

VOA VOA
Service Mux Service Mux

Integrated system architecture


BRKOPT-1101
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2.5Gb Service Cards
SONET/SDH Ethernet SAN Video

2.5G Multi-Rate Transponder


1xGigabit Ethernet ETR/CLO
OC-3/STM-1 SDI
STP ISC-3
OC-12/STM-4 DV6000
2.5G InfiniBand
OC-48/STM-16 HDTV

2.5G DataMuxponder

8xESCON
2x1G FC/FICON
2xGigabit Ethernet 1x2G FC/FICON

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10Gb Service Cards
OTN SONET/SDH Ethernet SAN
10Gb Enhanced Transponder
10Gb LAN and WAN PHY 10Gb FC
10Gb SONET/SDH
10Gb DataMuxponder
8xGigabit Ethernet
8x1G FC/FICON/ISC-1
4x2.5G Muxponder 4x2GFC/FICON/ISC-3
4xOC-48/STM-16 2x4GFC
ODU-1->OTU-2 Enhanced GE/10GE XPonder
20xGigabit Ethernet
2x10GE

16xOC-3/STM-1
16xOC-1/STM-4
4xOC-48/STM-16 8xGigabit Ethernet

MSPP on a Blade
OTU-2 10Gb FC
10Gb SONET/SDH 10Gb LAN and WAN PHY
10Gb ODU-2 XPonder

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40Gb Service Cards
OTN SONET/SDH Ethernet SAN
40Gb Transponder
40Gb SONET/SDH 40Gb LAN
40Gb OTU-3

40Gb Muxponder
4x10Gb SONET/SDH 4x10Gb LAN
4x10Gb OTU-2 4x10Gb FC
4x10Gb OTU-2e 4x8Gb FC

ƒ BENEFIT: All 40G applications covered by 1 transponder


ƒ BENEFIT: Aggregation cards reduce the cost of service delivery and allow for “pay as you grow” using XFP
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Optical Amplifiers and Filters
EDFA RAMAN Filters

ƒ 40ch/80ch 20 WSS ROADM


ƒ 40ch 80 WXC ROADM
ƒ 17dBm Variable Gain Pre- ƒ 500mW RAMAN
Amplifier with DCU Access ƒ 40ch/80ch Mux/Demux
ƒ 17dBm Variable Gain Booster
ƒ w/ integrated
ƒ 21dBm Variable Gain Booster 7dBm
ƒ 17 dBm Fix Gain Booster ƒ Variable Gain Pre-
ƒ 21dBm Variable Gain Regional Amplifier
Amplifier with DCU Access
ƒ L-Band 17dB Variable Gain
Booster
ƒ L-Band 20 dB Variable Gain Pre-
Amplifier with DCU Access

BRKOPT-1101
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Optical Protection Schemes
Unprotected Client Protected

PSM Protected Splitter Protected

Y-Cable or Line Card


Protected

BRKOPT-1101
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Availability Solutions Comparison

100.00%
99.999%
99.998% 99.99%

99.9%

99%

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Unprotected

1 Transponder 1 Client
Interface

ƒ 1 client & 1 trunk laser (one transponder) needed, only


1 path available
ƒ No protection in case of fiber cut, transponder failure,
client failure, etc..

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Client Protected Mode

2 2 Client
Transponders interfaces

ƒ 2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders) needed,


two optically unprotected paths
ƒ Protection via higher layer protocol

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Optical Trunk Protection
Working
trunk
Optical Trunk-
Splitter Trunk-Switch

protected
trunk

ƒ Only valid in Point 2 Point topologies


ƒ Protects against Fiber Breaks

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Optical Splitter Protection
Working
lambda
Optical Splitter
Switch

protected
lambda

ƒ Only 1 client & 1 trunk laser (single transponder)


needed
ƒ Protects against Fiber Breaks

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Line Card / Y- Cable Protection
working Only one
2 Transponders lambda TX active

“Y” cable protected


lambda

ƒ 2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders) needed


ƒ Increased cost & availability

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ROADM:
Operational Benefits

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Manual DWDM Network Life-Cycle:
Present Mode of Operation (PMO)

Manual provisioning of Manual provisioning of equipment &


optical design parameters topology into EMS/NMS

Complicated Labor-intensive
Network Planning operation

Manual installation, manual power measurements


and VOA tweaking at every site for every l

Manual DWDM processes: labor intensive and error prone


Result: high OpEx costs
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ROADM Based DWDM Networks
Simplify Opex, Simplify Network Architecture, Simplify Network Planning

Physical Rings
O
O

O
O

O
O

OADM Based Architecture


Re-plan network every time a new services is
added
Certain sites can only communicate with certain
other sites
Extensive man hours to retune the network
Need to brake entire ring to prevent lasing

O 1-8ch OADM
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ROADM Based DWDM Networks
Simplify Opex, Simplify Network Architecture, Simplify Network Planning

Physical Rings R
O
O R R

O
O
R

O
Improve R
Opex Efficiency
O R

O R
O R
O

OADM Based Architecture ROADM Based Architecture


Re-plan network every time a new services is Plan network once
added All nodes can talk to all nodes day one
Certain sites can only communicate with certain The network Automatically Tunes itself
other sites
Improved network performance with DGE at every
Extensive man hours to retune the network
site
Need to brake entire ring to prevent lasing

O 1-8ch OADM R 2° ROADM


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DWDM Mesh Benefits
Capacity Increase, Efficient Fiber Usage, Increased Availability

Physical Rings
PhysicalRings
Physical Rings

Ring-Based Architecture
Traffic must follow ring topology, constricted
Inefficient traffic routing increase regeneration
Costly transponders for OEO ring interconnects
Single choice for service path & protect path

2° ROADM OEO ring interconnect


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DWDM Mesh Benefits
Capacity Increase, Efficient Fiber Usage, Increased Availability

Physical Rings
PhysicalRings
Physical Rings

4 Transponders
Eliminated

Ring-Based Architecture Mesh Architecture


Traffic must follow ring topology, constricted A–Z provisioning—data follows fiber topology
Inefficient traffic routing increase regeneration more efficient use of fiber
Costly transponders for OEO ring interconnects Better load balancing increases capacity
Single choice for service path & protect path Shorter distance = less regeneration
Eliminate transponders
More options for service & protect paths

2° ROADM OEO ring interconnect 2° -8°


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Automated DWDM Network Life-Cycle:
Next-Generation Cisco ONS 15454 MSTP

Automated provisioning of
all parameters

Easy planning with


Cisco MetroPlanner

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Automated DWDM Network Life-Cycle:
Next-Generation Cisco ONS 15454 MSTP

Automated provisioning of
all parameters

Easy design changes based


on actual fiber plant

Easy planning with


Cisco MetroPlanner

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Automated DWDM Network Life-Cycle:
Next-Generation Cisco ONS 15454 MSTP

Automated provisioning of
all parameters

Easy design changes based


on actual fiber plant

Easy planning with Automated optical layer for end-


Cisco MetroPlanner to-end connection setup;
Manual patching of client at end-
points only

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Automated DWDM Network Life-Cycle:
Next-Generation Cisco ONS 15454 MSTP

Automated provisioning of
CTM learns everything from the
all parameters
network and stays in sync
Easy design changes based
on actual fiber plant

Easy planning with Automated optical layer for end- Simplified, graphical A-Z
Cisco MetroPlanner to-end connection setup; provisioning & trouble
Manual patching of client at end- shooting via CTM
points only

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Automated DWDM Network Life-Cycle:
Next-Generation Cisco ONS 15454 MSTP

Automated provisioning of
CTM learns everything from the
all parameters
network and stays in sync
Easy design changes based Automated end-to-
on actual fiber plant end setup

Easy planning with Automated optical layer for end- Simplified, graphical A-Z
Cisco MetroPlanner to-end connection setup; provisioning & trouble
Manual patching of client at end- shooting via CTM
points only

Automated DWDM Processes: simplified, SONET-like operation


Result: Reduces OpEx, facilitates wide deployment
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Cisco ONS 15454
MSPP/MSTP
Functionality

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Cisco Vision: Flexible and Intelligent Optical
Network
Individual Technology
Products Solutions
Business
Solutions
Traditional Vendors Cisco Optical
Inflexible Flexible
• Preplanning • ROADM: Fully flexible design rules
• Rigid configurations • ROADM: Any wavelength anywhere
• Limited application support • Wide variety of applications
• No linkage with service • Integrated TDM / Layer2 functionalities +
delivery/enables Direct interconnection with L2 / L3

Intelligent Software Enables


Difficult to Manage Automated Network Set-Up and
Management Along Network Life
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Cisco IP NGN Transport Network
Innovation– Investment Protection
Multiservice Multiservice Reconfigurable Mesh ROADM,
Provisioning Transport Add/Drop Multiplexer IP over DWDM Ethernet-Enabled
Platform Platform (ROADM)
DWDM
ONS 15454 CRS-1 ONS 15454 MSTP
Over 75,000 SONET and SDH Mesh SONET and SDH
Deployed ONS 15454 ROADM
Multiservice (WXC)
Transport Platform SONET and SDH
ONS 15454
SONET and SDH
ONS 15454
SONET and SDH
XPonder MSPP-on-
Multiservice
Transport Platform a-blade

ROADM
Solution
Multiservice
Transport Platform
Multiservice
Provisioning Platform
Efficient Core Cisco IP NGN:
Transport:
2-Degree ROADM: Integrated Intelligent Optical Vision
Industry-Leading DWDM and Core
Intelligent DWDM: ROADM Technology Routing Solution: Operationalize,
MSPP Consolidating Drives Deployable SW Management
Introduction: MSPP and DWDM Wavelength Packetize and
and Tunable ITU Deliver Connected
SONET/SDH + Functionality onto a Services into Optics on CRS-1
Ethernet (EoS) Single Platform the Metro Life Experiences
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Compatible to Existing Management
System (CTM)

MGX Voice
NOC Higher Layer ONS 15302 Gateway
OSSs
CTM
GateWays ONS 15305 ONS 15305

Repository
Repository
(Oracle
(Oracle9i)
9i)
CRS-1
CTM Clients XR 12000
(Solaris 10, Windows CTM Server ONS 15305
Catalyst 7609
2000/XP and (Solaris 10)
Qualified X-
Terminals)
Data Communications
Network (DCN) ONS 15305
ONS 15327 ONS 15454 ONS 15305
MSTP ONS 15454
ONS 15454 SDH

Metro Core Metro Edge ONS 15305


2.5G Ring Ring 10G 2.5G Ring
ONS 15310 MA ONS 15454
ONS 15600 ONS 15600 SDH ONS 15302
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Summary

BRKOPT-1101
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Summary

ƒ Introduction on terminology
ƒ Optical Propagation
ƒ Attenuation and Compensation
Chromatic
PMD

ƒ Non-Linearity
ƒ Fiber types
ƒ Basic span design
ƒ DWDM System/ROADM
ƒ ONS 15454 MSPP/MSTP Functionality
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Q and A

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