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Relay Applications

R. M. Naidoo and E. Stokes-Waller, Member, SAIEE

Abstract— Impedance relays must accommodate all types of power system fault resistance, position and impedance relay

faults. In order to enable this, it is necessary that the correct characteristic reach. Unnecessary pickup may result in

voltage and current quantities be applied to the measuring incorrect tripping of a healthy transmission thereby reducing

elements. The impedance characteristics are obtained from these

three-phase voltage and current measurements. The main aim is

the reliability of the total power system [1].

to detect the faulted phases and react appropriately based on the

applied relay settings, scheme design and philosophies. The This paper presents a set of guidelines that can be practically

difficulty arises in the distinction between the faulted and healthy applied by a protection engineer to determine the reach

phase impedance measurements. Continuous research and capability of an impedance relay. This paper also introduces

development of impedance relays are in progress to improve its

concepts that may form the basis for further research to follow.

operating performance. Unfortunately, the impact and limitations

of such improvements on the power system applications are not Results of this research can be used for a wide variety of

studied with the same vigour. As such, it is necessary to impedance relay applications and assist in identifying

investigate the influence of network topology, power system applications that it may not be suited for.

loading, fault resistance etc. on the reach capability of impedance

relays when applied to power systems. In this paper, the reach II. DEFINITIONS

capability of impedance relays is investigated. A set of resistive

and reactive reach guidelines for impedance relay applications Before the guidelines can be applied, it is necessary to

are presented. The results from the research also show that the understand two new definitions that have been created.

network topology and faulted phase selection algorithms play a

major role in power system healthy phase impedance

measurements. New impedance ratios namely SWIR and SNIR A. SWIR

are introduced, and the well-known system impedance ratio (SIR) Consider the following system single line diagram.

is enhanced for ease of illustrating network topology and

associated impedance measurement.

Zs1 ZA ZB Zs2

Index Terms— Impedance Relay, protection, fault.

Location

A B

I. INTRODUCTION Vs2

Vs1

influence relay behavior. Relay characteristics can be set to

have different reaches in active and reactive impedance limits. Reverse (R) Forward (F)

The impedance relay measures the system current and Figure 1: Basic network illustrating ratios

voltage, applies basic assumptions and attempts to accurately

detect and react on a power system fault condition. The At any particular location in a balanced power system network

assumptions include: (no fault connected), with the network cut in half at this

location, the Thevenin equivalents can be obtained in both

directions. This is referred to as forward and reverse Thevenin

• zero fault resistance,

equivalent directions (thereby also introducing directionality to

• perfect earth fault compensation the SWIR ratio).

• perfect replica measurements of voltages and currents

• perfect applied impedance relay characteristic, all of If we obtain the Thevenin equivalent impedance values in each

which do not necessarily hold in a practical power system. direction (forward and reverse at the location specified), using

symmetrical component impedance values (positive-, negative-

It is necessary that the faulted and healthy characteristics and zero-sequence impedance circuits respectively), and

accurate. If incorrect, the healthy phase impedance dividing the forward over reverse Thevenin equivalent values,

we obtain the Impedance Ratio SWIR.

2

Z SI + / Z A+

Z F + / Z R + SWIR+ Zs

Enhanced SIR = = Z SI − / Z A− …(4)

SWIR = Z F − / Z R − = SWIR−

…(1) Z L Z + / Z

SI 0 A0

Z Fo / Z Ro SWIRo

As for SWIR, the System Impedance Ratio (SIR) also has

where directionality associated with it. In this paper, the ratios SWIR,

SNIR and SIR are used to summarize network impedance

F = Forward Thevenin equivalent impedance relationships but the same principle could be used to illustrate

R = Reverse Thevenin equivalent impedance other kind of relationships as well (e.g. SNIR(I+)).

+ = Positive sequence impedance circuit

- = Negative sequence impedance circuit

o = Zero sequence impedance circuit D. Healthy phase impedance measurement

In the context of this research, healthy phase measurements are

For the circuit in Figure 1, the SWIR Ratio at the fault position considered to be from measuring elements (phase-ground and

is equal to: phase-phase) that are not representative of the fault

connection.

( Z B+ + Z S 2+ ) /( Z A+ + Z S1+ )

III. NETWORK SIMULATIONS

SWIR = ( Z B − + Z S 2− ) /( Z A− + Z S 1− )

…(2)

( Z Bo + Z S 2o ) /( Z Ao + Z S 1o ) Two methods commonly used for displaying impedance

measurements in protective relaying applications include

• Positive sequence

SWIR comprises of three different ratios namely, positive-,

negative- and zero sequence impedance ratios. • Loop impedance plane

B. SNIR behaviour of radial networks whereas the positive sequence

At any particular location, the following definitions apply: plane is used for meshed networks as well [2]. All protection

relays operate on the fundamental principle of positive

sequence characteristics (or some slight variation) and utilise

Z F + / Z Fo if Z F + ≥ Z Fo the well-known earth fault compensation factor for ground

SNIRF + Z Fo / Z F + if Z F + < Z Fo faults.

SNIR = Z / Z if Z R + ≥ Z Ro

…(3)

R+

R + Ro A. Positive sequence impedance measurements:

Z Ro / Z R + if Z R + < Z Ro

The measurement quantities indicated below are sometimes

referred to as the “generic” formula and are widely used in

SNIRF if SNIRF ≥ SNIRR power system protection. It is also accepted widely as the

SNIR+ = standard on which protection relays base their behavior.

SNIRR if SNIRF < SNIRR

• Phase-Phase measurement quantities

SNIR- is defined as a similar relationship to SNIR+ but utilises V A − VB

negative- and zero-sequence quantities instead. In the context

of this paper SNIR- is chosen to be equal to SNIR+. Z AB I A − I B

Z = VB − VC …(5)

BC I − I

C. Enhanced System Impedance Ratio (SIR) Z CA B C

VC − V A

Using the system representation defined earlier the system I C − I A

impedance ratios is for the relay at A, in the context of this

research defined (and enhanced) as: • Phase-ground measurement quantities

3

distribution of impedance values measured:

Z Ag A I + KI N

…(6)

VB

Z Bg = I + KI

Z Cg B N

VC

I C + KI N

where I N = I A + I B + IC

K= ( o )

3 Z1 currents

In a balanced system, no neutral current will flow and the Note that the magnitudes of the impedance measurements are

measured impedance becomes a simple ratio of V/I [3]. Slight comparable and relatively “close” to each other.

variations exist in different relays for the earth fault

compensation factor and its implementation. The aim is to b) Symmetrical component currents not equal

improve the positive sequence impedance measurement under

different conditions. Typically variations in impedance If we make the assumption I1=I2 and vary I0 while measuring

measurements from the generic formula tend to improve the impedance

faulted phase measurement but may degrade the healthy phase

measurement performance (refer to case study). For this condition, we find that IW is equal to IB, which in

effect means that the measurement ZWB will always be infinite.

I1=I2

B. NETWORK TOPOLOGY

Network topology is understood as the complete network in

geographical terms (including symmetrical impedance values,

phase shift components, generation sources, shunt paths, etc.). Zw (Io< I1) Zrw

Zb (Io< I1)

Zbr

To study the effect of network topology in impedance

Zr

measurements of a protection relay, a reverse approach was

Z(im )

Zw (Io>I1)

or voltages on relay impedance measurement was studied and Zb (Io>I1)

then networks that may cause this were identified. This dec reas es dec reases

criteria on which impedance reach limitations was based. Z(re )

Effect Of Symmetrical Component Currents

If we assume a balanced source (all three phases voltage equal Figure 3 implies that network topology plays a major role in

and shifted 120 degrees) and currents I1, I2 and I0 being the healthy phase impedance values measured by impedance

supplied by the source, the impedance values measured protection relays.

(phase-ground and phase-phase) are:

IV. IMPEDANCE REACH GUIDELINES

Z rw (Vr − Vw ) /( I r − I w ) These guidelines were established to assist the Engineer in

Z = (V − V ) /( I − I ) …(8)

wb w b w b determining the reach limits of an impedance relay. These

Z br (Vb − Vr ) /( I b − I r ) guidelines are used in conjunction with the graphs developed

in Appendix A.

a) Symmetrical component currents equal

A. Methodology for Application

With the symmetrical component currents equal the impedance • Read the y-axis value “Rx” from the guidelines based on a

values are: number of other values that needs to be pre-determined

from the network and relay settings.

Z rw (Vr − Vw ) /( I r ) • Model the network in terms of the +ve, -ve and zero

Z = ∞ …(9) sequence networks.

wb • Determine the direction of the impedance relay (normally

Z br (Vb − Vr ) /( I r )

towards the feeder) and label this as forward.

4

• At the relay location, determine the forward Thevenin Venus-Georgedale line z+={0.00933,0.05820

impedance (both the }

positive sequence equivalent impedance, Z(F+).

same) zo={0.06236,0.20447}

• Determine SWIR and SIR at the relay location and in the

forward direction. z+={0.00138,0.01151

A. Georgedale- }

• Determine SNIR+ at the relay location. Klaarwater line zo={0.01178,0.0408}

• From the impedance protection relay settings, determine impedance

the value of Kn (earth fault compensation factor, normally Klaarwater Source z+={0.00783,0.01634

in the range between 0.6 and 1.3). impedance }

• From the graph, start on the x-axis utilising the determined zo={0.00299,0.02038}

SWIR or SIR and read from the appropriate Kn curve the 100 MVA base and 275kV system voltage used as reference (base on per unit values)

associated y-axis value or “Rx”.

• Use this y-axis value “Rx” and determine the maximum

resistive reach recommended. • For our particular network, SWIR+ is equal to 0.41.

• Earth fault compensation factor set on the relay was

V. CASE STUDY Kn=0.9

For this case study, the developed guidelines are applied. • The system ratios SNIRF and SNIRR are 2.5 and 3.5

During a single phase to earth reverse fault on the Venus- respectively (select the average between SNIRF and

Georgedale feeder, approximately 10% from Georgedale, the SNIRR, thus select SNIR+=3 as it is more appropriate).

Georgedale, Klaarwater protection relay operated in zone 1 for • Comparison with the meshed network guideline (with

the reverse fault. The positive sequence impedance plane plot SNIR+=3) we can see that Rx = 0.55.

as shown in Figure 4, indicates that the healthy phase • The recommended resistive reach can be derived as

measurement Zbg (as seen by the impedance relay) caused the follow:

incorrect operation.

R(reach)< Rx * Z(F+)

< 0.55*(0.018+0.011) per unit

Venus Georgedale Klaarwater

< 0.55*0.029 per unit

< 0.016 per unit

<0.016*756.3 Ω (pos. seq.)

< 12 Ω (pos. seq.)

R-g Fault Relay

If a safety margin of 20% is added, the positive sequence

Figure 4: Georgedale, Klaarwater 275kV network impedance reach recommended is 9.6 ohm (positive

sequence).

20.0

VI. CONCLUSION

15.0

10.0

reach limitations of impedance relays. It was found that

5.0

Z1

network topology has the most significant influence on healthy

phase impedance measurements. Heavy loading may cause the

0.0 phase-phase impedance elements to pick up for a phase-ground

-15.0 -10.0 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0

fault. On heavily loaded systems, the healthy phase-phase

-5.0

impedance measured may become “visible” which could result

-10.0

in tripping of both faulted and healthy phase measuring

Z(measured) elements. When purely taking network topology into account,

-15.0 worst-case scenario (minimum impedance) for healthy phase

Figure 5: Blue-ground positive sequence impedance measurement (primary) impedance measurement occurs when SWIR+ is large and

SWIR0 is small. To avoid incorrect operation of healthy phase

impedance measurements, correct phase selection is critical to

ensure detection and measurement of only the faulted phase

Application of Guidelines measurement.

impedance }

zo={0.00248,0.01469}

5

VII. REFERENCES

[1] E. Stokes-Waller, “Automated Protection Performance Analysis from

Digital Fault Recordings on the Eskom Transmission System”, Cigre

Fourth International Southern African Conference, 2001

[2] E. Stokes-Waller and P. Keller, “Power Network And Protection

Performance Analysis On The Eskom Transmission System Based On

Digital Fault Records”, Southern African Power System Protection

Conference, 1998

[3] Directional Element Design and Evaluation, Jeff Roberts and Armando

Guzman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc., SEL Webpage,

1994,1995

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES

Raj Naidoo received the Bachelor’s degree from the University of Natal,

Durban, South Africa, in 1995, the Master’s degree from the University of

Witwatersrand, Gauteng, South Africa, in 2000, and is currently pursuing a

Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering at the University of Cape Town, South

Africa. From June 1997 to May 2002 he was with ESKOM. His interests

include Power System Stability and Power Quality. He is currently a Senior

Lecturer at the University of Pretoria.

University of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. His interests include Power

system protection and power quality. He is registered as a professional

engineer in South Africa.

6

IX. APPENDIX A

MESHED-NETWORK (SNIR+ = 3)

1

Kn=0.5

0.9

0.8

Kn=0.7

0.7

resistive reach as multiples of Z(F+)

Maximum positive sequence

0.6

Kn=0.9

0.5

Rx

Kn=1.1

Kn=1.3 Kn=0.5

0.4

Kn=1.5

Kn=0.7

0.3

Kn=0.9

Kn=1.1

0.2

Kn=1.3

Kn=1.5

0.1

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Abs (SWIR+)

X.

Note: Maximum positive sequence resistance reach (at angle 30 degrees) is presented using generic

formula

7

RADIAL NETWORK

4.5

Kn=0.5

4

3.5

Maximum positive sequence resistive reach

3

Kn=0.7

as multiple of Z(F+)

2.5

Kn=0.9

Rx

2

Kn=1.1

Kn=1.3

1.5

Kn=1.5

Kn=0.5

1

Kn=0.7

Kn=0.9

Kn=1.1

0.5 Kn=1.3

Kn=1.5

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

SNIR+

XI.

Note: Maximum positive sequence resistance reach (at angle 30 degrees) is presented using generic

formula

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