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Research Proposal
“The Causes of Drug Addiction among students
in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Shafiq Ur Rahman
B.Sc. Nursing
Year 4, semester 7th
Sir Zubair

Date of Submission: December 25, 2019



1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Aims & Objectives
4. Literature review
5. Methodology
6. Analysis of data
7. Ethical consideration
8. Time frame
9. Limitations
10. Anticipated result
11. Reference
12. Budgets & Expenses


Drug abuse among university students in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan is highly

increasing day by day. This study will be conducted to identify the causes of this
increasing situations. My research will be based on a survey and the students will
be selected using random sampling from some selected universities in Peshawar
city. This study will help us to know the present scenario of drug addiction among
students in Peshawar city and suggest the way of eliminating this alarming


Developing countries, like Pakistan faces thousands of problems now a days. Drug
is one of the major problems of them. Drug abuse directly influences the economic
and social aspects of our country. Though the young people are mostly addicted to
drug, but it is very shocking that recently the students are also committing to drug.
These students are mostly addicted to drugs due to various reasons. If this problem
cannot be removed, our country will be dropped to the edge of destruction.

Aims & Objectives:

The main aim of our study is to identify why the students are addicting to drugs?
And other objectives are:

 To know the present status of drug abuse by students in Peshawar.

 To determine their socio-economic condition.
 To formulate strategies for the prevention of drug abuse among students of
Peshawar city.

Literature review:

For conducting this study I have studied a number of relevant literatures to get
clear idea on drug abuse. I have studied different literatures from journals, thesis
papers, articles and other relevant literatures. By reviewing these i find that the
prevalence of addicted students has been increasing in most of the developing
world specially in Pakistan. The drugs most often associated with this term
includes alcohol, amphetamine , barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, hashish,
methaqualone, and opioids.

Muhammad Zaman.et al(2015), Parent’s substance abuse habits is the most

influential factor in affecting a student’s substance abuse. Social risk factors for
drugs abuse and addiction include male gender, being adult, unmarried and lower
socioeconomic status.


Study location:

Peshawar university, Khyber medical university, Islamia college university,

CECOSE university, Sarhad university, Abasin university and agriculture

Sampling & Sample size:

Before the main survey, I will visit to the selected study areas, will give an idea
about the concentration of addicted students and their characteristics. This also will
help to determine the ultimate study samples. From each university, around 100
students will be drawn through repeated visits within one week.

Data Collection:

This study will be based on survey method. Skilled interviewers will be

recommended for data collection. An instruction explaining the key terms in the
questionnaire will be prepared. On the day of interview, I will identify the first
addicted student according to the definition of addicted students and criteria for
selection. The study will include only those who will be interested on own behalf.
Verbal consent will be taken before the interview. The field activities will be
supervised by the responsible researchers.

Data Analysis:

The data will be analyzed using both descriptive and Statistical for the Social
Sciences/Medical sciences (SPSS).

Ethical issues:

All participants will be informed about the purpose of the study and their verbal
consent will be obtained before the interview or information will be kept

Time Frame:

Selection of interviewers 1 month

Designing of the questionnaire 15 days

Conduct of interview 1 month

Analysis of data 1 month

Writing of the final report 1 month

Total Time = 5 months


Limitations of the Study:

The study will be confined to these specific universities in Peshawar city due to
time limitations.

Anticipated result:

It is expected that after conducting this study I will be able to find out the reasons
of drug abuse among the students in these universities. I guess the main causes will
be as following:

 Poverty
 Over assignments
 Exam tension.
 hostalites
 Over population
 Impact of bad companion
 Depression and frustration
 Unconsciousness of parents
 Easily Availability of drugs


1. Emmanuel, F., Akhtar, S., &Rahbar, M. H. (2003). Factors associated with

heroin addiction among male adults in Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of
psychoactive drugs, 35(2), 219-226.
2. Imran, N., Haider, I. I., Bhatti, M. R., Sohail, A., & Zafar, M. (2012).
Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use Among Medical Students in Lahore.
Annals of King Edward Medical University, 17(4).
3. Njord L, Merril RM, Njord R, Lindsay R, Pahano JDR (2010). Drug use
among street children and non-street children in Phillippines. Asia Pacific J
Public Health 22(2):203-11.

Budgets & Expenses:

The expected cost will be 20000 rupees approximately.