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Английский язык

Министерство образования Российской Федерации

Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков

Английский язык

Методические указания
по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи
для студентов юридического факультета

Ярославль 2003
ББК Ш 143.21я73
К 28

Составители: Н.Н. Касаткина, Е.А. Чурина, Л.В. Купцова

Английский язык: Метод. указания по развитию навыков

чтения и устной речи для студентов юридического факультета / Сост.
Н.Н. Касаткина, Е.А. Чурина, Л.В. Купцова; Яросл. гос. ун-т.
Ярославль, 2003. 56 с.

Приведены аутентичные тексты и задания к ним.

Часть I направлена на знакомство и активизацию юридической
лексики, часть II - тексты на понимание и обсуждение, часть III -
тексты для чтения, перевода и аннотирования.
Данные методические указания предназначены для активизации
навыков перевода, устной речи и работы со специальными текстами
по юридической тематике.

Рецензент: кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского

государственного университета им. П.Г. Демидова.

© Ярославский государственный университет, 2003

© Н.Н. Касаткина, Е.А. Чурина, Л.В. Купцова, 2003


Task 1.
Read the following, paying particular attention to the words in
italics. Discuss the meanings of these in groups.
When someone is arrested for committing an offence, he is taken to
the police station for interrogation. If the police decide there is a case
against him, he is charged with the offence, that is to say the police
formally accuse him of committing it. After this, the accused appears
before a magistrate. This is a well-respected member of the public who is
empowered to decide, with a lawyer's help, what to do about minor cases.
If the magistrate finds the accused guilty, he will sentence him to pay a
fine, or some other minor punishment.
More serious cases are passed up to the Crown Court, where the
accused is tried for the offence by a judge, and usually a jury. Very
serious cases are heard in the high courts in London. The accused may
have to wait a long time to stand trial. Sometimes he can pay bail, as a
kind of guarantee, and await the trial in freedom. In other cases, he is
remanded in custody by the magistrate, and must wait in a cell, in a police
station or a remand prison.
At the trial, the accused pleads guilty or not guilty. If he pleads not
guilty, the jury, composed of twelve ordinary citizens, has to decide if he
is guilty or not. This decision is called their verdict. The judge directs
proceedings, and decides what punishment to give, if any. The lawyers
who try to persuade the jury are called barristers. In court, the one on the
side of the accused is known as the Counsel for the Defence, and the one
against him is called the Counsel for the Prosecution. Each barrister calls
witnesses to give evidence in support of his case. The witnesses can be
cross-examined by the other counsel, who tries to persuade the jury that
the evidence is untrue or not important.
When all the evidence has been heard, the judge sums up the case
and explains legal points for the jury's benefit. He must not try to influence
their decision, however. The jury retire to another room, where they try to
reach a verdict. If they find the accused guilty as charged, we say he has
been convicted of the offence. The judge then passes sentence. He may
sentence the guilty person to pay a fine, to a number of years'
imprisonment, or to some other punishment. If the verdict is 'not guilty',
we say the accused has been acquitted of the offence, and he goes free. If
the accused feels there was something unfair about the trial, he may appeal
to the Appeal Courts, where three judges decide the case.
Which words on the left go with which word or words on the right?
a) plead I verdict
b) cross-examine II case
c) remand III imprisonment
d) commit IV sentence
e) reach V witnesses
f) stand VI offence
g) find VII evidence
h) hear VIII guilty/not guilty
i) pay IX trial
j) call X fine
k) give XI bail
l) sum up XII custody
m) pass
Which people are connected with which items in the previous
exercise. In what way?
the police the accused the magistrate
the judge the jury the witnesses
the barristers
Task 2.
Complete the sentences using a suitable form of a phrase from the
appear in court arrest sb (for sth) accuse (of a crime)
commit (a crime) face charges find sb innocent / (not)
pay a fine (for -ing) take up a case put sb on trial (for a
plead guilty / not guilty suspect sb (of a crime)
return a verdict of
guilty / not guilty

1. The accused was ............... and sentenced to five years in prison.

2. I'm ............... tomorrow and the prosecution will be opposing bail.
3. The owners were.....…….. of setting fire to their own premises.
4. He was made to ............... of £30 for parking in the wrong place.
5. She was arrested and ......…….. for murdering her husband.
6. The best lawyer in the country …............ her case and won it for
7. I'm ......….... for the murder of your husband.
8. He was.......….... stealing money from the safe but they had no real
9. You will be …..………. a number of serious charges when you go
before the judge.
10. The jury ..........….. not guilty.
11. You have ............... a minor offence and I will be lenient with my
12. If you .............…, the judge will probably reduce your sentence.

Task 3.
Complete the following chart.
Verb Noun Person
accuse (1) ………….. accused
start a fire deliberately arson (2)……….….
blackmail (3) ………….. blackmailer
burgle (4) ………….. burglar
commit a crime crime (5)
hack into a camp hacking (6)
hijack (7) hijacker
imprison prison or prisoner
kidnap imprisonment (8) …………..
kill kidnapping killer
mug (9) ………….. mugger
commit and offence (10) …………. (11) …………..
pickpockets offence pickpocket
rob (12) ………….. robber
shoplift (13) ………….. shoplifter
stalk (14) ………….. (15) …………..
steal stalking thief
suspect (16) ………….. suspect

Write down the words in the middle column in 2 that are not a
Task 4.
Which crimes are being described in the following situations?
Fill the gaps with words from the list.

rioting arson mugging vandalism kidnapping

shoplifting robbery hacking burglary domestic violence
stalking murder drug-trafficking blackmail pickpocketing
hijacking looting theft hooliganism fraud

1. People broke into our house and stole our video camera.
2. Youths attacked her in the street and ran off with her handbag.
3. The pilot was forced to take the plane to Tashkent.
4. She killed him by poisoning his coffee.
5. Why do middle class women steal food from supermarkets?
6. Having made no profit that year, he set fire to his own factory.
7. Crowds of protestors broke shop windows and stole goods.
8. They ran around smashing things and fighting other drunken
9. He threatened to tell the newspapers unless he got a thousand
10. Someone has stolen my purse from my desk.
11. The clerk handed over the money when they threatened to shoot
12. The business used deception to obtain money.
13. They were accused of deliberately smashing the phone box.
14. The boy would be harmed unless his parents paid the money.
15. The woman was often seen with bruises on her face.
16. His wallet was stolen from his back pocket.
17. Trained dogs found the packages stuffed into the seats of the lorry.
18. The filmstar had been followed by the same man for months.
19. They accessed the information from government computer
20. Hundreds of police in helmets broke up the angry crowds.
a) What is a crime? Work out a definition.
b) Look up the word in your dictionaries.
c) Compare your definition with other members of the group.
d) Make a list of all the types of crime you know of.
e) Check against the list. Look up the meanings of any new words.
f) How could this list be divided up into groups of crimes?
g) Note down, in order, the three crimes which your group considers
to be the most horrible, and the three which it considers to be the least
horrible. Provide reasons for your choice.
1. Choose three crimes from your list and define them for your partner
(without saying the word). Your partner must say the crime you mean.
2. Revise different kinds of crimes.
Smuggling treason espionage embezzlement blackmail bribery
kidnapping hijacking mugging assault burglary rape forgery murder
manslaughter arson terrorism pickpocketing fraud extortion piracy.
Task 5.
IT’S A Crime
Fill in the blanks. The first letter of each missing word has been
Thieves have been around for centuries, probably for as long as
humans, but armed (l) r...……......... is a more recent phenomenon.
Unfortunately women have always been the (2) v ...……......... rape and
domestic (3) v ...……......... (4). F ........….... has been around ever since
printing has been used to make money or produce documents. Rich people
or their children are sometimes (5) k ...……......... and are not set free until
a ransom has been paid. The twentieth century has been the appearance of
many organised (6) c ...……......... such as hijacking and drug-smuggling
or drug-trafficking. Statistics show an alarming (7) r ...……......... in the
rate of violent crimes and crimes to do with the (8) i.................sale or arms
across the world. Perhaps the most recent crime of all is hacking
computers to access (9) .i..……......... that helps competitors in industry.
This increase in international crime makes one wonder whether it is still
true to say “(10) C ...……......... doesn't pay”.
Task 6.
Complete the blanks with the correct form of the word given at
the end of each sentence.
An innocent man
Last night, Joe Bloggs was arrested on (1) ................ of robbery. suspect
The police had no (2) ............... that he had committed the crime prove
and Joe denied the (3) .........…... saying he had a good alibi. charge
When he was put on (4) ........ , the police called several try
to the stand but Joe's (5) ............... defended his client well law
and tried to prove that Joe had not done anything (6) ..........….. legal
However, the jury found Joe (7) …..... and he was sentenced to guilt
six months in prison. As Joe had never committed a (8) ......... criminal
before this was a very heavy (9) .. ............ . Most people were punish
convinced of Joe's (10) ...…..……. and his lawyer appealed innocent
against the verdict.
Task 7.
Fill in each space with the correct adverb based on a word in the
list. Some words do not need to be changed. Use one word twice.

Long late far high wide most slow quick further wrong little
Catch that thief!
There have been a number of burglaries in our neighbourhood
..............(l). We are not sure who is to blame but it is .…..…….. (2)
believed that the burglaries are …........... (3) the work of one gang. The
police have been very .............. (4) to act and they still know very ..............
(5) for certain. The public, rightly or .............. (6), blame the police for not
acting more .……....... (7). Most people do not think very .............. (8) of
the local police and indeed so .............. (9) they have arrested only one
suspect. They say they need more evidence before they can take the matter
.............. (10). Whenever they are called in to investigate a burglary, it
takes them so .............. (11) to get to the scene of the crime that it is
always too ....…...… (12) to catch the culprits.
Task 8.
Fill in each space in the following text, using an appropriate
present or past participle of the verbs given in the box. You will need
to use one of the verbs twice.
come build see make break follow
talk carry look hide begin haunt
know wear wait stare prepare
get have

The haunted house

Just after midnight, Julian and Anne, with Tommy the dog, arrived at
the .............. (1) house, having first ......…….. (2) sure that no one would
notice their absence. The house, .............. (3) in the seventeenth century,
had been abandoned for several years and the .............. (4) windows stood
.............. (5) like the eyes of a frightened ghost. Julian, .............. (6) by
Anne and Tommy, took out his torch and pointed it towards the fence.
.............. (7) for the gap which they had .............. (8) a few days earlier.
But how had their latest adventure .............. (9)? Julian had been sitting in
a cafe .............. (10) a drink when he overheard some men .............. (11)
about hiding 'the stuff' in the haunted house till things had quietened down.
.............. (12) that the police were looking for drug traffickers in the area,
Julian had followed the men to their car, .............. (13) sure to take down
the number Julian, Anne and Tommy the dog spent the next few evenings
at the house, .............. (14) in one of the old stables next to the house,
.............. (15) patiently for the arrival of the criminals. At last, their efforts
were rewarded. They saw the lights of a car .............. (16) closer. When
the car stopped, a man got out, .............. (17) what seemed to be a large
parcel. A few seconds later they saw another figure .............. (18) out of
the car, .............. (19) a long black overcoat and .............. (20) something
in his hand that, in the darkness, looked like a gun.


Task 1.
Read the article.

The article deals with the following topics:

The time the writer himself was burgled Recent research into burglary
The sentences burglars can expect Danny (the burglar interviewed):
- his background,
- his introduction to crime,
- how he carries out a burglary,
- his attitude to the people he steals from.
Write questions that you would like answered from the article.

The ten key sentences below have been removed. Decide where they
should go.
a. Research by Maguire and Bennett suggests that burglary has a
considerable effect on people's lives, leaving them uneasy, insecure, even
feeling violated.
b. It was dead easy.
c. But the lad I did the house with got caught on another job.
d. Nobody was ever suspicious.
e. Research in Sheffield suggests that nearly three-quarters of
burglars travel less than two miles from their homes to commit the crime.
f. If I got a job, I'd have to change my whole lifestyle.
g. In ten years' time I'll either be doing a ten-year stretch or living it
h. Research by Mike Maguire and Trevor Bennett (Burglary in a
Dwelling, Heinemann 1982) into several hundred victims of burglary
revealed that wilful damage was caused in less than one in a hundred
i. Burglary is more popular today than ever before.
j. Within six months Danny had graduated to houses.

Meet the burglar

'If I got a job I'd have to change my whole lifestyle... Burglary is the
only real skill I've got. In ten years' time I'll either be doing a ten-year
stretch or living it up'. Danny is still only 20, reports Geoffrey Beattie,
but already he's a pro.
I have only been burgled once, and the burglar wasn't even that
successful; he ended up leaving me some of his 5 goods rather than
leaving with mine. I could hear him pottering about. I shouted, he ran,
leaving a typewriter behind, doubtless removed from a neighbour's house.
I considered myself lucky because of the stories about the mess burglars
make when they're on the job – the ransacked rooms, the broken furniture,
the meals they cook themselves, the urine.
Crime prevention advertisements exploit such images to persuade
people to lock their windows. But my burglar wasn't like that – he was
careful, meticulous, and tidy (even if a bit noisy), he didn't try to cook
himself a meal or use my house as a toilet. Apparently he's like many other
burglars. 1.……………………………………………
But what kind of person could go into the home of a total stranger and
have the skill to find something of value (certainly difficult in my house) –
and have no twinge of conscience about removing whatever he could lay
his sticky little fingers on? And what's the probability of it happening
According to Maguire and Bennett's research it is very likely to
happen again. They reckon that the "average British citizen" can expect to
be burgled two or three times during his or her lifetime.
2 ......………………………………………………..
Sentences for house burglary can be quite stiff – the maximum is 14
years – but many burglars today end up in magistrates' courts facing fines.
As another burglar put it to me, "I'd enough in my piggy bank for the first
But what are burglars really like? How could I meet some personally?
A chain of association eventually led me to Danny (name changed).
Still only 20 but already a pro: he's served his time at his chosen
profession in more ways than one. Several hundred burglaries in five
years, and two stretches in Borstal and one in prison. In official terms he's
a recidivist. He puts it bluntly: "Money, clothes, and having a good time is
my life. 3 ………………………..............………

What would I do with £80 a week? I can spend that in one night.
Burglary is the only real skill I've got".
Danny's profession runs in the family (his father is currently on the
run for an armed robbery offence) but he says his family had nothing to do
with it. It was his mates. He was 15, they were 16, he was their eager
pupil. He started with a warehouse. "We were careful to choose one
without a burglar alarm. We got in through a ground floor window.
4 …………….………………………………………
We all had a look about and I found a cashbox in a drawer with a
hundred quid in it. I couldn't believe it. It was money for old rope. We
blew the money in two days on Indian meals, taxis, and drinks. Then we
went out again about three days later. We just get the bus a couple of miles
down the road to the Moor or Bramall Lane and have a wander about".
5 ………………….…………………………………………
Danny enjoyed his new pastime. "Some nights we'd do three places in
the one spot. Sometimes of course you'd find nothing but occasionally
you'd hit the jackpot". 6 .....……………………………………
We'd usually get the bus to Gleadless, which was a good spot because
it borders on a wood. Dead easy to get away. We'd go up in the afternoon
and just pick a house that looked empty.
"My two mates would stay in the next street and I'd just go up and
knock on the door. If anyone answered I'd say 'Is Paul in please?'
7 ………………………….........…………………….……….

They'd just say 'Sorry, you must be at the wrong house.' If nobody
answered I'd just go and get my mates and we'd go round the back and
steam in. If the windows were locked we'd put a coat up to the window
and knock it in. When I was in, I'd head straight for the bedroom to look
for the jewellery case. I'd also look under the mattress straight away. Then
it was down to the kitchen. You'd be amazed how many people keep
money in the oven, but I've even found money stashed in cornflakes boxes.
"We never made a mess, at least deliberately – some houses would
look a bit untidy afterwards but that's because you're looking for things in
a hurry. You haven't got all day. The most I ever got from a house when I
was a kid was eight and a half grand in goods – at least that's what the
local paper said. Me and another kid only got a grand and a half for the
jewellery and stuff. 8 .........…………………………………
He grassed on me. I got a £554 fine plus probation. Of course, the fine
wasn't that bad. I'd made quite a lot by then. My mum had to pay the fine,
though. I'd spent what I'd made".
Danny leans back in his chair. "It might seem to you that I haven't
been that successful, but I've done hundreds of jobs and I've never actually
been caught on the job. It's usually people wanting to do themselves a
favour with the coppers. I know I've got the bottle and the skill.
9 ……………………….………………………………
I'm not going to change my life style". As he got up to go, sun tan,
streaked blond hair, expensive 175 leather jacket, all the trimmings of the
pop star, I asked him the key question. Do you ever think about your
victims? 10 ..…………………………….……………..
Danny doesn't think about this. "Why should I? The people I burgle
can afford it and jewellers are all bent and bump up the insurance claims.
Another thing, I never burgle poor people or old people".
Danny was beginning to sound tike Robin Hood, "But just a minute,
you've burgled council houses, isn't that right?".
"Yes". Danny says, "but loads of ordinary people have slacks of
dough stashed away." "But do you really mean that if you went to all the
trouble of breaking into a house and then discovered that it belonged to an
old person, you wouldn't take anything?".
"Well, not nothing", says Danny, "but I wouldn't leave them broke".
And Robin Hood had, before my very eyes, started to metamorphose into
the Sheriff of Nottingham. Just enough left in the kitty to survive, when
Danny's high demands were met.
Comprehension check and inferring
1. Which of the questions that you wrote are answered in the article?
Did you find any of the information surprising?
2. What do the following extracts tell us about Danny's attitude to a
life of crime, and life in general? 'If I got a job I'd have to change my
whole lifestyle'. (line 72).
'You'd be amazed how many people keep money in the ' oven ...' (line
'Of course, the fine wasn't that bad'. (line 156).
'My mum had to pay the fine, though'. (line 158).
'It might seem to you that I haven't been that successful ...'(line 162).
'The people I burgle can afford it...' (line 181).
3. '... he's served his time ... in more ways than one'. (line 63). What
does the writer mean by this?
4. What do you know about Robin Hood? If necessary, ask your
teacher questions to find out who he was!
Can you now explain the reference to Robin Hood and the Sheriff of
5. The writer has presented most of the article:
dispassionately, letting the information and Danny speak for
themselves. However, there are times when the writer's attitude to burglary
and Danny are apparent. Find them, and comment on his attitude. At the
beginning, the writer seems curious about burglars. How does he appear to
feel by the end?
Task 2.
Fake traffic cop on the M25.
Michael Mellor got a four month suspended jail sentence for his
hobby yesterday. Mellor is a sales representative who drives 400 miles a
week on the M25 London orbital motorway. His hobby? Mellor dresses as
a police officer, and stops motorists who are driving badly. He gives them
a lecture on driving well, then warns them to drive carefully in future.
Mellor got the idea while he was driving home after he had been to a
funeral. He was driving his white Ford Sierra along the M25 and he was
wearing a white shirt and a black tie. He suddenly noticed that cars were
going more slowly when they saw him. Police patrols on the M25 use
plain white Sierras, and the police officers always wear white shirts and
black ties. Two weeks later, a car overtook him on the wrong side. It was
going very fast. Mellor was angry, and flashed his lights. The other car
stopped. Mellor stopped too, and the other driver began apologising for
what he had done. He called Mellor 'officer'.
Mellor bought a police cap, a fluorescent yellow jacket, like the ones
used by the police. For eight months, Mellor patrolled the M25, and
stopped dangerous drivers. At last, the real police saw him, and he was
arrested, Mellor had to pay a £200 fine and lost his job. He said, 'I am very
sorry I have no intention of doing it again'.
Answer the following questions about the text.
1. What was Mellor doing when he got the idea?
2. Where had he been?
3. What make of car was he driving?
4. What was he wearing?
5. What did he notice?
6. What happened two weeks later?
7. How long did Mellor patrol the M25?
8. What happened to Mellor in the end?

Task 3.
Work in groups. Discuss your opinions.
1. In what way are the lifestyles of children today different from when
you were a child?
2. Do you think fear of crime has in any way restricted children's
leisure activities?
Read the article quickly. Tick T (true) or F (false).
1) 80% of children in the UK walk to school today.
2) children are less active today than in the 1930 s.
3) children get plenty of physical exercise at school.
4) researchers believe an inactive lifestyle is a health risk.
5) the risk of a child being killed by a stranger is very small.
6) press reporting reduces fear of crime.
7) an over-protective attitude to children is harmful.

'Images from the past show us children playing out of doors...

Now they are imprisoned by their parents' fear of crime
In the 1970s, 80% of children the UK walked to school
unaccompanied. Now only 9% do. The rise of the motor car, combined
with terror of crime, has turned children into sedentary captives. Where
old-fashioned images show children playing; out of doors, in the street or
in parks, these days they are more likely to be found slouched over video
games and television sets. Children today use up an estimated one-quarter
fewer calories than they did in the 1930s and experts, worried about the
long-term health effects of childhood inactivity, are warning of a future
health crisis. One physiologist who checked children's heart rates during
school physical education activities found that only handful ever got their
heart rates up through exercise sufficiently to be of any benefit. One
researcher was struck with horror when children came round to his door
asking him to sponsor a tour-mile walk, as if this was a great challenge. He
used to walk a four-mile round trip to school every day of the week in his
own childhood.
Some researchers are now saying that an inactive lifestyle brings with
it a risk factor equivalent to a pack of cigarettes a day, or even that it may
be higher risk than either smoking or high blood pressure. If so, that is a
serious cause for concern for our children's generation.
What has been the chief cause of this disastrous change in children's
lives? The car, the video game, and the TV have played their part, but the
most important factor is the unreasonable fear of crime. Children are
imprisoned by their parents’ fear. Women and old people are afraid to go
out alone and at night, but the effect on children is far worse. Yet the
chances of a child being hurt or killed by a stranger are so small that it is a
tragedy to think of all those millions of children living a confined life
indoors, because of the rare horror story that grips the imagination.
If it weren't for this largely imagined danger most parents would like
the idea of their children walking to school and learning independence at a
suitable age. But the way crimes are reported by the popular press greatly
increases fear of crime. If something horrible does happen to a child, there
is an implied question 'What were the parents doing letting that child out
alone?’ which is deeply unfair.
We have to start replacing fear of crime, largely unrealistic, with a
new fear for our children: of physical damage through idleness and
psychological damage through an over-protective attitude that never lets
them explore the world around them.

Task 4.
Reading and discussion.
Read the accounts of the seven court cases. In each one, the
sentence imposed by the judge has been blanked out. Working in groups,
say what you think the sentence should have been. There is no need to
try and replace the exact words. Just say what sentence should have been
1. Former judge sentenced over driving offences.
A 61-year-old former High Court judge, who gave a false name when
stopped for speeding while disqualified, pleaded guilty yesterday to
attempting to pervert the course of justice.
The disgrace of former Judge Vivian Price, of Redwall Farmhouse,
Linton, Kent, was chronicled in Maidstone Crown Court as he
His counsel Mr George Carman, QC, said that for a former deputy
High Court judge to "plead guilty to a charge of trying to pervert the
course of justice is a unique situation as far as I know in the courts of this
He added that "the law has often reserved its most severe punishment
for those in positions of public eminence. Great privilege carries with it
great responsibility".
Miss Heather Hallett, prosecuting, said Price gave his correct date of
birth when stopped for speeding but the name of a member of his family.
He continued the deceit by pressurizing a member of his family to take the
blame. He had been disqualified for drink-driving the same year.
The first offence took place on the Canterbury by-pass where he was
stopped after driving at 98 mph. He was later stopped again doing 50 mph
at Coxheath, near Maidstone, in a 30 mph limit.
For attempting to pervert the course of justice he was sentenced to
…………… for driving while disqualified the first time. For the second
driving offence, he was sentenced to ……………….He was also banned
from driving for ………………
2. …………for Mob leader.
Terry Last, the ringleader of the Chelsea Mob who planned violence at
Britain's football grounds was ………………today.
His Honour Judge Shindler described 24-year-old solicitor's clerk Last
as a man who "glorified and revelled in violence" and who had a
"perverted lust for violence".
The judge, who lists watching soccer as a hobby in his Who's Who
entry, said Last and his gang of four other Chelsea fans had brought terror
to the terraces forcing ordinary fans to stay away.
Attack. Judge Shindler, who follows Crystal Palace, sentenced Last,
of Bow, East London to ……………………for conspiring to fight at
Britain's soccer grounds and …………………..for taking part in an attack
on Everton fans in Liverpool in December, 1985.
3. Driver.
A drink-driver who killed a man while fleeing from police was
………… at Birmingham Crown Court. It was the second conviction
involving drinking and driving in five months for Shabir Sabar, 30, who
ran down Stanley Crofts, 51.
4.……….for boy who killed a school bully.
Simon Lundie, 17, suffered years of hell at the hands of a school
bully. Finally he snapped – and stabbed his tormentor to death.
"This was a wicked and terrible thing you did", Mr Justice Alliott told
Simon today at the Old Bailey.
He accepted that Lundie had been provoked but had decided that such
outrageous behaviour demanded stern punishment. Lundie's mother wept
as he was sentenced to…………………………………………………
The boy he stabbed was 17-year-old Robert Tucker, whose parents
silently watched as Lundie was taken to the cells.
Mr Timothy Langdale, prosecuting, said Tucker bullied and
threatened Lundie. "Every day for 18 months he forced him to hand over
his dinner money of 75p".
Tucker constantly telephoned Lundie at home – sometimes five times
in a day.
"He carried on threatening him and making even greater demands for
money", said counsel. "Lundie was very nervous and frightened of the
other boy".
Two weeks before his death Tucker ordered Lundie to have a fight
with one of his cronies. Lundie was reluctant, but there was a minor
scuffle involving Tucker as well.
When arrested Lundie told detectives: "It is a long story. This has
been going on for years. I could not take any more".
Lundie, of Rochford Avenue, Waltham Abbey, pleaded not guilty to
murder but admitted manslaughter.
His plea was accepted.
5. Night intruder.
A jilted lover smashed his way into his ex-girlfriend's home and said,
after grabbing her throat: "I could kill you. Noone knows I am here", a
court heard on Monday.
Jobless David Jones, formerly of Bedwyn Walk, Aylesbury, appeared
at Aylesbury Magistrates Court only three days before his 22nd birthday
and admitted assault occasioning actual bodily harm, and criminal damage.
The court ……………… Jones ……………., and ordered him to pay
£32 compensation for the window and £30 towards costs.
6. Double rapist.
A man who raped a 25-year-old bank clerk less than a month after
being bailed for a similar offence was ………….. at Birmingham Crown
Court yesterday ……………………….
Steven Wilson, aged 25, of Coventry, met the woman in a night club
in Coventry last New Year's Eve. Four weeks earlier he had committed a
similar rape on a girl aged 20, whom he also met in a night club.
7. How Erica put drug dealer behind bars.
Drug dealer Anthony Dorrington has been ………………….after he
was trapped by a police operation code-named 'Erica'.
Throughout the summer weeks of last year crack drug squad officers
from Herts mounted a secret surveillance operation on Dorrington's flat.
They logged down all the visitors before mounting a raid on the
premises in Abbey View, Garston.
Dorrington, 35, and flatmate Neil Hornsby, 27, were both arrested
after officers found unknown substances, syringes and needles.
It turned out the pair had been dealing in heroin.
The sentences imposed were as follows:
- five years' youth custody
- ten years' imprisonment
- eighteen months' imprisonment
- a fine of £110
- four years' imprisonment
- ten years' imprisonment
- a nine-month suspended jail sentence.
In your opinion, which sentence goes with which court case?
Do you think the decisions were fair?
Was anyone treated unduly harshly or leniently?
Did the sentences reflect the proper order of priorities; that is, was the
most serious crime punished most severely?
Task 5.
1.Work in groups. Discuss the question.
Crime is a growing problem in many countries. What do you think the
main causes are?
2. Read the article. Make the pie chart with information from the
Cost of crime at £20.4 billion a year
According to a recent research survey, the cost of crime to individuals,
businesses, taxpayers, and local authorities in England and Wales has now
reached £20.4 billion a year. The research shows that £10 million of
property is stolen every day. It estimates the cost of the Criminal Justice
System, which includes the police and prisons, to be £9,5 billion. The cost
to business is put at £7.5 billion: losses from car crime at £775 million:
and goods stolen in domestic burglaries at £495 million. The £20.4 billion
figure also includes the £2 billion cost of the private security industry and
the £165 million paid in compensation to victims of violent crime. The
research also shows that household and car insurance bills have risen by
20% in four years, due to a sharp increase in the number of claims for
property theft.

Read the article. Tick T(true) or F (false).

According to the UK crime study:
1. Video cameras help to reduce crime in car parks.
2. Car manufacturers have improved car security.
3. Improving home security does not reduce the risk of burglary.
4. The government has not dealt with the problem of young

Study criticizes failure to prevent crime

The latest UK Crime study criticizes the lack of crime prevention
measures, and calls for much more to be done to reduce high crime rates.
Car crime
The study reported that 25% of all car crime takes place in car parks,
and that in some car parks millions of pounds' worth of cars were stolen
every year. The study found levels of car crime were much lower in car
parks that had video security systems. It estimated that there would have
been 30% less car crime if all car park operators had installed video
The study also criticized car manufacturers for not making any effort
to improve car security: «Car manufacturers have known for years which
cars are the favourites of car thieves. They should have fitted these cars
with anti-theft systems. If they had done that, car thieves would have
found them a lot less easy to steal».
One of the key findings of the study was that some people's homes
had been broken into over and over again. The study was critical of home
owners who had failed to improve security: The owners should have
followed the advice of the police. If they had made their homes more
secure, they might have avoided another burglary'.
Young criminals
The study of crime in one town showed that some young offenders
had started committing crimes at the age of nine or ten, and that by the age
of sixteen they had cost the public over ONE million pounds each. Many of
them came from broken homes or had a parent with a criminal record. The
study criticized the government for failing to deal with the problem: «The
government should have set up schemes to help these children. If they had
done that, the children might have stopped committing crimes. The
schemes would have offered them an alternative to a life of crime».
Task 6.
Do you think girls are as aggressive as boys?
Why do you think girls are becoming more violent?
Girls are turning to violent crime.
Girls commit more than one in four of all juvenile crimes and are
becoming increasingly involved in violence, according to a Government
study published yesterday.
In 1957, girls accounted for only one crime in 11. This striking change
was highlighted in a report into anti-social behavior in adolescents. It
shows that the criminal activities of so-called girl gangs are part of a
worsening trend.
Over the past 10 years, the number of arrests of girls for violence has
more than doubled and juvenile crime is increasing at a faster rate among
girls than boys. This is said to be almost entirely the result of the post-war
period – particularly family breakdown – that is evident across the western
In the past girls were effectively supervised and were less likely to be
exposed to anti-social influences. Anne Hagell, one of the authors of the
report, said: "Parents are less likely to supervise daughters is they once
did. Young girls are spending increasing amounts of time at school. Also,
where once a 13-year-old would sit in heroin bedroom listening to records
with a friend, now there is a trend towards girls doing the same as boys
have always done, which is going around on the streets in groups of five
or more".
Boys are more likely to be involved in burglary and drug offences but
the ratio falls for criminal damage, robbery, violence and theft.
The report says that poor parental supervision is a major factor in
delinquency and the increase both in juvenile crime and the involvement
of girls has coincided with high divorce rates and family breakdown.
There is also a vicious circle at play, with anti-social girls, more likely to
become teenage mothers and to be less in a position to give their own
offspring the care and that can prevent the next generation sliding into
1. How many juvenile crimes are committed by girls?
2. In the past ten years, how has the number of juvenile arrests
3. What reasons are put forward for girls becoming more violent?
4. What sort of crimes are buys involved in?
Key words
delinquency minor crimes committed by young people
vicious circle a state of affairs where the cause produces an effect
which then produces the original cause
surveillance careful watch of someone suspected of doing wrong
parental supervision when parents check on their children
family breakdown when a mother and father split up
Handy hints
• The peak age for offending among boys in Britain has risen from 13
in 1931 to 14 in 1971 and 18 today.
• The peak age for offending among girls was 19 in 1938 and is now
• In the 14-25 age group 55% of males and 31% of females said they
had committed at least one crime in their life.
• There are 17 young-offender institutes fur boys in Britain, but none
for girls.
Task 7.
What do you think is the purpose of prison?
Are there any alternatives to prison?
I love my electronic ball and chain.
Mina is one of the first prisoners to be tagged electronically. But life
under constant curfew is better than jail.
Two weeks ago, Mina's home was a prison. Today she is sitting in her
living room. The slim, grey band encircling her left ankle holds the key to
her freedom. Mina is one of 1,500 prisoners who are currently being
monitored under the Government's Home Detention Curfew (HDC).
Under the system, offenders are placed under a home curfew and are
fitted with an electronic tag which sends signals to monitoring equipment
installed in their homes. If the conditions are broken, the signal will alert
the authorities.
HDC aims to provide “a managed transition between prison and living
in the community”. The curfew times and boundaries are prearranged with
the prison governor and can be tailored to individual needs. Mina must be
indoors from 7pm to 7am but has a special extension to go to night classes
once a week.
Around 60,000 prisoners will be eligible for HDC, and it is estimated
that half number will pass the risk assessment necessary to take part in the
scheme. This will result in around 4,000 of the 65,000 prison population
being tagged at any one time.
Mina claims she had to fight tooth and nail for her freedom, and now
she is free Mina is a fan of the system. “It is wonderful to be back in my
home again – I don't miss going out in the evenings. I have the freedom to
look for work, run my house and look after my dog”.
The Home Office insists that the scheme is tamper-proof, but there
have been cases of offenders slipping their tags. “Girls in prison used to
boast that they would cut their tags off when they got outside, that's really
stupid. It would be a shame if it was ruined for everybody else”.
Although Mina has no intention of breaking her curfew, accidents can
happen. “One evening I'd allowed myself two hours to drive back from
Central London but the traffic was bumper to bumper. I had to break the
speed limit to get back. I flung myself through the door - tagged ankle
first - and made it with 30 seconds to spare”.

The Home Office says the system is designed to cope with
emergencies and the occasional mishap, but repeated violations of the
curfew would result in the offender returning to jail.
Mina says that she does not feel particularly stigmatised by the tag.
“It's nobody's business but mine, although I don't advertise the fact that I'm
wearing it”.
1. Where on her body does Mina wear her tag?
2. How many prisoners are being monitored?
3. Is Mina positive about the scheme?
4. What is Mina worried about? Why?
5. How does the Home Office say the system will manage violations?
Key words
to discipline to train or control
penalty punishment for breaking the law
punitive very severe, harsh
to authorise to give approval, permission for something
selection the process of choosing something carefully
redemptive improved or saved
Handy hints
• In May 1998 the prison population in England and Wales was
• A total of 4.807 offenders have been tagged since the trial started in
July 1995.
• 1,886 are still being monitored.
• 215 orders have been revoked, 4% of the total.
• The study has cost £3 million.

Task 8.
White couple lose battle to bring up black foster child.
A while couple failed in the Court of Appeal yesterday to win the
black child that they had brought up since he was younger than a month
James and Lynne Melling, the foster parents, had remortgaged their
home and spent £8,000 in a legal battle to prevent the child, now aged two,
from being taken away from them.
The court was told that Mr. Melling, aged 42, and his wife, aged 40
had 'showered the child, David, with love and affection since he was 24
days old in February 1989'. At the beginning of last year the Mellings said
that they wanted to make a permanent home for the boy and bring him up
with their other adopted son, Tyrone, aged nine. In November, however,
Lancashire County Council told the couple that long-term carers had been
found for David, who would eventually adopt him and bring him up with
their two other adopted black children.
Matthias Kelly, counsel for Mr. and Mrs. Melling, told the court that
the authority (The authority here refers to the county council) had a rigid
policy on placing children with families of the same cultural and ethnic
background, but, he said, “The council has paid too little attention to the
deep and binding love the couple has bonded with David and he with
Lord Justice Balcombe, one of the three judges hearing the appeal,
said that there had never been any suggestion that the couple had given
other than excellent care to the child. On the contrary, “One cannot but
feel sympathy for them after they raised David for the first two years of his
life. They have obviously grown very fond of him and want to keep him
on a permanent basis”.
The council said Mr. and Mrs. Melling knew that they were only
short-term carers while a long-term solution was being sought. The judge
said that it was for the court to interpret the law, and under the 1980 Child
Care Act the couple would have to prove that the local authority had been
so unreasonable and its decision so perverse, that no other local authority
could make the same decision in similar circumstances.
Passing judgement Lord Justice Balcombe said that in his view no
court could come to that decision, and that the application for a judicial
review must be dismissed. He could only sympathize with the couple who
had 'taken on the task of giving love and care to children whose own
parents did not'.
After the hearing, Mrs Melling said she had hoped that the interests of
the child would outweigh the letter of the law. "It's all very well these
judges having sympathy for us. We have had lots of sympathy. Instead of
sympathy, we want David returned to us, or, at the very least, a review of
our case.
“It appears that, while they may agree with us emotionally, they do
not want to set a precedent. Since David was taken away we have not
heard a thing about him, not even a note to say how he is doing".

A. This newspaper article deals with a dilemma of a different
nature. Read the article to answer questions 1 - 3.
1. What is the difference between adoption and fostering?
2. What kind of people are the Mellings?
3. Why exactly did they lose the child?
B. Find evidence in the text to support or refute these
1. The Meillings had brought David up well.
2. The Mellings could easily afford the court case.
3. The Mellings have not got any children of their own.
4. Lancashire County Council agrees with integrating races.
5. The judge and barristers were unsympathetic towards the
6. Lord Balcombe felt that the council had acted unreasonably.
C. Read through the article again and list words and phrases
from the headings below.

the courts and the legal system adopting children

Court of Appeal Foster parents
Compare your lists with your partner's.

Task 9.
A Slight Hitch
• Why do people get married? Think of as many reasons as you can.
• Describe a typical wedding ceremony in your country.
Philip Carey marries a stranger.
It's no coincidence that weddings only come at the end of novels and
films. The message is clear. Get married: The End.
After three years in LA, I'd pretty much become immune to the
average Los An-gelino. But when a 24-year-old Califonian let herself into
my apartment, it was worthy of a raised eyebrow. "Hi, I'm CJ, I met your
roommate. He said you needed to get married to stay in the country. I'll
marry you".
It was that simple. I was only a couple of weeks away from
Immigration running me out of the US, but marriage? To an obviously
mad stranger? I looked her up and down. She had a flat stomach, and most
of her own teeth. I accepted.
The true gravity of the situation started to become apparent when my
fiance's mother called up to confirm the chapel. Apparently CJ's family
would be attending. This was no longer the carefree affair I had imagined.
What was I doing?
It was 11am, three hours till showdown. I woke up to a pounding on
the hotel-room door. CJ was asleep. The less I remembered about this, the
better. My best man was at the door to remind me I hadn't bought the
rings, so we headed off to the mall. Fortuitously, this was located next to a
bar. Having enjoyed 'one last swifty' three or four times, we were left with
ten minutes to buy the rings, grab a taxi to the hotel, get changed and meet
the limo.
I hit the hotel room at a sprint, two $20 rings in my pocket. CJ was
still asleep. Not only were we horribly late but she still had to buy new
I called the chapel. My panic was unfounded. Yes, I could reschedule.
What about 4.20 or 4.35 or 4.50? I breathed a sigh of relief.
Then CJ tapped me on the shoulder. "You do love me, don't you?" I
hardly knew this person. I nodded and retreated to the hotel bar. By the
time we were cruising along the strip, the "I love yous" were flowing
freely. I loved CJ, I loved marriage, I even loved the squat, bearded
limousine driver.
The first stop was City Hall for a marriage licence. We each took a
form-requiring just name, address, date and place of birth, intended
spouse. The laxity regarding identification also came as a surprise. All you
need is a birth certificate. No passport, no photo ID.
Next stop, the chapel. There was the family to meet: plus hordes of
well-meaning people from places I'd never heard of.
CJ sprinted up the aisle, dragging me with her. We stood at the altar.
She rolled her eyes each time 'respect and honour' were mentioned, then
giggled "I will".
And that was it. I smiled and posed for photos afterwards but couldn't
shake the empty feeling inside. I just wanted my bed.
Morning had arrived. I hadn't been drained of the will to live. Maybe
I could do this. "So", CJ finally said. "Tell me about yourself. What do you
1. Where did the writer live?
2. How long had he lived there?
3. Why did the writer need to get married?
4. When did the writer first begin to worry about his coming
5. How strict were the official requirements for getting a licence? Give
6. How did the writer feel immediately after the ceremony? Why?
Explain: marriage of convenience; arranged marriage; shotgun
wedding; a love match.
• Do you think writer's marriage to CJ will last? Why, why not?
• Many people nowadays get married on tropical islands, in castles,
even while doing a parachute jump. Do you think the wedding ceremony is
important? If not, why not? .
• Do you think gay couples should also be able to get married?
• It the UK, the number of couples getting married is falling. Is the
same happening in Russia? Why, why not?
• How acceptable is it for people to live together unmarried in your
• Would you like to get married or would you be happy to live with
your partner? Why, why not?


Law and Legal Education

Text 1.
The need for law
Mr. Jones, having murdered his wife, was burying her in the garden
one night, when his neighbour, hearing the noise, asked him what he was
"Just burying the cat", said Mr. Jones.
"Funny sort of time to bury a cat", said the neighbour.
"Funny sort of cat", said Mr. Jones.
Now it is obvious to everyone that, in a community such as the one in
which, we live, some kind of law is necessary to try to prevent people like
Mr. Jones Horn from killing their wives. When the world was at a very
primitive stage, there was no such law, and, if a man chose to kill his wife
or if a woman succeeded in killing her husband, that was their own
business and no one interfered officially.
But, for a very long time now, members of every community have
made laws for themselves in self-protection. Otherwise it would have
meant that the stronger man could have done what he liked with the
weaker, and bad men could have joined together and terrorized the whole
If it were not for the law, yon could not go out in broad daylight
without the fear of being kidnapped, robbed or murdered. There are far, far
more good people in the world than bad, but there are enough of the bad to
make law necessary in the interests of everyone.
There is no difficulty in understanding this but it is just as important to
understand that law is not necessary just because there are bad people in
the world. If we were all as good as we ought to be, laws would still be
necessary. If we never told lies, never took anything that didn't belong to
us, never omitted to do anything that we ought to do and never did
anything that we ought not to do, we should stilt require a set of rules of
behaviour, in other words laws, to enable us to live in any kind of
satisfactory state.
How is one good man in a motor-car to pass another good man also in
a motor-car coming in the opposite direction, unless there is some rule of
the road? People sometimes hover in front of one another when they are
walking on the pavement before they can pass, and they may even collide.
Not much harm is done then, but, if two good men in motor-cars going in
opposite directions hover in front of one another, not knowing which side
to pass, the result will probably be that there will be two good men less in
the world.
So you can see that there must be laws, however good we may be.
Unfortunately, however, we are none of us always good and some of us
are bad, or at any rate have our bad moments, and so the law has to
provide for all kinds of possibilities. Suppose you went to a greengrocer
and bought some potatoes and found on your return home that they were
mouldy or even that some of them were stones, what could you do if there
were no laws on the subject? In the absence of law you could only rely
upon the law of the jungle. You could go back to the shop, demand proper
potatoes and hit the shopkeeper on the nose if he refused to give them to
you. You might then look round the shop to try to find some decent
potatoes. While yon were doing this, the shopkeeper might hit you on the
back of the neck with a pound weight. Altogether not a very satisfactory
morning's shopping.
Or you might pay your money to go to see a film at a cinema. You
might go inside, sit down and wait. When the cinema was full, there might
be flashed on the screen; "You've had it, Chums". And that might be the
whole of the entertainment. If there were no law, the manager could safely
remain on the premises and, as you went out, smile at you and say: "Hope
you've enjoyed the show, sir". That is to say, he could do this safely if he
were bigger than you or had a well-armed bodyguard.
Every country tries, therefore, to provide laws which will help its
people to live safely and as comfortably as possible. This is not at all an
easy thing to do, and no country has been successful in producing laws
which are entirely satisfactory. But we are far better off with the imperfect
laws which we have, than if we had none at all.
Text 2.
Legal profession and legal education
In any country, legal profession plays an important role. The work
carried out by lawyers is diverse. Under adversary systems of justice,
lawyers are advocates representing their clients. Besides litigation, lawyers
perform different duties. They are advisors to business firms, to
governmental agencies, to individuals, etc.
Lawyers do gravitate to many crucial interactions while forming and
implementing social, political, and economic policy. That is why the
general objective of legal education is to prepare the students of law to
function as competent lawyers. Any Law School must provide broad
training. The specific objective of the curriculum is to maximize the
student's mastery of legal reasoning and legal method - in addition to
teaching the basic substantive rules of the law.
Students of law must be taught to analyze complex factual situations,
to reason deductively, to separate the relevant from the irrelevant to handle
the most difficult problems.
The main function of legal profession and legal practice is to apply the
law in specific cases. This function is one of the most important in any
branch of legal profession but most vividly this function is manifest in the
work carried out by advocates and judges in the process of trying and
deciding cases.
The most prestigious branch of legal profession in Great Britain and
the countries influenced by its system is the judiciary. To become a judge
one has to spend 15 - 25 years in private legal practice or in teaching law
or governmental legal service. The judges are either appointed or elected.
In England judges are more commonly appointed. Appointments of the
judges are made by the Lord Chancellor. In the U.S.A. the appointive
system is used in federal courts. Appointments of judges are under control
of the Chief executive of the nation or state. In many states judges are
elected by the population of the state.
Governments require a staff of legal specialists. Great governmental
departments need their own legal subbranch to have skilled legal advice.
There are also a lot of lawyers in private client-directed practice.
An American lawyer Erwin N. Criswold writes: "Although our legal
system is largely derived from England, we have not followed the English
practice in the organization of the legal profession. There is no formal
division of the profession in the United States. We do not have barristers,
or courtroom lawyers, on the one hand, and solicitors, on the other. With
us, any lawyer is free to engage in any sort of legal activity, and he may be
in court one day and engaged in drafting legal papers the next. Indeed, the
notion of the separation of the legal profession into different branches is so
unknown in the United States that most American lawyers have difficulty
in understanding the English or French systems. Of course there is certain
amount of specialization in the actual activities of many American
lawyers, but they are accustomed to doing whatever they feel their clients
need and they feel qualified to do..." Erwin N. Criswold names such
spheres of specialization as labor law. taxation, etc.
As far as lawyers are servants of the public as well as of their clients,
they have several loyalties. Lawyers must be loyal to their clients, to the
administration of justice, to the interests of the society as a whole, to their
own ethical standards.
Text 3.
By Emma Haughton
What do you come out with? LLB (Bachelor of Law), which lets you
proceed straight to Part 2 of the Bar or Law Society Qualifying
Why do it? Some want a good solid professional qualification that
their parents would approve of, while others see law as an interesting and
rigorous degree that will open doors anywhere. Probably a minority have a
genuine interest in justice and see law as a noble profession where they
can do their bit to change the world. For most people a law degree
represents a good each way bet. And if you do snaffle a job in one of the
big city law firms, your salary could push £100K within a few years, while
eventually, with partnership and equity. £1 million isn't out of the
What's it about? All law courses cover the same core subjects needed
to gain your professional exemptions, such as constitutional law, criminal,
contracts, land and property law, and jurisprudence. You then do a range
of options e.g. environmental, international, tax, family and immigration
law. Sheffield and Birmingham lean away from 'black letter' law and
doctrine towards putting it all into an ethical, political and economical
context. Be warned that law does involve a lot of hard graft, with a good
deal of rote learning of cases and the ability to analyse and critically
evaluate their impact.
How long is a degree? Three years. Four years if you combine it with
language and spend a year abroad.
What are the students like? Clever, ambitious and fairly hard-headed.
Not many risk-takers. Over the last 20 years women have overtaken men
in terms of numbers on courses. You'll also be mixing with foreign
students as English law degrees have an excellent reputation abroad.
How is it packaged? A combination of continuous assessment and
exams, with a project or dissertation or two thrown in. Central Lancashire
also assesses on group work skills, and on student's ability to interview and
What A-levels do you need? Not an issue, although some of the flakier
options will be sniffed at.
Will you be interviewed? No at Birmingham, probably at Essex. No,
if you're a dead cert at Nottingham, but if you're more borderline you'll be
invited to a group interview', where you'll also have to take a logic and
semantics test.
What do students say? "I wanted a degree that would be recognized
whatever I ultimately ended up doing. The work is demanding but really
interesting, and I've now decided I want to practice as a solicitor." (Jon
Gill. 20,2 year. Birmingham) "The staff were great, the facilities good, and
its reputation precedes it". (Steven Abberley, graduated from Nottingham
at 32) "My final year was tough, but enjoyable. The end of the year was
the most stressful, with dissertations and projects needing to be in as well
as exams and practicals" (Mark Rawlinson, 22, graduated from Central
Lancashire in July. 2000).
Where's best for teaching? King's College, LSE, Oxford Brooks,
SOAS, Queen's Belfast, UCL, Bristol, Cambridge, Durham, East Anglia,
Essex, Leicester, Liverpool, Manchester, Northumbria, Nottingham,
Oxford, Sheffield, Southampton, Warwick and UWE were all rated
Where's best for research? Cambridge and Oxford got a top-ranking
5*. Birkbeck. Essex. King's College, LSE, Manchester, Nottingham,
Sheffield, Southampton, UCL, Aberdeen and Cardiff got a 5.
Where's the cutting edge? Essex is strong on human rights and
commercial law, Nottingham on international law and law of conflict,
Sheffield on the regulation of biotechnology and criminology. Central
Lancashire is hot on environmental law, while Birmingham is well up on
European law, public law and criminal justice.
Related courses: Many law schools allow you to combine law with a
modern language. At Nottingham you can also do a joint honours in law
and politics, while Sheffield offers a BA in law and criminology and an
LLB in European comparative and international law. At Birmingham you
will soon be able to combine it with business studies and engineering.
Added value: Essex offers a popular option in sports law- and has a
student legal practice where you can gain practical experience of legal
things like going to court. Nottingham offers a chance to study at the
University of Texas on its four-year degree. Birmingham's Holdsworth
club organises functions for law students- including famous speakers.
Text 4.
Employment law
Employment law is a very large topic in which the principles of tort
and contract have been greatly added to by specific legislation. The history
of employment law really begins with the industrialization of Western
countries in the 19th century. Before industrialization most people worked
on the land or in some craft connected with agriculture. They tended to
work for the same employer in the same place most of their life.
Employment rights depended upon paternalistic employers and informal
agreements. Many employees were in a very weak position because part of
their wages was paid in the form of food and accommodation. Although
there were peasant movements which succeeded in improving conditions –
over 1000 of them in Tokugawa Japan, for example - few of them led to
legislation or outlasted the protest in question.
Industrialization brought large numbers of workers together in the
same workplace. Recognizing their strength in times of economic
expansion and their weakness, during depressions, they began to organize
themselves more systematically than farmworkers. In response,
governments began to see a need for legislation in order to standardize
rights and conditions. Laws were passed to recognize and also limit the
right of workers to strike. Other legislation dealt with health and safety in
the workplace, and limits upon working hours and ages. Toward the end of
the century, Germany and other countries developed systems of insurance
to protect workers during sickness, unemployment and retirement. The
20th century has seen a great increase in the detail of such legislation.
Although employees' rights seem to have expanded during labour
shortages (as in present-day Japan) and contracted in times of
unemployment, there has been a steady increase in the areas of
employment that the law has come to regulate. Most of the richer countries
now have legislation which guarantees a minimum wage for all-workers;
prevents employees from being dismissed without some reason, period of
advance notice, or compensation; and requires employers to give their
employees a written statement of the main term of their employment
contract. In the last twenty years, many countries have also passed laws to
ensure that men and women are given equal opportunities to do the same
work in the same conditions.
The right to strike was one of the first employment rights to be
recognized by law, yet the specific rules have varied from time to time and
country to country. Since the 1984 Trade Union Act, all strikes in Britain
must be supported by a majority vote of the workers in a secret ballot.
Technically, strike action still constitutes a breach of an employee's
contract of employment. Indeed in 1976 when Grunwick, a London film-
processing firm, dismissed all its striking workers, the workers lost their
claim in an industrial tribunal for unfair dismissal. However, employers
are unlikely to dismiss workers who are all backed by a trade union.
Where Britain had a high record of strikes in the 1970s, it was sometimes
said that there were too many different unions inside each company - one
to represent each kind of job. Recently there has been a trend toward
adopting single-union agreements whether it is legal for an employer to
decide which union a worker is to join.
Text 5.
Labour law.
Labour law is the varied body of law applied to such matters as
employment, remuneration, conditions of work, trade unions, and
industrial relations. In its most comprehensive sense the term includes
social security and disability insurance as well. Unlike the laws of
contract, tort, or property, the elements of labour law are somewhat less
homogeneous than the rules governing a particular legal relationship. In
addition to the individual contractual relationships growing out of the
traditional employment situation, labour law deals with the statutory
requirements and collective relationships that are increasingly important in
mass-production societies, the legal relationships between organized
economic interests and the state, and the various rights and obligations
related to some types of social services.
Thus a body of law originally intended for the protection of manual
workers in industrial enterprises is gradually transformed into a broader
body of legal principles and standards, which have basically two functions:
the protection of the worker as the weaker party in the employment
relationship, and the regulation of the relations between organized interest
groups (industrial relations).
The administration of labour law.
Labour law involves the organization and functioning of
administrative authorities such as labour departments, labour inspection
services, and other organs of enforcement. Administration of the law also
encompasses the operation of labour courts and other bodies for the
settlement of grievances arising from existing contracts or collective
agreements and of industrial disputes arising between labour and
The principal problem in many countries is to relate the process of
labour administration and its specal intimacy with labour and management
to overall economic and social planning in a manner that gives proper
weight to social considerations in economic policy. This problem falls
mostly outside the scope of labour law, but its solution does depend in part
on the extent to which labour law provides for and secures effective
standards of administration.
Special categories of workers.
Labour law includes many provisions for particular occupational or
other groups. These sometimes appear as special parts of a general code,
special legislation, or provisions that limit specific legislative provisions
with regard to particular groups. These special provisions are common and
important in mining, transportation (and in particular maritime transport),
commercial occupations, and agriculture.
Individual employment relations.
The making, modification, and termination of individual employment
relations and the resulting obligations for the parties form a second branch
of labour law. It may also involve certain aspects of promotion, transfer,
and dismissal procedures and compensation. Historically speaking, the law
on these matters was at one time described as the law of master and
servant. It implied a contractual relation in which one party agreed to be
under the control of the other in the sense that the servant was bound to
obey orders not only as to the work that adaptation to new circumstances
should be orderly and gradual so as not to unduly undermine predictability
and stability in human affairs. In the common taw, the role of adapting the
law to changing conditions has traditionally belonged to judges. Because
the administration of justice has been centralized, English judges have
been well situated to assume this responsibility. In civil-law countries,
where the multiplicity of courts has prevented this task from being
performed by the judges, it has been professors who have taken the leading
These traditional differences may diminish, however, for in the civil-
law countries judicial power has increased with the national centralization
of the administration of justice and with the assumption of a more active
role by the judiciary, while in most of the common-law parts of the world
the centralized English courts long ago lost their supremacy to a
multiplicity of supreme courts in the United States and in the
Commonwealth. The role of maintaining the internal coherence of the law
is thus increasingly shared by the courts with that group of professionals –
the professors – who traditionally have performed this function in the
civil-law world.
All civil-law countries have adopted the adversary type of procedure
that for centuries was peculiar to the common law, and they have
abandoned the canonical procedure in which the evidence was presented to
the judge in the form of a written record made up by a public officer,
mostly in the absence of the parties. In modem adversary procedure,
lawyers address their arguments directly to the court in both the civil-law
and the common-law systems. Certain differences, however are striking. In
common-law systems the parties and their lawyers gather and present
factual evidence in each case, in civil-law systems greater responsibility to
investigation of facts is placed upon the judge, and it is generally the judge
who plays the leading role in examining witnesses and who summons
experts when needed. In general, the civil-law judge plays a much more
active role in directing the course of a lawsuit than does his common-law
Many differences between civil law and common law procedures and
rules of evidence seem attributable to the absence of a jury in civil cases in
the continental systems. During the 19th century, several civil law
countries experimented with the use of a jury for criminal cases. During
the 20th century, however, the criminal jury has been abandoned in favour
of a system having a mixed bench, on which professional, legally trained
judges sit with a jury of laymen or lay judges to decide not only questions
of fact (as in the common law) but also those of law.
Family Law
Text 6.
A Quiet revolution? (The British Woman and her Family)
Dramatic changes have taken place in all areas of British social life
over the past fifty years or so.
At the turn of the 20th century the traditional family usually contained
a married couple, with three or four children, and perhaps their
grandmother, or 'granny', in the background. This ideal picture also
included the traditional idea of the father going out to work while the
mother ran the house. Roles were very clear for the parents and the
children. Discipline within the family unit was strong, and moral standards
were high.
Social and economic developments in the second half of the century
that brought about dramatic changes in the British household are
numerous. The most important of these are marked improvements in the
standard of living – between 1971 and 1997 real household income per
head more than doubled.
The baby-boom period of the 1950s saw a large increase in the
number of babies born and it was followed by the sexual revolution of the
1960s and the 1970s that liberalised attitudes towards sex outside
marriage. Since then there has been a long-term decline in the number of
nuclear families consisting of three or more people. The proportion of
traditional families consisting of a couple with dependent children is also-
shrinking year by year. Women now choose to have later marriages: in
1979 only one in seven women aged between 25 and 29 was still single,
compared with one in three (some marrying in their mid 30s) in the 1990s.
Many women are postponing having children, and there has been an
increase in the average age of women giving birth, from 27 years in
England and Wales in 1981 to 29 years in 1997. More women (now about
20%) choose not to have children at all. This can be explained in part by
the fact that in Britain today nearly half the female population is in paid
work, with various laws giving women new opportunities and incentives.
It is not uncommon to find that the mother is not only a housewife, but
also the main breadwinner.
With social attitudes and behaviour changing, there is an enormous
variety of life styles, relationships and ways of bringing up children in
Britain. For instance, the growing tendency not to marry: the number of
people living alone has risen significantly, from one in ten in 1951 to one
in three by the end of the century. Many women (and the number of these
is growing) live alone, preferring independence, which they fear they will
lose through marriage.
Cohabitation is no longer common only as a living arrangement
before marriage. Many other couple living together, or 'cohabiting', now
never bother with marriage.
This does not mean to say that there are fewer marriages in Britain.
Marriages are as popular as ever, with 400,000 weddings yearly. First
marriages for both partners have declined by half compared with the peak
reached in 1970 and today 40% are second-time marriages for at least one
partner. Thus, this figure means a high divorce rate, and this has increased
by 50% to become the highest in the European Union. Reasons for the
climbing divorce rate are partly the personal development of women who
frequently want the right to pursue a career.
Sometimes the husband's difficulty in adapting to the new situation
puts a strain on the marriage. Nearly three-quarters of divorces in 1996
were granted to wives. The most common basis for wives being granted a
divorce was the unreasonable behaviour of their husbands, while for men
the most common reason was the adultery of their wives.
One inevitable consequence of the climbing divorce rate has been the
rise of single-parent (or lone-parent) families. In the 1960s and early
1970s, lone parents with dependent children were still comparatively rare:
just one in thirteen families in 1971, for example, compared with more
than one in five today.
There has also been an increase in babies born outside marriage. This
is also a sign of more permissive social attitudes: these babies, once
described as illegitimate' (a permanent punishment for the innocent baby),

are now described officially as 'non-marital'. In 1961 only 6% of all births
were outside marriage, but the rate rose steeply to almost 37% in 1997.
Every third child in Britain now is born to a single mother, and the
rate is the highest in areas of high unemployment and the greatest poverty.
Some analysts suggest that the birth of a child gives a woman in such
circumstances someone to love, a purpose in life and access to state
These alarming statistics makes some people say that the family unit
in Britain is in crisis and that traditional family life is becoming a thing of
the past. Critics consider such statistics to be evidence of moral decline
and argue the need to return to traditional values. Some politicians blame
social problems, such as drug taking and juvenile crime, on a
disintegrating family life.
Text 7.
Shadow Cabinet split over marriage tax perks
By Andrew Grice and Sarah Schaefer
William Hagues Shandow Cabinet is divided over plans to bolster the
institution of marriage in a new battle over his attempt to create a new
brand of "caring Conservatism".
The Tories have promised tax changes to reward marriage following
Labour's decision to abolish the married couples' allowance. But some
frontbenchers believe the party runs the risk of alienating single parents
and the growing number of couples who live together without getting
Tim Yeo, the party's agriculture spokesman, said: “I don't want to
penalise children who are born out of marriage because there is a very
large number of them." He told BBC Television's Question Time
programme: "The danger in building in substantial financial rewards for
marriage is that those go to the parents and you are actually
disadvantaging some children who happen to be born out of wedlock".
His view is at odds with several colleagues in the Shadow Cabinet
who believe a firm stance on the family will be popular with voters. Gary
Streeter, the shadow Secretary of Stale for International Development,
believes marriage should be the key to Conservative social policy because
parents are more likely to stay together and look after their children
properly if' they are married. Proposals include the reintroduction of the
married tax allowance and special lessons for sixth formers on the
importance of marriage.
Mr. Hague's campaign against the Government's decision to sign up to
an EU rapid reaction military force was criticized yesterday by the senior
Tory MPs Chris Patten and Kenneth Clarke. Mr. Patten said: "I think the
Conservative Party has made considerable mistake on this issue, and I
hope that they won't be led on by some of the press, who have become
completely hysterical about it." Mr. Clarke said the seeds of the new force
were sown in 1992 when the Conservatives were in power.
Judiciary, Criminal Law, Treatment of Criminals
Text 8.
Judicial institutions
In all legal systems there are institutions for creating, modifying,
abolishing and applying the law. Usually these take the form of hierarchy
of courts. The role of each court, and its capacity to make decisions is
strictly defined in relation to other courts. There are two main reasons for
variety of courts. One is that a particular court can specialize in particular
kinds of legal actions. The other is so that a person who feels his case was
not fairly treated in a lower court can appeal to a higher court for
reassessment. The decisions of a higher court are binding upon lower
The court is a state body that administers justice on behalf of the state.
There are courts of first instance (original jurisdiction) and second
instance (appellate jurisdiction). A court, in which a case is first heard is
called the court of first instance. A court of original jurisdiction is one,
which first examines a case in substance and brings in a sentence or
decision. Any court, from the district court to the Supreme Court of the
state may sit as a court of first instance. In almost all cases it is possible to
appeal to higher court for reconsideration of the decision of the original
court. A court of second instance is one, which examines appeals and
protests against sentences and decisions of courts of first instance.
The Constitutional Court ensures that the laws and other normative
acts passed or being considered by the supreme and local legislative
branches are constitutional.
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body for civil, criminal,
business and other cases. It has the power of supervision over the activities
of all the judicial bodies of the state. The Supreme Court gives the court
interpretation on the issues of court practice. It tries the most important
criminal and civil cases and likewise hears appeals against the judgements

and sentences of other courts, as well as appeals against the judgements
and sentences of the military courts of the state.
The basic judicial body is the district court. District courts try both
criminal and civil cases. It is also the duty of the district courts to protect
the electoral rights of citizens. The higher courts of constituent entities of
the Russian Federation hear and determine cases of major importance.
They are courts of appellate jurisdiction.
The Supreme Arbitration Court is the highest judicial body for settling
economic disputes and other cases examined by courts of arbitration, it
exercises judicial supervision over their activities in the procedural forms
envisaged by federal law and provides interpretation on issues of court
In all courts cases are tried in public. The participants in the trial (the
prosecutor, the lawyers, the plaintiff, the judge, the defendant and the
others) speak in the open court. The accused is guaranteed the right to
defend. The press has the right to be present.
During the hearing of a case any citizen may enter the courtroom and
be present during the trial from the beginning to the end. The hearing of
cases in closed session is allowed only in exceptional cases. Closed
sessions are only allowed if it is the interests of both sides or for the
necessity to keep state secrets. Trial without participation of both sides is
not allowed. The judges are independent and they must obey the law.
Text 9.
A crime is understood as a socially dangerous act (or omission)
directed against the social and state system, the system of economy,
property and other rights of citizens or any other act infringing law and
order which is defined in criminal legislation as dangerous to society.
Criminal legislation states that there can be no criminal responsibility
where the nature of the act is not socially dangerous. In consequence,
criminal law does not regard as a crime an act or omission which, even if
formally containing features of some act covered by criminal law, does not
constitute a danger to society on account of its triviality.
Each crime consists of a number of individual elements. Those
elements characterize the purpose of a criminal act, the form and method
of a criminal action, the character of a criminal act and so forth. The total
sum of elements defining a specific crime comprises what is known as the
corpus delicti of a crime. The corpus delicti in any act is grounds for
establishing criminal responsibility against the offender. A person may not
be considered guilty of having committed a crime unless several elements
of corpus delicti of that crime have been established in his acts. In the
absence of any element of corpus delicti in the acts of the accused,
criminal proceedings may not be instituted, and if instituted, may not be
continued, and must be stopped at any stage. In pronouncing its sentence
the court must above all answer these questions: a) did the act ascribed to
the accused actually take place? b) does it contain corpus delicti? c) was
the act performed by the accused?
The object of a crime is, under criminal law, social relations guarded
by criminal legislation. This means that all crimes prescribed by the
Criminal Code are ultimately aimed against social relations taking shape
and developing in society. However, each crime has an immediate object.
Thus, murder has its immediate object – human life, theft – state,
collective or personal properly; rowdyism (hooliganism) – public law and
order, etc.
A crime may be committed by an act, i. e. the active behaviour of a
person, or persons, or by an omission, i. e. the non-performance of acts
which it was his duty to perform (such as failure to use authority).
The subject of a crime is a person who commits the crime and is
responsible for it. Only persons who have attained a certain age and are
compos mentis can be the subject of a crime. Persons who have reached
the age of 16 before the commission of a crime are criminally responsible;
for some crimes (murder, deliberate infliction of bodily injury impairing
health, brigandage, stealing, robbery, hooliganism with evil intent, etc.) the
age is 14 years:
Actually, the age limit for some crimes (committed by persons in
office in their official capacity, military crimes, etc.) is considerably
A person who, at the time of the commission of a socially dangerous
act, is non-compos mentis, i. e. is unable to account for his actions or to
govern them in consequence of chronic mental decease, temporary mental
derangement, weak-mindedness or some other morbid state, is not
criminally responsible. Compulsory medical treatment as established by
the criminal legislation, of the state (placing in a general or special mental
hospital) may be applied to such a person by a court order.
A person who, at the time of the commission of a crime, is compos
mentis but, before a sentence is passed by the court, is affected by mental
derangement, is not liable to punishment. By an order of the court
compulsory medical treatment may be applied to such a person and on
recovery from his illness he may be liable to punishment. A person
committing a crime while in a state of drunkenness is not relieved of
criminal responsibility.
Text 10.
Criminal trials in the United Kingdom take the form of a contest
between the prosecution and the defence. Since the law presumes the
innocence of an accused person until guilt has been proved, the
prosecution is not granted any advantage, apparent or real, over the
defence. A defendant (in Scotland, called an accused) has the right to
employ a legal adviser and may be granted legal aid from public funds. If
remanded in custody, the person may be visited by a legal adviser to
ensure a properly prepared defence. In England, Wales and Northern
Ireland during the preparation of the case, the prosecution usually tells the
defence of relevant documents which it is not proposed to put in evidence
and discloses them if asked to do so. The prosecution should also inform
the defence of witnesses whose evidence may help the accused and whom
the prosecution does not propose to call. The defence or prosecution may
suggest that the defendant's mental state renders him or her unfit to be
tried. If the jury (or in Scotland, the judge) decides that this is so, the
defendant is admitted to a specified hospital.
Criminal trials are normally in open court and rules of evidence
(concerned with the proof of facts) are rigorously applied. If evidence is
improperly admitted, a conviction can be quashed on appeal. During the
trials the defendant has the right to hear or cross-examine witnesses for the
prosecution, normally through a lawyer; to call his or her own witnesses
who, if they do not attend voluntarily, may be legally compelled to attend;
and to address the court in person or through a lawyer, the defence having
the right to the last speech at the trial. The defendant cannot be questioned
without consenting to be sworn as a witness in his or her own defence.
When he or she does testify, cross-examination about character or other
conduct may be made only in exceptional circumstances; generally the
prosecution may not introduce such evidence.
In England Wales and Northern Ireland the Criminal Justice Ad 1987
provides that in complex fraud cases there should be a preparatory open

Crown Court hearing at which the judge will be able to hear and settle
points of law and to define the issues to be put to the jury.
The Jury
In jury trials the judge decides questions of law, sums up the evidence
for the jury and instructs it on the relevant law, and discharges the accused
or passes sentence. Only the jury decides whether the defendant is guilty
or not guilty. In England and Wales, if the jury cannot reach a unanimous
verdict, the judge may direct it to bring in a majority verdict provided that
in the normal jury of 12 people, there are not more than two dissentients.
In Scotland, where the jury consists of 15 people, the verdict may be
reached by a simple majority, but as a general rule, no person may be
convicted without corroborated evidence. If the jury returns a verdict of'
'not guilty' (or in Scotland 'not proven', which is an alternative verdict of
acquittal), the prosecution has no right of appeal and the defendant cannot
be tried again for the same offence. In the event of a 'guilty' verdict, the
defendant has a right of appeal to the appropriate court.
A jury is completely independent of the judiciary. Any attempt to
interfere with a jury once it is sworn in is punishable under the Contempt
of Court Act 1981.
Although the right of the defence to challenge up to three potential
members of a jury without giving any reason is to he abolished in England
and Wiles, it will remain open to both parties to challenge potential jurors
by giving reasons where they believe that an individual juror is likely to he
People between the ages of 18 and 65 whose names appear on the
electoral register, with certain exceptions, are liable for jury service and
their names are chosen at random. (Proposals to increase the upper age
limit from 65 to 70 in England and Wales are contained in the Criminal
Justice Act 1988). Ineligible persons include the judiciary, priests, people
who have within the previous ten years been members of the legal
profession, the Lord Chancellor's Department, or the police, prison and
probation services, and certain sufferers from menial illness. Persons
disqualified from jury service include those who have, within the previous
ten years, served any part of a sentence of imprisonment, youth custody or
detention, or been subject to a community service order, or, within the
previous five years, been placed on probation. Anyone who has been
sentenced to five or more years' imprisonment is disqualified for life.

Text 11.
Prevention and detection of crime
The more experience one gains in the police service, the more one is
convinced of the importance of the prevention of crime. While crime
detection is very necessary, and should be everywhere encouraged, we
must bear in mind that the efficient policing of the country in the
judgement of the public depends to a large extent on the amount of crime
committed. Certain types of offences are calculated to undermine the
confidence of the public, and every effort is made to prevent recurrences.
No one will discredit the efforts put for ward by officers over long
periods, resulting in the elucidation of crimes of importance. At the same
time it must be recognised that special steps should be taken to prevent
types of crime that terrorise the public, or disturb their sense of safety and
security, such as housebreaking and robbery.
Prosecutions are not, generally speaking, popular with members of the
public. The victims of such crimes as black-mail, fraud, and sexual
offences sometimes hesitate before deciding to give evidence. This is to be
regretted, since those witnesses who are afraid of publicity have really
nothing to fear. Unsavoury news of this type is seldom printed disclosing
the identity of the victims concerned. Evidence can be given under the
name of Mr. X or Mr. Y.
Perhaps the chief reason why the prevention of crime takes first place
in CID* work is that where crimes are actually committed damage has
been done. It is true that the criminals who are responsible are usually
arrested and punished, but there are other considerations. The victims of
outrage and robbery often suffer some permanent injury, and in such cases
no punishment meted out to the offenders will recompense for the damage
sustained by the victims, which may be physical, mental, or moral.
On one occasion a CID officer dealt with a case of robbery with
violence. The man robbed picked out without difficulty the photograph of
one of the robbers, a well-known criminal. This suspect was arrested. He
denied the offence, and was placed amongst other men with a view to his
being identified in person. The victim, who was obviously suffering
physically and mentally from his experience, walked slowly to the arrested
man and stood in front of him. The poor fellow was too dazed, too
frightened, to touch or point to the criminal, or to utter a word.
In the prevention and detection of crime the need for inter-Force co-
operation has been fully recognised by detectives throughout the country.
They have decided in view of the activities of the modern criminal that
they must take a wide view, and consider the whole of the Forces of the
country as one unit, working on one common task.
The criminal who a few years ago felt safe from arrest on escaping a
certain police boundary finds today that the arm of the law has
considerably lengthened. Modem methods of communication are doing
much towards the perfection of co-ordinate action over long distances.
Successful results have been obtained by co-operation with reputable
members of the public.
* Criminal Identification Department

Text 12.
Problems of juvenile delinquency. What causes crime?
I. What causes crime? When I started to investigate juvenile crime I
started from the premise that most children are born thieves. The more I
have discussed the problem with those involved: police, teachers, parents,
social workers, children and many others – the more have I been satisfied
that my premise is correct.
But this wide contact has satisfied me about something else. Because
they are born thieves, it does not mean that most children are born
criminals. That is something they may become. They do so because of
behavior and the attitudes of adults, often parents, and very frequently
teachers. And that is the tragedy.
II. We expect criminal parents to tend to bring up criminal children.
But, conversely, we expect honest and law-abiding parents to bring up
honest and law abiding children. But do they? The appalling figures of
juvenile delinquency are more than disturbing.
Many parents have told me of their despair in finding that their
children steal from mum's purse or handbag or the family moneybox, tell
lies on being detected and then do the same again.
Nevertheless, firm action in the home can ensure that this behavior is
eradicated and what I regard as the natural propensity of the child to take
what he or she wants need never become ingrained as deliberate criminal
III. But what about crime among pupils in school? The original
intention of my survey was to deal with this problem in isolation — but I
found such an-approach to be impossible.

"What goes on in schools is a reflection of what goes on in society", I
was told by Mr. R.F. Glover, the Deputy Secretary of the Headmasters'
Only a few months ago, speaking at a dinner of Scottish Association
for the Study of Delinquency at Peebles. Sir David McNee, London's
Commissioner of Police, declared that a lowering of moral standards, a
decline in religious beliefs and a lack of parental and family influence
were the main reasons for the increasing crime rate.
IV. The result of my talks with children on juvenile crime in general is:
PARENTS: There was an overwhelming criticism by the children of
the lack of concern and discipline shown by their parents;
PUNISHMENT: A very large majority recognized the need for an
effective punishment, called for the return of corporal punishment and
asked for firmer discipline in schools.
One other important point is that they asked for more, and in
particular, less expensive, recreational facilities.
V. Every approach made at Government level seems to be that of the
treatment of young offenders after they have been allowed to become
criminals and have committed offences. But custodial sentences have not
proved a success. The number of juveniles committed to borstal rose from
818 in 1969 to 2.117 in 1978, and the number sent to detention centres
increased from 2.228 in 1969 to 6.303 in 1978. But 75% of the juveniles
leaving borslals were convicted of further offences within the next two
years. Very far from a success
VI. So let us go back to beginning and see if there is anything new
which should be tackled at the stage where the young born thief may be so
influenced that he doesn't become a criminal and the useless borstals and
detention centres will be empty.
It is an interesting point, confirming the views of the working
schoolchildren, that in an earlier study in 1978 by Harriett Wilson and G.
W. Herbert called "Parents and Children in the Inner City" they had
already found that parents who use strict methods of supervision had few,
if any, delinquent children, while the children from lax parents frequently
had a string of convictions.
What is more, and probably just as important, I am satisfied that a
survey on similar lines to test the association between school discipline
and juvenile delinquency in all areas would show beyond doubt that this is
the second important factor in the equation.
As delegates have described at teacher's conferences over and over
again some schools are undisciplined that real teaching is impossible.
One legal adviser who deals with West End shoplifting by-youngsters
told me that in this view magistrates often impose soft sentences and it
means that the seriousness of the offence is not sufficiently impressed on
the children.
The fact that a caution is usually given for a first offence, he believes,
is not a good tiling. For here the child thinks it has got away with it and
this can only encourage him to commit a further offence.
There is considerable evidence now to show that where the work of
police, school, and community is carried in there has been a marked effect
on juvenile crime.
But it remains a fact that it is in the home and in the school that
criminals are made and it is here that a change of heart is needed. Evidence
shows that truancy is widespread and this plays a large part of the growth
of juvenile crime. Both parents and schools staff who accept the
absenteeism of their children, or are so lax that they do not even know
youngsters are not regularly attending school, are encouraging the tragedy
of juvenile delinquency.

Text 13.
Probation and parole
Probation is the name of official correctional service and denotes the
primary function of the system-investigation of offenders prior to sentence
in order that the court may have detailed information. The definition of
probation includes its function as a treatment program in which final
action in an adjudicated offender's case is suspended, the offender remains
at liberty, subject to conditions imposed by or for a court under the
supervision and guidance of a probation worker. The word 'probation' is
Latin in origin, its meaning being a period of proving or trial.
Gradually, corporal punishments gave way to imprisonment which for
serious offenses, might be for a lifetime. The county jail was unsuitable for
carrying out this new kind of penalty and the state found it necessary to
erect central prisons to house the convicted felons.
As time passed, the more populous states set up additional facilities,
permitting a better selection of institution and treatment of offenders
committed to state prisons".
Probation today is felt to be the most practical method of treating large
numbers of selected offenders. Placing a person on probation developed
from the power of the court to suspend the sentence of a convicted
individual. It became a device that the court used when it was reluctant to
impose the full sentence for an offense because it felt that the person could
still function in the community although under the supervision of the
court. The person who performed the supervision became known as the
probation officer.
In the years that the federal probation system has been in existence, it
has greatly expanded the numbers of probation officers and of persons
placed on probation.
It should be noted that if a judge suspends a sentence it may be
unconditional, in which case it has the effect of satisfying the offender's
criminal liability and discharging him from the system. Normally,
however, sentences are suspended on specific conditions. If the offender
fails to comply with the conditions, his probation is revoked and he can be
sentenced to prison or jail to serve the remainder of the suspended
sentence. It is during this period of time, when the sentence is suspended
and the individual is free from institutionalization that he is on probation.
Probation Today
In many states and communities probation officers can be appointed
only by the court. Probation officers, regardless of the placement and
structure of their agency, are considered an extension of court services.
The question of whether an individual is eligible for probation usually lies
with the court; however, in some instances the court may face statutory
limitations in selecting cases for probation. Some serious offenses such as
violent crimes, crimes against morals, or crimes involving the use of
deadly weapons, may specify by law that guilty persons are not eligible for
There is and always be a risk factor in probation work. Contemporary
probation officers have undertaken to lessen that risk by establishing
systematic procedures for the selection of probationers.
Parole System
The next great step in corrections development came in connection
with parole, the treatment program in which an offender after serving part
of a term in a correctional institution is conditionally released under
supervision and treatment by a parole officer. The word 'parole' is derived
from the French word meaning promise. Like probation, parole is a
treatment program in the interest of society and the individual. The
difference is that the parolee has served part of his sentence in a correctional
institution. His release is conditioned upon satisfactory behavior. He is
under supervision and treatment by a person trained in parole work.
The system of parole started in England, not because of humanitarian
reasons, but because of economic pressures. In the sixteenth century,
England's economy was in a decline, and unemployment was high. The
country could not afford the cost of penal institutions. The British
government decided to grant reprieves and stays of executions to convicted
felons physically able to work so that they might be shipped abroad and
impressed into service. The system of deportation is part of the history that
makes up parole. Much of America was carved out of the wilderness by
convicted felons who were shipped to the new land by the boatload.
Today's system of parole has become much more complex, organized
and efficient. Special boards have been organized to study and consider all
prisoners for parole regardless of the nature of the offence committed, to
establish the time when an inmate is eligible for parole, and to exercise full
discretion in determining the time at which parole should be granted to
those previously declared eligible.

Text 14.
Jonathan king charged with child sex offence
By Jason Bennetto
Crime Correspondent
Jonathan King, the millionaire pop impresario, who has been charged
with sex offences against three boys, was yesterday accused of committing
further assaults against at least three more teenagers.
The 55-year-old was charged on Thursday with buggery, attempted
buggery and indecent assault against three boys aged from 13 to 15, who
are alleged to have been attacked in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the
time during which he is said to have befriended the boys.
As news of the police investigation broke yesterday, at least three
other alleged victims contacted the police.
The former pop star, music producer and television presenter, who
discovered bands including Genesis and 10cc, and enjoyed a series of
number one hits, yesterday described the charges as "absurd".
An investigation was set up about five months ago after one of the
alleged victims contacted the National Criminal Intelligence Service and
made a complaint against Mr. King. NCIS' paedophile unit carried out an
inquiry and contacted Surrey police where the alleged offences took place.
Mr. King was arrested at about 6 am on Thursday, charged at Staines
police station, south west of London, and released on conditional bail to
appear before Staines Magistrates Court on 30 November.
Mr. King. speaking on the steps of his mews house, said yesterday; "I
categorically deny these absurd allegations about events from 28 years
ago. I have great faith that the British legal system will vindicate me".
Earlier he arrived alone at his home in his red Rolls Royce Silver
Spirit, which has the number plate JK9000.
Chris Poole, his spokesman later added: "Last night when I spoke to
him he was very shocked and disorientated but he was picking himself up
today and he said it is business as usual.
"He also told me that he regards it as something of an occupational
hazard for people in the public eye to have these sorts of accusations made
against them. He is determined he is innocent and he will be proved
Till former public schoolboy rose to fame at the age of 21 while at
Cambridge University with the song Everyone Has Gone To The Moon,
which topped the record charts.
Mr. King recorded a string of hits throughout the 1970s, including
Paloma Blanca and Lick A Smurf For Christmas.
At 22, he became manager of Decca Records, and at 25 launched his
own record label, UK Records. He was famed for his large round glasses,
T-shirt and baseball caps.
One of his closest friends, the veteran television presenter Jimmy
Savile, once said of him: "He's a sabra. A sabra is an Israeli fruit that's
prickly on the outside and all soft and lovely inside. That's Jonathan King".
Text 15.
Murderers will be allowed to stay in Army
By David McKittkick
Ireland Correspondent
Two scots Guardsmen jailed for the murder of an unarmed teenager in
Ulster in 1992 will stay in the Army, the Ministry of Defence said
The announcement that James Fisher and Mark Wright, who were
convicted of the murder of a Roman Catholic teenager in Belfast, are to

stay in the Army was immediately welcomed by military sources but
condemned by the family of the dead man.
The case has led to divisions of opinion in political, military and legal
circles, leading the Ministry of Defence to agree that the two convicted
soldiers should not serve again in Northern Ireland.
The MoD said an army board had decided Usher and Wright would be
retained. They both served six years of a life sentence for the murder of 18
year-old Peter McBride.
Sharp reaction to the decision came from Mr. McBride's mother, Jean
McBride, who said: "We will fight on till these two murderers are kicked
Sinn Fein said: "These men have been rewarded for killing a
The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Peter Mandelson, said the
MoD had agreed to his suggestion that it would be inappropriate for the
two to serve in Northern Ireland again.
His predecessor, Mo Mowlam, made it clear in releasing the two on
licence several years ago that she did not believe they should remain in the
armed forces.
An announcement last year that the soldiers could remain in the Army
was quashed by a Belfast judge, who said it was an error of judgement
which wholly contradicted the findings of the trial judge.
Mr. McBride was shot twice in the back as he ran away from soldiers
in the New Lodge district of north Belfast in 1992.
The Crown case was that he had been stopped by a four-man Scots
Guards patrol who searched him with his arms extended. The Crown said
the soldiers had also felt an object he had in his right hand, said to be a T-
shirt in a plastic bag, and then questioned him for several minutes. He had
then run off chased by the four soldiers, two of whom fired five shots at
him, hitting him twice in the back.
The defence case was that the soldiers had opened fire believing their
lives were in danger Wright said he believed Mr. McBride had a coffee jar
bomb and a gun, and had fired several shots. Fisher said he believed he
had a coffee jar bomb.
The Crown said the two soldiers had not been produce police until
almost 12 hours after the incident, alleging that a story had been concocted
during that time.

Tim Spicer, the guardsmen's former commanding officer, said yester-
day: "My view is they should never have been convicted in the first place
They acted in good faith as soldiers duty in Northern Ireland".
Mrs. McBride said: "Tony Blair should be ashamed of himself. They
think Peter's life was worth nothing, shoot him in the back and forget him".
Text 16
The great train robbers tell their story
On Thursday August 8, 1963, fifteen masked men stopped the night
train from Glasgow to London and robbed it of £2,500,000. It was called
the crime of the century, and the thieves were relentlessly pursued by
Scotland Yard until half the gang were behind bars serving huge prison
terms. But the story did not end there. First one, then another escaped in
thrilling style and fled abroad, catching the world's imagination and
making the Train Robbers into folk heroes.
Thirteen years later the gang combined to tell their story, and Piers
Paul Read, author of the bestselling ALIVE, agreed to write it. Here in his
brilliant hands is the complete and exclusive story of the century's most
audacious crime and its even more sensational aftermath.
... If we analyse more closely the Train Robbers and their milieu we
may find that even this apparently evil act (the coshing of train-driver
Mills) does not necessarily prove that they are wicked men. First there is
their background, by which I do not mean only the context of their infancy
and adolescence, but the whole sub-society of working-class South
London. There is no doubt that there was and still is endemic poverty
juxtaposed to conspicuous consumption north of the river. It is not difficult
to imagine the young Bruce Reynolds, for example, bicycling across the
Thames to London's West End where the houses were large, light a
elegantly proportioned; where the shops and department stores of Bond
Street and Knightsbridge displayed every variety of diverse and luxurious
merchandise; nor hard to guess his feelings as he returned to the meagre
tenement where his father struggled to feed his family on the wages of
unskilled labour.
The Train Robbers were all determined to change this inequality of
condition but only for themselves. None was a Robin Hood. Even Bruce,
the son of a Socialist and Trades Unionist, was consistently selfish in his
drive to escape from the slums Battersea.
Yet even where a thief does not act as a Robin Hood, he may still be
seen as one. As E.J. Hobsbawm says of rural bandits, “there is no doubt
that the bandit is considered an agent of Justice, indeed a restorer of
morality, and often considers himself as such”. The same might he said of
those urban bandits, the Train Robbers, who were and still are regarded
with considerable sympathy, and were given much tacit support in their
own circles. A small army of auxiliaries brought them information, ran
errands and hid their money – not just because they hoped for some of the
money itself. Even total strangers brought them information, not for a
whack or a drink, but because they enjoyed the discomfiture of the rich
and powerful.
Certainly there would be an insignificant amount of crime if large
numbers of ordinary people did not feel themselves to be the friends of
thieves – or at any rate the enemies of the police, who they see as
oppressive, hypocritical and cruel. The picture of the Metropolitan Police,
particularly of the Flying Squad in the earl 1960s, which emerges from the
Train Robbers' story – some of them taking bribes to alter evidence or drop
charges, and others fabricating evidence to secure convictions – may well
be exaggerated, but because so many Metropolitan police officers have
been convicted of corruption or dismissed from the force since the Train
Robbery took place, it cannot be regarded as totally false.
The Train Robbers showed total repugnance for the rules and
formalities of the modern state-licences, permits, taxes, National
Insurance Stamps. This anarchism explains their appeal to the poor. I
myself, who have everything to gain from literate values and everything to
lose from savagery, find something seductive in the life and values of the
Train Robbers. They seem the last traces of an age which drew upon
fundamental human qualities of courage and loyalty, their lives as well as
their liberty could stand or fall on the strength of friendship: love could
mean the sharing of great luxury and great suffering. Poor youths like
Buster, Bruce, Tommy and Charlie took to crime to escape not so much
from the poverty of their condition as the emasculation of menial,
repetitious labour for a paltry wage.
from The Train Robbers by Piers Paul Read

Task 2 Task 3
1. found guilty 1. accusation
2. appearing in court 2. arsonist
3. accused (of a crime) 3. blackmail
4. pay a fine (for -ing) 4. burglary
5. put sb on trial (for a crime) 5. criminal
6. took up a case 6. hacker
7. arresting you 7. hijacking
8. suspected of 8. kidnapper
9. facing 9. killing
10. returned a verdict of / found her / him 10. mugging
/ the accused 11. offender
11. committed 12. pickpocketing
12. plead guilty 13. robbery
14. shoplifting
15. stalker
16. theft
Accusation and suspicion
Task 4
rioting 20 arson 6 mugging 2 vandalism 13 kidnapping 14
shoplifting 5 robbery 11 hacking 19 burglary 1 domestic violence 15
stalking 18 murder 4 drug- blackmail 9 pickpocketing 16
trafficking 17
hijacking 3 looting 7 theft 10 hooliganism 8 fraud 12

Task 5 Task 6
1. robbery 1. suspicion
2. victims 2. proof
3. violence 3. charge
4. Forgery 4. trial
5. kidnapped 5. lawyer
6. crimes 6. illegal
7. rise 7. guilty
8. illegal 8. crime
9. information 9. punishment
1. сrime 10. innocence

Task 4
Former judge a 9-month suspended jail sentence.
The mob leader 10 years imprisonment.
Drink driver eighteen months imprisonment.
Boy who killed bully 5 years’ youth custody.
Drug dealer 4 years’ imprisonment.
Night intruder a fine of 110 pounds.
Double rapist ten years imprisonment.


I. STUDY AND PRACTICE LEGAL VOCABULARY ............................3

II. READ AND DISCUSS...........................................................................9
III. TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING ..................................27

Английский язык

Методические указания
по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи
для студентов юридического факультета

Составители: Касаткина Наталья Николаевна

Чурина Елена Андреевна
Купцова Лариса Владимировна

Корректор А.А. Антонова

Компьютерная верстка С.И. Савинской

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