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Anna Shaw, Olivia Wood, Andrew Meissner, Madelyn Dwyer

Dr. Shepard

Biology GT

11 June 2018

Unit 4 Genetics: Performance Task

PART A: OUTCOMES IF PRESERVED:

Forest Area Economic Outcomes if Preserved Social Outcomes if Preserved Environmental Outcomes if
Preserved

Area A: - The island government will offer - Ecotourism would provide many - A strict fishing limit would be
Mangrove Forest limited permits at a reasonable jobs for those who live in the area, placed on the area, fish populations
cost for sustainable ecotourism, such as researchers, tour guides, would grow and fish would thrive
which will benefit the restaurant waiters, cooks, hotel - Roots of the mangrove trees filter
- Ecotourism would provide many workers, drivers, and boat salts out of seawater and silt and
jobs for those who live in the area, crewmen, which would allow for nutrients from river water, so by
such as researchers, tour guides, the people on the island to have a preserving the vegetation the water
restaurant waiters, cooks, hotel wide variety of jobs is also being benefited
workers, drivers, and boat - Families who fish to feed their - Vegetation provides as a buffer for
crewmen, which would greatly family would no longer be able to shoreline villages from hurricanes
benefit the economy through fish; would have to provide for and other storms
consumerism their family a different way - Preserved vegetation would
- Park fees would bring in revenue - Villages would be further prevent erosion
that would contribute to the protected from storms by - Mangroves would continue to
island’s economy and could be vegetation provide food for many organisms
used to increase the wages of the - Fishermen in the area will be - 3% of of the land will be
people working in the newly affected by a strict catch limit, conserved, compared to the
created jobs causing them to downsize their Lowland Tropical Rainforest South,
- Fishermen in the area will be businesses, forcing them to find which has 7% land area to be
affected by a strict catch limit, business elsewhere conserved
causing them to downsize their - Would only protect 14 endemic
businesses, lessening their income species, 7 of which are threatened,
- By protecting this area, we would
not be preserving any other areas on
the island

Area B: Lowland - The small coffee business that - People working for the coffee - This area is home to 135 endemic
Tropical harvests its coffee beans from the company would resent the species, 10 of which are
Rainforest North forest would be closed- the family protection of the area as their endangered. If this area is protected,
and workers for the company family business would be lost and it will protect the forest which these
would lose their jobs. they would need to find a new animals live in. This will save a
- No income from the highly source of income large number of endemic species
desired coffee would be able to be - People that buy the coffee would and allow for a diverse forest.
collected. be upset as they consider this - Protection of this area will halt
-Large amounts of agriculture and coffee the best quality and most agriculture and logging industries
farms would be shut down- sustainable in the world which will prevent deforestation in
income from these industries - the logging and agriculture this area and lead to less habitat loss
would be lost industries would be upset as they for species
would lose a large portion of their - Other areas have a higher amount
income. of biodiversity, so it would be more
beneficial to the ecosystem to
preserve other areas that have better
biodiversity.

Area C: Lowland - plant species central to - conservation of a plant endemic - conserving this area would protect
Tropical pharmaceutical research and to the area that shows potential as a the most biodiverse forest on the
Rainforest South product development would be new malaria treatment; if island
conserved successful, the treatment could - would protect the tree-dwelling
- percentage of the profit made save millions of lives species that depend on the kapok
from products containing - research scientists would be tree to travel through the forest
substances from the Kapikua assigned permits to collect without touching the ground
plants will go back into the island specimens from the area in a - government will build a primate
economy sustainable manner center to research and protect
- permits will be available for - permits will be available for endemic primates living in the
people to visit the primate center people to visit the primate center island forests
and learn about primates and and learn about primates and - conserving this area will result in
observe them, promoting observe them, promoting education the conservation of 254 endemic
education and ecotourism and ecotourism species, 75 of which are endangered
- permits for the primate center - the primate center will require the - 7% of the land area will be
will promote ecotourism, but the construction of roads and facilities, conserved
cost of the permits for this remote which will provide jobs for the
area will be higher than the residents of the area
permits for the mangrove forest
- the construction of roads and
facilities will provide jobs for the
residents of the area

Area D: Tropical - During the dry season, water - Human activities such as logging - the ecosystem plays a role in the
Montane Cloud from the cloud forest is used and clearing the land for water cycle and climate. The forest
Forest towards irrigation, power agriculture has degraded the cloud prevents evaporation of
generation, and drinking water for forest with pollution. The water is precipitation which leads to the
those who live on the lower extremely important when it comes precipitation mostly becoming fog.
elevations, therefore saving the to irrigation and drinking water, so This fog condenses on the trees and
money and benefiting the if the forest is conserved, the cloud percolates into the ground where the
economy forest would be able to continue water is stored. This water supply
- Two decades ago, a large tea being a clean drinking water source helps support a variety of
plantation was developed in a for the residents on the island. organisms. With conservation, the
portion of the cloud forest. It is - Conserving the area would mean ecosystem would be able to
highly desirable worldwide that the inhabitants would not be continue playing an effective role
because of the unique flavor. If able to use as much water as they on the island.
the forest is conserved, the tea used to, this may force them to find - A species called the fastigo
company would not be able to another source for power whipping frog inhabits the island,
expand leading to no increased - The tea plantation that has gained and could be further endangered
profits or additional jobs for the popularity and has an increased without conservation because it
islanders. demand for more tea would not be thrives in the standing pools of
- The water supply, because it was permitted to expand, therefore water in the Montane Tropical
being used by the people in the dissatisfying many consumers both Cloud Forest
area, has become polluted, so if on the island and throughout the -Human activities such as logging
the area is preserved, there would world and clearing the land for agriculture
only be one available source of have degraded the land; preserving
clean drinking water the land would put a limit on/stop
deforestation, therefore protecting
the trees in the forest

PART A: BENEFITS AND TRADE-OFFS:

Forest Area Benefits of Conserving the Area Trade-Offs of Conserving the Area

Area A: Mangrove Forest - The island government will offer limited - Fishermen in the area will be affected by a
permits at a reasonable cost for sustainable strict catch limit, causing them to downsize their
ecotourism business, lessening their income
- Ecotourism would provide many jobs for those - Families who fish to feed their family would no
living on the island longer be able to fish; would have to provide for
- Park fees would bring in revenue that would their family a different way
contribute to the island’s economy, which would - 3% of of the land will be conserved, compared
result in the wages of the people working in the to the Lowland Tropical Rainforest South, which
newly created jobs has 7% land area to be conserved
- Villages would be further protected from - Would only protect 14 endemic species, 7 of
storms by vegetation which are threatened, which would not be as
- A strict fishing limit would be placed on the beneficial as preserving Lowland Tropical South,
area, fish populations would grow and fish which has 254 endemic species, 75 of which are
would thrive threatened
- Roots of the mangrove trees filter salts out of
seawater and silt and nutrients from river water,
by protecting the trees, the water in the
ecosystem benefits as well
- Vegetation provides as a buffer for shoreline
villages from hurricanes and other storms
- Preserved vegetation would prevent erosion
- Mangroves would continue to provide food for
many organisms

Area B: Lowland Tropical - Benefits of preserving this are are protecting - hurting both social and economic
Rainforest North the 135 endemic species, and preventing the 10 sustainability- coffee business as well as the
threatened species from becoming extinct. logging and agricultural business would be
- Protection of this area will halt agriculture and impacted, and this would lead to a decrease in
logging industries which will prevent income for the island, as well as upsetting the
deforestation in this area and lead to less habitat producers and consumers of the coffee, logs, and
loss for species food.
- Most biodiverse area on the island - other areas also offer benefits, such as the
lowland tropical rainforest south having 254
endemic species, almost double of this area, or
the mangrove forest benefiting ecotourism and
increasing social and economic sustainability

- conserving this area would protect the most - the cost of the permits for this area would be
Area C: Lowland Tropical biodiverse forest on the island higher than the permit for the mangrove forest
Rainforest South - would protect the tree-dwelling species that - by protecting this area, we would not be
depend on the kapok tree to travel through the preserving the other areas on the island
forest without touching the ground
- government will build a primate center to
research and protect endemic primates living in
the island forests
- conserving this area will result in the
conservation of 254 endemic species, 75 of
which are endangered
- 7% of the land area will be conserved
- conservation of a plant endemic to the area that
shows potential as a new malaria treatment; if
successful, the treatment could save millions of
lives
- research scientists would be assigned permits
to collect specimens from the area in a
sustainable manner
- permits will be available for people to visit the
primate center and learn about primates and
observe them, promoting education and
ecotourism
- the primate center will require the construction
of roads and facilities, which will provide jobs
for the residents of the area
plant species central to pharmaceutical research
and product development would be conserved
- percentage of the profit made from products
containing substances from the Kapikua plants
will go back into the island economy
- permits will be available for people to visit the
primate center and learn about primates and
observe them, promoting education and
ecotourism

Area D: Tropical Montane - Supporting the ecosystem would allow for the - Not sustaining the environment can allow for
Cloud Forest water to stay clean instead of being polluted. the tea corporation to grow and raise its profits.
This will allow for the water to continue being a This can benefit the islanders due to the fact that
source of drinking water for the islanders. Along it will bring more income into their economy and
with that, it will allow for the bodies of water to can also provide job opportunities.
stay accessible to the organisms in the forest.
- conserving the environment would allow for
unique species to sustain such as the fastigo
whipping frog. If the environment is not
sustained, this species along with many other
ones will be sustained instead of putting in
further endangerment.

PART B: PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY:

Area A: Mangrove Forest - common ancestor traced back to node 3


- the second most phylogenetically diverse primate species because the common
ancestor is more recent than the common ancestor of the species in Area C, but less
recent than the common ancestors of the species in Areas B and D
- primates endemic to Area A are slightly earlier in the process of speciation than the
primates in Area C, indicating that they are slightly less genetically diverse and
distinct than the primates of Area C, but more distinct than the primates in Areas B
and D

Area B: Lowland Tropical Rainforest North - common ancestor traced back to node 7
- least phylogenetically diverse primate species because the common ancestor is most
recent
- primates endemic to Area B are earlier in the process of speciation than the species
in any of the other areas, making them the least genetically distinct group and less
diverse than the other primates

Area C: Lowland Tropical Rainforest South - common ancestor traced back to node 1
- the most phylogenetically diverse primate species because the common ancestor is
the least recent
- primates endemic to Area C are later in the process of speciation than the species in
other areas, making them more genetically distinct and diverse than the other primates
in other areas

Area D: Tropical Montane Cloud Forest - common ancestor traced back to node 5
- the third most phylogenetically diverse primate species because the common
ancestor is more recent than Areas A and C, but less recent than the common ancestor
of the species in Area B
- primates endemic to Area D are slightly later in the process of speciation than the
primates in Area B, indicating that they are slightly more genetically diverse and
distinct than the primates endemic to Area B, but are less genetically distinct and
diverse than the species of Areas A and C

Conservation Proposal:

We propose the conservation of Area C: Lowland Tropical Rainforest South because conserving this area would be the most

beneficial for the island. First, preserving the southern tropical rainforest would result in many environmental benefits. Area C is the

most biodiverse proposed conservation area on the island, and there are 254 species endemic to the area, 75 of which are endangered.

Endemic species are organisms that are only found in one specific area. Because of this, if these species were to go extinct in that area

they would not be able to be brought back. Along with that, The southern tropical rainforest has more forests than the the northern

region of the rainforest, so conserving this area would preserve more existing forest than conserving the northern tropical rainforest in

addition to conserving the highest number of endemic species. The percentage of land area to be conserved is also higher for Area C at

7%, in comparison to the other three areas at 3-4%. Focusing conservation efforts on the southern tropical rainforest would result in
the preservation of the most environmentally sustainable region on the island, as Area C, being more biodiverse, is also more elastic,

making it the most able to survive any conditional changes on the island. Because of this environmental sustainability, putting efforts

toward conserving the southern tropical lowland forest would be the safest and most effective long-term investment.

In addition to many environmental benefits, conserving the southern tropical rainforest of Area C comes with social benefits.

For example, a plant endemic to this region shows potential as a new malaria treatment, and if it is successful, it could save millions of

lives. Preserving Area C, the area in which the plant grows, would result in the preservation of this potentially life-saving plant. Other

plant species central to pharmaceutical research and product development would also be protected with the conservation of the

southern tropical rainforest; research scientists would be assigned permits to collect specimens from the area in a sustainable manner.

Furthermore, if this area is conserved, the government plans to build a primate center to conduct research and protect the primates

endemic to the island’s forests. This center will result in the creation of a program to educate the public, making them more aware of

the importance of conservation efforts as well as the roles of the primates on the island. Ecotourists will be able to purchase permits

allowing them to visit the primate center, where they can observe the primates and learn about them through tours and exhibits. The

construction of this center will result in the construction of roads and facilities, which will be done in a sustainable manner. Such

projects will provide jobs to the island residents, such as tour guide, driver, lab technician, and instructor positions. The creation of

more jobs will make the island more socially sustainable by helping residents earn money with which they can support themselves,

increasing the social sustainability of the island.


Conserving Area C will also result in a plethora of economic benefits. For example, the primate center would result in

ecotourism, which could potentially become a main source of revenue. Results from a 2003 study of the effect of ecotourism on the

economy showed that when ecotourism was introduced, jobs were created and local businesses thrived, thus causing a decline in

deforestation because people were too busy to cut down trees. Moreover, it was also found that popularity from ecotourism resulted in

the creation of several national parks and reserves (Blue, n.d.). Additionally, the primate center would cause a number of jobs to be

established, which would help island residents earn money that they could reinvest in the island economy. Furthermore, the research

institute that discovered a plant in the southern tropical rainforest that could be used in treating malaria signed an agreement with the

Kapuka government saying that a percentage of the profits made from products containing substances from Kapikua plants will go

back into the island economy, also expanding the island’s economy and lead to a stable economy.

While there are many benefits to protecting Area C, there are trade-offs associated with protecting this area over other areas.

First, the cost of acquiring a permit for sustainable ecotourism would be very high and much higher than the cost of a permit in the

Mangrove Forest. This would lower economic sustainability as it would cost more money for one to establish an area for ecotourism

in Lowland Tropical Rainforest South than in the Mangrove Forest. As a result, less people would apply for a permit, thus giving less

money to the government and weakening economic sustainability in the area. In addition, without sustainable ecotourism, less tourists

would pay to come to the island and observe the wildlife, therefore further lessening the amount of money the government is

receiving. Limited sustainable ecotourism due to high permit prices would also weaken social sustainability. The government-run

business would have a negative impact on the residents, therefore making the business even less appealing to people on the island.
Furthermore, by only protecting Area C, all of the other three areas are left vulnerable. One example of this is Area D, the Cloud

Montane Forest. The water that is collected in this area flows to other parts of the island and is used by both the organisms on the

island as well as humans for activities such as irrigation. If this area were to be left unprotected because the preservation of Area C

was prioritized, the valuable source of water would be polluted and many of the endemic species of the island could die, lowering

environmental sustainability.

While the area will be protected, measures must be made to measure the success of protecting Area C. There are many

different indicators that can be used to measure the success of the protection efforts. In order to measure the success of protecting Area

C in regards to environmental sustainability, bioindicators such as the growth or decline of the percentage of endangered endemic

species will be measured. Bioindicators are “biological processes, species, or communities and are used to assess the quality of the

environment and how it changes over time” (Holt & Miller, 2010). The percentage of endemic species that are endangered will be

measured yearly in order to show the trends over time. If the percentage of endangered endemic species declines then the protection of

Area C will be considered successful in increasing environmental sustainability as there will be less endangered species and more

biodiversity. In order to measure social sustainability, the unemployment rate will be measured. If there is a lower unemployment rate

then people will overall be more content and satisfied. Unemployment rates of the island will also be measured yearly in order to show

how satisfied people are with the conservation of Area C. Finally, economic sustainability will be measured through the islands gross

domestic product (GDP). The GDP of the island will show how economically sustainable the island is by showing how successful the

island’s business are and how stable the economy is. The GDP will continually be measured throughout the year to get an in depth
analysis of the economic success of the island. If the GDP of the island increases after Area C is preserved, then protecting Area C is

successful.

In conclusion, Area C: Lowland Tropical Rainforest South should be prioritized in regards to conservations efforts among all

of the other forests on the island. The environmental, economic, and social benefits clearly outweigh the trade-off of protecting the

area, thus making it the best-suited for conservation.


References

SEPUP. (2011). Science and Global Issues Ecology: Living on Earth. Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California

Berkely. Published by Lab-Aids, Inc., Ronkonkomo NY

Blue, Jessica. (n.d.). What Are the Benefits of Ecotourism for Local Communities? Home Guides | SF Gate. Retrieved from

http://homeguides.sfgate.com/benefits-ecotourism-local-communities-78820.html

Holt, E. A., & Miller, S. W. (2010). Bioindicators: Using Organisms to Measure Environmental Impacts. Retrieved June 9,

2018, from Knowledge Project website: https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/bioindicators- using-organisms-to-

measure- environmental-impacts-16821310