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[TI Solutions and Colligative Properties

Some Important Formulae

Moles of so lute x
(1) Molarity (M) = Moles of solute x 1000 (2 1 Molality (m) = Mass of solvent (i n g)
vol. of solution (in mL)
. Mol.mass
(3) Normality (N) = Gram equiv. of solute x 1000 (4) Normality = Mo 1an ty x Eq. mass
Vol. of solu tion (in mL)
(5) Mole fraction of ( r- ) = Moles of solute
--,:i Moles of solute+ Moles of solvent

(6) No. of formula mass of solute

Formality = ----=__::..-'---'---'---'-____;;_;_-'-------'--'------- (7) Normality = Molarity x Basicity (for acids)
volume of solution in litre
= Molarity x Acidity (for bases)
(8) Solubility = s oc P, s = kP
(9) Vapour pressure of solution A= PA = P~ xA

where , P~ = vapour pressure of pure solvent, xA = mole fraction of solution

10) As per Raoult's law, relative lowering in vapour pressu re ( p~ ~pA ] = x 8

. PA
W2 x M1
and Molecular mass of non -volatile solut e, M8 = - -- -~

W1 (
p~ -
p~ --
PA ]
( 11) Elevation in boiling point:
L'. Tb = Kbm where, m = molality
Kb = Molal elevation in boiling point
or L'.Tb = 1000 x Kb x - ~ - where , W 1 = Wt of solvent
W1 x M2
W2 = W of solute
M2 = Molar mass of solute
(12) Depression in freezing point:
Kr x l000 x W2
W1 x M2
(13) Van't Hoff equation:
1t = cRT or where, 1r = Osmotic pressure

n = no . of moles

R = 0 .082 L atm mor 1 1\ 1

T = a bsolut e temperature
V = vo lu me
( 14) Van't Hoff Factor: (i)
= Observed colli gative property No rm a l mol ecu lar mass
Norma l colligative property Obse rved m olec u lar m ass
⇒ Rel a tive lowering in vapour pressure = llP = l X s o l111 e
⇒ Eleva tion in boiling point , 11Tb = i Kbm .
⇒ Depression in freezing point, L'.Tb = iKim
⇒ Osmotic ressure, n = icRT

So /11tio11s and Colligmfn, Pruperties 43

l _PQ~_NTS TO REME~~ER (a brie(c~nce_p!)_]

Introduction _I
Solutions a re mi xt ures of two ur mor(' compon e nt s. Depe ndin g upon s ize of co n s titu e nt s, th e mixture are
classified into three ty pes :
(a) A cours e m ixture: form ed wh e n the s izes of the co nstitu e nt co mpon ents a re re la tive ly bigge r . e .g. mixture salt .
(b) A co lloidal disp e rs io n : form ed when th e s ize s o f lh t· particles dispersed i n so lve nt a re in the range of J 0- 7 c m to
10--1 c m e.g. FeITi c hydroxid e so l. a rseni c su lph ide. c tr.
(c) A tru e solutio n : fo rm e d when so lub le s ubst~n ccs a rc di sso lved in th e s olve nt. e.g. so lu tion of salt in water.
Types of Soluti~ ~
No . Solvent
1. Solid e r in gold etc .
2. Solid AmaJ oams of m ercu , with met a l
3. Solid um met al , pumice ston e
4. Iodin e in CCl4 benzoic acid in C 6 H6 , s ugar in water
6. e n, carbon di oxide in wate r
7. Iodine in air
8. Gas Li quid Chloroform in nitro en
9. Gas Gas a ses

Concentration of Solutions
( 1) Percen tage bv m ass (W / W) = Mass of solu te x 100
' Mass of solution

(2) Percentage by volum e (V /V) = Volume of so lute

. x J 00
Vo 1ume of solu t10n
(3) Mole fraction = x = x = ni a nd x, = _ n_2- (n 1 and n_ no. of moles of solvent and solute)
J n1 + n 2 - n1+n 2 · -2

No . of m oles of solute
(4) Molarity (M) = - - - - - - - - -
Volume of solution in dm 3
=; ) number of m oles of the solute
(..., Molality (mj = - - - - - - - - - --
m ass of solvent in kg
* Solubility of solute in solvent:
Solubili ty of solute is th e maximum amount of solute that dissolves compl etely in a given amount of solve nt at
a con s tan t temperature .
Solubility of Gases in Liquids
( l) Effect of change of temperature on solubility of gas:

S oc f (Te mpera tu re in cr eases as solubility of gas in liquid d ecreases)

(2 ) Effect of change of pressure on solubility of gases: S a P (H enry's law: Solubility of a gas in liquid a t
con stant te mpera ture is propo rti o n a l to th e pressure of the gas a bove th e solution) .
(3) Effect of addition of soluble salt on solubility of gas : Solubility of disso lved gas is s uppressed w hen a
solubl e sal t is a dd ed to th e s oluti o n of gc1s .

Solid Solutions
olid solution of two or more m c taJs or o f a m e ta l or m e tal s with o n e or more non -m e ta ls is cal led an alloy or
id solu tion .
. Stainless s tee l (Stee l + C r+ Ni) , Dura lumin (Al +Cu+ Mg+ Mn) , Spiege leise n, (5 -20% Mn in Iron) e tc.

Colligative Properties
• These are prope rties of solu tion th a t d e p e nd s o nly on t h e number of solute particles in the solutions a nd not on
the nature of t h e solu te particles. These a re :-
(a) Lowering of Vapour Pressure:
(1) Va pour pressure of liquid = Press u re exe rted by the gaseous state of that substance when it is in equation
with solid or Ii uid hase .
L·rram ·s .illfT-CET rChemi.sr,)

(2 ) Vapour pre ssure lowe ring ,1p = P °-P

where , P? = vapour pre s s ure of pure so lve nt , P = vap our pre s s ure of s olution )
. 6P Po - P
(3) Relative lowe1ing of vapour pre ssure = ~ = - 1 - 0-
pi P,
(4) Raoult's law: It states that for a solution of vo la tile liquid s , th e partial vap our pres sure of ea c h component
of the solution is directly proportional to it s m ole fra c ti o n prese nt in so lu ti on .
p I = p 1O x 1 and p 2 = p 20 ·Y-
where p IOa ·nd p20 are vapour press ures of pure compon e nt s I a nd 2 respec tive!_\·. at
the same temperature .
(5) Raoult's law for a solution of non-volatile solute:
Vapour pressures , P = Pi° x 1

Lowering of vapour pressure , 6P = P1 Xi °

. . 6P
Re Iauve lowenng vapour pressure , 0 = Xi
(6) Molar mass of solute and Relative lowering of vapour pressure
6.P n ') n WM
- = Xi = - --- = -2 - 2- -1 (as n 1 » ~ fo r dilute s oluti on )
Pi° n1 + n2 n1 W 1M 2
(b) Elevation in Boiling point:
(1) Boiling point: lt is a temperature at whi c h th e vapour press u re of liqujd beco m es equal to the a tmos pheric
(2) Elevation of boiling point: 6.T b = T - T"
where , 6.Tb = elevation of B.P.,
T = B.P. of solution , T" = B .P. of pure s olwn t
6.T b oc 6.P
6.Tboc m
6Tb = Kbm (Kb = e bullioscopic constan t)
m = __
- W2 * Molar mas s of s olut e can be det ermine by ~Tb
6Tb - Kb M w
2 J

(c) Depreaaion in Freezing point:

(1) Freezing point: It is a temperature at whi ch th e va p our pressure of s olid is equ al to the n lpou r pressure of
(2) Depression of freezing point:
6T1 = T" - T (6Tr = Depression of F .P, T" = FP of pure s olve nt . T = F.P. of s olu tion )
6T oc P1o - P
6T oc m
6T1 = Ki,m (Ki = cryoscopic constant)

As m

Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

Semipermeable membrane: It 's m e mbra n e whic h H.J lows th e so lven t m olecules b ut n ot tht' so lut e m olecule' s
to pass through it e. g . Cu 2 [Fe (CN) 6 ], cellulose e tc. /
(ii) Osmosis: Th~ spontaneous and unidirec tional flow of s olve nt -m olecu les th rou gh a semipe nneabk m e mbra ne /
into the solut.10n .
(ill) Osmotic pressure: ~he excess of pressure on the s ide of s olution tha t sto ps the n e t now of s o lve nt inW
solution through semipermeable membrane . j
re = CRT = ('JJ RT
Solutions and Colligati1·e Prope 11ies 45

-- - - - - - -- - - - - -~
w RT
w, RT
rcV = -2 - or TT½ = - --
IM>tonic solution: l\vo or more solution exerting th e same osmotic pressure.
I (iv)
Hypertonic solution: A solution havtng osmotic pressure higher than that of another solution.
I (V)
Hypotonic solution: A solution having osmotic pressurt> lower th an that of another solution.
I (vii)
Laws of osmotic pressure:
van ·cHq_[f Boyle's law:
At constant T . TCV = constant

or TC = constant
C (in m o! L- 1 )
Van 't Ho.ff Charle's law:
At constant C. T = constant

• Van ·r Ho.ff general solution equation:

TC = ~ RT or 7t = CRT
(viii} van't Hoff - Avgadro's law:
Equal volumes of isotonic solution contains an equal number of solute particles at the given temperature.

Abnormal Molecular Masses

• Observed lower molecular masses of electrolyte solutes are du e to dissociation of solute molecules or observed
higher molecular masses of solutes in non aqueous solvents are due to association and are called abnormal
molecular mass.
• ColligatiVe properties ex Actual number of solute particles present in solution.
• The colligative properties are related to molecular m asses of solutes by the equations,
(i) P1 - p = x2 - 112 = W2M1 (ii) ~Tb = Kb- m = KbW2
Pi° - n1 W1M2 W1M2
K1W2 (iv) = CRT = -~ RT = Wz RT
(ill) tJ.TJ = KJ m = - - 1t
W1M2 V M 2V

CM Van't Hoff Factor (i)

• Definition: It is defined as the ratio of ob-served colligative property produced by a given concentration of
electrolyte solution to the property observed for the same concentration of non-electrolyte solution. Therefore.
= observed colligative property of electrolyte solution
observed colligative property of non - electrolyte
solution of same concentration
= 6p (observed) = 6Tb (observed) = 6T1 (observed) = 7t (observed)
6p (theoretical) 6Tb (theoretical) 6T1 (theoretical) 1t (theoretical)
=n (observed) M (theoretical)
n (theoretical) M (observed)
• Van't Hoff Factor (i) and degree of dissociation (a):
We have , i = [1 + (n' - I)o:]
The degree of dissociation , o: = J;=_!__
n - 1
Further 1 = M (theoretical) _ I 1 ( , 1
M (observed) - + n - )o:)

a = M (theoretical) - M (observed)
M (observed) (n' - 1)
• Relation between van 't Hoff factor and degree of aaaoclatlon:
1- -