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There are many types of pressure systems designed under American Society of

Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code, and repaired under the National Board Inspection
Code (NBIC). The test pressure of various pressure systems must be calculated based
on following.

Table 1 Test Pressures for New Pressure Vessel and Piping Systems
System Code Hydrostatic Pneumatic Boiler – power ASME Section I 1.5 × MAWP Not
permitted Boiler – heating ASME Section IV 1.5 × MAWP Not permitted Pressure
vessel ASME Section VIII Division 1 1.3 × MAWP 1.1 × MAWP Division 2 1.43 ×
MAWP 1.15 × MAWP Power piping ASME Section B31.1 1.5 × design pressure 1.2 ×
design pressure Process piping ASME Section B31.3 1.5 × design pressure 1.1 ×
design pressure Building services piping ASME Section B31.9 1.5 × design pressure
1.25 × design pressure Sprinkler system NFPA 13 200 psi 40 psi
Magnetic Particle Inspection and Liquid Penetrant testing where ever referenced

shall be performed as per ASME SEC V.

Where,

 Heat input is expressed in J/In (Joule/Inch) or J/mm (Joule/mm)


 Voltage is expressed in Volts
 Travel speed is expressed in In/min or mm/min

The unit for heat input obtained by this formula shall be either in J/In or J/mm. To get the results in KJ/in or KJ/mm, divide
the result by 1000.
Acceptance criteria for Visual Inspection
(Refer: UIG-97, Page – 345 of ASME BPVC Section VIII Div 1, 2017 Edition.)
(a) The surface shall be free of any visible lamination, spalling, or cracks. Cracks
in tubes shall not be repaired and shall be considered cause for rejection.
(b) For tubes, scratches shall not exceed 1/32 in. (0.8 mm) in depth. For all
other material, scratch depth shall not exceed 1/8 in. (3 mm).

Before Welding: The inspector shall be familiarized with the applicable codes and
standards/drawings/welding procedures (WPS and PQR). Welder qualification shall be carried out before
production welding. The inspector shall confirm the material and review the MTC. Welding consumables
shall also be inspected before welding. Joint preparation and alignment shall also to be checked prior to
welding. After confirmation of all the parameters (as mentioned above), the welding inspector can permit
the welder to start the production welding. If preheat is applicable, then the preheat temperature shall be
confirmed before starting the weld.

ASME BPVC section IX has provided guidelines for the thickness range up to
which a welder can weld. This can be found in Table – QW 452.1(b) of ASME
BPVC Section IX (2017 edition). A simplified version of that table is given
below;
For the range of outside diameter of pipes (Groove weld) for which a welder can
weld is also provided in ASME BPVC Section IX. The table which we have to
refer for this is QW 452.3 (2017 edition). A simplified version of that table is
given below;

The thickness range for which a Welding procedure specification (WPS) gets
qualified is given in ASME BPVC section IX Table QW 451.1 (2017 edition). A
simplified version of that table is given below;
Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

This specification covers the minimum basic requirements for various aspects of the above
ground piping and in trench piping for the industrial plants as follow:

a) Shop and filed fabrication and erection of piping.

b) Installation of in-line instrument items like orifice flanges, control valves, rota meters,
safety valves, etc.

c) Installation of items like line mounted filters, ejectors sample cooler, etc.

d) Installation of expansion joints.

e) Fabrication & erection of pipe supports including installation of spring supports, etc. both
shop and field fabrication include cutting, threading, bending, welding, bolting, etc.

Administration of material certificates, welding operations and execution, administration of all


destructive & non-destructive examination and all testing operations as required by the
applicable procedure and standards.

1.1. Where this specification and the petroleum refinery piping code ASME B31.3 conflict, this
standard shall govern. Sound engineering practice shall be followed in the absence of specified
standards or specification subject to OWNER prior approval.

1.2. CODES AND STANDARDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection

SpecificationStandards referred to in this specification shall be the latest editions, including all
revisions and addenda as listed below:

Process Piping ASME B31.3

Unified Inch Screw Threads ASME B1.1

Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch) ASME B1.20.1

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS 1/2” ASME B16.5


Through NPS 24”

Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt welding Fittings ASME B16.9

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Treaded ASME B16.11

Butt Welding Ends ASME B16.25

Square and Hex Nuts (Inch Series) ASME B18.2.2

Welded and seamless Wrought Steel Pipe ASME B36.10

Stainless Steel Pipe ASME B36.19

Wrought Stainless Steel Butt Welding Fittings MSS-SP-43

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME-VIII

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME-IX

1.3. RELATED ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION

The following specifications are applied as supplement of this specification.

A. Piping Material

B. Construction Work for Piping

C. Pressure Test of Piping System

D. Cleaning for Pipe Lines

E. Welding Procedure for Piping

F. Welder Qualification Test

G. Inspection & Test of Piping Construction

H. Piping hanging & support

I. Piping Design

J. Marking & Color Coding

K. Painting Specification

2. DEFINITION
2.1. DIVISION OF WORK

All piping will be fabricated by a field construction crew either in a pipespool fabrication shop
hereinafter referred to as the "shop” (as per ------) or in-place hereinafter called the "field".

2.2. PIPE SPOOL DEFINITION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

The word pipespool, as used in this specification, is a unit of prefabricated piping consisting of
pipe, fittings, flanges, and other components integral to the assembly. This piping is assembled
in the shop and conveyed to the construction site for installation.

2.3. PIPE SPOOL INDEX

All pipespools to be constructed by the fabricator are listed in the Pipespool Index. Each index is in
numerical order for each field assembly area. The shop shall fabricate the pipespools in the order they
are listed in the index, unless a list giving some other priority is provided by Consultant.

The index will show for each pipespool the pipespool number, quantity of identical pipespools,
revision mark, line number, material class, and special information or treatment. The assembly
area, revision date, and material are given at the top of each sheet. Included with each index
for each area is a Pipespool Index Revision page. This page is a record of all revisions to the
pipespool index. The shop shall fill out and keep current the information columns on the
pipespool indexes, and provide copies to Consultant when requested or completed.

3. DRAWING APPLICATION

3.1. PIPESPOOL INDEX

All pipelines are identified with the line classification on the plan and isometric drawing.

3.2. EXTENT OF PIPESPOOLS

Where field installed material connects to shop fabricated pipespools, the shop fabricated
spool will include all branch connections for field piping, up to the first field butt weld, first field
socket weld, first screwed connection, or first flanged joint including the first flange. Pipespools
in all sizes of butt welded and socket welded construction will be prefabricated in the
shop. Threaded piping and threaded components which are installed as attachments to shop
fabricated pipespools shall be termed field installed materials. Straight runs of piping indicated
as random piping are not pipespools. These straight runs are installed by the field crews in
random lengths. The division between the three different types is shown on the drawings as
indicated in figure.

Here, "S" means shop fabricated, "F" means field-installed material and "R" stands for
field-installed random lengths. "FW" is a weld done in the field.

3.3. ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification


Consultant will provide the isometric drawings for all 1-1/2 inch and larger for stainless steel and 2 inch
and larger for carbon steel. The isometric drawing will show also combined line number, equipment
nozzles to which the pipeline is connected, call outs and high point vents and low point drains. A bill of
material take off for the isometric shall be attached. The bill shall include the code, size, quantity and
description for each piping component.

3.4. SYMBOLS

Drawing symbols used on the piping drawings are defined on legend. The following definitions
specify what is required when certain letter symbols are used on the drawings.

"FW" A field weld is the joining of two components, beveled for welding, made to drawing dimensions,
and to be welded at the construction site.

"FU" A fit-up weld is a field weld that allows some dimensional adjustment of a pipe spool
during final assembly. One of the mating ends is square-cut 3 inches longer than the dimensions
required. The other mating end is bevel-cut to the exact dimension indicated on the drawings.

"DW" A dummy weld is a weld connecting a supporting appurtenance to a pipeline. The support
is an extension of the piping but with no connection into the fluid stream.

3.5. FIELD WELDS

The Construction contractor shall locate on the piping erection drawings, field welds or fit-up welds as
required for site erection, except no location will be shown for socket weld connections between
pipe spools built in the shop and those built at the construction site.

3.6. DIMENSIONS

Unless otherwise specify all dimensions terminating at a flange are measured from the gasket
face for raised-face flanges and flat-face flanges, and the raised face of ring-joint flanges.
Gaskets are indicated by a short line placed beside or between the dimension limit lines. Only
gaskets which have a different thickness than the material class gasket are dimensioned.

Whenever an overall dimension does not appear on a drawing, the dimension is assumed to
be the sum of individual standard fitting lengths coincident with the piping line class material.

4. FABRICATION

4.1. GENERAL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Fabrication works shall comply with the drawings and this specification including relevant
Engineering and Construction Specifications.

4.1.1. All weld numbers and welder’s identification number shall be painted close to the weld,
to enable trace ability of each weld and each welder, socket welds shall be numbered per fitting,
e.g. S.W tee has one weld number.
4.1.2. Construction Contractor shall maintain the color coding on piping materials to allow
easy and quick reference in accordance with the project engineering specification.

4.1.3. All materials included in the finished piping systems shall be undamaged.

4.1.4. Construction Contractor must provide adequate protection for piping, flange faces,
threaded connections, etc. to prevent damage during handling and storage. Construction
Contractor shall ensure that flange faces are protected from corrosion or rust.

4.1.5. Piping shall be stored in a relatively clean, dry or well drained area on elevated
dunnage and protected against contact with salts or salty water.

4.1.6. All attachments to piping, i.e. saddles, pads, etc. are to be made of same material to the
pipe.

4.2. DIMENSIONAL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

TOLERANCE

4.2.1. Wrought Bends

A. Wrought bends shall show no significant marks or corrugations and shall be smooth and regular in
outline. Flattening shall not exceed 8% of the pipe outside diameter for pressure duties, or 3% of the
pipe outside diameter for vacuum duties. There shall be no significant thinning when the pipe bend
radius is 5 x nominal diameter or greater.

B. In general thickness stainless steel pipe of equivalent to schedule 10S and thinner shall not be bent.

Pipe Dimensions

Tolerances shall be ±1.5mm from flange face to flange face, or centerline of pipe to flange face.

Flange Face

Flange faces shall not be concave. Convexity from flange bore to joint face periphery shall not
exceed 0.15mm per centimeter width of joint face.

Squareness of Flanges

Flanges shall be square to the axis of the pipe to within an angle of 0° - 18' (0.3°) I.E. 0.05mm per
centimeter measured across the face of the flange, with the pipe adequately supported.

Bolt Holes of Flanges

Flange bolt holes shall straddle the established centerlines (Horizontal or vertical). However, flanged
connections on equipment may vary and should be individually checked. When these connections
differ, the bolt hole orientation shall be indicated on the isometric piping detail sheet. Holes in double
flanged pipes shall be correctly aligned.

4.3. WELD DETAILS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

4.3.1. Butt Welds

The term "Butt-Weld" refers to circumferential butt joints only. Special requirements may be
imposed where longitudinal welds are to be made and these welds shall not be carried out
before Consultant has approved the methods to be used. Longitudinal and spiral welds
existing in pipes as produced at the mill are outside the scope of this specification.

4.3.2. Weld Preparation

Weld preparation shall be in accordance with the following:

A. Preparation standard shall be applied to ASME B31.3 and the modifications to the standard
contained within clause 5.3.6 of this specification.

B. Ends shall be beveled or square cut for welding as follows:

1) Beveled for wall thickness greater than 2.3mm

2) Square cut for wall thickness 2.3 mm and less

4.3.3. Root Gaps

Spacers shall be used while tack welding pipe and fittings in position to insure proper gap and
full penetration in welding. The tack welds complying with the requirements of ASME B31.3,
328.5.1(C) may be allowed to become a part of the finished weld, whereas those not complying
are not acceptable and must be chipped out before completing the weld.

4.3.4. Bore Matching and Alignment

Bore matching and alignment shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3. Where pipe, fittings
and flanges are to be joined by circumferential butt-welds, the corresponding parts shall be
modeled and matched so that any misalignment at the inside of the piping shall not exceed
1/16 inch at any point of the circumference of the joint.

Fit-up work may include pressing, hammering, local heating or grinding as required to reduce any
misalignment due to diameter tolerances, out-of-roundness or unequal wall thickness of the parts of
less than 1/16 inch. parts having unequal wall thickness and bores shall be prepared in accordance
with one of the details shown in ASME B31.3.

4.3.5. Cutting

A. Pipes may be cut mechanically by sawing or grinding machine.


B. Cutting method involving heating e.g. Flame or arc cutting for carbon steel are allowed
providing the cut edge is machined or ground back sufficiently far to give specified parent material
properties at the cut edge with a minimum of 1.5 mm.

C. Plasma-jet cutting may be use to cut austenitic stainless steel pipes and other materials.

D. Flame cutting of austenitic stainless steel pipe is not allowed.

E. Other methods of cutting may be used providing written approval is obtained from
Consultant.

4.3.6. Welding Position of Longitudinal Seams

Longitudinal seams in seam welded pipe shall be located so as to clear openings and external
attachments possible. Longitudinal seams in adjoining courses shall be preperably at 180°but a
minimum between seams are in accordance with construction specification.

4.4. BRANCH WELDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Branch connections shall be located as indicated on the piping detail sheet or isometric piping
drawings. All branch connections shall be designed in accordance with Para. 304.3 of ASME
B31.3. Forged or extruded branch connections are preferred.

4.4.1. No Fitting

Branches shall be of 'Stub-in' design in accordance with Construction Specification 0000-S1830-003


and ASME B31.3.

4.4.2. Forged branch attachments (Brancholets) shall be of the type specified on Consultant's
drawings and fitted accurately to the contours of the run pipe.

4.4.3. Reinforcing Pads

A. For pressure reinforcement

Reinforcing pads required by the referenced code or by piping detail sheets shall be provided with at
least one vent hole if fully welded. The hole shall be drilled and tapped with a 1/8 inch pipe thread for
testing and venting. The tapped hole shall be plugged using wood, plastic or mastic material not capable
of retaining pressure.

B. For structural attachment

Reinforcing pads for structural attachment shall be provided with an untapped hole of 1/4 inch (6 mm)
diameter for venting.

C. Where reinforcing pads are fitted either for branches or structural attachments they shall
be accurately shaped so that no gap larger than 1/8 inch (3.0mm), measured before welding, shall
exist between the periphery of the pad and the pipe to which it fits.
4.4.4. Mitered Bends

Mitered bends shall be in accordance with piping material specification ------. The number of cuts shall
be as stated on the drawing. Mitered bends are used only when specified on the drawings and shall
be in accordance with ASME B31.3 Chapter V. A joint efficiency not exceeding 70% shall be used in
the strength calculations for mitered bends. The welds in mitered bends shall penetrate the full
thickness of the pipe and the bead on the inside of the throat shall be smooth and have an even
curvature. In order to prevent a notch effect.

4.4.5. Beveled Ends

Refer to Construction Specification XXX

4.4.6. Fillet Welds

Refer to Construction Specification XXX

4.5. BENDING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

4.5.1. Bends shall conform dimensionally to the drawings and relevant clauses of this specification. Hot
bend is not permitted.

4.5.2. Cold Bending

A. Cold bends to a centerline radius greater than five (5) times the nominal pipe diameter may be
manufactured without a subsequent heat treatment unless a heat treatment is specified on the project
specification, piping detail sheets, or isometric drawings.

B. Cold bends to a radius less than five (5) times the nominal pipe diameter is not allowed.

C. Bending after completion of fabrication to meet dimensional requirements shall not be carried out
without the approval of the engineer.

5. WELDING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.1. WELDING PROCESS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.1.1. Basic welding requirements are to be in accordance with ASME B31.3. Welders shall
be approved in accordance with the relevant clauses of this standard.

5.1.2. Welding shall be carried out by one, or a combination of the following processes:

A. Shield metal arc welding (SMAW)

B. Inert gas metal (MIG)

C. Tungsten inert gas with filler wire (TIG)

The (SMAW) and (TIG) processes are preferred as welding process.


5.1.3. Backing rings shall not be used without prior written content and approval of
Consultant.

5.1.4. Where tack welding is carried out, tacks shall be as large as possible and to the satisfaction
of the Consultant inspection. Tack welds shall be removed so that they do not form part of the finished
weld unless they are produced fully qualified and tested welders to the same procedure as the finished
weld, in which case they may be absorbed into the finished weld.

5.1.5. Flange faces shall be kept free from weld spatter and arc strike.

5.2. WELDING PROCEDURE - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.2.1. Welding procedures are to be qualified in accordance with the ASME boiler and
pressure vessel code section IX and ASME B31.3, and shall be approved by Consultant before
any work is carried out.

5.2.2. Welder's competence shall be determined in accordance with Welder Qualification Test

5.2.3. It is fabricator's responsibility to reference each weld to its welder and correct
procedure.

5.2.4. Electrodes and filler wires shall conform to the requirements specified in para. 7.1.

5.2.5. Requirements for mixed metal welds are specified in para. 6.

5.2.6. Fusion faces may be prepared by sawing, chipping, machining or grinding. They shall
be smooth and free from defects and together with the adjacent material shall be thoroughly
cleaned of oil, grease, paint and shall be free from all rust, scale, ice/water for a distance of 50
mm from the edge of the weld.

5.2.7. The visible surface of all welds are to be clean of slag, regular uniform in contour, without
undercuts, crack or blowholes and free from spatter.

5.2.8. Weld reinforcement: The thickness of weld reinforcement shall not exceed the following,
considering the thinner component being joined:

Component Thickness (in.) Maximum Reinforcement (in.)

1/2 and Under 1/8

from 1/2 to 1 5/32

Over 1 3/16

For double welded joints this limitation on reinforcement shall apply separately to the weld
reinforcement inside and outside. The finished internal and external surfaces of the weld shall merge
smoothly into the component surfaces or the weld toe.
5.2.9. When unacceptable defects are found in complete welds, they are to be removed by grinding,
chipping or machining.

5.2.10. The basic principles of the welding procedure initially used are to be employed for
repair of faulty welds.

5.3. SPECIAL PROCESS CONTROL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.3.1. Work control procedure shall be prepared prior to start the special process such as heat
treatment. Processing and result of special process shall be recorded and maintained to verify
the work quality.

5.3.2. Heat Treatment of flame-cut edges for carbon steel is not required when the edges are
dressed back in accordance with para. 4.3.5. B where dressing back proves to be impossible,
then such undressed or partly dressed edges shall be stress relieved before welding.

5.3.3. Preheating - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

A. When the welding procedure does not include pre-heating and the ambient conditions are such
that the metal temperature of the parts to be welded are below 4°C, the surface in a zone extending
15 mm each side of the joint is to be heated to 20°C "Handwarm" before welding commences.

B. Preheating shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3 unless para. 5.3.4. A applies.

C. In addition to the requirements of ASME B31.3, when rutile and cellulosic electrodes are
used, then preheat shall be applied on wall thicknesses of 20 mm (3/4") and above.

5.3.4. Normalizing

Normalizing shall be carried out as follows:

Temperature 920°C/950°C

Time/Inch of Thickness 1 Hour

Minimum soaking time 1/2 Hour

Cooling shall be uniform at a rate less than 250°Cper hour down to 300°C, thereafter cool in
still air.

5.3.5. Stress Relieving - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

A. Irrespective of pipe wall thickness, PWHT shall be performed on all type joints butt, socket,
etc, for piping classes A2T3MR, AUT3P, B2T3MR, B2T6MR, D2T3MR, A2D2, B2D2V, BCDX,
D2D2V, for other piping classes PWHT shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3.
B. After completion of final P.W.H.T. hardness test shall be performed in accordance with
ASME B31.3. One test is required in the weld and one test is required in the heat affected zone
(HAZ).

C. Welds produced in austenitic stainless steel shall not require stress relief, unless this is
specifically called for in the drawings or pipeline specifications.

5.3.6. Temperature Measurement

Temperature measurement shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3.

5.3.7. A record of the time/temperature for normalising and stress relief must be kept.

6. MIXED METAL WELDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

6.1. CARBON AND AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS - Piping Fabrication and Erection
Specification

6.1.1. Where welds are to be produced between carbon steels and austenitic stainless steels, the
weld procedures, welding techniques etc., shall be those appropriate to the austenitic stainless steel.

6.1.2. Electrodes and filler wire shall be ER 309, E309, or ER NiCr3, ENiCr Fe3 the choice
depending on service conditions. Any heat treatment required shall be that appropriate to the
grade and thickness of carbon steel involved. The welding procedure proposed shall be
approved in writing by Consultant.

6.2. LOW ALLOY (CHROME MOLYBDENUM, ETC.) AND CARBON STEELS

6.2.1. Where welds are to be produced between low alloy steels and carbon steels, the above
procedures, electrodes, filler wires, welding technique and heat treatment etc., shall be appropriate to
the grade and thickness of the low alloy steel involved. Electrodes must be of the basic type.

6.3. DIFFERENT GRADES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS - Piping Fabrication and


Erection Specification

Where welds are to be produced between differing grades of stainless steels, the weld
procedures, electrodes, filler wires, welding techniques, etc., shall be those required by the
higher grade of material.

6.4. LOW ALLOY (CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM ETC.) AND AUSTENITIC STAINLESS


STEEL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

6.4.1. Where welds are to be produced between low alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels,
the weld procedures, welding techniques, etc., shall be those appropriate to the austenitic
stainless steel.
6.4.2. Electrodes and filler wires shall in general be of higher alloy content than the austenitic
stainless steel. Any heat treatment required shall be that appropriate to the grade and
thickness of low alloy steel involved.

7. MATERIALS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

7.1. ELECTRODES AND FILLER WIRES

7.1.1. For Carbon Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.1, AWS A5.2 and AWS A5.18.

B. Electrodes to be used for general butt welding of low carbon steel pipes will be as follows:

1) Pipe wall thickness up to 19 mm (0.75") use cellulosic electrodes E6010 and E7018.

2) Pipe wall thickness 19mm (0.75") and above and special carbon steel (for
low temperature or high carbon content), ER70S-3 & basic electrodes E7018.

7.1.2. For Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.4 and AWS A5.9.

B. Electrodes to be used for general butt welding of austenitic stainless steel will be rutile type
EXXX-16.

7.1.3. For Alloy Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.4 and AWS A5.5.

B. Welding electrodes to be used for general butt welding of alloy steel piping shall be as follows:

PIPE ELECTRODE ASTM SPECIFICATION A335 AWS-ASTM CLASSIFICATION Grade P9,


9%Cr-1% Mo Grade P7, 7%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P5, 5%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P22, 2-1/4%Cr-1%
Mo Grade P11, 1-1/4%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P12, 1%Cr-2% Mo E 505-15 E 7Cr-15 E 502-15 E9018-
B3 E8018-B2 E8018-B2

7.1.4. For Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.5.

B. Welding electrode shall be 7018 A1.

7.1.5. Welding Dissimilar Metals

A. The dissimilar metal welds should be avoided whenever possible, using instead some mechanical
joint such as a thread or flanged connection.
B. There are innumerable combination of dissimilar alloys which could be jointed, and most of these
combinations are special cases which must be handled on an
individual basis, with the welding procedure depending on the intended use.

C. The composition of the joining metal must be compatible with both alloys, or a buffer layer must be
placed between them.

D. If high temperatures are involved, particularly if cycle, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the
parent metals and diluted weld metal must be considered.

E. If hardenable alloys are involved, consideration must be given to eliminating hard areas and brittle
areas, or to restoring strength, hardness and toughness, depending on whether or not the design
requires a high strength member.

F. If corrosion is involved, galvanic attack and resistance to process corrodents must be taken into
account.

G. Mechanical, formability and other fabrication operations may require special consideration.

H. Welding electrodes shall be in accordance with Specification XXX.

7.1.6. The particular brands of electrodes and wires chosen shall be approved in writing by the
engineer before use.

7.1.7. Storage of electrodes and other welding materials shall be in accordance with the
vendor's instructions.

7.1.8. Refer to following specification for complete list of electrodes and filler materials.

7.2. GRINDING WHEELS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

7.2.1. For Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

A. Grinding shall be carried out using resin bonded alumina or silicon carbide grinding wheels. Rubber
bonded wheels or wheels containing sulphur shall not be used.

A. Wheels previously used on ferritic steels shall not be used on the carbon steels.

7.3. WIRE BRUSHES - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All wire brushes used on austenitic stainless steel pipes shall be of stainless steel.

8. INSPECTION AND TEST - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Inspection shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 and the following inspection requirements.

8.1. PROCEDURE AND RECORD - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification


8.1.1. Inspection and test procedure/plan shall be prepared and approved prior to inspection activity.

8.1.2. Result of inspection and test shall be recorded and maintained to verify the quality of
items and activities.

8.2. RADIOGRAPHY

Radiography shall be applied in accordance with Inspection & Test of Piping Construction

8.3. VISUAL EXAMINATION

Visual examination shall be carried out in accordance with Inspection & Test of Piping Construction

8.4. PRESSURE TEST

8.4.1. Pressure testing shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3 and Pressure Test of
Piping System

8.4.2. Extent of pressure testing shall be indicated on the line list.

8.4.3. Pressure testing shall be hydrostatic unless otherwise stated.

8.4.4. Shop testing of finished fabricated piping is not required unless specified.

8.4.5. Where site hydraulic testing is to be avoided, all shop fabricated piping, including make-up
lengths and lengths with loose flanges, shall be shop tested hydraulically. Provision shall be made by
the fabricator for closing the open ends of pipe for this test. Where this procedure is required, it will be
specified on the drawings and pipeline specifications.

8.4.6. All pressure testing shall be carried out after the application of any specified heat treatment.

8.4.7. For austenitic stainless steel pipelines, hydrostatic tests shall be carried out using clean water
unless other fluids are specified on the drawings or pipeline specifications. Particular attention must be
paid to using potable water. Chlorine content of less than 50 PPM should be used wherever possible,
water having a chlorine content above 100 ppm should not be used in any circumstances, and where
it is necessary to use water within a range of 50-100 ppm, lines shall be flushed with a chlorine-free
liquid with a short period of testing.

9. CLEANING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

9.1 All bores of all fabricated piping shall be free from all sand, scale, weld spatter etc. refer
also to para. 5.2.7 and 5.2.8.

9.2. If special cleaning is required, this will be the subject of a special specification.

9.3. The cleaning of austenitic stainless steel pipe surfaces prior to welding shall not involve
the use of hydrochloric acid, chlorine compounds, or water with a chloride content in excess
of 50 ppm.
10. PROTECTION AND PACKING

10.1. DRAINING OF BORES - After hydrostatic testing and cleaning, where specified, the
bores of pipes shall be thoroughly drained and the ends immediately sealed in accordance
with para. 10.2.

10.2. PROTECTION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

10.2.1. Pipe-ends and flange faces shall be properly protected against the ingress of dirt,
mechanical damage and atmospheric corrosion. The term "pipe-end" shall include any weld
preparation. The protection applied shall not be capable of passing into the bore of the pipe.

10.2.2. Threaded connections shall be fitted with a line class plug or covered with a plastic
sheet securely wired or taped to the spool.

10.2.3. Socket weld connections shall be fitted with taped polyethylene plugs or plastic sheet
securely wired or taped to the spool.

11. ERECTION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

11.1. VALVES

Valves equipped with chain wheels shall have the stems arranged so that chains do not fall on
equipment. Hooks shall be provided to hold chains clear of operating areas. Chain wheels will be
shown on the piping drawings. Install valves so that the stems are not below a horizontal
position. Orient all valves so that the hand wheels do not obstruct passageways.

11.2. FLANGED JOINTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Protect all flange faces from damage. Take care not to mar the faces of the flanges. Bring all flanged
joints up flush so that the entire flange face bears uniformly on the gasket, and then take up with uniform
bolt tension. In bolting joints with spiral wound gaskets, the gasket shall be compressed until the raised
faces of the flanges uniformly contact the compression gauge ring.

11.3. FLANGED OR BUTT WELDED EQUIPMENT CONNECTION

A flange cover shall be kept on all flanged connections to pumps, compressors, turbines, and similar
equipment until ready to connect the piping. Piping connecting to mechanical equipment, such as
pumps, turbines, and compressors shall be fitted-up in close parallel and lateral alignment, prior to
tightening the bolting or welding the joints. The installation shall be approved by the inspector prior to
tightening the bolting. Carbon steel piping that has not required post-weld heat treatment may be
heated for minor corrections in fit. The temperature shall not exceed 660℃Cooling of the pipe shall not
be accelerated by the application of water. The inspector shall be notified when heating for fit-up is
required.

11.4. RESTRICTIONS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification


All restrictions which would interfere with filling, venting, draining, or flushing shall not be installed until
after completion of the pressure test and line flushing operations. This includes orifice plates, flow
nozzles, venturis, rotameters, PD meters, turbine meters, magnetic meters, strainer screens, and
similar in-the-line equipment.

11.5. TEMPORARY GASKETS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Protect gaskets from damage until final installation is complete. When temporary make up at flanged
joints is required in piping systems using special gaskets, make up the joint with a less expensive
sheet gasket and save the special gasket for the final installation.

11.6. PIPE SUPPORTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All field supports shall be installed in accordance with the standard drawings. If the field supports are
not installed or are unavailable when the piping is erected, use temporary blocking or other adequate
means of support until the field supports can be installed. Careful consideration must be given to the
support of 2-inch and smaller piping to prevent excessive deflection.

11.7. EXPANSION JOINTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Check the expansion joint specification for special instructions. Corrugated expansion joints shall be
installed with length extended or compressed for the ambient temperature condition at erection,
depending on anticipated direction and magnitude of movement after the line reaches the operating
temperature. Make a final check to see that shipping ties have been removed after line tests and that
any preset that may be specified has been accounted for.

11.8. TEMPORARY STRAINERS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Temporary suction strainers shall be installed at the suction nozzles of all pumps and compressors
before pipeline flushing. They shall be located between the suction block valve and the equipment.

11.9. SPRING HANGERS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

The variable and constant support type spring hangers are preset, for the cold condition, in the
factory. The gags and shipping spacers should be removed until after hydrostatic testing of the line
has been completed.

Any dimensional adjustments that have to be made to the load flange on the compression-type springs,
or to the rod assembly on suspended-type springs, should be made before the gags are
removed. Once the spring is unblocked it is very difficult to make any adjustments.

11.10. PLATFORM HOLES - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Platform holes for piping have been sized for pipe or insulation outside diameter plus approximately
25mm clearance. Field welds are necessary for the installation of flanged pipespools unless the
platform supports are intended to be clear of piping, the field shall add or relocate any structural
supports and stiffeners required because of holes made for piping.

11.11. THREADED CONNECTIONS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification


All pipe threads shall be taper-pipe threads in accordance with ASME B1.20.1 without
exception. Teflon tape shall be used for all threaded joints where the design temperature in 205°C or
hydrotest

1. ressure source and test gauge should be upstream of check

valve. If pressure source is downstream, check valve should

have flapper removed or jacked?up. (Pressure must be

released downstream of check valve after test completion.)

2. Ensure that test blinds installed are the Correct thickness.

Ensure that all items such as control valves, relief valves,

rupture disks, orifice plates, diaphragm instruments,

expansion joints, etc., which could be damaged during

pressure test have been removed or isolated, as indicated on

the pressure test flow diagram. Ensure that equipment, such

as filters, which have internals that may be damaged during

pressure.

3. Ensure that all items such as control valves, relief valves,

rupture disks, orifice plates, diaphragm instruments,

expansion joints, etc., which could be damaged during

pressure test have been removed or isolated, as indicated on

the pressure test flow diagram.

4. Ensure that equipment, such as filters, which have internals

that may be damaged during the pressure test are either

blocked from test or that internals have been removed.


5. Check all temporary supports that have been called for on the

pressure test flow diagrams, piping arrangement drawings or

spool drawing to ensure that they have been properly

installed.

6. Ensure that equipment, such as compressors, which must not

be included in the field tests have been properly blocked off

with the casing drain open.

7. Check open and closed position of all valves.

8. Check for proper installation of vents and drains.

9. Verify chloride content of test water when testing stainless

steels.

testing

1. The pressure test gauge shall normally be located at grade

near the test pump.

2. Pressure test gauges shall be calibrated to ensure accurate

readings. Gauges should be tagged with the date they were

last calibrated.

3. Care must be exercised not to exceed pressure test specified

on the pressure test data.

4. When conducting a pneumatic test, it is essential that the

contract specification for pneumatic testing be adhered to in

order to avoid creating a safety hazard.


5. Pneumatic test systems must include double block valves with

a bleeder valve between them to safely isolate the pressure

source (by closing block valves and opening bleeder to

atmosphere) when incremental and final test pressures are

attained.

Test completion

1. Care shall be exercised in controlling the rate of draining from

vessels in respect to inflow of air through the vent to assure

that a vacuum is not applied.

2. CAUTION: Prior to commencing drainage, ensure that all

vents are open with plugs and blind flanges removed.

3. After drainage, remove all temporary blinds and blanks,

temporary support, and temporary testing connections.

4. Re install all items that were removed for test. Ensure that

line Specification gaskets and bolts are being used when rein

stalling these items.

5. Remove all shipping bars from expansion joints.

6. Remove Stops from spring hangers and check cold settings.


Purpose
This inspection and test plan is attended to be used as a guide to control all work
steps in term of and inspection on piping fabrication at workshop , erection &
installation at company site location.Assure that all inspection is performed
according the approved document and for acceptance criteria.Ensure that all
parties involved have clear responsibility for all work step.

1. Scope
The document covers all work step of inspection and testing on piping
fabrication,erection & installation at company site location for new spool to repair
the existing piping system.
When any utility engaged with company business has their own ITP and or
procedures,it shall be submitted to company for review and approval prior used.

2. Reference
2.1 ASME B31.1 Process Piping
2.2 ASME Code Section II Part A Ferrous Material Specification
2.3 ASME Code Section V Nondestructive Testing Qualification
2.4 ASME Code Section IV Welding and Welder Qualification.

3. Legend
Hold point (H) - Hold point on the production till client perform inspection and
supervise the required test
Witness Point (W) - Manufacture shall notify client but there no hold on the
production.
Review Point (R)-Review documentation such as procedure,drawing inspection
and testing etc.

P NUMBER
P Number Base Metal

1 Carbon Manganese Steels (four Group Numbers)

2 Not Used

1/2 Molybdenum or 1/2 Chromium,


3
1/2 Molybdenum (three Group Numbers)

1 1/4 Chromium, 1/2 Molybdenum


4
(two Group Numbers)

5A 2 1/4 Chromium, 1 Molybdenum

5 Chromium, 1/2 Molybdenum or 9 Chromium,


5B
1 Molybdenum (two Group Numbers)

Chromium, Molybdenum, Vanadium


5C
(five Group Numbers)

Martensitic Stainless Steels (Grade 410, 415, 429)


6
(six Group Numbers)

7 Ferritic Stainless Steels (Grade 409, 430)

Austenitic Stainless Steels:


Group 1 - Grades 304, 316, 317, 347
8 Group 2 - Grades 309, 310
Group 3 - High Manganese Grades
Group 4 - High Molybdenum Grades
9A, B, C 2 - 4 Nickel Steels

10A, B, C, F Various Low Alloy Steels

Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steel


10H
(Grades 31803, 32750)

10I High Chromium Stainless Steel

10J High Chromium, Molybdenum Stainless Steel

High Chromium, Molybdenum,


10K
Nickel Stainless Steel
Various High Strength Low Alloy Steels
11A
(six Group Numbers)
Various High Strength Low Alloy Steels
11B
(ten Group Numbers)
15E 9 Chromium, 1 Molybdenum

16 to 20 Not Used

21 High Aluminum Content (1000 and 3000 series)

22 Aluminum (5000 series - 5052, 5454)

23 Aluminum (6000 series - 6061, 6063)

24 Not Used

25 Aluminum (5000 series - 5083, 5086, 5456)

26 to 30 Not Used

31 High Copper Content

32 Brass

33 Copper Silicon

34 Copper Nickel

35 Copper Aluminum

36 to 40 Not Used

41 High Nickel Content

42 Nickel, Copper - (Monel 500)

43 Nickel, Chromium, Iron - (Inconel) (C22, C276, X)

44 Nickel, Molybdenum - (Hastelloy B2)

45 Nickel, Chromium, Si

46 Nickel, Chromium, Silicone

47 Nickel, Chromium, Tungsten

47 to 50 Not Used

51, 52, 53 Titanium Alloys

61, 62 Zirconium Alloys

F Number
F - Numbers Electrodes/Welding Rods

F - No. 1 through F - No. 6 Steel and Steel Alloys


F - No. 21 through F - No. 25 Aluminum and aluminum - base alloys

F - No. 31 through F - No. 37 Copper and Copper Alloys

F - No. 41 through F - No. 46 Nickel and Nickel Alloys

F - No. 51 through F - No. 56 Titanium and Titanium Alloys

F - No. 61 Zirconium and zirconium - base alloys

F - No. 71 through F - No. 72 Hard - Facing Weld Metal Overlay

A NO
Table QW - 442

A Numbers

Classification of Ferrous Weld Metal Analysis for Procedure Qualification

Analysis, % [Note (1)] and [Note (2)]

A-No. Type of Weld Deposit C Cr Mo Ni Mn Si

1 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.50 1.60 1.00


Mild Steel

2 Carbon - Molybdenum 0.15 0.50 0.40-0.65 0.50 1.60 1.00

Chrome (0.4% to 2%) -


3 0.15 0.40-2.00 0.40-0.65 0.50 1.60 1.00
Molybdenum

Chrome (2% to 4%) -


4 0.15 2.00-4.00 0.40-1.50 0.50 1.60 2.00
Molybdenum

Chrome (4% to 10.5%) -


5 0.15 4.00-10.50 0.40-1.50 0.80 1.20 2.00
Molybdenum

6 Chrome - Martensitic 0.15 11.00-15.00 0.70 0.80 2.00 1.00

7 Chrome - Ferritic 0.15 11.00-30.00 1.00 0.80 1.00 3.00

8 Chromium - Nickel 0.15 14.50-30.00 4.00 7.50-15.00 2.50 1.00


9 Chromium - Nickel 0.30 19.00-30.00 6.00 15.00-37.00 2.50 1.00

10 Nickel to 4% 0.15 0.5 0.55 0.80-4.00 1.70 1.00

11 Manganese - Molybdenum 0.17 0.5 0.25-0.75 0.85 1.25-2.25 1.00

Nickel - Chrome -
12 0.15 1.50 0.25-0.80 1.25-2.80 0.75-2.25 1.00
Molybdenum

NOTES:

(1) Single values shown above are maximum.

(2) Only listed elements are used to determine A - numbers.

GROUP NO

Welding Brazing
Base Metal
Steel and Steel alloys P - No. 1 through P - No. 15F P - No. 101 through P - No. 103
Aluminum and aluminum - base alloys P - No. 21 through P - No. 26 P - No. 104 and P - No. 105
Copper and copper - base alloys P - No. 31 through P - No. 35 P - No. 107 and P - No. 108

Nickel and nickel - base alloys P - No. 41 through P - No. 49 P - No. 110 through P - No. 112

Titanium and titanium - base alloys P - No. 51 through P - No. 53 P - No. 115

Zirconium and zirconium - base alloys P - No. 61 and P - No. 62 P - No. 117

Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

This specification covers the minimum basic requirements for various aspects of the above
ground piping and in trench piping for the industrial plants as follow:

a) Shop and filed fabrication and erection of piping.


b) Installation of in-line instrument items like orifice flanges, control valves, rota meters,
safety valves, etc.

c) Installation of items like line mounted filters, ejectors sample cooler, etc.

d) Installation of expansion joints.

e) Fabrication & erection of pipe supports including installation of spring supports, etc. both
shop and field fabrication include cutting, threading, bending, welding, bolting, etc.

Administration of material certificates, welding operations and execution, administration of all


destructive & non-destructive examination and all testing operations as required by the
applicable procedure and standards.

1.1. Where this specification and the petroleum refinery piping code ASME B31.3 conflict, this
standard shall govern. Sound engineering practice shall be followed in the absence of specified
standards or specification subject to OWNER prior approval.

1.2. CODES AND STANDARDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection

Specification Standards referred to in this specification shall be the latest editions, including all
revisions and addenda as listed below:

Process Piping ASME B31.3

Unified Inch Screw Threads ASME B1.1

Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch) ASME B1.20.1

Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings NPS 1/2” ASME B16.5

Through NPS 24”

Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt welding Fittings ASME B16.9

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded ASME B16.11

Butt Welding Ends ASME B16.25

Square and Hex Nuts (Inch Series) ASME B18.2.2

Welded and seamless Wrought Steel Pipe ASME B36.10

Stainless Steel Pipe ASME B36.19

Wrought Stainless Steel Butt Welding Fittings MSS-SP-43


Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME-VIII

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME-IX

1.3. RELATED ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION

The following specifications are applied as supplement of this specification.

A. Piping Material

B. Construction Work for Piping

C. Pressure Test of Piping System

D. Cleaning for Pipe Lines

E. Welding Procedure for Piping

F. Welder Qualification Test

G. Inspection & Test of Piping Construction

H. Piping hanging & support

I. Piping Design

J. Marking & Color Coding

K. Painting Specification

2. DEFINITION

2.1. DIVISION OF WORK

All piping will be fabricated by a field construction crew either in a pipespool fabrication shop
hereinafter referred to as the "shop” (as per ------) or in-place hereinafter called the "field".

2.2. PIPE SPOOL DEFINITION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

The word pipespool, as used in this specification, is a unit of prefabricated piping consisting of
pipe, fittings, flanges, and other components integral to the assembly. This piping is assembled
in the shop and conveyed to the construction site for installation.

2.3. PIPE SPOOL INDEX


All pipespools to be constructed by the fabricator are listed in the Pipespool Index. Each index is in
numerical order for each field assembly area. The shop shall fabricate the pipespools in the order they
are listed in the index, unless a list giving some other priority is provided by Consultant.

The index will show for each pipespool the pipespool number, quantity of identical pipespools,
revision mark, line number, material class, and special information or treatment. The assembly
area, revision date, and material are given at the top of each sheet. Included with each index
for each area is a Pipespool Index Revision page. This page is a record of all revisions to the
pipespool index. The shop shall fill out and keep current the information columns on the
pipespool indexes, and provide copies to Consultant when requested or completed.

3. DRAWING APPLICATION

3.1. PIPESPOOL INDEX

All pipelines are identified with the line classification on the plan and isometric drawing.

3.2. EXTENT OF PIPESPOOLS

Where field installed material connects to shop fabricated pipespools, the shop fabricated
spool will include all branch connections for field piping, up to the first field butt weld, first field
socket weld, first screwed connection, or first flanged joint including the first flange. Pipespools
in all sizes of butt welded and socket welded construction will be prefabricated in the
shop. Threaded piping and threaded components which are installed as attachments to shop
fabricated pipespools shall be termed field installed materials. Straight runs of piping indicated
as random piping are not pipespools. These straight runs are installed by the field crews in
random lengths. The division between the three different types is shown on the drawings as
indicated in figure.

Here, "S" means shop fabricated, "F" means field-installed material and "R" stands for
field-installed random lengths. "FW" is a weld done in the field.

3.3. ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Consultant will provide the isometric drawings for all 1-1/2 inch and larger for stainless steel and 2 inch
and larger for carbon steel. The isometric drawing will show also combined line number, equipment
nozzles to which the pipeline is connected, call outs and high point vents and low point drains. A bill of
material take off for the isometric shall be attached. The bill shall include the code, size, quantity and
description for each piping component.

3.4. SYMBOLS

Drawing symbols used on the piping drawings are defined on legend. The following definitions
specify what is required when certain letter symbols are used on the drawings.

"FW" A field weld is the joining of two components, beveled for welding, made to drawing dimensions,
and to be welded at the construction site.
"FU" A fit-up weld is a field weld that allows some dimensional adjustment of a pipe spool
during final assembly. One of the mating ends is square-cut 3 inches longer than the dimensions
required. The other mating end is bevel-cut to the exact dimension indicated on the drawings.

"DW" A dummy weld is a weld connecting a supporting appurtenance to a pipeline. The support
is an extension of the piping but with no connection into the fluid stream.

3.5. FIELD WELDS

The Construction contractor shall locate on the piping erection drawings, field welds or fit-up welds as
required for site erection, except no location will be shown for socket weld connections between
pipe spools built in the shop and those built at the construction site.

3.6. DIMENSIONS

Unless otherwise specify all dimensions terminating at a flange are measured from the gasket
face for raised-face flanges and flat-face flanges, and the raised face of ring-joint flanges.
Gaskets are indicated by a short line placed beside or between the dimension limit lines. Only
gaskets which have a different thickness than the material class gasket are dimensioned.

Whenever an overall dimension does not appear on a drawing, the dimension is assumed to
be the sum of individual standard fitting lengths coincident with the piping line class material.

4. FABRICATION

4.1. GENERAL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Fabrication works shall comply with the drawings and this specification including relevant
Engineering and Construction Specifications.

4.1.1. All weld numbers and welder’s identification number shall be painted close to the weld,
to enable trace ability of each weld and each welder, socket welds shall be numbered per fitting,
e.g. S.W tee has one weld number.

4.1.2. Construction Contractor shall maintain the color coding on piping materials to allow
easy and quick reference in accordance with the project engineering specification.

4.1.3. All materials included in the finished piping systems shall be undamaged.

4.1.4. Construction Contractor must provide adequate protection for piping, flange faces,
threaded connections, etc. to prevent damage during handling and storage. Construction
Contractor shall ensure that flange faces are protected from corrosion or rust.

4.1.5. Piping shall be stored in a relatively clean, dry or well drained area on elevated
dunnage and protected against contact with salts or salty water.

4.1.6. All attachments to piping, i.e. saddles, pads, etc. are to be made of same material to the
pipe.
4.2. DIMENSIONAL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

TOLERANCE

4.2.1. Wrought Bends

A. Wrought bends shall show no significant marks or corrugations and shall be smooth and regular in
outline. Flattening shall not exceed 8% of the pipe outside diameter for pressure duties, or 3% of the
pipe outside diameter for vacuum duties. There shall be no significant thinning when the pipe bend
radius is 5 x nominal diameter or greater.

B. In general thickness stainless steel pipe of equivalent to schedule 10S and thinner shall not be bent.

4.2.2. Pipe Dimensions

Tolerances shall be ±1.5mm from flange face to flange face, or centerline of pipe to flange face.

4.2.3. Flange Face

Flange faces shall not be concave. Convexity from flange bore to joint face periphery shall not
exceed 0.15mm per centimeter width of joint face.

4.2.4. Squareness of Flanges

Flanges shall be square to the axis of the pipe to within an angle of 0° - 18' (0.3°) I.E. 0.05mm per
centimeter measured across the face of the flange, with the pipe adequately supported.

4.2.5. Bolt Holes of Flanges

Flange bolt holes shall straddle the established centerlines (Horizontal or vertical). However, flanged
connections on equipment may vary and should be individually checked. When these connections
differ, the bolt hole orientation shall be indicated on the isometric piping detail sheet. Holes in double
flanged pipes shall be correctly aligned.

4.3. WELD DETAILS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

4.3.1. Butt Welds

The term "Butt-Weld" refers to circumferential butt joints only. Special requirements may be
imposed where longitudinal welds are to be made and these welds shall not be carried out
before Consultant has approved the methods to be used. Longitudinal and spiral welds
existing in pipes as produced at the mill are outside the scope of this specification.

4.3.2. Weld Preparation

Weld preparation shall be in accordance with the following:


A. Preparation standard shall be applied to ASME B31.3 and the modifications to the standard
contained within clause 5.3.6 of this specification.

B. Ends shall be beveled or square cut for welding as follows:

1) Beveled for wall thickness greater than 2.3mm

2) Square cut for wall thickness 2.3 mm and less

4.3.3. Root Gaps

Spacers shall be used while tack welding pipe and fittings in position to insure proper gap and
full penetration in welding. The tack welds complying with the requirements of ASME B31.3,
328.5.1(C) may be allowed to become a part of the finished weld, whereas those not complying
are not acceptable and must be chipped out before completing the weld.

4.3.4. Bore Matching and Alignment

Bore matching and alignment shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3. Where pipe, fittings
and flanges are to be joined by circumferential butt-welds, the corresponding parts shall be
modeled and matched so that any misalignment at the inside of the piping shall not exceed
1/16 inch at any point of the circumference of the joint.

Fit-up work may include pressing, hammering, local heating or grinding as required to reduce any
misalignment due to diameter tolerances, out-of-roundness or unequal wall thickness of the parts of
less than 1/16 inch. parts having unequal wall thickness and bores shall be prepared in accordance
with one of the details shown in ASME B31.3.

4.3.5. Cutting

A. Pipes may be cut mechanically by sawing or grinding machine.

B. Cutting method involving heating e.g. Flame or arc cutting for carbon steel are allowed
providing the cut edge is machined or ground back sufficiently far to give specified parent material
properties at the cut edge with a minimum of 1.5 mm.

C. Plasma-jet cutting may be use to cut austenitic stainless steel pipes and other materials.

D. Flame cutting of austenitic stainless steel pipe is not allowed.

E. Other methods of cutting may be used providing written approval is obtained from
Consultant.

4.3.6. Welding Position of Longitudinal Seams

Longitudinal seams in seam welded pipe shall be located so as to clear openings and external
attachments possible. Longitudinal seams in adjoining courses shall be preperably at 180°but a
minimum between seams are in accordance with construction specification.
4.4. BRANCH WELDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Branch connections shall be located as indicated on the piping detail sheet or isometric piping
drawings. All branch connections shall be designed in accordance with Para. 304.3 of ASME
B31.3. Forged or extruded branch connections are preferred.

4.4.1. No Fitting

Branches shall be of 'Stub-in' design in accordance with Construction Specification 0000-S1830-003


and ASME B31.3.

4.4.2. Forged branch attachments (Brancholets) shall be of the type specified on Consultant's
drawings and fitted accurately to the contours of the run pipe.

4.4.3. Reinforcing Pads

A. For pressure reinforcement

Reinforcing pads required by the referenced code or by piping detail sheets shall be provided with at
least one vent hole if fully welded. The hole shall be drilled and tapped with a 1/8 inch pipe thread for
testing and venting. The tapped hole shall be plugged using wood, plastic or mastic material not capable
of retaining pressure.

B. For structural attachment

Reinforcing pads for structural attachment shall be provided with an untapped hole of 1/4 inch (6 mm)
diameter for venting.

C. Where reinforcing pads are fitted either for branches or structural attachments they shall
be accurately shaped so that no gap larger than 1/8 inch (3.0mm), measured before welding, shall
exist between the periphery of the pad and the pipe to which it fits.

4.4.4. Mitered Bends

Mitered bends shall be in accordance with piping material specification ------. The number of cuts shall
be as stated on the drawing. Mitered bends are used only when specified on the drawings and shall
be in accordance with ASME B31.3 Chapter V. A joint efficiency not exceeding 70% shall be used in
the strength calculations for mitered bends. The welds in mitered bends shall penetrate the full
thickness of the pipe and the bead on the inside of the throat shall be smooth and have an even
curvature. In order to prevent a notch effect.

4.4.5. Beveled Ends

Refer to Construction Specification XXX

4.4.6. Fillet Welds

Refer to Construction Specification XXX


4.5. BENDING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

4.5.1. Bends shall conform dimensionally to the drawings and relevant clauses of this specification. Hot
bend is not permitted.

4.5.2. Cold Bending

A. Cold bends to a centerline radius greater than five (5) times the nominal pipe diameter may be
manufactured without a subsequent heat treatment unless a heat treatment is specified on the project
specification, piping detail sheets, or isometric drawings.

B. Cold bends to a radius less than five (5) times the nominal pipe diameter is not allowed.

C. Bending after completion of fabrication to meet dimensional requirements shall not be carried out
without the approval of the engineer.

5. WELDING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.1. WELDING PROCESS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.1.1. Basic welding requirements are to be in accordance with ASME B31.3. Welders shall
be approved in accordance with the relevant clauses of this standard.

5.1.2. Welding shall be carried out by one, or a combination of the following processes:

A. Shield metal arc welding (SMAW)

B. Inert gas metal (MIG)

C. Tungsten inert gas with filler wire (TIG)

The (SMAW) and (TIG) processes are preferred as welding process.

5.1.3. Backing rings shall not be used without prior written content and approval of
Consultant.

5.1.4. Where tack welding is carried out, tacks shall be as large as possible and to the satisfaction
of the Consultant inspection. Tack welds shall be removed so that they do not form part of the finished
weld unless they are produced fully qualified and tested welders to the same procedure as the finished
weld, in which case they may be absorbed into the finished weld.

5.1.5. Flange faces shall be kept free from weld spatter and arc strike.

5.2. WELDING PROCEDURE - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.2.1. Welding procedures are to be qualified in accordance with the ASME boiler and
pressure vessel code section IX and ASME B31.3, and shall be approved by Consultant before
any work is carried out.
5.2.2. Welder's competence shall be determined in accordance with Welder Qualification Test

5.2.3. It is fabricator's responsibility to reference each weld to its welder and correct
procedure.

5.2.4. Electrodes and filler wires shall conform to the requirements specified in para. 7.1.

5.2.5. Requirements for mixed metal welds are specified in para. 6.

5.2.6. Fusion faces may be prepared by sawing, chipping, machining or grinding. They shall
be smooth and free from defects and together with the adjacent material shall be thoroughly
cleaned of oil, grease, paint and shall be free from all rust, scale, ice/water for a distance of 50
mm from the edge of the weld.

5.2.7. The visible surface of all welds are to be clean of slag, regular uniform in contour, without
undercuts, crack or blowholes and free from spatter.

5.2.8. Weld reinforcement: The thickness of weld reinforcement shall not exceed the following,
considering the thinner component being joined:

Component Thickness (in.) Maximum Reinforcement (in.)

1/2 and Under 1/8

from 1/2 to 1 5/32

Over 1 3/16

For double welded joints this limitation on reinforcement shall apply separately to the weld
reinforcement inside and outside. The finished internal and external surfaces of the weld shall merge
smoothly into the component surfaces or the weld toe.

5.2.9. When unacceptable defects are found in complete welds, they are to be removed by grinding,
chipping or machining.

5.2.10. The basic principles of the welding procedure initially used are to be employed for
repair of faulty welds.

5.3. SPECIAL PROCESS CONTROL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.3.1. Work control procedure shall be prepared prior to start the special process such as heat
treatment. Processing and result of special process shall be recorded and maintained to verify
the work quality.

5.3.2. Heat Treatment of flame-cut edges for carbon steel is not required when the edges are
dressed back in accordance with para. 4.3.5. B where dressing back proves to be impossible,
then such undressed or partly dressed edges shall be stress relieved before welding.
5.3.3. Preheating - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

A. When the welding procedure does not include pre-heating and the ambient conditions are such
that the metal temperature of the parts to be welded are below 4°C, the surface in a zone extending
15 mm each side of the joint is to be heated to 20°C "Handwarm" before welding commences.

B. Preheating shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3 unless para. 5.3.4. A applies.

C. In addition to the requirements of ASME B31.3, when rutile and cellulosic electrodes are
used, then preheat shall be applied on wall thicknesses of 20 mm (3/4") and above.

5.3.4. Normalizing

Normalizing shall be carried out as follows:

Temperature 920°C/950°C

Time/Inch of Thickness 1 Hour

Minimum soaking time 1/2 Hour

Cooling shall be uniform at a rate less than 250°Cper hour down to 300°C, thereafter cool in
still air.

5.3.5. Stress Relieving - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

A. Irrespective of pipe wall thickness, PWHT shall be performed on all type joints butt, socket,
etc, for piping classes A2T3MR, AUT3P, B2T3MR, B2T6MR, D2T3MR, A2D2, B2D2V, BCDX,
D2D2V, for other piping classes PWHT shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3.

B. After completion of final P.W.H.T. hardness test shall be performed in accordance with
ASME B31.3. One test is required in the weld and one test is required in the heat affected zone
(HAZ).

C. Welds produced in austenitic stainless steel shall not require stress relief, unless this is
specifically called for in the drawings or pipeline specifications.

5.3.6. Temperature Measurement

Temperature measurement shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3.

5.3.7. A record of the time/temperature for normalising and stress relief must be kept.

6. MIXED METAL WELDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

6.1. CARBON AND AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS - Piping Fabrication and Erection
Specification
6.1.1. Where welds are to be produced between carbon steels and austenitic stainless steels, the
weld procedures, welding techniques etc., shall be those appropriate to the austenitic stainless steel.

6.1.2. Electrodes and filler wire shall be ER 309, E309, or ER NiCr3, ENiCr Fe3 the choice
depending on service conditions. Any heat treatment required shall be that appropriate to the
grade and thickness of carbon steel involved. The welding procedure proposed shall be
approved in writing by Consultant.

6.2. LOW ALLOY (CHROME MOLYBDENUM, ETC.) AND CARBON STEELS

6.2.1. Where welds are to be produced between low alloy steels and carbon steels, the above
procedures, electrodes, filler wires, welding technique and heat treatment etc., shall be appropriate to
the grade and thickness of the low alloy steel involved. Electrodes must be of the basic type.

6.3. DIFFERENT GRADES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS - Piping Fabrication and


Erection Specification

Where welds are to be produced between differing grades of stainless steels, the weld
procedures, electrodes, filler wires, welding techniques, etc., shall be those required by the
higher grade of material.

6.4. LOW ALLOY (CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM ETC.) AND AUSTENITIC STAINLESS


STEEL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

6.4.1. Where welds are to be produced between low alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels,
the weld procedures, welding techniques, etc., shall be those appropriate to the austenitic
stainless steel.

6.4.2. Electrodes and filler wires shall in general be of higher alloy content than the austenitic
stainless steel. Any heat treatment required shall be that appropriate to the grade and
thickness of low alloy steel involved.

7. MATERIALS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

7.1. ELECTRODES AND FILLER WIRES

7.1.1. For Carbon Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.1, AWS A5.2 and AWS A5.18.

B. Electrodes to be used for general butt welding of low carbon steel pipes will be as follows:

1) Pipe wall thickness up to 19 mm (0.75") use cellulosic electrodes E6010 and E7018.

2) Pipe wall thickness 19mm (0.75") and above and special carbon steel (for
low temperature or high carbon content), ER70S-3 & basic electrodes E7018.

7.1.2. For Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes


A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.4 and AWS A5.9.

B. Electrodes to be used for general butt welding of austenitic stainless steel will be rutile type
EXXX-16.

7.1.3. For Alloy Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.4 and AWS A5.5.

B. Welding electrodes to be used for general butt welding of alloy steel piping shall be as follows:

PIPE ELECTRODE ASTM SPECIFICATION A335 AWS-ASTM CLASSIFICATION Grade P9,


9%Cr-1% Mo Grade P7, 7%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P5, 5%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P22, 2-1/4%Cr-1%
Mo Grade P11, 1-1/4%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P12, 1%Cr-2% Mo E 505-15 E 7Cr-15 E 502-15 E9018-
B3 E8018-B2 E8018-B2

7.1.4. For Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.5.

B. Welding electrode shall be 7018 A1.

7.1.5. Welding Dissimilar Metals

A. The dissimilar metal welds should be avoided whenever possible, using instead some mechanical
joint such as a thread or flanged connection.

B. There are innumerable combination of dissimilar alloys which could be jointed, and most of these
combinations are special cases which must be handled on an
individual basis, with the welding procedure depending on the intended use.

C. The composition of the joining metal must be compatible with both alloys, or a buffer layer must be
placed between them.

D. If high temperatures are involved, particularly if cycle, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the
parent metals and diluted weld metal must be considered.

E. If hardenable alloys are involved, consideration must be given to eliminating hard areas and brittle
areas, or to restoring strength, hardness and toughness, depending on whether or not the design
requires a high strength member.

F. If corrosion is involved, galvanic attack and resistance to process corrodents must be taken into
account.

G. Mechanical, formability and other fabrication operations may require special consideration.

H. Welding electrodes shall be in accordance with Specification XXX.


7.1.6. The particular brands of electrodes and wires chosen shall be approved in writing by the
engineer before use.

7.1.7. Storage of electrodes and other welding materials shall be in accordance with the
vendor's instructions.

7.1.8. Refer to following specification for complete list of electrodes and filler materials.

7.2. GRINDING WHEELS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

7.2.1. For Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

A. Grinding shall be carried out using resin bonded alumina or silicon carbide grinding wheels. Rubber
bonded wheels or wheels containing sulphur shall not be used.

A. Wheels previously used on ferritic steels shall not be used on the carbon steels.

7.3. WIRE BRUSHES - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All wire brushes used on austenitic stainless steel pipes shall be of stainless steel.

8. INSPECTION AND TEST - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Inspection shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 and the following inspection requirements.

8.1. PROCEDURE AND RECORD - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

8.1.1. Inspection and test procedure/plan shall be prepared and approved prior to inspection activity.

8.1.2. Result of inspection and test shall be recorded and maintained to verify the quality of
items and activities.

8.2. RADIOGRAPHY

Radiography shall be applied in accordance with Inspection & Test of Piping Construction

8.3. VISUAL EXAMINATION

Visual examination shall be carried out in accordance with Inspection & Test of Piping Construction

8.4. PRESSURE TEST

8.4.1. Pressure testing shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3 and Pressure Test of
Piping System

8.4.2. Extent of pressure testing shall be indicated on the line list.


8.4.3. Pressure testing shall be hydrostatic unless otherwise stated.

8.4.4. Shop testing of finished fabricated piping is not required unless specified.

8.4.5. Where site hydraulic testing is to be avoided, all shop fabricated piping, including make-up
lengths and lengths with loose flanges, shall be shop tested hydraulically. Provision shall be made by
the fabricator for closing the open ends of pipe for this test. Where this procedure is required, it will be
specified on the drawings and pipeline specifications.

8.4.6. All pressure testing shall be carried out after the application of any specified heat treatment.

8.4.7. For austenitic stainless steel pipelines, hydrostatic tests shall be carried out using clean water
unless other fluids are specified on the drawings or pipeline specifications. Particular attention must be
paid to using potable water. Chlorine content of less than 50 PPM should be used wherever possible,
water having a chlorine content above 100 ppm should not be used in any circumstances, and where
it is necessary to use water within a range of 50-100 ppm, lines shall be flushed with a chlorine-free
liquid with a short period of testing.

9. CLEANING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

9.1 All bores of all fabricated piping shall be free from all sand, scale, weld spatter etc. refer
also to para. 5.2.7 and 5.2.8.

9.2. If special cleaning is required, this will be the subject of a special specification.

9.3. The cleaning of austenitic stainless steel pipe surfaces prior to welding shall not involve
the use of hydrochloric acid, chlorine compounds, or water with a chloride content in excess
of 50 ppm.

10. PROTECTION AND PACKING

10.1. DRAINING OF BORES - After hydrostatic testing and cleaning, where specified, the
bores of pipes shall be thoroughly drained and the ends immediately sealed in accordance
with para. 10.2.

10.2. PROTECTION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

10.2.1. Pipe-ends and flange faces shall be properly protected against the ingress of dirt,
mechanical damage and atmospheric corrosion. The term "pipe-end" shall include any weld
preparation. The protection applied shall not be capable of passing into the bore of the pipe.

10.2.2. Threaded connections shall be fitted with a line class plug or covered with a plastic
sheet securely wired or taped to the spool.

10.2.3. Socket weld connections shall be fitted with taped polyethylene plugs or plastic sheet
securely wired or taped to the spool.

11. ERECTION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification


11.1. VALVES

Valves equipped with chain wheels shall have the stems arranged so that chains do not fall on
equipment. Hooks shall be provided to hold chains clear of operating areas. Chain wheels will be
shown on the piping drawings. Install valves so that the stems are not below a horizontal
position. Orient all valves so that the hand wheels do not obstruct passageways.

11.2. FLANGED JOINTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Protect all flange faces from damage. Take care not to mar the faces of the flanges. Bring all flanged
joints up flush so that the entire flange face bears uniformly on the gasket, and then take up with uniform
bolt tension. In bolting joints with spiral wound gaskets, the gasket shall be compressed until the raised
faces of the flanges uniformly contact the compression gauge ring.

11.3. FLANGED OR BUTT WELDED EQUIPMENT CONNECTION

A flange cover shall be kept on all flanged connections to pumps, compressors, turbines, and similar
equipment until ready to connect the piping. Piping connecting to mechanical equipment, such as
pumps, turbines, and compressors shall be fitted-up in close parallel and lateral alignment, prior to
tightening the bolting or welding the joints. The installation shall be approved by the inspector prior to
tightening the bolting. Carbon steel piping that has not required post-weld heat treatment may be
heated for minor corrections in fit. The temperature shall not exceed 660℃Cooling of the pipe shall not
be accelerated by the application of water. The inspector shall be notified when heating for fit-up is
required.

11.4. RESTRICTIONS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All restrictions which would interfere with filling, venting, draining, or flushing shall not be installed until
after completion of the pressure test and line flushing operations. This includes orifice plates, flow
nozzles, venturis, rotameters, PD meters, turbine meters, magnetic meters, strainer screens, and
similar in-the-line equipment.

11.5. TEMPORARY GASKETS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Protect gaskets from damage until final installation is complete. When temporary make up at flanged
joints is required in piping systems using special gaskets, make up the joint with a less expensive
sheet gasket and save the special gasket for the final installation.

11.6. PIPE SUPPORTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All field supports shall be installed in accordance with the standard drawings. If the field supports are
not installed or are unavailable when the piping is erected, use temporary blocking or other adequate
means of support until the field supports can be installed. Careful consideration must be given to the
support of 2-inch and smaller piping to prevent excessive deflection.

11.7. EXPANSION JOINTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Check the expansion joint specification for special instructions. Corrugated expansion joints shall be
installed with length extended or compressed for the ambient temperature condition at erection,
depending on anticipated direction and magnitude of movement after the line reaches the operating
temperature. Make a final check to see that shipping ties have been removed after line tests and that
any preset that may be specified has been accounted for.

11.8. TEMPORARY STRAINERS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Temporary suction strainers shall be installed at the suction nozzles of all pumps and compressors
before pipeline flushing. They shall be located between the suction block valve and the equipment.

11.9. SPRING HANGERS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

The variable and constant support type spring hangers are preset, for the cold condition, in the
factory. The gags and shipping spacers should be removed until after hydrostatic testing of the line
has been completed.

Any dimensional adjustments that have to be made to the load flange on the compression-type springs,
or to the rod assembly on suspended-type springs, should be made before the gags are
removed. Once the spring is unblocked it is very difficult to make any adjustments.

11.10. PLATFORM HOLES - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Platform holes for piping have been sized for pipe or insulation outside diameter plus approximately
25mm clearance. Field welds are necessary for the installation of flanged pipespools unless the
platform supports are intended to be clear of piping, the field shall add or relocate any structural
supports and stiffeners required because of holes made for piping.

11.11. THREADED CONNECTIONS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All pipe threads shall be taper-pipe threads in accordance with ASME B1.20.1 without
exception. Teflon tape shall be used for all threaded joints where the design temperature in 205°C or
below.
Piping Fabrication Procedure:

Marking shall be done according to drawing requirement and the same shall be checked by concerned supervisor
prior to cutting.

The cutting shall be generally done as follows:

Stainless Steel Pipes - By grinding or plasma cutting.

Before cutting the pipe Heat Number will be transferred to the cut pieces by low stress dye stamping, Paint marking
or Tagging.

End preparation and fit-up shall be done at shop as per the approved Specification and WPS.

Care shall be taken to make sure that longitudinal seams on the joining pipes will not come in one line in a butt
joint. Seams will be staggered at least 100mm apart and also will clear the branch connections. Care shall be
taken to make sure that longitudinal seams are not resting on the steel structure.

Pipes and Fittings for fit-up will be placed on temporary pipe bed and will make sure that supports are secured
properly.

Welding of the joint will be done after getting QC fit-up Inspection clearance and the same shall be offered for
Client inspection randomly.

All flange connected to equipment shall be tack welded only.

Line No, Component Heat No., Joint No., Fit-up inspection signature, Welder No., Visual inspection signature
and date of welding will be marked near to the joint with metal paint marker.

Spool No. will be marked with paint marker and aluminum tag will be tied to the spool. Fabrication completed
spools will be shifted from shop to lay down area.

NDT shall be performed as required by Project specification. After NDT clearance, spools shall be released
for erection / painting with release notice.

NDT rejected spools will be identified with yellow I black tag and the repair will be done immediately and NDT
will be executed on repaired weld areas as required.

1. After painting, field inspection shall be offered for QC and the same shall be QC recorded in the
prescribed format.

2. After painting inspection, the spool shall be released for erection.

3. Stainless Steel fabrication will be done in the shop with an isolated area from carbon steel and alloy
steel.

4. No tools, tackles, equipment will be used for SS which has been used for CS. All tools and equipment
dedicated to SS work shall be clearly marked "For Stainless Steel" only.

5. For Stainless steel materials, stainless steels tools will be used for grinding, brushing and clamping
etc.

6. Pre heating and PWHT will be done at shop and field as per specification requirements.
7. All flanged raised faces of completed spools will be fitted with plywood blinds for protection and spool
ends shall be fitted with proper caps
CODES AND STANDARDS
T. N. GOPINATH
For scientific design of Piping Systems, selection of proper material ofconstruction and to detail out the material
specifications, knowledge of Codes andStandards is essential. Standardization can, and does, reduce cost, inconvenience,
andconfusion that result from unnecessary and undesirable differences in systems,components and procedures. Industry
standards are published by professional societies,committees and trade organizations. A code is basically a standard that
has beengenerally accepted by the government. The objective of each code is to ensure public andindustrial safety in a
particular activity or equipment. Codes are often developed by thesame organization that develops standards. These
organizations also develop goodengineering practices and publish as
Recommended Practices.
The intent of thesedocuments is misunderstood since definitions of Codes, Standards and RecommendedPractices are
not always correctly understood. The following definitions are generallyaccepted.
CODE
A group of general rules or systematic procedures for design, fabrication,installation and inspection prepared in such a
manner that it can be adopted by legal jurisdiction and made into law.
STANDARDS
Documents prepared by a professional group or committee who are believed to begood and proper engineering practice
and which contain
mandatory
requirements. Theusers are responsible for the correct application of the same. Compliance with a standarddoes not
itself confer immunity from legal obligation.
RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
Documents prepared by professional group or committee indicating goodengineering practices but which are
optional.Companies also develop Guides in order to have consistency in thedocumentation. These cover various
engineering methods, which are considered good practices, without specific recommendation or requirements.Codes
and Standards, apart from being regulations, might be considered as“design aids” since they provide guidance from
experts.Each country has its own Codes and Standards. On global basis,
American National standards are undoubtedly the most widely used and compliance with thoserequirements are
accepted world over. In India, other than American standards, Britishstandards and Indian standards are also used for the
design and selection of equipmentand piping systems. The major organizations for standards are
PI STANDARDS The API standards generally referred by the Piping Engineers are
:1) API 5L - Specification for Line Pipe2) API 6D/ - Pipe line Valves, End closures, Connectors andISO 14313 Swivels.
3) API 6F - Recommended Practice for Fire Test for valves.
4) API 570 - Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Re-rating ofIn-service piping systems.
5) ANSI/API RP 574 - Inspection Practices for Piping System Components.
6) API 593 - Ductile Iron Plug Valves – flanged ends.
7) API 594 - Check Valves, Wafer, Wafer lug and Doubleflanged Type.
8) API 598 - Valve Inspection and Test.
9) API 599 - Metal Plug Valves.
10) ANSI/API 600/ - Steel Gate ValvesISO
1043411) ANSI/API 602/ - Compact Design carbon steel Gate, Globe andISO 15761 Check valves ≤100 NB.
12) API 603 - Corrosion Resistant Gate Valves
13) API 604 - Ductile Iron Gate Valves – flanged ends.
14) API 607 - Fire test for soft-seated ball valves
ASME B 31.2 - Fuel Gas Piping
ASME B 31.3 - Process Piping4)
ASME B 31.4 - Pipeline Transportation System for liquidhydrocarbon and other
Liquids
5) ASME B 31.5 - Refrigeration Piping
6) ASME B 31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems.
7)
ASME B 31.9 - Building Services Piping8) ASME B 31.11 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems9)
ASME B 31.G - Manual for determining the remaining strength ofcorroded piping - A supplement to
ASME B31