Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 137



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2

ɋɈȾȿɊɀȺɇɂȿ

ȼȼȿȾȿɇɂȿ«««««««««««««««««««««««««««..3
ȽɅȺȼȺ 1. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɢɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢ ɞɧɹ««««««««««..........................4
ȽɅȺȼȺ 2. ɋɯɟɦɵ ɢɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ...................................................................................10
ȽɅȺȼȺ3. Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ.....................................................................................14
ȽɅȺȼȺ 4. Ɍɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɹɢɨɛɜɢɧɟɧɢɹ««««««««««««..«.18
ȽɅȺȼȺ 5. Ɏɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ..«««««««««««««««««««««««.23
ȽɅȺȼȺ 6. Ɇɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ..................................................................................................27
ȽɅȺȼȺ 7. ɉɨɥɟɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ««««««««««««««««««««.....31
ȽɅȺȼȺ 8. Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ««.««««««««««««««««««......35
ȽɅȺȼȺ 9. ɋɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝ..««««................................................................................45
ȽɅȺȼȺ 10. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫ««.«««««««««««.«.....51
ȽɅȺȼȺ11. ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ..««.««......«««««««««...56
ȽɅȺȼȺ 12. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɢɚɪ«««««««««...«««««««..........63
ȽɅȺȼȺ. ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɵɟɚɤɰɢɢ««««««««««««««««««......72
ɁȺɄɅɘɑȿɇɂȿ«««...«««««««««««««««««««««««.82
ɋɉɂɋɈɄɂɋɉɈɅɖɁɈȼȺɇɇɈɃɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊɕ«««««««««..85
3

ȼȼȿȾȿɇɂȿ

ȼ ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɥɸɛɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɰɟɧ


ɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɟɣ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢ. Ɉɞ
ɧɚɤɨ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɩɪɢɡɧɚɬɶɱɬɨɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɢ
ɨɰɟɧɨɤɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɢɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɣ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɨɧɟ
ɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɩɪɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɸ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ.
ȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɜɨɫɧɨɜɟɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɣ
ɞɟɫɤɪɢɩɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɥɟɠɢɬɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɨɬɨɦɱɬɨɪɚɰɢ
ɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɧɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɫɩɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɩɪɨ
ɫɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɣ ɢ ɪɚɜɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɵɣ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧ
ɬɚɦɢ ɜɞɭɯɟ©ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢªɩɨɘɪɝɟɧɭɏɚɛɟɪɦɚɫɭ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɫɤɨɪɟɟɜɜɢɪɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɦɦɢɪɟɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢɚɧɟɜɨɜɧɟɲɧɟɦɨɤɪɭ
ɠɟɧɢɢɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɨɡɚɛɨɱɟɧɧɵɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
ɗɬɨɬɩɪɨɜɟɪɟɧɧɵɣɧɚɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟɩɨɞɯɨɞɰɟɥɢɤɨɦɭɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɜɩɚɪɚɞɢɝɦɭɫɨɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɢɡɦɚɢɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɝɨɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɦɚɱɬɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ
ɩɟɪɜɨɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɜ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ©ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɜɵɫ
ɲɟɝɨɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚªȾɠɟɣɦɫɚȽɪɸɧɢɝɚ
ȼɬɨɪɨɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɬɨ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɰɢɟɬɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯɩɨɥɟɣɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɧɨɪɦɢɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬɧɨɜɵɟɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ
ɧɵɟɩɨɥɟɜɵɟɢɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɥɨɝɢɤɢȼɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɡɚɰɢɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɦɟɞɢɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɢɱɬɨɫɚɦɨɟɝɥɚɜɧɨɟɧɚɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɢɞɚɠɟɝɟɣɦɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɥɸɛɵɯɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ.
ɇɚɤɨɧɟɰɬɪɟɬɶɹɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ± ɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɣ
ɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɤɚɤ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɚ.
ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɧɵɟɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɢɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɥɸ
ɛɵɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɢɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɬɶɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢɜɥɸɛɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɫɮɟɪɟ
4

ȽɅȺȼȺ 1
ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɢɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢ ɞɧɹ
©ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟɫɭɬɶɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɚɧɟɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹɤɚɤɧɚɛɨɪɚɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɨɛ
ɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɫ ɨɫɨɛɨɣ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɨɣ« ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ± ɷɬɨ
ɬɨɱɤɚɮɨɤɭɫɚɪɚɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɫɹɢɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɭɸɳɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɣɢɰɟɥɟɣ.
ɂɦɟɧɧɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɷɬɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɢɰɟɥɟɣ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɪɚɡɪɟɲɚɟɬɥɸɛɵɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵª [Blumer 1971: 298, 301].
ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɦɢɫɫɢɹɨɪɝɚɧɨɜɜɥɚɫɬɢ± ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɫɹɩɨɞɢɯɸɪɢɫɞɢɤɰɢɟɣɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣɤɚɤɚɞɦɢɧɢ
ɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɟɞɢɧɢɰ Ɉɪɝɚɧɵɜɥɚɫɬɢɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫ
ɤɭɪɫɟɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɢɨɩɪɚɜɞɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɢɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɭɪɫɨɜɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɢɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɱɬɨɛɵɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɢɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶ ɫɜɨɸɥɟɝɢ
ɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɤɚɤ ɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɟ ɩɪɚɜɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶɢɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɚɬɶ ɑɟɦɫɬɪɨɠɟ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɶɜɥɚɫɬɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɧɨɪɦɚɦɢɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɬɟɦɜɵɲɟ
ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɞɨɜɟɪɢɟ ȼɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɩɭɛɥɢɱ
ɧɨɣɩɨɞɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɢɨɛɹɡɵɜɚɟɬɱɢɧɨɜɧɢɤɨɜɢɞɟɩɭɬɚɬɨɜɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɬɶɤɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɢɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɩɥɚɧɵɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɦɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢ
ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢȿɫɥɢɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɚɹɩɨɞɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɟɬɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɬɨɧɟɭɞɚɱɚɨɫɥɚɛɥɹɟɬɥɟɝɢɬɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ
Ʌɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ ɚɤɬɨɪɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨ
ɪɹɟɬɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜ  ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ ɚɤɬɨɪɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɫɨɰɢɨ
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɢɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɫɨɨɬ
ɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɧɨɪɦɚɦ  ɂɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɜɢɞɭ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɟ 'ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɶ'
(1), 'ɪɟɡɨɧɚɧɫ'   ɢ 'ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ'   ɤɚɤ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɚɤɬɨɪɜɥɢɹɟɬɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɹɫɜɨɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɭɪɫɵɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɤɚɤɷɮ
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɛɥɚɝɨɬɜɨɪɧɵɟ, ɷɬɢɱɧɵɟ ɢɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɗɬɚ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɚɹ ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚ
ɰɢɹ ɜɥɚɫɬɢɜɫɺɛɨɥɶɲɟɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɟɬɧɚɞ'ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ' ɤɚɤɫɫɵɥɤɨɣɧɚɢɧɫɬɪɭ
ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɭɸɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɢ'ɚɜɬɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ' ɤɚɤɫɫɵɥɤɨɣɧɚɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɸɨɛɵɱɚɣ
ɢɥɢɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɭɸɮɢɝɭɪɭ
Ʉɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɛɨɣɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɢɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɸ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɥɢɞɟɪɚɦɢɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɫɩɢ
ɤɟɪɚɦɢɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɵɦɢɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɬɚɦɢɢɫɩɢɧ-ɞɨɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɯɜɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚ
ɬɢɜɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɞɟɣ ɫɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɩɚɪɬɢɣ
5

ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɣɢɝɪɭɩɩɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɬɚɤɠɟ ɭɱɟɧɵɯɥɢɞɟɪɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɵɯɫɨ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɬɨɜ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɨɜ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɛɥɨɝɟɪɨɜ ɷɤɫ
ɩɟɪɬɨɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɬɨɪɨɜ ɢ 'ɦɨɡɝɨɜɵɯ ɰɟɧɬɪɨɜ'ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹ
ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɢɥɢɤɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɭɪɫ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯ.
ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɬ ɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɡɚ ɨɬɛɨɪɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯɞɥɹɧɢɯɫɩɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɤɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɬɪɟɛɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɢ
ɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɨɝɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɂɧɚɱɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ± ɷɬɨɫɨɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɚ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣ
ɧɚɛɨɪ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ. Ɍɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨ
ɛɥɟɦ
ɢɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɢɯɜɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸɢɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢ
ɞɧɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ 'ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɚɦɢ
, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɞɥɹ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣ
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ ɞɥɹɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ. ȼ
ɢɯɱɢɫɥɨɜɯɨɞɹɬ ɜɵɫɲɢɟɢɡɛɢɪɚɟɦɵɟɢɥɢɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɟɦɵɟɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɟɥɢɰɚɥɨɛ
ɛɢɫɬɵɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɚɪɬɢɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɚɫɫɨɰɢ
ɚɰɢɢɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɟɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɬɵɢɥɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭ
ɸɳɢɟɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɧɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɚɪɟɧɚɯɝɞɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢ
ɰɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ('ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ') ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɞɥɹɚɤɬɨɪɚɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɢɫɢɫɬɟɦɭɤɨɝɧɢ
ɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɯɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɞɥɹɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɤɨɬɨ
ɪɚɹɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɫɨɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɢɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜɷɮ
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ. ɇɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɦɟɠɞɭɱɢɫɥɨɦɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɢɨɝɪɚɧɢ
ɱɟɧɧɵɦɢɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦɢɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɚɪɟɧ, ɧɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɧɢɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɢɪɟɲɚɸɬɫɹ,
ɨɛɨɫɬɪɹɟɬɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɸɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɨɜ ɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ.
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɦɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ, ɩɨɜɵɲɚɸɳɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ
ɞɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ:
x ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɪɨɫɬɵɯ
ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɨɤ, ɹɪɤɢɯ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɜ, ɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚ
ɰɢɢɚɤɰɟɧɬɚ ɧɚɧɟɨɬɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɞɪɭɝɢɯɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɟɧɢɣɤɚɤɛɨɥɟɟɩɚɝɭɛɧɵɯ; ɞɢɫɤɪɟ
ɞɢɬɚɰɢɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɨɜ; ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɫɬɢ
ɢɥɢɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɫɬɢɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɤɚɤɛɟɫɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɣɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɯɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟ
ɧɺɪɚɦɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɤɚɤɧɟɜɧɹɬɧɵɯɧɟɝɨɞɧɵɯɢɥɢɧɟɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɯ;
x ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨɪɟɡɨɧɚɧɫɚ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɩɨɩɭɥɹɪ
ɧɵɦɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦɢɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɦɢɢɥɢɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɬɟɦɚɦɢ;
6

x ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɚɤ
ɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɹɦ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯɝɪɭɩɩ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɪɟɥɢɝɢɨɡɧɵɯɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ
ɫɤɢɯ 
x ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɫɜɹɡɟɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜɟɟɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɫɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɹɦɢɞɪɭɝɢɯɚɤ
ɬɨɪɨɜɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦɢ;
x ɨɬɛɨɪ ɞɥɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɚɪɟɧɵɫɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɜɦɟ
ɫɬɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ;
x ɨɬɛɨɪɞɥɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɚɪɟɧɵɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɩɨɫɨ
ɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸɢɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɬɟɫɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɨ
ɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɣɢɡɫɩɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɢɥɢɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɧɵɯ
ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ ɦɟɠɞɭɞɜɭɦɹɢɥɢɛɨɥɟɟɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɢɡ-ɡɚɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜɢɥɢ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ.
ɉɭɛɥɢɱɧɚɹɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɲɢɪɨɤɨɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɟɢɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɟɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɞɚɧɧɵɣɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɸɬɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɱɚɫɬɶɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ
ɢɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɩɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɱɥɟɧɨɜɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɢɥɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɰɟɥɨɦ ɤɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧ
ɰɢɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ȼ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ ± ɷɬɨ ɪɚɧɠɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ
ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɯɬɟɦɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɹɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɨɤɭɫɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɧɢ
ɦɚɧɢɹɢɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɩɪɢɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɢɜɵ
ɛɨɪɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚ ± ɷɬɨ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɟɩɨɥɟ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜɞɚɧɧɵɣɩɟɪɢɨɞ.
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦɮɚɤɬɨɪɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹ
1. ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚɫɩɨɪɧɨɝɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ 'ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɩɪɢɜɪɚɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ' ± ɩɪɢ
ɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɦɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɦɢɥɢɰɚɦɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɥɢɞɟɪɚɦɢɢɥɨɛ
ɛɢɫɬɚɦɢɲɬɚɬɧɵɦɢɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚɦɢɢɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɚɦɢ± ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɩɨɪɹ
ɞɨɤɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɹɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɜɜɨɞɹɬɫɦɹɝɱɚɸɬɢɥɢɨɬɦɟɧɹɸɬɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵɚɬɚɤɠɟ
ɜɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɜɧɟɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɞɟɥɤɢɫɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɢɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɤɨɦɩɪɨ
ɦɢɫɫɧɵɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɢɜɪɚɬɧɢɤɢɩɨɞɜɟɪɠɟɧɵɫɤɪɵɬɨɦɭɜɧɭɬɪɟɧ
ɧɟɦɭɥɨɛɛɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸɢɥɢɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɦɭɜɧɟɲɧɟɦɭɥɨɛɛɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɩɪɨɹɜɥɹ
ɟɬɫɹ ɜɩɪɹɦɵɯɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹɯɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɝɪɭɩɩɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɯɫɭ
ɞɟɛɧɵɯɢɫɤɚɯɩɚɪɥɚɦɟɧɬɫɤɢɯɪɚɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯɢɥɢɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɯɤɨɦ
ɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹɯ.
7

2. Ɍɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹɨɬɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɟɪɜɟɧɫɬɜɨɫɬɚɪɵɦɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɤɨɝɞɚ-ɬɨ
ɜɯɨɞɢɥɢɜɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɧɨɥɢɛɨɩɨɫɜɨɟɣɫɭɬɢɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹɜɩɟ
ɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢɥɢɛɨɨɫɬɚɥɢɫɶɧɟɪɟɲɟɧɧɵɦɢɥɢɛɨɢɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɨɤɚ
ɡɚɥɢɫɶɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ
3. ɉɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɦɢɩɪɢɜɪɚɬɧɢɤɚɦɢɫɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɸɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨ
9 ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ
ɛɨɥɶɲɟɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ;
9 ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɜɫɨɰɢɭɦɟ;
9 ɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɭɜɚɠɟɧɢɟɦɢɥɢɢɦɟɸɬɩɪɹɦɨɣ
ɞɨɫɬɭɩɤɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɩɪɢɜɪɚɬɧɢɤɚɦɢɥɢ'ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɚɦ';
9 ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɝɨɬɨɜɵɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɬɶ
ɢɯɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ
9 ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɬ ɜ ɫɜɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɜɪɚɬɧɢɤɨɜ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɦɟɸɬɩɟɪɟɞɧɢɦɢɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
4. ɋɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɹɦ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧ
ɰɢɢɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ
5. Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɫɩɨɪɧɨɝɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɛɸɪɨɤɪɚɬɨɜɨɬ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚɢɡ-ɡɚɨɩɚɫɟɧɢɣɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɧɟɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ
6. ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɞɢɥɢ
ɫɜɨɸ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɢ ɜɪɨɞɟ ɛɵ  ɩɨɯɨɠɢɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɱɟɝɨ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟɨɬɞɚɟɬɫɹɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɦɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ
7. ȼɵɫɨɤɚɹɪɟɧɬɚɛɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜɜɥɢ
ɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɱɢɧɨɜɧɢɤɨɜ ɢɥɢɞɟɩɭɬɚɬɨɜ ɜɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɚȼɨɛɳɟɦɜɢɞɟɜɤɥɸ
ɱɟɧɢɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ;ɜɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹɜɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɚɤɬɨɪɚ
ɱɟɦɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ<ɟɫɥɢɷɬɨɬɚɤɬɨɪɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɞɥɹ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ;ɑɟɦɛɨɥɶɲɟɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɣɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɬɟɦɛɨɥɶɲɟɭɫɢɥɢɣ
ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɟɬɚɤɬɨɪɞɥɹɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ;ɜɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹ
8. Ɏɟɧɨɦɟɧ
ɤɚɡɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɢɪɨɝɚ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɚɤɬɨɪɵɱɚɫɬɨɛɟɪɭɬɫɹɡɚ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɭɡɤɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɜɨɛɦɟɧɧɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭɢɥɢ
ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɟɩɨɠɟɪɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹɗɬɢɡɚɬɪɚɬɵɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɱɚɫɬɶɸɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɸɬɩɨɬɪɟɛ
ɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɨɣ ɢɡɛɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɯɨɬɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɢɡ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɛɸɞɠɟɬɚɇɚɩɪ.ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɟɫɟɧɚɬɨɪɵɫɤɥɨɧɧɵɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɝɚɬɶɲɢɪɨɤɨɦɚɫɲɬɚɛ
ɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɦɢɜɩɨɥɶɡɭɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɧɨɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜ
ɧɵɦɢȻɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢɧɚɦɟɫɬɧɵɟɩɪɨɟɤɬɵɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɹɸɬɫɹɜɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ
ɛɸɞɠɟɬɟɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɣɫɟɧɚɬɨɪɧɟɧɟɫɟɬɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
8

9. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɜ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɩɨ


ɜɟɫɬɤɭɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɬɶɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟɜɥɚɫɬɧɵɯɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣɪɚɫɲɢɪɢɬɶɛɸɪɨɤɪɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭɢɥɢɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶɰɟɥɟɜɭɸɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɭɞɥɹ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ
10. ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɧɟɨɬɥɨɠɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ
ɩɨɪɨɝɨɜɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɨɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɭɫɬɚɧɚɜ
ɥɢɜɚɸɬɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɥɢɰɚ.
11. ɉɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞ
ɫɬɜɢɣɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɵɯɩɪɨɢɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɣɢɮɨɪɫ-ɦɚɠɨɪɧɵɯɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ
12. ɉɨɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɤɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɟɞɧɹɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭɦɧɟɧɢɸ
13. Ɇɟɞɢɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ
ɉɨɫɥɟɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɚɤɬɨɪɵɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɥɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɢɩɪɢɧɹɥɢɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɨɛɢɯɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɢɜɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɨɧɢɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɹɬɤɩɭɛ
ɥɢɱɧɨɦɭɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɭɱɬɨɛɵɜɧɟɞɪɢɬɶɢɯɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɦɢɜɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸɩɨ
ɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹɚɞɚɥɟɟɬɪɚɧɡɢɬɨɦɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭ.
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢ ɞɧɹ ± ɷɬɨɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɤɪɢɫɬɚɥɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɢɡ
ɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɜɯɨɞɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
'ɫɩɢɪɚɥɶɭɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ' ɢɭɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɨɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢɩɪɨ
ɛɥɟɦɢɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɦɧɟɧɢɣɜɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ. Ɇɟɞɢɣɧɚɹɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚ
ɤɚɤɜɟɪɯɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶɪɚɧɠɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨɫɩɢɫɤɚɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɯɦɟɞɢɚɬɨɩɢɤɨɜɢɧɨɝɞɚɧɟ
ɤɨɪɪɟɥɢɪɭɟɬ ɢɥɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɢɪɭɟɬ ɫ 'ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɨɣ' ɤɚɤ
ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɟɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɵɯɩɨɪɨɝɨɜɵɦɢɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɦɢɫɬɚɬɢ
ɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ'ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɨɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ'.
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹ± ɷɬɨɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɩɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟ
ɧɢɸɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɣɰɟɥɶɸɩɨɜɥɢɹɬɶɧɚɩɭɛ
ɥɢɱɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭ ɢɞɚɥɟɟɧɚɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɦɧɟɧɢɟ ɢɢɥɢɧɚɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ.
Ʉɚɠɞɚɹɫɨɰɢɟɬɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɪɟɚɝɢɪɭɟɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɟɟ ɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɣɫɢɝɧɚɥɵɜɧɟɲɧɟɣɫɪɟɞɵɢɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɢɯɜɩɪɢ
ɟɦɥɟɦɭɸɞɥɹɫɟɛɹɮɨɪɦɭɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɨɜɜɨ
ɩɪɨɫɨɜɜɩɚɪɟ'ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚ± ɦɟɞɢɣɧɚɹɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚ' ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸɢɯɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɹɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɟ ɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɟ
ɚɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɢɯɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɪɟ
ɮɪɚɤɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɟɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ.
ɋɬɟɩɟɧɶɜɥɢɹɧɢɹɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɧɚɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹɨɛɭɫɥɨɜ
ɥɟɧɚɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɚɬɭɫɢɬɢɩɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ  ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜ
9

ɧɨɫɬɶɢɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɬɨɩɢɤɨɜ  ɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɹɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɜɦɚɫ
ɫɦɟɞɢɚ  ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ  ɬɢɩɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢ  ɮɚɡɵɞɟ
ɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ   ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ   ɪɚɧɝ ɜɨ
ɩɪɨɫɚɜɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚɯɞɧɹ  ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ  
ȼɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ ɜɥɚɫɬɶɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɟɬ 'ɞɟɤɥɚɪɢɪɭɟɦɭɸ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭ ɞɧɹ',
ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɚɧɟɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɩɪɨɟɰɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ
ɧɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸɢɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɈɧɚɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡ
ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ
, ɭɞɨ
ɫɬɨɜɟɪɹɸɳɢɯɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɢɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɜɥɚɫɬɢɞɥɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɢɡɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɢɢɥɢɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɢɥɢɛɭɞɭɳɢɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯ.
Ʌɸɛɨɟ ɫɨɰɢɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɟ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤ 'ɪɟɮɪɚɤɰɢɢ' ɬɟ ɩɟ
ɪɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɢɝɧɚɥɵɢɡɞɪɭɝɢɯɩɨɥɟɣ ɜɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɟ. ȼɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɜɩɨɥɟ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵ ɩɪɟɞ
ɫɬɚɸɬɤɚɤɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜɩɨɥɟɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɤɚɤ ɬɟɦɵɞɥɹɦɟɞɢɚ-
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ, ɚɜɩɨɥɟɧɚɭɤɢɤɚɤɬɟɦɵɞɥɹɧɚɭɱɧɵɯɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ. Ⱦɥɹɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɬɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɣɩɪɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɢɡɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɥɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɜɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɢɥɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɟɚɤɬɢ
ɜɢɫɬɵ ɩɨɞɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɸɬ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɢ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɤ ɦɟɞɢɚɥɨ
ɝɢɤɟ ɩɪɨɳɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɢɯɜɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɦ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɜɨɞɨɜ  ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬ ɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɦɧɟɧɢɟ
ɗɬɚ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬ ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨ
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɢɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɨɤɞɧɹɧɨɧɟɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɚɟɬɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɨɰɢɟɬɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɥɟɣɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɜɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢ
ɫɬɵɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɟɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɬɵɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɢɫɯɨɞɹɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɢɡɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ.
ɂɬɚɤɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɜɥɚɫɬɢɤɚɤɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɰɟɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɞɢɫ
ɤɭɪɫɟɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɨɟɟɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɜɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɧɨɣɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɟɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɌɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ
ɜɵɫɲɚɹɰɟɥɶɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ± ɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɡɚɫɱɟɬɫɛɥɢɠɟɧɢɹɩɭɛ
ɥɢɱɧɨɣɢɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɨɤ ɞɧɹɫɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɨɣɞɨɥɠɧɵɪɚɫ
ɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɪɟɫɭɪɫɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɣɜɥɚɫɬɢɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɭɛ
ɥɢɱɧɵɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɨɦɡɚɫɱɟɬɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɵɯɞɥɹɫɟɛɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚɯ.
10

ȽɅȺȼȺ 2
ɋɯɟɦɵ ɢɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ
©ɉɨɢɫɬɢɧɟɜɦɢɪɟɤɚɠɞɵɣɦɨɦɟɧɬɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɫɟɣɱɚɫɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ
ɦɧɨɝɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɣȼɫɹɤɚɹɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɩɟɪɟɞɚɬɶɜɫɥɨɜɚɯɜɫɺ ɬɨɱɬɨɫɟɣɱɚɫɞɟɣɫɬɜɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɫɚɦɚɩɨɫɟɛɟɫɦɟɲɧɚɇɚɦɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɨɞɧɨ± ɩɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɫɚ
ɦɢɦ ɩɨ ɧɚɲɟɦɭ ɪɚɡɭɦɟɧɢɸ, ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɸ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ
ɱɬɨɨɧɚɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɢɫɬɢɧɟɢɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɟɸɤɚɤɫɯɟɦɨɣɫɟɬɤɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣɩɨ
ɧɹɬɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɞɚɟɬɧɚɦɯɨɬɶɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɩɨɞɨɛɢɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢª
>Ɉɪɬɟɝɚ-ɢ-Ƚɚɫɫɟɬ@
ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢɜɜɢɞɟ
ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɨɬɛɨɪɚɢɢɧɬɟɪ
ɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɧɟɫɤɨɧɱɚɟɦɨɝɨɩɨɬɨɤɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ. Ɏɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɵɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɵɟɩɟɪɰɟɩɬɢɜɧɵɟɢɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɟɫɯɟɦɵɨɛɟɫ
ɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɭɸɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɭɸɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɰɢɸɡɚɫɱɟɬɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚ
ɧɢɹɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɜɧɚɛɨɪɵɚɪɬɟɮɚɤɬɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɫɜɚɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɢɧ
ɞɢɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨ  ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɚɧ
ɞɚɪɬɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯɢɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɫɚɦɨɫɨɛɨɣɪɚɡɭɦɟɸɳɢ
ɟɫɹ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵ. ɉɟɪɰɟɩɬɢɜɧɵɟɢ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɦɚɬ
ɪɢɰɵɩɪɢɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢɭɡɧɚɜɚɧɢɢɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɢɜɵɛɨɪɟɢɩɪɢɧɹ
ɬɢɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɗɬɨ ɢɨɬɩɟɱɚɬɤɢɨɩɵɬɚɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɟɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢɫɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜ
ɧɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɟɣɢɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɟɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɣɱɟɪɟɡɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɜɨɫ
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɢɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵ ɜɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬɢɯɫɨɰɢɨ
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɣɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢ
Ʉɭɥɶɬɭɪɚɤɚɤɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɜɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɣɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ
ɪɟɲɚɸɳɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɟɢɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɮɨɪɦɵɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɰɟɥɢɢɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɝɪɚɧɢɰɵɞɥɹɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɝɨɢɨɬɤɥɨɧɹɸɳɟɝɨɫɹɩɨɜɟɞɟ
ɧɢɹ ɋɯɟɦɵɩɨɦɨɝɚɸɬɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɚɦɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɜɢ
ɬɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶɬɢɩɵɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɝɨɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɡɚɞɚɸɬɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɸɮɟ
ɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɸɬ ɫɦɵɫɥɵ ɢɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɭɦɨɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ ɮɨɪɦɢ
ɪɭɸɬɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɹɢɦɧɟɧɢɹɜɵɧɭɠɞɚɸɬ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɥɢɛɟɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɨ
ɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɟɣɧɚɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɟɫɹɜɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɢɡɚɩɪɟɬɵ
ȼɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɯɫɯɟɦɵɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹɉɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɫɯɟɦ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɢɥɢɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɫɹɜɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬɢɯ ɩɪɨ
ɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ: ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟɨɬɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɯɟɦɚɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɛɟɫɩɟ
11

ɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟɹɫɧɵɟɢɬɨɱɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɚɧɢɹɜɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɝɨɱɢɫɥɚɫɨɛɵ
ɬɢɣ ɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɪɚɧɟɟɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɟɢɭɫɜɨɟɧɧɨɟɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɨɩɪɟɞɟ
ɥɹɟɬɱɬɨɛɭɞɟɬɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɢɭɫɜɨɟɧɨɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɚɦɢɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢ
Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɜɨɩɥɨɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ
ɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ'ɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɨɜɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ'ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɦɚɪɤɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɜɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢ
ɪɨɞɧɵɦɢɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɚɪɬɟɮɚɤɬɚɦɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɚɦɢɮɢɝɭɪɚɦɢɪɟɱɢ ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦɢ. Ʉɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɧɟ ɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɢɟ ɧɢɤɚɤɢɦ ɫɯɟɦɚɦ,
ɥɢɛɨɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɥɢɛɨɩɟɪɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹɥɢɛɨɞɨɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ Ɇɟɪɚɫɢɬɭɚ
ɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ ɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɯɟɦɵ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɣɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨɨɩɵɬɚɠɟɥɚɧɢɣɢɭɫɬɚɧɨ
ɜɨɤ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚ. ȼɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɬɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɱɟɦ
ɛɥɢɠɟɞɪɭɝɤɞɪɭɝɭɢɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɤɚɤɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ
ɧɵɯ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɟɜ.
ɋɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ ± ɷɬɨɫɯɟɦɵ ɞɥɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɡɧɚɧɢɣɨɲɚɛ
ɥɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɟɞɢɧɵɯ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ  ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɦ ɧɨɪ
ɦɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɥɹɞɚɧɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɪɨɥɟɣɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ
ɢɯɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣɋɰɟɧɚɪɢɢɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɢɡɪɹɞɚɫɰɟɧɢɦɟɸɬɹɱɟɣɤɢ ɞɥɹ
ɪɨɥɟɣ ɪɟɤɜɢɡɢɬɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɢ
ɩɢɱɧɵɦɢɢɜɡɚɢɦɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɦɢɫɢɬɭɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɢɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢ. ɋɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ
ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɧɨɢɢɫɬɨ
ɪɢɢɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɯ ɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɩɨɞɫɤɚɡɨɤ ɧɚɩɪ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɥɢɦɟɬɚɮɨɪ ɚɬɚɤɠɟ
ɚɩɨɫɬɟɪɢɨɪɢ ɡɚɞɧɢɦɱɢɫɥɨɦ ɨɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶ ɪɨɥɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ ɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɢ.
ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢɯɪɚɧɹɬɫɹɜɞɨɥɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɩɚɦɹɬɢ
ɜɜɢɞɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ,
ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚɦ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɇɨɜɵɟ
ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ
ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ
ɫɢɬɭɚɬɢɜɧɨɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɤɚɪɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ
. ɉɪɨɬɨɬɢɩɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɟɬɶɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɞɜɚ ɧɚ ɜɯɨɞɟ, 'ɪɨɞɨɜɨɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ' ɢ 'ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ'
ɛɥɟɧɞ  Ɇɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɧɚɜɯɨɞɟɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹɫɪɨɞɨɜɵɦɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧ
ɫɬɜɨɦɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɟɦɢɯɨɛɳɢɟɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɫɯɟɦɵɤɚɤɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɞɥɹɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ
Ȼɥɟɧɞ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɢɡɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɧɚɜɯɨɞɟɨɛɴɟɞɢ
ɧɹɟɬ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɛɨɣɧɨɜɭɸɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɭɸɫɯɟɦɭ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɧɨɜɵɟɜɵɜɨɞɵɞɨɜɨɞɵ, ɢɞɟɢɩɨɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɪɟ
ɚɤɰɢɢ Ȼɥɟɧɞɜɥɢɹɟɬɧɚɨɰɟɧɤɭɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɧɚɜɯɨɞɟɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɟɬɤɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸɨɰɟɧɤɢ
ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɰɟɥɹɯɞɥɹɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹɲɭɬɨɤɧɨɜɵɯɤɨɧ
ɰɟɩɬɨɜɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɟɜɢɬɩ
12

Ȼɥɟɧɞɵɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɸɬɫɹɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɢɡɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟ
ɧɢɹ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɣ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢ Ɋɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨ
ɫɬɶɸ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɹ, ɨɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɢɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟ
ɧɨɜ Ɇɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɹɱɚɫɬɨɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɟɬɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ ɢɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ.
Ɇɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɹɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɨɞɢɧɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɟɧɧɵɣ ɢɱɟɬɤɨɜɵ
ɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ. ɉɪɢɦɟɧɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɤɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɹɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɚɹɩɪɨɟɤɰɢɹɪɟ
ɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ-ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɬɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɫ
ɩɪɢɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɦɢɪɨɥɹɦɢɚɬɚɤɠɟɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɟɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɟ-ɦɢɲɟɧɶ, ɬɟɤɚɪɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ. Ⱦɪɭɝɢɦɢɫɥɨɜɚɦɢɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɩɪɨɟɤɰɢɹ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ-ɦɢɲɟɧɢ ȼɪɟɡɭɥɶ
ɬɚɬɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɸ-ɦɢɲɟɧɢɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨɫɬɶɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɰɟɥɟɧɚ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ.
ȼɵɛɨɪ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ-ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɜ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɢ-ɦɢɲɟɧɢ ɉɪɨɜɨɰɢɪɭɟɦɵɟ ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɜɵɜɨɞɵ ɢɫ
ɬɢɧɧɵɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɢɪɚɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ-ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɇɨɜɵɟɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɨ
ɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɜ ɫɟɛɟ ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɭɸ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɭ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ-ɦɢɲɟɧɢ ɢ ɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɧɵ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɟɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ-ɦɢɲɟɧɢ ɫɯɟɦɵ
ɜɵɫɜɟɱɢɜɚɹ ɢɥɢɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɡɚɬɟɧɹɹɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɚɫɩɟɤɬɵɨɩɵɬɚ. ȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɹɜɧɵɯ
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɫɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɜɵɜɨɞɵɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɧɟɨɫɨ
ɡɧɚɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɦɤɚɤɞɨɥɠɧɨɟ.
Ʉɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɵɤɚɤɭɫɬɨɹɜɲɢɟɫɹɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɯ ɦɟ
ɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɬɟɷɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ-ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬɫɬɚ
ɬɭɫɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɫɯɟɦɢɞɚɥɟɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɞɥɹɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨɬɨɤɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɇɚɩɪ., ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɚɤ
ɬɢɤɱɚɫɬɨɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɟɣɧɨɜɵɯɢɫɬɚɪɵɯɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɣ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɞɪɭɝɨɣɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɫɭɬɶɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɜɬɨɦɱɬɨɤ'ɮɨɤɭɫɭ'
ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ'ɚɫɫɨɰɢɢɪɭɟɦɵɯɢɦɩɥɢɤɚɰɢɣ'ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯɫ
'ɪɚɦɤɨɣ
ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɚɨɬɛɢɪɚɟɬɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɬɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɟɬɨɞɧɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɨɛɴ
ɟɤɬɚɢɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɭɟɬ ɞɪɭɝɢɟɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦ ɡɚɞɚɜɚɹ ɧɨɜɭɸɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɭɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɢ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢɮɨɤɭɫɚ. Ɇɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɹɫɤɪɵɬɨɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɨ'ɮɨɤɭɫɟ'ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɨɛɵɱɧɨɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹɤ'ɪɚɦɤɟ'ɬɟɨɬɛɢɪɚɟɬɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɬɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɟɬɨɞɧɢɯɚɪɚɤ
ɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ'ɮɨɤɭɫɚ' ɢɡɚɬɟɧɹɟɬɞɪɭɝɢɟɇɚɩɪ.ɩɪɢɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɢɛɢɬɜɵɤɚɤɲɚɯɦɚɬɧɨɣ
ɩɚɪɬɢɢɲɚɯɦɚɬɧɚɹɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɮɢɥɶɬɪɚɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ
ɨɬɛɨɪɢɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶɬɟɯɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɫɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɪɢ
13

ɜɵɛɨɪɟɞɪɭɝɨɣ'ɪɚɦɤɢ' ɨɫɬɚɥɢɫɶɛɵɧɟɡɚɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɦɢ.
ȼɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɹ± ɜɚɠɧɚɹɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟ
ɝɢɹ ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵɜɫɜɹɡɧɵɟɢɫ
ɬɨɪɢɢɢɡɚɞɚɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɞɥɹɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɂɬɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɜɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ
ɢɡɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɨɜɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢȼɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɟɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɨɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɟɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɢ
ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɟɣ ɢɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ.
14

ȽɅȺȼȺ 3
Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ
©Ʌɸɞɢɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɜɥɭɱɲɟɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɜɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɜɨɟɣɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɚɨɧɢ
ɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɵɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɤɪɨɲɟɱɧɵɯɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɚɫɩɟɤɬɚɯɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢª
[Simon 1985: 302].
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɦɨɞɟɥɟɣɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚ
ɟɬɫɹɥɟɠɢɬɜɨɫɧɨɜɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ 'ɜɫɟɨɛɴɟɦɥɸɳɟɣɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ' ɩɪɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢɪɟɲɟ
ɧɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɢɫɯɨɞɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵ ɢ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɨ
ɜɚɧɵɚɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ, ɦɚɤɫɢɦɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɱɢɫɬɭɸɜɵɝɨɞɭɢɥɢ
ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɶɜɵɛɢɪɚɹɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɵɫɫɚɦɵɦɜɵɫɨɤɢɦɭɪɨɜɧɟɦɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɡɚɜɵɱɟ
ɬɨɦ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ  ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɬɨ ɷɬɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɢɫɱɟɪɩɵɜɚɸɳɢɦ
ɡɧɚɧɢɟɦɨɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɡɧɚɸɬɜɫɟ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ
ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɤɚɤ ɛɵ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ  ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɸɬ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɦ ɢ
ɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹɤɦɚɤɫɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɚɈɞɧɚɤɨɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɱɚɳɟ
ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬɨɬɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɝɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɮɚɤ
ɬɨɪɨɜ ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬ ɫɢɬɭɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɣ ɱɟɦ ɨɬ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢɢɨɬɛɨɪɚɥɭɱɲɟɝɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɨɛɵɱɧɨɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɶ
ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɫɭɱɟɬɨɦɩɪɨɞɜɢ
ɠɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɟɟ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɡɚɳɢɬɭ ɨɬ ɫɛɨɟɜ ɱɟɦ
ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɵɢɝɪɵɲ ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɬɟɨɪɟɦɟ ɗɪɪɨɭ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɭɦɟ ɜɨ
ɨɛɳɟɧɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɧɢɤɚɤɨɝɨɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚɤɫɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɝɨɛɥɚɝɚɤɪɨɦɟɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɬɪɨɝɢɯɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣɧɚɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɞ
ɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɣɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɜɬɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ 'ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ' ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɜɫɟ-ɬɚɤɢ
ɞɟɥɚɸɬɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɜɵɛɨɪɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɤɚɤɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɟɨɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɦ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɹɦɢɢ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɦɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɉɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɫɥɢɨɧɨɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ
ɬɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦɰɟɥɹɦɜɞɚɧɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ.
ɉɪɢ ɨɬɛɨɪɟ ɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɢ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɝɚɸɬ
'ɠɟɫɬɤɨɣ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ
 ɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ 'ɦɹɝɤɨɣ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ'.
ȿɫɥɢ ɩɟɪɜɚɹ ɥɟɠɢɬ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɥɵɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɬɨɜɬɨɪɚɹɛɚɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɚɢɯɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɢ
ɩɨɫɢɥɟɆɹɝɤɚɹɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɟɜɵɜɨɞɨɜɚɧɟɞɨɤɚɡɚ
ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɫɬɢ; ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɧɟɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɚɜɢɥ; ɜɵɞɜɢɠɟ
ɧɢɟɝɢɩɨɬɟɡɚɧɟɞɟɞɭɤɰɢɸɢɥɢɢɧɞɭɤɰɢɸ ɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɸɚɧɟ
15

ɜɧɟɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɧɨɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟ
Ɋɟɲɟɧɢɟɢɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɚɤɬɨɪɚɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɟɦɤɚɤɢɪɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɨɟɟɫɥɢ ɜɢɞɢɦɚɹɰɟɥɶɚɤɬɨɪɚɧɟɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɚɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɟɝɨɰɟɥɹɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɤɚ
ɠɭɬɫɹɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɸɛɨɥɟɟɜɚɠɧɵɦɢ (1); ɚɤɬɨɪɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɢɡɧɟɜɟɪɧɵɯ'ɮɚɤɬɨɜ' (2)
ɢɥɢɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɝɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɦɢ'ɮɚɤɬɚɦɢ' (3); ɚɤɬɨɪɫɞɟɥɚɥɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟɜɵɜɨɞɵɢɡ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɯɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɟɦ 'ɮɚɤɬɨɜ' (4); ɚɤɬɨɪɩɪɨɝɥɹɞɟɥ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɟɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚ
ɬɢɜɧɵɟɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ (5). ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɜɜɩɨɜɫɟɞɧɟɜɧɨɣɠɢɡɧɢ
ɧɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɧɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɧɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɥɭɱɲɢɟɢɡɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɵɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɢɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɹɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɦ'ɪɚɡɭɦɧɨɣɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ'ɨɧɢɩɟ
ɪɟɛɢɪɚɸɬɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵɞɨɬɟɯɩɨɪɩɨɤɚɧɟɧɚɣɞɭɬɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɯɨɪɨɲɭɸ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚ
ɬɢɜɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɵɯɜɥɨɝɢɤɟ ɢɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ.
ȼɫɟɷɬɢɮɨɪɦɵɢɪɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɤɚɤɮɨɪɦɵ
'ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɣɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ'ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɢɫɨ
ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɚɹ) ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣ
ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɨɬɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯɭɫɢɥɢɣɢɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɯɧɚɜɵɤɨɜ
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɶɩɪɢɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɜɵɫɨɤɨɣɦɨɬɢ
ɜɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɢ ɤ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ ɑɟɦ ɥɭɱɲɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɜ ɬɨɦ
ɱɢɫɥɟ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ  ɢɨɫɬɪɟɟɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɥɨɠɢɬɶɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɭɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɭɫɢɥɢɹ  ɱɟɦɛɨɥɶɲɟɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ  ɢɱɟɦɦɟɧɶɲɟɨɬɜɥɟ
ɤɚɸɳɢɯɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ  ɬɟɦɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɟɟɱɬɨɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɩɪɢɛɟɝɧɟɬɤɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢ
ɫɬɟɦɧɨɣ  ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ȼ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ ɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɣɧɭɸ ɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ) ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɸ ɫ
ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɟɣ ɧɚɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɟɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ-ɬɪɢɝɝɟɪɵ ɤɚɤɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɟɩɨɞɫɤɚɡɤɢ (ɫɢɦɜɨ
ɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɦɚɪɤɟɪɵ , ɚɧɟɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɞɨɜɨɞɵ. Ɉɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨɱɬɨɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶ
ɧɵɟɫɢɥɶɧɵɟɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɵ ɫɦɹɝɱɚɸɬɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɨɞɫɤɚ
ɡɨɤɚɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɢɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɞɫɤɚɡɤɢ± ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɚɛɵɯɚɪɝɭ
ɦɟɧɬɨɜ.
ɂɧɞɢɜɢɞɵɫɤɥɨɧɧɵɟɤɩɨɢɫɤɭɨɫɬɪɵɯɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɣ ɜɨɨɛɳɟɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ
ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɵɟɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɦɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɝɨɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹɢ
ɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɮɨɧɨɦɚɜɨɜɫɟɧɟɰɟɩɨɱɤɢ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɭɦɨɡɚɤɥɸ
ɱɟɧɢɣ. Ɍɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɚɦɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɛɨɥɶɲɟ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɷɦɨɰɢɣ, ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜ ɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɜɱɟɦɨɬ'ɮɚɤɬɨɜ' ɢɥɢɫɥɨɜ. ɇɚɩɪ.ɩɪɢɨɞ
ɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɢɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɢɤɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɟɜɜɜɵɩɭɫɤɟɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɡɪɢɬɟɥɢ
ɫɤɥɨɧɧɵ ɡɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɬɶ ɧɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɚ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɤɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ 'ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ' ɤɚɤ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɩɨɥɹ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɚ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɰɟɧɵ ɪɟɲɚɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
16

ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɸɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣəɪɤɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɵ ɢɥɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɵɤɚɤɦɢɧɢ
ɦɭɦɫɥɭɠɚɬɧɚɦɟɤɚɦɢɢ/ɢɥɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ-ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɟɹɞɪɨɬɟɥɟɜɢ
ɡɢɨɧɧɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɟɬɡɪɢɬɟɥɹɤɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɨɫɜɟ
ɳɚɟɦɨɝɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɪɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ', ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ
ɫɤɥɨɧɧɵɢɡɛɟɝɚɬɶ ɭɬɨɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ ɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ
ɞɟɥ ɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢɩɨɜɫɟɞɧɟɜɧɨɝɨɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɢɪɚ ɧɚɩɪ., ɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɮɟɪɟ).
ȼɦɟɫɬɨ ɷɬɨɝɨɨɧɢ ɩɨɞɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɷɦɨɰɢɹɦɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨ ɢ ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɨɰɟɧɢ
ɜɚɸɬ ɞɚɧɧɵɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɬɢɯɜɡɝɥɹɞɵɢɧɟɞɨɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɢɥɢɢɝɧɨɪɢ
ɪɭɸɬɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɚɸɳɢɟɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ. Ⱦɥɹɨɰɟɧɨɤɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɵɟɬɨɱɤɢ
ɨɬɱɟɬɚɱɚɫɬɨɬɚɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɹɨɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɱɚɫɬɨɬɨɣɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢɩɪɢɜɥɟ
ɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɜɥɢɹɟɬɧɚɟɝɨɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɜɵɜɨɞɵɞɟɥɚɸɬɫɹɧɟɩɨɩɪɚ
ɜɢɥɚɦɥɨɝɢɤɢɚɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦȿɫɥɢ'ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɧɟɜɟɠɞɵ'ɩɨɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ
ɦɟɪɟɩɪɢɡɧɚɸɬɱɬɨɨɧɢɦɚɥɨɫɜɟɞɭɳɢɢɝɨɬɨɜɵɜɨɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɦɢ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɬɨ 'ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɪɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɫɟɡɧɚɣɤɢ' ɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɵ ɱɬɨ
ɡɧɚɸɬɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɜɫɺɱɬɨɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɞɥɹɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɝɨɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪ.ɧɚɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɜɵɛɨɪɚɯ .
ȼ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɫ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɟɣ 'ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɧɟɜɟɠɟɫɬɜɚ', ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɧɟɯɨɬɹɬɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɫɜɨɢɡɧɚɧɢɹɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɩɨɢɯɦɧɟɧɢɸ
ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɣɝɨɥɨɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɩɨɛɟɞɭɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨɤɚɧɞɢ
ɞɚɬɚɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɦɚɥɚɱɬɨɞɚɠɟɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟɡɚɬɪɚɬɵɧɚɩɨɢɫɤɢɫɱɟɪɩɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɟɜɟɲɢɜɚɸɬɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɜɵɢɝɪɵɲ. ȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɨɪɢ
ɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɜɵɧɟɫɟɧɢɢɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɣɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯɢɥɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɚɯɧɚɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɢɥɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɪɟɚɤɰɢɢɚɧɟɧɚɚɪ
ɝɭɦɟɧɬɵɢɮɚɤɬɵ
Ɏɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɢɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɟɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ' ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɜɬɨɦɱɬɨ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨɤɨ
ɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɞɫɤɚɡɨɤ ɠɟɫɬɤɨ ɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩɨɜ,
ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɰɢɢ ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɧɟɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɥɨɠɧɵɯ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ,
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬɩɪɨɫɬɵɟɢɩɨɧɹɬɧɵɟ ɞɨɜɨɞɵ, ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɚɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɷɥɢɬɵ
ɢɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɨɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵɫɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɫɩɨɫɨ
ɛɚɦɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɩɨɜɫɟɞɧɟɜɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɭ 'ɦɨɬɢɜɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɫɤɟɩɬɢɰɢɡɦ
ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɧɟɤɪɢɬɢɱɧɨ
ɫɨɝɥɚɲɚɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɞɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ ɜ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɧɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɧɵ ɤ
ɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɠɟɧɢɹɦɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟɬɚɤɬɢɤɢɨɧɢɢɡɛɟɝɚɸɬɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɭɸɬ
ɢɫɤɥɸɱɚɸɬɨɬɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɜɨɡɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɨɬɨɰɟɧɤɢɡɚɧɨɜɨɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢɪɭɸɬɢɡ
ɪɟɞɤɚɩɨɞɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɜɨɢɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɥɢɜɫɟ-ɬɚɤɢɫɨɝɥɚɲɚɸɬɫɹɫɞɨɜɨɞɚɦɢȼɬɨ
17

ɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɨɧɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɤɨɧɬɪɞɨɜɨɞɵɱɬɨɛɵɜɵɫɦɟɹɬɶɢɥɢɩɪɢɡɧɚɬɶ


ɧɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɵ ɫ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɟɞ
ɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢɢɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɩɪɟɞɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɲɢɪɨɤɨ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵɜɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɢɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɚɱɬɨɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɢɦɤɚɤ
ɛɟɫɫɩɨɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɟɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɠɢɦɵɟ ɞɨɜɨɞɵ. ȼ ɫɢɥɭ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ

ɧɟɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɸ
ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ
ɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɸɳɟɣɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɤɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɭɦɨɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹɦɨɛ ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɚ
ɝɚɟɦɵɯ ɢɞɟɣ, ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɟɬ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɨɜ ɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɦ ɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɹɦ, ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɹ ɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɡ
ɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɪɚɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɢɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɧɨɝɨɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɤɚɤ
ɩɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɟɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ 'ɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɚ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ' ɩɨɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ.
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɞɨɜɨɞɨɜɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɢɟɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵɞɨɝɦɚɬɵɜɟɪɵ
ɧɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɵɧɨɪɦɵɩɪɚɜɚɫɫɵɥɤɢɧɚɩɨɫɥɨɜɢɰɵ, ɚɮɨ
ɪɢɡɦɵɞɚɧɧɵɟɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚ ɢɢɥɢ ɧɚɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ
ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ ɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɟɣ ɪɚɡ
ɧɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɇɚɩɪ. ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɩɨ
ɜɟɫɬɤɢ ɞɧɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɬɨɦ ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɪɚɜɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɭɠɟ ɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɟ
ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɥɢɞɨɜɨɞɵɱɚɫɬɨɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɛɨɥɟɟɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɫɪɚɜɧɟ
ɧɢɸɫɧɨɜɵɦɢɚɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɟɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵɢɥɢɨɛɴɟɤɬɵɤɚɤɛɨɥɟɟɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɝɨ ɛɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɤɪɚɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɟɧɢɟ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɬɨɝɨ ɠɟ ɦɧɟɧɢɹ
ɞɚɠɟɨɞɧɢɦɢɬɟɦɠɟɚɤɬɨɪɨɦɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɱɢɫɥɨɟɝɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɨɜ Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɩɨ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɰɟɧɢɬɫɹɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɤɚɤ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢɬɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɜɫɟɠɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɩɪɢɟɦɵ ɥɨ
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢɧɨɫɤɨɪɟɟɞɥɹɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢɚ
ɧɟɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹ
ɂɬɚɤɩɪɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɢɜɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɯɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɣɧɵɟɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɹɫɶɫɤɨɪɟɟɧɚɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɤɨ
ɬɨɪɵɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɸɬ ɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ ɫ ɝɨɬɨɜɵɦɢ ɜɵɜɨɞɚɦɢ ɚ ɧɟ ɧɚ
ɨɰɟɧɤɭɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɞɨɜɨɞɨɜɢɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɭɦɨɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɣ
18

ȽɅȺȼȺ 4
Ɍɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɨɩɪɚɞɚɧɢɹɢɨɛɜɢɧɟɧɢɹ
©ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɧɟɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢȼɦɟɫɬɨɷɬɨɝɨɨɧɢ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɭɱɬɨɛɵɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɟ ɢɫɤɚɠɚɸɬ ɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟ Ɉɧɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɟɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚ
ɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɮɚɤɬɵ ɨɧɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɨɡɧɨɟ ɤɚɞɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɜɨ
ɩɪɨɫɨɜɢɫɤɨɪɟɟ ɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹɜɵɡɜɚɬɶɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɪɟɚɤɰɢɸɱɟɦ ɩɨɛɭɞɢɬɶɤ
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɸª>Kuklinski, Quirk 2000: 24].
ɉɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɜ ɥɸɛɨɦ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ ɞɚɟɬ ɟɦɭ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɪɚɜɚɫɬɚɬɭɫɢɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟ ɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɹɟɝɨɩɪɟ
ɬɟɧɡɢɢɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹȾɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɢɭɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɨɣ
ɤɚɤɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɣɬɟɯɧɢɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɧɚɰɟɥɟɧɚɧɚ
ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɥɹɚɤɬɨɪɚɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɢɥɢɤɨɦɦɭ
ɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚ, ɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɢɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚ
ɰɢɣ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ.
Ɋɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ± ɷɬɨɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɨɫɬɪɨɣɧɟɨɛ
ɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɚɤɬɨɪɡɚɫɱɟɬɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨ
ɜɚɬɶ ɜɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɭɸɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɱɬɨɛɵɜɢɞɨɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶɢɥɢɭɫɬɪɚɧɢɬɶɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɭɸ
'ɛɟɡɨɬɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ' ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɟ ɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɢ ɞɪɭ
ɝɢɦɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɤɚɤ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɣ
ɢɥɢ ɫɥɚɛɨɣ, ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɥɢɧɟɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɣɢɥɢ ɧɢɱɬɨɠɧɨɣɡɧɚɤɨɦɨɣɢɥɢ
ɧɨɜɨɣɢɫɩɪɚɜɢɦɨɣ ɢɥɢɧɟɢɫɩɪɚɜɢɦɨɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɨɦ. ȼ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɬɭɚ
ɰɢɢɜɯɨɞɹɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɟɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɥɢɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɢɧ
ɞɢɜɢɞɵɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɨɛɴɟɤɬɵɢɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɚɤɬɨɪɦɨɠɟɬɜɢɞɨɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶɫ
ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚɧɟɩɪɢɛɟɝɚɹɤɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɵɦ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦ
Ɋɟɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɫɨɮɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ
ɤɨɝɞɚɧɚɞɭɦɚɧɧɚɹɨɫɬɪɚɹɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɚɤɬɨɪɨɦɤɚɤɪɟɚɥɶɧɚɹ 
ɥɨɠɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɝɞɚɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ± ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɲɢɛɤɢɢɥɢɧɟɜɟɠɟ
ɫɬɜɚ ɚɤɬɨɪɚ), ɮɚɧɬɚɡɢɣ ɤɨɝɞɚ'ɛɟɡɨɬɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɚɸɬɫɹ ɚɤ
ɬɨɪɨɦ ɢɮɢɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ.
ɏɨɬɹɜɥɸɛɨɣɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɚɹ 'ɛɟɡ
ɨɬɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ' ɤɚɤ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɸɳɢɣ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɥɢɱɚ
ɸɬɫɹɞɪɭɝɨɬɞɪɭɝɚ ɩɨɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ:
x ɜ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɟ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɵɯ ɢɥɢɧɟɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɵɯ) 'ɛɟɡɨɬɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɟɣ'ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɬɪɟ
ɛɭɸɬɨɬɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɨɬɜɟɬɚ
19

x ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɣɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɨɝɭɬɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɨ
ɜɚɬɶɡɚɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ
x ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵɢɡɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ$ɦɨɝɭɬɬɚɤɠɟɜɯɨ
ɞɢɬɶɜɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɣȼ&ɢ'
x ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɪɚɫɫɟɹɧɧɨɣ ɜ ɩɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɚɤɬɨɪɭ ɧɟɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɵɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɧɟ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶ
ɫɜɨɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɪɢɬɨɪɚ
Ɋɢɬɨɪɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɜɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɯɧɚɱɥɟɧɨɜɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɬɭ
ɚɰɢɢɢɯɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɦɢɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɦɢɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢɦɨɬɢɜɚɦɢɯɚɪɚɤ
ɬɟɪɚɦɢ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɫɬɢɥɹɦɢ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɦɢ ɢɦɢ ɮɚɤɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧ
ɬɚɦɢɚɬɚɤɠɟ'ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɨɣ'Ɋɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬ
ɚɤɬɨɪɭɢɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɜɟɪɛɚɥɶɧɵɟɪɟɚɤɰɢɢɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɬɨɦɭɤɚɤ ɫɟɧɫɨɦɨɬɨɪɧɚɹɫɢɬɭ
ɚɰɢɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚɩɪ.ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢɝɪɟɛɥɟ ɧɚɤɚɧɨɷ ɢɥɢɢɝɪɟɜɮɭɬɛɨɥ .
Ʉɚɠɞɚɹɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɝɨɦɨɦɟɧɬɚɞɥɹɩɨ
ɞɨɛɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɨɬɜɟɬɚ, ɚɞɚɥɟɟɨɧɚɪɚɫɩɚɞɚɟɬɫɹ, ɢɡɚɩɨɡɞɚɜɲɢɣɨɬɜɟɬ
ɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɬɟɪɹɟɬɫɦɵɫɥ. ɉɨɜɬɨɪɟɧɢɟɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɦɵɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɣɫɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɦɵɦɢɨɬ
ɜɟɬɚɦɢɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɮɨɪɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɪɶɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɤɭɢɫɬɢɥɶɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɧɨɜɵɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫ ɤɚɤɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɶɢɞɟɣɩɨɧɹɬɢɣɢɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵɫɨɫɜɨɢɦɢɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹɦɢɞɥɹɥɸɛɵɯɧɨɜɵɯ
ɨɬɜɟɬɨɜ.
Ɋɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɮɨɪɭɦɚɯɝɞɟɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɤɨɥ
ɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɩɨɩɵɬɤɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɡɚɫɱɟɬɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɩɪɟɬɟɧ
ɡɢɣɠɚɥɨɛɢɥɢɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣɂɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɤɨɧɬɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ ± ɷɬɨɧɚɛɨɪɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜ
ɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ ɞɥɹɞɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɬɟɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɹɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢɜɵ
ɞɜɢɝɚɟɦɵɯɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɣɠɚɥɨɛɢɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ.
Ⱦɥɹɱɟɬɤɨɝɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣɚɤɬɨɪɵɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɦɨɬɢɜɵɢɞɢɨɦɵɢ
ɫɬɢɥɢ Ɇɨɬɢɜɵ ± ɷɬɨ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɬɟɦɵ ɢ ɮɢɝɭɪɵ ɪɟɱɢ ɧɚɩɪ ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɵ 
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɝɭɳɚɸɬɢɜɵɫɜɟɱɢɜɚɸɬɹɞɪɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ('ɤɪɢɡɢɫ', 'ɡɥɨɭɩɨ
ɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ', 'ɫɤɚɧɞɚɥ', 'ɡɚɝɨɜɨɪ', 'ɛɨɦɛɚ ɡɚɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ'). Ɋɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɢɞɢɨɦɵ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɵɜɚɸɬ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɫɫɵɥɤɢ ɧɚ ɧɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɸɬ ɤɫɢɦɩɚɬɢɢ (ɧɚɩɪ., ɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚɭɬɪɚɬɵɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɩɪɚɜɚ
ɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚɭɝɪɨɡɵɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚɧɟɪɚɡɭɦɧɨɫɬɢɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚɛɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚɜɨɡɞɚɹ
ɧɢɹ. ɋɬɢɥɢ ɩɪɢɞɚɸɬ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɹɦ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɭɸ ɞɥɹ ɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɩɨɧɹɬɧɭɸ ɢ
ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɭɸɞɥɹɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɣɫɨɫɯɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɦɢɢɢɞɢɨɦɚɦɚɢ ɧɚɩɪ., ɝɪɚɠ
ɞɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɫɬɢɥɶ ɤɚɤ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɚɹ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɢɥɢ
ɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɬɢɥɶɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɣ 'ɢɫɬɰɚ' ɢɥɢ'ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɚ').
'Ɋɢɬɨɪɢɤɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ' ɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭɟɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɩɚɝɭɛɧɨɫɬɢɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
20

ɫɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɢɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɸɤɟɝɨɧɟɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨɦɭɪɟɲɟɧɢɸɤɚɤ


ɨɫɬɪɨɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ 'Ʉɨɧɬɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ' ɤɚɤɡɟɪɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɪɢɬɨɪɢ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɸɨɬɤɚɤɢɯ-ɥɢɛɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ
x ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɟɚɧɟɤɞɨɬɚ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɤɪɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɨɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɬ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɹɦ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɞɟɧɬɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɫɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɨ
ɩɪɨɫɚ;
x ɧɚɬɭɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɧɟɢɡ
ɛɟɠɧɨɣɛɟɫɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɧɨɣɢɧɟɪɚɡɪɟɲɢɦɨɣ
x ɝɢɩɟɪɛɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɤɚɤɩɪɟɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɪɵɜɚɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɢɧɟɨɛɯɨ
ɞɢɦɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɟɤɥɚɪɚɰɢɹ
ɛɟɫɫɢɥɢɹɩɟɪɟɞɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣɷɬɨɩɪɟɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟɧɚɥɢɱɧɵɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜɞɥɹɪɟɲɟ
ɧɢɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ
x ɚɧɬɢɬɢɩɢɡɚɰɢɹ± ɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɟɞɢ
ɧɢɱɧɨɝɨɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɪɟɞɤɨɝɨɫɥɭɱɚɹ
x ɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɟɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢɤɚɤɚɤɰɟɧɬɧɚɬɨɦɱɬɨɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢɩɪɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɢɫɨ
ɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɬɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɭɸɜɵɝɨɞɭ
x ɞɟɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɤɚɤ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɧɚɩɪɟɞɜɡɹɬɨɫɬɶɤɨɪɵɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɧɟɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɛɟɡɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɞɟɧɬɚ ɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɷɮ
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɯɦɟɪ
x ɧɟɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɚɤɪɚɡɨɛɥɚɱɟɧɢɟɢɫɬɢɧɧɵɯɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɣɩɪɟɬɟɧɞɟɧɬɚ;
x ɢɫɬɟɪɢɹ ɤɚɤɨɛɜɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɞɟɧɬɚɜɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɨɣɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ ɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɜɤɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹɦ ɩɟ
ɪɟɨɰɟɧɤɟ, ɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɭɝɪɨɡɵ ɥɨɠɶ ɢ ɩɪɢ
ɤɚɡɵ. ɉɥɟɛɢɫɰɢɬɚɪɧɚɹ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ ('ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɬɜɨɪɫɬɜɨ') ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ
ɩɨɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɤɭɠɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɦ ɧɚɩɪɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭ
ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɢɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɣɧɭɸɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɭɸɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɸ ɞɥɹɩɨɛɭɠɟɧɢɹ
ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɸ.
Ⱦɚɥɟɤɨ ɧɟ ɜɫɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɢ ɤɭɪɫɵ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚ
ɸɬɫɹɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɦɢɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɡɧɢɯ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɸɬɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɧɵɯɰɟɥɟɣɨɛɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɞɨɪɨɠɟɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɸɬɫɹɧɟɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɵɦɢɢɧɟɷɬɢɱɧɵɦɢɩɨɫɬɭɩ
ɤɚɦɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɥɢɰ ɢ ɧɚɤɨɧɟɰ, ɢɦɟɸɬ ɧɟɩɪɟɞɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɨ
ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɡ ɩɪɨɦɚɯɨɜ ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɡɚɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢ ɢ
ɥɢɲɶɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬɫɬɚɬɭɫ'ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɮɢɚɫɤɨ'ȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɬɟɯɧɨ
ɤɪɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɜɚɥɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɨɫɹɡɚɟɦɵɦɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɯɨɞɚɦɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɮɢɚɫɤɨɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɟɬɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɭɸɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɭɪɫɚɞɪɭ
ɝɢɦɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɧɨɩɟɪɜɨɟɢɜɬɨɪɨɟɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
21

ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɸɬɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɂɧɚɱɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɞɚɠɟɜɩɨɥɧɟɪɚɡɭɦɧɵɣɢɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɭɪɫɦɨɠɟɬɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶɧɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɚɪɟɧɟ ɤɥɟɣɦɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɮɢɚɫɤɨɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɤɚɤɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɭɫɩɟɯɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫ
ɤɭɪɫɟ.
Ⱦɥɹɪɚɡɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɧɟɩɨɞɨɛɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɢɥɢɧɟɩɪɟɞɜɢ
ɞɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɦɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɞɥɹɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢɪɚɡɪɵɜɚɫ
ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹɦɢ
ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜ
ɤɚɤ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɢ
ɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɦɞɥɹɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɧɚɚɤɬɨɪɚɨɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɨɧɢɡɚɜɢɫɹɬ, ɢɜɤɨ
ɧɟɱɧɨɦ ɫɱɟɬɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɸɬ 'ɨɬɱɟɬɵ' ɢɡ
ɨɞɨɛɪɹɟɦɵɯ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɟɣ ɦɨɬɢɜɨɜ Ɉɬɱɟɬ ɫɧɟɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɦ ɫɥɨɜɚ
ɪɟɦɦɨɬɢɜɨɜɦɨɠɟɬɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɪɚɫɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚɢɥɢ
ɧɟɩɨɞɨɛɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɤɟɩɫɢɫɚɚɤɬɨɪɚ. Ɉɬɱɟɬɬɚɤɠɟɨɬɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢɟɫɥɢ
ɧɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɩɨɫɜɨɟɣɮɨɪɦɟɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɣ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɥɢɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɹ.
Ⱦɥɹɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɨɛɜɢɧɟɧɢɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ'ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɚɩɨɥɨɝɢɢ':
x ɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɠɟɧɢɟ: ɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɟɢɥɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɟɫɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɢɥɢɨɬ
ɪɢɰɚɧɢɟɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ;
x ɤɚɭɡɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɬɪɢɛɭɰɢɹ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɹ :
ɧɟɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɟɧɧɵɟɢɢɥɢɧɟɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɟɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɢɥɢɛɟɡɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɹɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɢɥɢɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ (ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟ 'ɩɨɬɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɟ
ɫɢɥɵ') ɩɨɢɫɤ 'ɤɨɡɥɚ ɨɬɩɭɳɟɧɢɹ'; 'ɪɚɫɩɵɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ' ɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɧɢɟ
ɜɢɧɵ ɨɛɜɢɧɢɬɟɥɸ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɚɦ ɢɥɢ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɞɢɫɤɪɟɞɢɬɚɰɢɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɤɨɜ
ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɤɚɤɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɢɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ
x ɪɟɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ ɫɦɟɧɚɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ-ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯɢɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɯ
ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɟɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɚɤɰɟɧɬɧɚɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɯ
ɢɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɟɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɢɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨ
ɫɬɢ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɨɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɫɦɟɧɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ
ɧɚɩɪ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɣ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɭɸ  ɞɥɹ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɧɨɜɨɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟ
ɦɨɝɨɭɳɟɪɛɚ
x ɫɦɟɧɚ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɧɵɯ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜ ɞɥɹ
ɭɫɩɟɯɚɢɥɢɧɟɭɞɚɱɢ'ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɛɨɥɶɲɟɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɬɟɪɶ';
ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɟɜɵɫɲɟɣɰɟɥɶɸɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɟɨɪɚɧɟɟɫɨɞɟɹɧɧɨɦɛɥɚɝɟɚɤɰɟɧɬɧɚɧɟ
ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢ; ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɹ
ɤɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹɦɧɟɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɞɥɹɚɤɬɨɪɚɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɚɹɪɟɚɤɰɢɹɧɚ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɞɪɭɝɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ
22

x ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɟɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹɭɱɚɫɬɢɹɚɤɬɨɪɚɧɟɩɨɥɧɚɹɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧ
ɧɨɫɬɶɢɥɢɞɟɡɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɢɥɢɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣ
ɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɸ ɫɜɵɲɟ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɟ ɭɦɵɫɥɚ ɛɥɚɝɢɟ ɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɢɡ
ɞɜɭɯɡɨɥɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɟ ɭɳɟɪɛɚɜɢɤɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹɠɟɪɬɜɵ'ɦɟɧɶɲɟɟɡɥɨ' ɩɨɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ
ɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ'; ɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɫɜɨɢɦɩɪɢɜɟɪɠɟɧɰɚɦɢɫɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɧɟɝɚ
ɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɤɚɤɫɚɦɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ
ɚɤɬɨɪɚ
x ɢɡɜɢɧɟɧɢɟɢɡɚɢɫɤɢɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɫɨ
ɠɚɥɟɧɢɹɢɩɪɨɫɶɛɚɨɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɢɨɛɟɳɚɧɢɟɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɣɞɥɹɠɟɪɬɜ, ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɜɩɪɟɞɶ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɚɬɶ
ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ.
ɉɨɫɩɟɲɧɵɟɩɨɩɵɬɤɢɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɠɟɧɢɟɫɥɭɯɚ 
ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɧɬɪɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ
ɧɟɬ ɞɵɦɚ ɛɟɡ ɨɝɧɹ

ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨɟɩɪɨɢɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɟ ɢɥɢɪɚɡɨɛɥɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ) ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɸɬ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɦɨɦɟɧɬɢɯɫɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ  ɢɛɟɡ
ɩɨɞɩɢɬɤɢɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɦɢɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɛɵɫɬɪɨɧɚɫɤɭɱɢɜɚɸɬɢɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɢɠɭɪ
ɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦ (ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ 'ɜɵɝɨɪɚɧɢɟɬɟɦɵ').
Ⱦɥɹɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɨɛɜɢɧɟɧɢɣɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹɩɪɢɟɦɵ'ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚɨɛɜɢɧɟ
ɧɢɣ' ɤɚɤɡɟɪɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ'ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɚɩɨɥɨɝɢɢ'.
Ɉɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵɤɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɬɪɢɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢɢɡɛɟɝɚɧɢɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨɞɨɬɱɟɬ
ɧɨɫɬɢ: 'ɦɢɫɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ' ɤɚɤɫɫɵɥɤɚ ɧɚɨɫɨɛɵɟɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
ɛɟɝɫɬɜɨɩɨɜɟɪɬɢ
ɤɚɥɢ
ɤɚɤ ɫɫɵɥɤɚ ɧɚɜɨɥɸɜɵɫɲɟɟɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ'ɧɟɡɚɤɨɧɧɧɨɫɬɶ' ɤɚɤ ɫɫɵɥɤɚ ɧɚɧɟ
ɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣɜɨɩɪɨɲɚɸɳɟɝɨ
ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɩɪɢɡɵɜɩɪɢɜɟɪɠɟɧɰɟɜ'ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢ' ɪɟɚɝɢɪɨ
ɜɚɬɶɥɢɲɶɧɚɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɜɨɫɩɪɢɢɦɱɢɜɵɫɤɨ
ɪɟɟɧɟɤɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢɚɤ ɬɚɤɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɣ'ɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɟ
ɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɢɛɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɫɚɦɢɩɨɨɳɪɹɸɬɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɭɞɚɟɬɫɹɭɛɟɞɢɬɶɢɯ
ɜɫɜɨɟɣɛɟɫɤɨɪɵɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ ± ɷɬɨɧɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧ
ɧɵɣɧɚɩɨɢɫɤɢɫɬɢɧɵɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɧɵɯɩɪɢɟɦɨɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɫɩɨɪɚɚɫɤɨɪɟɟ
ɷɤɥɟɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɚ ɫɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɩɪɢɟɦɨɜɫɨɮɢɫɬɢɤɢ.
ɂɬɚɤ ɧɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɧɟɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɵ
ɜɚɟɬɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɢɟɦɨɜɤɚɤɦɚɧɢ
ɩɭɥɹɰɢɣɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɦɢɨɰɟɧɤɨɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ
23

ȽɅȺȼȺ 5
Ɏɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ
©Ɏɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɜɥɢɹɟɬɧɚɬɨɤɚɤɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɞɭɦɚɸɬɨɫɩɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɯɧɟɬɟɦ
ɱɬɨɞɟɥɚɟɬɤɚɤɢɟ-ɬɨɚɫɩɟɤɬɵɛɨɥɟɟɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɦɢɧɨɬɟɦɱɬɨɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɯɟɦɵ
ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɥɢɹɸɬ ɧɚ ɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɯɨɞɹɳɟɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢª
[Scheufele 2000: 309]
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɯɨɞɹɬ ɢɡ ɨɩɪɟɞɟ
ɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɣ, ɧɟɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬ ɢɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɸɬɨɞɧɢɢɬɟɠɟɫɨɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵɈɧɢ ɫɱɢɬɚɸɬɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɦɢɪɚɡɧɵɟ
ɮɚɤɬɵ
ɨɞɧɢɢɬɟɠɟ
ɮɚɤɬɵ

ɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɸɬɩɨ-ɪɚɡɧɨɦɭɢɨɬɛɢɪɚɸɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɚɤɢɟ
ɮɚɤɬɵ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨ
ɪɟɱɚɬɢɯɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦ Ɍɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɟɤɨ
ɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɢɚɬɚɤɠɟɩɪɟɞɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɩɨɨɬɛɨɪɭ ɢɚɤ
ɰɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸɜɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɤɚɱɟɫɬɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ
ɧɨɣ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɜɵɞɜɢɧɭɬɶ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɣ ɩɥɚɧ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɟɟ
ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɭɸɨɰɟɧɤɭɢɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢɞɥɹɟɟ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɸɬɫɹɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɦ
ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ
[Entman 1993].
ɉɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚɚɤɬɨɪɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɢɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɫɢɫɬɟɦɭɤɨ
ɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɯɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɞɥɹɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɢɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɜɧɟɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɹɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɟɹɜ
ɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɨɤɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɫɯɟɦɵ, ɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ
ɦɨɞɟɥɢɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɧɨɪɦɵ. Ɏɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ± ɷɬɨɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢɚɤɬɨɪɨɦɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɭɪɫɚɢɟɝɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɜɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɣɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢɡɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɢɟɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɊɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ± ɷɬɨ
ɮɪɟɣɦ.
Ɏɪɟɣɦɤɚɤɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɸɳɚɹɢɞɟɹɞɥɹɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɚɪ
ɤɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɜɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɢɹɪɤɢɦɢɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɚɦɢɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɵɦɢɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɦɢ, ɯɥɟɫɬɤɢɦɢ
ɮɪɚɡɚɦɢ ɛɪɨɫɤɢɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɚɦɢ; ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɟɦɵ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɢɚɩɟɥɥɹɰɢɢɤɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦɢɧɨɪ
ɦɚɦ ɢɧɟɹɜɧɨɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɟɬɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɦɨɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɟɫɲɢɪɨɤɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɦɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ
ɧɵɦɢɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚɦɢ
ȼ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ
ɫɩɨɧɫɨɪɵɮɪɟɣɦɨɜ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɭɸɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɟ
ɞɥɹɫɟɛɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵ ɜɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯɡɚɫɱɟɬɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚ
ɧɢɹ ɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ 'ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɮɪɟɣɦɨɜ'. Ȼɭɞɭɱɢ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ
ɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɺɧɟɪɚɦɢɨɧɢɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɲɚɛɥɨɧɵɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɧɚɪɹɞɭɫɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɚɦɢɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɢɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɚɦɢ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɥɨɠɚɬɫɹɜɨɫ
24

ɧɨɜɭɧɨɜɵɯ 'ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɯ ɫɟɬɟɣ', ɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɬ 'ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɢ


 'ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜ
ɧɵɟ ɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɢ', 'ɷɩɢɫɬɟɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ
ɢ 'ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ'.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɟɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɮɪɟɣɦɵ ɤɚɤɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵɮɪɟɣ
ɦɢɧɝɚɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɡɞɪɚɜɵɣɫɦɵɫɥɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɬɫɹɜɧɚɛɨɪ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ
ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜɢɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɜ
Ɏɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɟɬɚɞɪɟɫɚɬɚɤɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸɫɤɨɪɟɟɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɣɧɵɯɚɧɟ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ ȼ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ ɧɟ
ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɵɢɧɟɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɟɬ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɯɟɦɵɭɦɨɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹɚɩɨ
ɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɭɠɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɣ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɬ
ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɯɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɣɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬɧɨɜɵɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɱɬɨɛɵɩɪɢɜɵ
ɧɟɫɟɧɢɢɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɣɢɥɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɚɞɪɟɫɚɬ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɥɜɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɞɧɢɚɫ
ɩɟɤɬɵɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɢɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɋɷɬɨɣɰɟɥɶɸɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɢɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟɚɧɬɪɟ
ɩɪɟɧɺɪɵɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɚɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɩɪɨɜɨɰɢɪɭɸɬɫɢɥɶɧɵɟɚɮ
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɛɵɫɬɪɨɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɸɬɫɹɫɨɞɧɨɣɬɟɦɵɧɚɞɪɭɝɭɸ ɢɫɫɵɥɚ
ɸɬɫɹɧɚ ɫɢɥɭɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɢɫɬɚɬɭɫ
ɂɧɬɭɢɬɢɜɧɨɩɨɧɹɬɧɨɱɬɨɧɟɜɫɟɮɪɟɣɦɵɨɞɧɨɝɨɬɨɝɨɠɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɮɟ
ɧɨɦɟɧɚɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɵɢɪɚɜɧɨɰɟɧɧɵȾɥɹɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹɮɪɟɣɦɨɜɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭ
ɸɬɫɹɬɪɢɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɹ
ɤɪɚɫɨɬɚ
ɤɚɤɤɪɚɫɧɨɪɟɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɤɢɧɟɹɜɧɵɯɞɨɜɨ
ɞɨɜ; 'ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɫɬɶ' ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɹɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɹɜɧɵɯ ɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɯ
ɜɵɜɨɞɨɜ; 'ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ' ɤɚɤɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦɦɨɞɟɥɹɦ.
ɑɟɦɫɢɥɶɧɟɟ'ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɣɪɟɡɨɧɚɧɫ', 'ɷɤɫɩɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɢɦɨɫɬɶ' ɢ
'ɷɦɩɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɢɟ' ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨɮɪɟɣɦɚɬɟɦɜɵɲɟɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɩɨɛɭɞɢɬɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɸɤɢɫɤɨɦɨɣ ɚɤɬɨɪɨɦɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɧ
ɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɢɥɢɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɣ. Ɏɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɜɨɩɥɨɳɚɟɬɫɹɜɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɬɟɦɚ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɦɢ ɥɟɤɫɟɦɚɦɢ ɪɟɱɟɜɵɦɢ ɲɚɛɥɨɧɚɦɢ, ɜɢɡɭ
ɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩɚɦɢ 'ɨɝɥɭɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɰɢɬɚɬɚɦɢ', ɯɥɟɫɬɤɢɦɢ ɮɪɚɡɚɦɢ ɹɪ
ɤɢɦɢ ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɚɦɢ ɛɪɨɫɤɢɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɚɦɢ ɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɦɢ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢ
ɹɦɢ ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɮɢɝɭɪ ɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɦɢɤɪɨ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ' ɢ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ ɭɫɩɟɯɚ
'ɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɢ' ɢɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɞɚɧɧɵɦɢɡɚɝɨɥɨɜɤɚɦɢɢɩɨɞɡɚɝɨ
ɥɨɜɤɚɦɢɮɨɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɹɦɢɢɩɨɞɩɢɫɹɦɢɩɨɞɮɨɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɹɦɢɩɟɪɜɵɦɢɚɛɡɚɰɚɦɢɢ
ɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɮɪɚɡɚɦɢ ɉɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ ɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɦɚɫɤɢɪɭɸɬ ɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɡɚɦɵɫɥɵ'ɧɟɜɢɧɧɵɦɢ' ɫɥɨɜɟɫɧɵɦɢɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɦɢɫɫɚ
ɦɨɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɦɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɦɢɢɞɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ
Ɏɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ± ɷɬɨɨɞɢɧɢɡɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ
ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɤɚɤɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɫɨ
ɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɜɮɨɪɦɚɬɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɮɪɟɣ
ɦɢɧɝɚɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɟɳɟɢɨɬ'ɫɜɹɡɧɨɫɬɢ' ɤɚɤɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɣɧɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɜɨɫɬɢɢ'ɜɟɪɧɨ
ɫɬɢ' ɤɚɤɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɹɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɉɨɦɢɦɨɜɟɪɛɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɥɨɜɟɫɧɨɝɨ
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ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɢɹ  ɢ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɪɟɱɢɜɵɯ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɜ ɞɥɹ


ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɢɟɦɵɚɬɚɤɠɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɢɧɬɟɪɬɟɤɫɬɭ
ɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ'ɩɨɞɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɜɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɚɥɥɸɡɢɣɪɟɦɢɧɢɫ
ɰɟɧɰɢɣɢɥɢɰɢɬɚɬ ɢɡ ɨɦɨɛɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ 'ɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜ'. Ɂɧɚɱɢɬ ɤ ɩɪɢɟɦɚɦ
ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚɦɨɠɧɨɞɨɛɚɜɢɬɶɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɟɰɢɬɚɬɵɚɮɨɪɢɡɦɵɤɪɵɥɚɬɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɩɨ
ɫɥɨɜɢɰɵ ɩɨɝɨɜɨɪɤɢ ɡɚɝɚɞɤɢ ɢɦɟɧɚ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ ɉɨɞɱɟɪɧɟɦ ɱɬɨ
ɮɪɟɣɦɵɨɩɨɡɧɚɸɬɫɹɢɬɢɩɨɥɨɝɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɪɢɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɩɨ
ɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯɨɞɧɨɦɭɢɬɨɦɭɠɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɭ.
Ʉɚɤɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɢɡɛɢɪɚɬɟɥɢɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɬɶɡɚɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨ
ɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬɚɢɫɯɨɞɹɢɡɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɟɝɨɩɪɢɜɟɪɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢɪɚɫɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶɢ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɪɟɲɚɬɶɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɦɞɥɹɧɢɯɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɦ 
ɩɨɥɟ. ɋɯɨɞɧɵɦɢɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦɢɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɹɢɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɢɤɨɝɞɚɩɪɢɧɢ
ɦɚɸɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɨɩɨɤɭɩɤɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɹɫɶɧɚɬɨɜɤɚɤɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɬɨɜɚɪɚ
ɢɥɢɭɫɥɭɝɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɸɢɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣɫɮɟɪɟɠɢɡɧɟɞɟɹ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɉɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɚɤɡɚɛɥɚɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɧɚ'ɬɟɦɚɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɬɪɢɛɭɬɚɯ' ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɢɥɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ, ɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɟ'ɩɪɚɣɦɢɧɝ'.
ɉɪɚɣɦɢɧɝɤɚɤɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹɧɟɹɜɧɨɡɚɞɚɟɬɫɢɫɬɟɦɭɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɨ-ɚɬ
ɪɢɛɭɬɢɜɧɵɯɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɞɥɹɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɝɨɨɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɹɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɵɛɨɪɚɞɥɹɚɞɪɟɫɚɬɚɁɧɚɱɢɬɩɪɚɣɦɢɧɝ ɤɚɤ
ɡɚɛɥɚɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹɫɯɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɛɭɞɭɳɢɯɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɢɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɦɨɠɟɬɪɚɫɫɦɚɬ
ɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ
'Ɍɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɪɚɣɦɢɧɝ' ɡɚɪɚɧɟɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɵɪɟɲɟ
ɧɢɹɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɡɚɫɱɟɬɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɬɟɦɚɯɩɪɢɡɚɛɥɚɝɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ 'Ⱥɬɪɢɛɭɬɢɜɧɵɣɩɪɚɣɦɢɧɝ' ɡɚɪɚ
ɧɟɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɤɪɭɝɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜɢɥɢɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜɤɚɤɚɝɟɧɬɨɜɢɥɢɢɧ
ɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɡɚɛɥɚɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɢɯ ɤɨɧ
ɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ ɚɬɪɢɛɭɬɵ ɢɦɟɧɧɨɫɢɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦ.
ȼɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɢɰɟɥɢɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬ ɩɹɬɶɜɢɞɨɜ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ
1. ɢɧɬɟɪɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ ± ɷɬɨ ɩɨɞɛɨɪ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ
ɞɥɹɨɛɳɟɣɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ, ɜɵɛɨɪɟɟɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɨɞɟɥɢɢɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɟ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɞɥɹɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɨɝɥɚɫɨ
ɜɚɧɢɹɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ;
2. ɦɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ ± ɷɬɨ ɩɨɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɥɢɞɟɪɚɦɢɱɥɟɧɨɜɫɜɨɢɯ
ɝɪɭɩɩ ɤɫɥɚɠɟɧɧɵɦɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹɰɟɧɧɨ
ɫɬɟɣɢɰɟɥɟɣ;
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3. ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ ± ɷɬɨɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɚ ɢɢɥɢɨɰɟɧɤɚɢɢɥɢɨɛɴɹɫ


ɧɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɱɢɧ ɢɢɥɢɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɢɥɢɩɪɨɝɧɨɡ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ
ɢɢɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɟɬ ɚɤɬɨɪ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬ
ɧɨɝɨ ɫɩɨɪɧɨɝɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ;
4. ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ ± ɷɬɨɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ
ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɨɜ ɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɩɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ;
5. ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ ± ɷɬɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɜ
ɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɭɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɫɰɟɥɶɸɩɨɜɥɢɹɬɶɧɚɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɦɟɞɢɚ
ɮɪɟɣɦɨɜ ɫɩɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɚɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɬɟɧɬ ɜɰɟɥɨɦ.
Ⱦɥɹɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɩɹɬɶɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɫɨ
ɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɯ: ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɹ (ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ), ɜɢɡɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶ
ɧɚɹ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ), ɫɯɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ (ɫɰɟɧɚɪɧɵɣ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ), ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹ (ɧɚɪɪɚ
ɬɢɜɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ), ɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ (ɮɢɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ). ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɜɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɯɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɧɚɩɪ., ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɧɨɜɨ
ɫɬɟɣɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɣɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɫɰɟɧɚɪɧɵɣɢɧɬɟɪɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɮɢɤɰɢ
ɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɢɬɩ
ɂɬɚɤɚɤɬɨɪɵɞɥɹɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
ɢɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟɜɢɞɵɢɮɨɪɦɵɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹɩɪɚɣɦɢɧɝ), ɚɬɚɤɠɟɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɟ
ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɢɧɟɹɜɧɨɟ ɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɵɯɨɰɟɧɨɤɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɩɥɚɧɨɜɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ.
27

ȽɅȺȼȺ 6
Ɇɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ
©ɇɢɱɬɨɧɟɩɨɩɚɞɚɟɬɜ>ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ@ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹ>ɜɋɒȺ@ɛɟɡ
ɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹ ɜɨɫɶɦɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ 'Ⱥɫɫɨɲɢɷɣɬɟɞ ɉɪɟɫɫ',
'ɇɶɸ-ɃɨɪɤɌɚɣɦɫ', 'ȼɚɲɢɧɝɬɨɧɉɨɫɬ', 'Ɍɚɣɦ', 'ɇɶɸɫɭɢɤ'ɗɣ-Ȼɢ-ɋɢɗɧ-Ȼɢ-ɋɢɢ
ɋɢ-Ȼɢ-ɗɫª>(QWPDQ@.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɭɸɪɨɥɶɜɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚɢɝɪɚɸɬɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜ
ɧɚɹ ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɹ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɞɢɚɪɢɥɟɣɲɧɡ ɤɚɤ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɢɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɨɜ ɫɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢɢ ɛɥɨɝɟɪɚɦɢ
ɀɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɫɤɥɨɧɧɵɫɤɨɪɟɟɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɟɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɫɵɪɶɟɞɥɹ
ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɢɥɢɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɧɨ
ɜɨɫɬɢɜɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɢɧɮɨɬɟɣɧɦɟɧɬɚ')ɱɟɦɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɬɶɫɨ
ɦɧɟɧɢɸɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɜɟɪɹɬɶ
ɮɚɤɬɵ
ɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ
ɥɹɬɶ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ
 ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɬɟɦ
ɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɟɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɧɚɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɟɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɚɞ
ɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɜ ɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟ ɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɨɟ ɢ ɟɞɢɧɨɞɭɲɧɨɟ ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɟ ɥɸ
ɛɨɝɨ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɬ ɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɟ ɧɚɩɪ ɧɨɪɦɚɦ 'ɤɨɧ
ɮɥɢɤɬ ɦɧɟɧɢɣ
 ɢɥɢ
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɚɹ ɞɢɯɨɬɨɦɢɹ
 ɢ ɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢ Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ'ɦɟɞɢɚɫɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ' ɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɚ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɦ'ɜɵɝɨɪɚɧɢɟɬɟɦɵ'.
Ɇɟɞɢɚɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɢɪɢɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɪɟɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɟɬɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟɢɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬɧɨɜɵɟɦɢɮɵɢɛɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬ
ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɭɸɢɫɚɦɨɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɭɸ ɦɟɞɢɚɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɭɸɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɟɣ
ɤɚɤ ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɟɥ ɚ ɧɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɦɢɪɨɜ Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɢ
ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɪɬɟɮɚɤɬɵɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɨɛɪɚɡɵ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ
ɧɨɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɜɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯ
ɇɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ ɜɥɢɹɸɬ 'ɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɚ' ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɢɟ ɰɟɧɧɨ
ɫɬɢɧɨɪɦɵɪɭɬɢɧɵɢɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɪɟɤɥɚɦɨɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɪɵɧɨɱ
ɧɨɣɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɨɜɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɫɩɟɰɢ
ɮɢɤɚ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɟɞɢɚɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢ ɬɞ Ɉɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɢ ±
ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɨɞɚ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɸɬ ɫ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ'ɯɨɪɨɲɟɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ'ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɫɤɚɧɞɚɥɤɭɪɶɟɡɢɥɢɫɟɧɫɚɰɢɹɧɟɝɚɬɢɜ
ɧɵɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɛɨɥɶɲɨɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɝɟɪɨɣ±
28

ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɚɹɢɥɢɫɬɚɬɭɫɧɚɹɮɢɝɭɪɚɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ. ɉɪɢɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨ


ɪɢɣ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɩɪɢɟɦɵ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɹ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɣ ɩɥɚɧ
ɡɪɟɥɢɳɧɵɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɜɭɳɟɪɛɚɧɚɥɢɡɭɟɝɨɩɪɢɱɢɧɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ
ɤɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ, ɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɹ ɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ. ɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɜɫɟɛɟɢɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹɢɨɛɴɹɫ
ɧɟɧɢɹ, ɢɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɵ
ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɤɚɤ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ± ɷɬɨ ɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝ
(ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɬɨɜɵɩɭɫɤɢɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɬɜɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɡɚɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɟɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɦɢɢɧ
ɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦɢɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢ
ɜɢɫɬɵ ɜɨɨɛɳɟ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɸɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɞɚɠɟ 'ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɨɣ'.
Ɂɚɩɪɨɫɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɧɚɩɪɨɫɬɵɟɢɭɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɹɫɨɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɤɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢɦɟɞɢɚɫɯɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ:
1. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ'ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɝɨɞɭɚɥɢɡɦɚ'ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɫɜɨɞɹɬ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɭ ɡɚ
ɩɭɬɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ ɤɞɜɭɦɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɦɦɧɟɧɢɹɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɟɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɵɟɢɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɵ
ɢɥɢɤɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɬɨɪɵ.
2. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɢɥɶɬɪɚɰɢɢ
 ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɱɧɨ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɭɠɟɢɦɟɸɳɢɟɫɹɢɢɳɭɬɧɨɜɵɟɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɯɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨɨɬ
ɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɦɢɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɦɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɦɢɥɢɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɮɪɟɣɦɚɦ
ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɚɦɢɥɢ
ɢɧɜɟɧɬɚɪɧɵɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦ

3. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ
ɫɟɪɢɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɫɩɟɪ
ɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɨɣ ɧɟɨɠɢɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɶ ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶ
ɧɭɸɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɜ
ɦɟɞɢɚɫɟɪɢɚɥ

4. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ 'ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɣɜɟɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ': ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɤɨɧ
ɤɪɟɬɧɨɟ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɹɤɨɛɵ  ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɰɢɸ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɧɨ ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɬ ɹɤɨɛɵ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ
5. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ 'ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ
 ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɩɪɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɧɚɝɪɚɧɢ'ɡɚɭɦɶ± ɬɪɸɢɡɦ'ɩɨ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɦɨɞɟɥɢ'ɡɚɡɨɪɥɸɛɨɩɵɬɫɬɜɚ', ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɟɬɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ
ɭɫɢɥɢɹɞɥɹɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɟɫɥɢ ɩɪɨɛɟɥɦɟɠɞɭɟɝɨ
ɡɧɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɭɸ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ.
Ⱥɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɭɟɬɢɫɥɢɲɤɨɦɫɥɨɠɧɵɟɢɬɪɢɜɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ.
6. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ
ɭɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
 ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢ
29

ɪɭɸɬɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɩɪɨɢɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɟ ɢɥɢɢɧɰɢɞɟɧɬ ɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɫɢɡɜɟɫɬ


ɧɵɦɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ) ɤɚɤ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɪɟɱɢɜɨɟ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɢɥɢ ɞɭɪɧɨɟ ɩɪɟɞɡɧɚɦɟɧɨɜɚ
ɧɢɟ;
7. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ
ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨɣ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ': ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɩɪɟɠɟɜɫɟɝɨɜɩɟ
ɪɢɨɞ'ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɜɚɤɭɭɦɚ') ɜ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɨɪɭɬɢɧɧɵɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɯɭɫɢ
ɥɢɜɚɸɬɢɯɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɟɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɢɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣɯɚ
ɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ.
8. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɫɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ
ɧɟɦɢɧɭɟɦɚɹɫɯɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɨ
ɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢɫɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɟɬɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ 
ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɢɯɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ.
Ɏɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɤɨɧ
ɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɨɰɟɧɤɢɢɯɩɪɢɱɢɧɢɩɨ
ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣɚɬɚɤɠɟɧɟɹɜɧɨɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɸɬɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɸɤɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦɤɥɚɫɬɟɪɚɦ ɭɦɨ
ɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɣɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ
ɋ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ ɩɨɦɨɝɚɸɬ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɟɣ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɦɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɦɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵ ɜɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɋ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ± ɨɧɢɤɚɤɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɫɯɟɦɵ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬɫɚɦɢɦɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɛɵɫɬɪɨɢɛɟɡɨɫɨɛɵɯɭɫɢɥɢɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɩɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɵɣ ɩɨɬɨɤ ɪɚɡɪɨɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ
ɱɬɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɟɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨ
ɦɟɧɨɜɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɦɭ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɭɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɭ ɨɛɢɞɟɚɥɚɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯɢ
ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ
ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɟ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ ɢɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɫɬɚ
ɧɨɜɹɬɫɹɱɚɫɬɶɸɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɨɝɨɦɢɪɨɜɨɡɡɪɟɧɢɹɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨɢɡɧɟɹɜɧɵɯɞɨɩɭɳɟ
ɧɢɣ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɯɫɯɟɦɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɣɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɮɨɪɦ ɢɢɧɜɟɧ
ɬɚɪɧɵɯɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɗɬɚ ɦɟɞɢɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚ ɥɟɠɢɬɜɨɫɧɨɜɟɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟ
ɬɚɰɢɢɢɨɰɟɧɤɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɛɵɫɬɪɨɢɯɫɨɪ
ɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɢɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɢɜɚɬɶɜɪɚɡɴɹɫɧɹɸɳɢɟɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɜɫɬɭɫɟɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɮɨɪ
ɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɭɸ ɫɨɥɢɞɚɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɀɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɨɟ
ɦɢɪɨɜɨɡɡɪɟɧɢɟ± ɷɬɨɱɚɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɢɢɨɞɢɧɢɡɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɜɨɩɪɟɤɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɡɝɥɚɲɚɟɦɨɦɭ ɢɦɩɟ
ɪɚɬɢɜɭ'ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ' ɱɚɫɬɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɬ'ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɜɬɪɟɧɞɟ'Ȼɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɩɨɩɭɥɹɪ
ɧɵɟɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɧɚɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹɞɥɹɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɜɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚ
ɟɦɵɟɢɧɟɨɫɩɨɪɢɦɵɟɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɫɯɟɦɵɞɥɹɨɰɟɧɤɢɫɢɬɭɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɢɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱ
ɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɢɞɚɠɟɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɹɬɜɪɚɡɪɹɞ ɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɫɰɟɧɚ
ɪɢɟɜ ɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ.
30

ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɬɢɩɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɨɜ ɩɨ


ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣ ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟɣɢɯɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ:
x 'ɷɩɢɡɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ' ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɤɚɤɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ
ɢɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɚ'ɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ' ± ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɬɢɯɫɰɟɩɨɱɤɨɣɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɤɚɤɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɣɨɞɧɨɣɢɬɨɣɠɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ;
x 'ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨ-ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɟ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ' ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ
ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɢ ɬɟɦɵ ɚ ɪɨɞɨɜɵɟ ± ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɤ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɭ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɬɟɦ ɜ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɞɨɥɝɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɢɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɯ
x 'ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɟɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ' ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɤɚɤɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ
ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜɢɥɢɛɚɡɨɜɵɯɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ 'ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ' ± ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɸɬ
ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ 'ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɟ' ± ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɸɬ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɟ
ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ, 'ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ' ± ɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɚɷɝɨɢɫɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɫɭɛɴɟɤ
ɬɨɜ ɤɚɤɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ.
Ʉɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɹ ɫɩɨɧɫɨɪɨɜɮɪɟɣɦɨɜ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɟɬ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɩɪɨ
ɛɥɟɦ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɟɬɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫ ɩɨɩɨɜɨɞɭɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɟɬ ɨɩɨ
ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɯɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜɊɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɟɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ
ɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɜɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɦɟɞɢɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɢɞɚɥɟɟ ɜ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ.
ɂɬɚɤɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɸɬɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɜɜɢɞɟɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɟɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɵɧɚɩɨɩɭɥɹɪ
ɧɵɯ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɚɯɢɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɫɩɪɹɦɵɦɢɥɢɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɦɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɵɯɜɦɟɞɢɚɪɢɥɟɣɲɧɡ.
31

ȽɅȺȼȺ 7
ɉɨɥɟ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ
©ȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɞɪɭɝɢɯɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɣɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɚɥɢɲɟɧɚɨɬɱɟɬɥɢɜɵɯɚɬɪɢɛɭ
ɬɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢɛɵɟɣɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɷɤɫɤɥɸɡɢɜɧɨɣɢɧɟɨɫɩɨɪɢɦɨɣɮɪɚɧ
ɲɢɡɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɦɢɪɟɇɢɱɬɨɧɟɡɚɳɢɳɚɟɬɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɭɨɬ
ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣɤɪɢɬɢɤɢɧɢɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɟɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟɧɢɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɟɪɬɢɮɢ
ɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɚɧɢɷɡɨɬɟɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɹɡɵɤɧɢɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ɛɟɫɫɩɨɪɧɨ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɝɨɞɥɹɫɨɰɢɭɦɚɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɚ«ȼɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɢɬɨɝɟɧɟɜɚɠɧɨɤɚɤ
ɩɪɟɫɫɚɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɫɹɞɨɫɬɢɱɶµɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɟɟɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɜɩɭɬɚɧɵ
ɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɟɪɟɤɚɧɢɹɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɫɮɟɪɟɊɟɩɨɪɬɟɪɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨ
ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɬɶɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɧɨɜɨɫɬɧɵɯɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɣɢɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɜɧɚɮɨɧɟɛɨɥɶ
ɲɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɚɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɱɚɸɳɢɯɜɡɝɥɹɞɨɜɢɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɜª[Kaplan
2006: 176-177].
Ɇɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬɭɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɨɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ
ɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɢ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɫɤɪɵɜɚɹɬɨɬ
ɮɚɤɬ ɱɬɨ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɚɹ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɮɨɪɦɚɦɢ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɦɨɝɨɢɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨɦɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɦɢɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɹɦɢɨɬɮɨɪ
ɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɞɨɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɪɟɤɥɚɦɨɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɢɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɀɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɧɟ ɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɸɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɨɬɛɢɪɚɸɬɢɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢɪɭɸɬɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɩɨ
ɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɟɨɬɞɪɭɝɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɤɚɤɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɢɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɢɯɜ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ
ɬɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɜ ɦɟɞɢɚɯɨɥɞɢɧɝɚɯ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹɢɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɦɵɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚ
ɰɢɢ.
ɉɨɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɤɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɪɟɤɥɚɦɨɞɚɬɟɥɟɣ
ɤɨɦɦɟɪɰɢɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ

ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɟ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɢɟ ɢɡɞɚɧɢɣ,
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢɦɟɞɢɚɬɨɩɢɤɨɜ ɫɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɦɢɩɨɫɵɥɚɦɢ. ȼɪɟɡɭɥɶ
ɬɚɬɟɜɵɩɭɫɤɢɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɨɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ
ɧɵɯɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɣɧɟɭɦɨɥɢɦɨɩɚɞɚɟɬɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣɠɭɪ
ɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ 'ɦɨɧɟɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ',
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɬɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɭɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɸɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ± ɪɚɫɲɢ
ɪɹɬɶɢɭɥɭɱɲɚɬɶɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫ.
ɍɝɪɨɡɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɪɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɚɧɤɰɢɣ ɩɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɡɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸɤɪɢɬɢɤɭɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɣɢɥɢɩɪɨɫɬɨɡɚɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɣ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɚɬ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦɭ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɟɳɟ
32

ɛɨɥɟɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɩɟɤɬɪɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɧɵɯɬɟɦɢɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ.
Ɂɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɨɛɴ
ɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɟɳɟɩɹɬɶɸ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ
ȼɨ-ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɦ 'ɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɫɨɧɚɧɫɚ
: ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ
ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɢɡɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɝɨɫɩɢɫɤɚɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɵɯ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜȼɢɬɨɝɟɧɚɛɨɪɩɨɩɭ
ɥɹɪɧɵɯɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɩɨɜɨɞɨɜɤɚɤɫɵɪɶɹɞɥɹɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ
ȼɨ-ɜɬɨɪɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɦ
ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɣɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ
ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɪɚɛɨɬɚɸ
ɳɢɟɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɦɟɞɢɚɮɨɪɦɚɬɚɯ ɬɟɥɟɜɢɞɟɧɢɟɪɚɞɢɨɩɟɱɚɬɧɚɹɩɪɟɫɫɚɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬ 
ɬɚɤɢɥɢɢɧɚɱɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɤɨɥɥɟɝɩɪɢɨɬɛɨɪɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɤɚɤɢɧɮɨɪ
ɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɗɬɨ ɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ
ɝɪɭɩɩɨɦɵɫɥɢɹ

ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ± ɧɟɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢ ɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɨɟ ɟɞɢɧɨɦɵɫɥɢɟ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢ
ɫɬɨɜɩɪɢɨɬɛɨɪɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ.
ȼ-ɬɪɟɬɶɢɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɦ
ɧɨɜɨɫɬɧɨɣɤɚɫɤɚɞ
ɷɥɢɬɧɵɟɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹɞɥɹɦɟɧɟɟɫɬɚɬɭɫɧɵɯɢɡɞɚɧɢɣ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵɟɟɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɱɬɨɛɵɧɟɩɨɬɟɪɹɬɶɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɨɠɢɞɚɸ
ɳɭɸ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɢɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ȼ-ɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɵɯ, ɫɤɥɨɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɤ 'ɫɨ-ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ': ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɟ
ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɤɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɦɭɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɭɫɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ
ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɸɛɭɞɭɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɗɬɢɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɟɨɬɫɵɥɤɢ
ɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɟ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɨɛɳɢɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɨɪɢɟɧ
ɬɢɪɵɱɬɨɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɟɬɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɫɩɢɪɚɥɶɭɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɹ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɟɞɢɧɨ
ɞɭɲɢɟɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟɤɚɤɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɭɠɟɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɟɝɨɫɹɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚɢɜɨɡɞɟɪɠɢ
ɜɚɸɬɫɹɨɬɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɞɪɭɝɢɯɦɧɟɧɢɣɱɬɨɛɵɧɟɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɜɦɟɧɶ
ɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɢɡ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚ ɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ
ɦɧɟɧɢɹɱɬɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ
ȼ-ɩɹɬɵɯɜɵɲɟɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵɜɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢɱɚɫɬɨɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɸɬ
ɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟ'ɧɨɜɨɫɬɧɭɸɜɨɥɧɭ'ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɤɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ
ɭɠɟɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɯɦɟɞɢɚɬɨɩɢɤɨɜɢɦɟɞɢɚɫɸɠɟɬɨɜ ɡɚɫɱɟɬɩɨɢɫɤɚɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɟɯɫɜɟ
ɞɟɧɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɢɯɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶɢɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ'ɋɩɢɪɚɥɶɭɦɨɥɱɚ
ɧɢɹ' ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɡɚɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɹɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɞɪɭɝɢɯɦɟɞɢɚ
ɮɪɟɣɦɨɜɢɞɪɭɝɢɯɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɜɵɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɹɢɧɚɤɨɦɵɫɥɹɳɢɯɢɡɦɟɞɢɚɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɭɩɪɚɡɞɧɟɧɢɟ'). ɇɚɩɪ.ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɨɫɜɟɳɚɸɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɟ
ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɚɬɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɟɞɧɹȼɥɭɱ
ɲɟɦɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɢɧɚɤɨɦɵɫɥɹɳɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɜ
ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɯɤɚɤɬɪɢɜɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɚɪɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɥɢɜɨɨɛɳɟɧɟɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɟȼɪɟ
33

ɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɨɧɢɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵɩɪɢɛɟɝɧɭɬɶ ɤ'ɤɨɧɬɪɫɩɢɧɭ ɚɭɬɫɚɣɞɟɪɚ'ɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɨ ɞɪɚ


ɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɭɹ ɫɜɨɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɞɥɹɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɱɬɨɱɚɫɬɨɡɚɬɦɟ
ɜɚɟɬɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶɢɯɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɣ
ɇɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɨɞɧɨɝɨɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɢɥɢɫɚɦɨɝɨɜɟɪɧɨɝɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɩɭɛɥɢɱ
ɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɥɸɛɨɝɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɫɤɪɵɬɵɦɢɢɥɢɹɜɧɵɦɢɨɰɟɧɤɚɦɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɜɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɥɢɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɢɧɚɦɟ
ɪɟɧɢɣ ɤɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɤɚɤɚɜɬɨɪɨɜɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɚɤɬɨɪɵɧɟɦɨɝɭɬɪɚɫɫɱɢ
ɬɵɜɚɬɶɧɚ'ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ
ɫɢɯɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟɢɯɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɸɬ ɨ ɬɨɦ ɱɬɨ
ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɢɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɢɩɨ-ɪɚɡɧɨɦɭɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ, ɬɨ
ɨɧɢ ɫɤɥɨɧɧɵɨɛɜɢɧɹɬɶɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɜɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨɦ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɢ, ɢɥɢɜɧɟɫɩɪɚ
ɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɣ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɟ.
ɉɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɜɜɵɛɨɪɟɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɱɧɢ
ɤɨɜɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɩɪɚɜɨ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚɧɚɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ
ɢɥɢɜɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɣɷɮɢɪɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢɫɜɵɫɨɤɢɦɭɪɨɜɧɟɦɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨ
ɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɢɡɦɟɪɹɟɬɫɹɩɹɬɶɸɢɧɞɟɤɫɚɦɢ
x 'ɡɚɤɨɧɧɨɫɬɶ' ± ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɫɬɶɰɟɥɟɣɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɚɤɬɨɪɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɧɨɪ
ɦɚɦ ɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɝɪɭɩɩɵɦɟɧɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɦɨɝɭɬɧɚɪɚɫɬɢɬɶɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɫɱɟɬ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɚɥɶɹɧɫɨɜɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ 
x 'ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ' ± ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɨɰɟɧɤɚɚɤɬɨɪɚɫɨɫɬɨ
ɪɨɧɵɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚ ɧɚɩɪ.ɥɢɱɧɚɹɫɢɦɩɚɬɢɹ 
x 'ɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ' ± ɨɛɴɟɦɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜɨɩɵɬɚɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɰɢɢ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɜɥɢɹɧɢɹɚɬɚɤɠɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɨɜɚɤɬɨɪɚ
x 'cɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ' ± ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɚɹ ɫɩɥɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɚɤɬɨɪɚɢɟɝɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɨɜ
x 'ɤɪɟɞɢɬɧɨɫɬɶ' ± ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɟɪɟɩɪɨɜɟɪɤɚɦɢ ɢ ɨɩɵɬɨɦ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɹ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɚɤɬɨɪɚ
Ȼɨɥɟɟɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢɜɵɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɚɛɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɤ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɛɸɪɨɤɪɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɚɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ
ɪɢɬɦɚɦ ȼ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɱɚɫɬɨɟ ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɦɟ
ɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɟɝɨɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɧɚɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬɟɝɨɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ
ɜɧɶɸɫɦɟɣɤɟɪɚɢɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɹɦɨɝɨɰɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɚ
ɧɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɟɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣ.
ɉɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɟɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɬɟɪɹɸɬɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɦɟɪɟɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹ
ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɤɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɦɧɟɧɢɹɦ: ɫɟɪɢɹɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɯɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɨɞ
34

ɧɢɯɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɢɡɭɟɬɫɹɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɦɢɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ ɜɞɪɭ
ɝɢɯ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɟɬɹɯ.
Ɉɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɣɩɪɟɞɜɡɹɬɨɫɬɢɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɦɨɠɧɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶɥɢɲɶ
ɜ ɬɟɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɤɨɝɞɚ ɜ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɯ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɜɵɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɬɱɟɬɥɢɜɵɟ
ɫɯɟɦɵɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɥɸɛɵɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɨɞɧɢɯɢɬɟɯɠɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜɗɬɚɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɥɢɛɨɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬɢɦ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɩɭɛɥɢɱ
ɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɧɚɞɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɥɢɛɨɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɩɨɦɟɯɢȼɩɪɨɱɟɦ
ɤɨɝɞɚɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬɨɬɚɤɬɨɪɚɛɟɫɩɥɚɬɧɵɟɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɨɩɥɚɬɚɞɨɪɨɠɧɵɯɪɚɫ
ɯɨɞɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɛɵɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ ɢɥɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɭɜɟɫɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɩɪɨɝɭɥɤɟ ɩɨɞɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɨɦ
ɩɨɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɬɟɦɭ' ɫɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɛɵɥɨɛɵ
ɧɚɢɜɧɵɦ ɨɠɢɞɚɬɶɛɟɫɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɭɸɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɯɚɥɹɜɧɚɹɠɭɪɧɚ
ɥɢɫɬɢɤɚ').
35

ȽɅȺȼȺ 8
Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ
©ȼɝɥɚɡɚɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɪɟɬɶɟɝɨɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɹɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɭɝɪɨɠɚ
ɸɳɢɟɪɚɡɦɟɪɵɡɜɟɪɹɫɝɨɥɨɜɨɣɝɢɞɪɵɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɪɬɵɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ
ɢɲɭɦɧɨɬɪɟɛɭɸɬɱɬɨɛɵɢɯɧɚɤɨɪɦɢɥɢ«ɀɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɨɟ
ɩɢɳɟɜɨɟɛɟɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ

ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɧɟɢɫɬɨɜɵɦȼɪɟɦɹɞɥɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɨɣɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɢ
ɢɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɭɠɚɥɨɫɶª>%OXPOHU.DYDQagh 1999: 213].
©ɉɭɛɥɢɱɧɚɹɫɮɟɪɚɫɬɚɥɚɫɤɨɪɟɟɚɪɟɧɨɣɞɥɹɪɟɤɥɚɦɵɱɟɦɞɥɹɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɤɪɢ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɞɟɛɚɬɨɜɁɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɢɫɬɚɜɹɬɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɢɞɥɹɢɡɛɢɪɚɬɟɥɟɣɈɪɝɚɧɢ
ɡɚɰɢɢɫɨɫɨɛɵɦɢɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɩɚɛɥɢɫɢɬɢɞɥɹɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹɩɪɟɫɬɢɠɧɨ
ɫɬɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɩɨɡɢɰɢɣɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɭɹɬɟɦɵɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɯɞɟɛɚɬɨɜɆɚɫɫɨɜɚɹɤɨɦ
ɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɜɨɞ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɞɚɬɶ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹɦ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɨɥɢɞɚɪɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɫ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɢɦɢɞɠɚɦɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ȼɫɟ ɷɬɨ
ɪɚɜɧɨɫɢɥɶɧɨɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɸɜɟɪɫɢɢɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɧɚɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɪɟɚɝɢɪɭɟɬɫɤɨɪɟɟɲɭɦɧɵɦɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɟɦɢɥɢɨɬɤɚɡɨɦɨɞɨɛɪɹɬɶ
ɱɟɦɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɨɦª>Calhoun 1992: 7].
ȼɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ± ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɧɫɬɢ
ɬɭɬɵ ɤɚɤɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɟɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɧɨɷɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɟɤɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɦɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜɢɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɦɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɹɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɢ ɧɟɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɨɪɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɢ
ɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɟ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɢ
ɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɟɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɫɮɟɪɚɯɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɂɧɫɬɢ
ɬɭɬɵɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɞɨɥɠɧɨɟɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɧɨ ɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɜ ɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ
ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢɢɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɟɢ
ɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɞɥɹɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ. Ɋɟɝɭɥɹɬɢɜɧɵɟ
ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɢ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ-ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɡɚɞɚɸɬ
ɥɨɝɢɤɭ
ɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ
ɨɧɢɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɬɢɥɢɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢɣ
ɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦɢɥɢɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɦɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɚɧɤɰɢɣɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɨɞɨɛ
ɪɟɧɢɟɦɢɥɢɨɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɦɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦɪɟɡɨɧɚɧɫɨɦɢɥɢɞɢɫɫɨɧɚɧɫɨɦ.
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɥɨɝɢɤɢ ± ɷɬɨ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɟɦɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɵ ɧɟɹɜɧɵɟ ɞɨɩɭɳɟ
ɧɢɹɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɵɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɸɬɩɨɜɫɟ
ɞɧɟɜɧɭɸ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɸɬ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ-ɜɪɟɦɹ ɢ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬ ɫɜɨɟ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ. Ʉɚɤ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɧɟɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɝɨɢ
36

ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɝɨɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɧɢɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɜɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢɚɤɬɨ
ɪɨɜɡɚɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɜɥɚɫɬɶɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɚɬɭɫ
Ⱥɤɬɨɪɵ ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɤɨɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɸ ɩɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɚ,
ɱɚɳɟɢɫɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢɨɛɨɸɞɧɵɦɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɦɢɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦ
ɜɵɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɬɨɛɳɭɸɫɢɫɬɟɦɭɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ'ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢ
ɨɧɧɨɟɩɨɥɟ'ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ 'ɩɨɥɟɜɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɨɣ', ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɣɢɡ ɦɚɬɟɪɢ
ɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɪɬɟɮɚɤɬɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɞɢɤɬɭɸɬɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɞɨɥɠ
ɧɵɟɰɟɥɢ ɜɵɫɲɢɟɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɵɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɵɢɯɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɨɪɦɵ 
ɇɚɩɪɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟɩɨɥɟ'ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɟɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ' ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡɚɜɬɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟ
ɥɟɣ ɢɯ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɯ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɨɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɵɯɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɣɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɝɨɪɟɝɭ
ɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɬɩ
Ⱥɤɬɨɪɵɫɥɟɞɭɸɬ ɩɨɥɟɜɨɣɢɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɥɨɝɢɤɚɦɱɬɨɛɵɩɪɢɨɛɪɟ
ɫɬɢɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɪɟɫɭɪɫɵɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɢɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵɜɵɠɢɜɚ
ɧɢɹ. ɇɚɩɪ ɚɜɬɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɬ ɞɪɭɝ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɡɚ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɩɨɥɹ 'ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɟɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ'ɚɬɚɤɠɟɫɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɢɡɞɪɭɝɢɯɨɪ
ɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɩɨɥɟɣɜɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɜɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ'ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ'. Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɬɪɢɜɢɞɚ
'ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɝɨɢɡɨɦɨɪɮɢɡɦɚ' ɤɚɤɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɤɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɩɨɥɟɜɨɣɢɢɧ
ɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɥɨɝɢɤ: ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɢɡɨɦɨɪɮɢɡɦ ɤɚɤɭɫɜɨɟɧɢɟ ɚɤɬɨɪɨɦɩɨɥɟ
ɜɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɧɨɪɦ ɢ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɨɜ ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɢɡɨɦɨɪɮɢɡɦ ɤɚɤɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɹ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɤɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɸɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɜɜɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚ
ɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɟ ɢɥɢ ɜ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ; ɩɪɢɧɭɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɢɡɨɦɨɪ
ɮɢɡɦ ɤɚɤɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɧɚɚɤɬɨɪɚɜɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɩɨɥɟɢɥɢɜɢɧɫɬɢɬɭ
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ.
ɉɨɥɟɜɵɟɢɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɥɨɝɢɤɢɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹɜɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢɢɤɨɨɩɟ
ɪɚɰɢɢɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹɜɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɰɟɧ
ɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɨɪɦɵ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɜ ɩɨɥɟɜɭɸ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɥɨɝɢɤɢ
ɇɚɩɪ ɚɜɬɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ 'ɠɟɥɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɹɯ' ɢɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɵɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɟɣ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɢɬɶ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɭɪɨ
ɜɟɧɶɩɪɨɞɚɠɉɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɵ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɢɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɸɬɜɩɭɛɥɢɱ
ɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɩɪɨɟɤɬɵɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɧɚɛɨɪɨɜɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɢ
ɩɪɚɜɢɥ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɭɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ
ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɢ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɚ. ɇɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɟɢɥɢɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɟɫɨɝɥɚ
ɫɨɜɚɧɢɟɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɥɨɝɢɤ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ
ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɨɜ

ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬ
ɝɢɛɪɢɞɧɵɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟɩɨɥɹ
ɇɚɩɪɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɚɹɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɹ
37

ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɧɚɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɢɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɭɚɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɧɚɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨ
ɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɥɨɝɢɤɭ ɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɸ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɦɟɞɢɚɪɢɥɟɣɲɧɡ (ɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɥɹ).
ɇɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɢɫɢɥɚɜɟɤɬɨɪɚɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɨɩɢɫɵ
ɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɟɨɬɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɣɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɞɨɢɯɩɨɥɧɨɣɩɨɞ
ɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɜɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ 'ɫɬɨɪɨɠɟɜɵɟ ɩɫɵ' ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɫɤɟɩɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɚɛɥɸ
ɞɚɸɬɡɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɡɚɳɢɳɚɹɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɨɬɞɟɡɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɢɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ
ɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɹɜɥɚɫɬɶɤɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨɞɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɢɉɨɦɟɧɟɟɠɟɫɬɤɨɦɭɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɭ
'ɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ' ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɸɬ ɪɹɞɨɜɵɯ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ ɤ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɨɝɞɚɤɨɝɞɚɫɩɨɪɧɵɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɢɡɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɸɬɫɜɨ
ɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɢɡ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢ ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟ ɫɚɦɢ ɧɟɩɪɟ
ɪɵɜɧɨɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɸɬɡɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɮɟɪɨɣɱɬɨɛɵɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶɝɥɚɜɧɵɟ
ɭɝɪɨɡɵɞɥɹɫɜɨɢɯɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ'ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɸɳɢɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟ' ɇɚɩɟɪɜɨɦɷɬɚɩɟ
ɨɧɢ'ɩɪɨɛɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ' ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ ɫɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɵɦɢɮɢɝɭɪɚɦɢɞɚɥɟɟɜɪɨɥɢ
ɞɨɜɟɪɟɧɧɵɯɥɢɰɱɟɪɟɡɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɭɸɬɢɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɬɫɜɨɢɯɡɚɛɨɬɵɢɪɟ
ɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢɦɟɧɟɟɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɱɬɨɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬɩɨɫɥɟɞ
ɧɢɦɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɜɵɪɚɠɚɬɶɭɠɟɝɨɬɨɜɵɟ'ɡɞɪɚɜɵɟɦɧɟɧɢɹ'. Ɍɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɦɚɫɫɦɟ
ɞɢɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɪɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɚɪ
ɬɢɣɧɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɟɢɫɢɫɬɟɦɟɝɪɭɩɩɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ 'ɦɟɞɢɚɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɹ')ɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɠɭɪ
ɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɷɝɨɢɡɦɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɢɪɚɫɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɸɬ'ɫɩɢɪɚɥɶ
ɰɢɧɢɡɦɚ'ɱɬɨɜɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɢɬɨɝɟɨɬɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɨɬɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹɢɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɩɚɞɟɧɢɸɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɞɨɜɟɪɢɹɤɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɦ
ȼɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɫ'ɬɟɨɪɢɟɣɢɧɞɟɤɫɚɰɢɢ'ɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɤɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢ
ɨɧɚɥɵ ɨɬ ɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɫɨɜɟɬɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɞɨ ɪɹɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɨɪɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬ
ɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɭɸ ɤɚɥɢɛɪɨɜɤɭ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɦɧɟɧɢɣ ɜɵɫɤɚ
ɡɚɧɧɵɯɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɞɟɛɚɬɚɯɩɨɞɚɧɧɨɣɬɟɦɟɉɪɨɳɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɱɚɫɬɨɬɚɢɞɥɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɶɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɹɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɹɢɨɰɟɧɤɚɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɜɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨ
ɪɢɹɯɚɬɚɤɠɟɨɬɛɨɪɝɟɪɨɟɜɢɤɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɬɨɪɨɜɡɚɜɢɫɹɬɨɬɪɚɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɩɨɡɢɰɢɣɢ
ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɚɦɧɟɧɢɣɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɜɥɚɫɬɧɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɗɬɚɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɹɩɟɪɟɤɥɢɤɚɟɬɫɹ
ɫ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɟɣ 'ɫɟɬɶɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ'ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɧɚɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɢɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɷɥɢɬɵɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɹɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶɫɬɚɬɭɫɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɦɨɞɟɥɢ'ɤɚɪɚɭɥɶɧɚɹɫɨɛɚɤɚ'ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɚɩɨɞ
ɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢɩɨɪɹɞɤɚɢɡɚɳɢɬɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɨɫɜɟɳɚɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨ
ɦɟɧɵɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɜɥɚɫɬɢȼɬɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚ
ɩɢɚɪ-ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢ' ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ
ɧɚɹ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɚɦɢ ɢ ɫɩɢɧ-
38

ɞɨɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɧɚɫɥɭɠɛɟɭɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɬɨɱɬɨɦɧɨɝɢɟɱɢɧɨɜɧɢɤɢɢɞɟ
ɩɭɬɚɬɵɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɫɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɦɢɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɠɭɪɧɚ
ɥɢɫɬɚɦɢɢɫɤɟɩɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɨɧɢɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɫɚɦɢ
ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɬɜɥɨɜɭɲɤɭɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɹɫɶɩɪɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɧɚɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɩɪɢɢɯɠɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɦɭɱɚɫɬɢɢɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɚɧɟɧɚ
ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɵɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɢ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ
ȼ 'ɦɨɞɟɥɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ' ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɟɬɫɹ ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɥɹɠɭɪɧɚ
ɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɵɜɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɵɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬɜ
ɭɧɢɫɨɧ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɸ ɢɯ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɋɨɥɢɞɚɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ
ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɣ ɫɤɪɟɩɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɳɢɦɢ ɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɣɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɢɢɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨɟɞɢ
ɧɨɝɥɚɫɢɹɹɀɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɜɪɟɦɹɨɬɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɚɬɚɤɭɸɬɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɤ
ɬɨɪɨɜɧɨɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɥɢɱɧɵɯɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɯɚɧɟɧɚɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯɢɡɴ
ɹɧɚɯ Ɉɧɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ 'ɷɩɢɡɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ' ɬɟ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ ɭɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɚɧɟɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɛɡɨɪɵ. Ɇɚɫ
ɫɦɟɞɢɚɤɪɢɬɢɤɭɸɬɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɪɢɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɟɷɥɢɬɢɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɬɚɤɨɣ
ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɦɨɝɭɬɩɨɜɥɢɹɬɶɧɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɭɪɫɇɚɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɟɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɱɚɫɬɨɪɟɚɝɢɪɭɸɬ ɜɫɟɝɨɥɢɲɶɹɡɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɧɚɩɚɞ
ɤɚɦɢɧɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɚɧɟɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɦ ɢɯɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɨɞ
ɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɥɛɵɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɤɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɩɨɩɨɜɨɞɭɧɟɨɬɥɨɠɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ.
ȼɥɚɫɬɢɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɢɧɟɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹɜɬɨɦɱɬɨɛɵɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɢɧɚɡɨɣɥɢɜɨ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɬɟɧɬ ɢɥɢ ɜɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɠɟɫɬɤɭɸ ɰɟɧɡɭɪɭ ɫ ɤɚɪɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɫɚɧɤɰɢɹɦɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ ɧɚɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɟɞɢɧɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɢɤɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɛɭɞɭɬɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɟɨɬɫɬɚɢɜɚɬɶ
ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɡɢ
ɰɢɢ
. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɧɟɧɢɹ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɢɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɫɩɢɤɟɪɨɜɢɷɤɫ
ɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɱɚɫɬɨɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɹɦɢɛɟɡɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɜɟɪɤɢɢɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɝɨ
ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹɊɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɵɱɭɜɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɟɛɹɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɵɦɢɪɚɡɦɟ
ɳɚɬɶɦɚɥɨɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɢɛɟɡɡɭɛɭɸɤɪɢɬɢɤɭɱɬɨɛɵɧɟɢɫɩɨɪɬɢɬɶɨɬɧɨ
ɲɟɧɢɹɫɜɥɚɫɬɶɸɢɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɹɦɢȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɞɨɝɦɵɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨ
'ɩɪɨɫɤɚɥɶɡɵɜɚɸɬ' ɜɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɛɟɡɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ: ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦ
ɧɨɫɬɶɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɣɤɚɤɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɱɟɪɟɡɦɟɞɢɚ
ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫ ɜɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫ ɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɧɵɟ ɫɦɵɫɥɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨɞ
ɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɬɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɢɪɭɸɬɢɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɸɬɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ Ƚɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɭɸɳɚɹɜɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɮɟɪɟɢɭɫɜɨɟɧɧɚɹɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢɞɢɯɨɬɨɦɢɹ'ɫɜɨɣ± ɱɭɠɨɣ' ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬ
ɤɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹɩɪɢɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɫɜɨɟɣ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɢɟɟɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ
39

'ɱɭɠɢɯ'Ɍɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ'ɦɨɞɟɥɶɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ' ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ'ɤɨɧ
ɬɪɨɥɹɦɵɫɥɟɣ' ɜ ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɹɯɬɟɦɱɬɨɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɢɧɞɨɤɬɪɢɧɚɰɢɹɫɨɱɟɬɚɟɬɫɹ
ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɜɨɛɨɞɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɜɨɛɨɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɵ
ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɟɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵɜɨɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ
ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨɣ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵ ɜ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ
ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɚɛɥɢɜɚɬɶɤɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɫɜɨɸɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɭɩɨɞɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɭɊɚɫ
ɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɫɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɨɣɢɥɢɠɟɫɬɤɚɹɤɪɢ
ɬɢɤɚɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɢɧɨɝɞɚɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɸɬɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɤɩɨɫɩɟɲɧɵɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢɥɢ
ɤɨɬɤɚɡɭɨɬ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ (ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ'ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɚɦɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ') ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɪɨ
ɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɢɡ-ɡɚɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɣɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɚɤɰɢɢɫɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɷɮ
ɮɟɤɬ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɨɬɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ
)Ʉɫɯɨɞɧɵɦɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɦɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɚɹ
ɩɨɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɤɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɟɢɥɢɩɨɬɚɤɚɧɢɟɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭɦɧɟɧɢɸȼɪɟ
ɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɟɬ ɫɤɨɪɟɟ ɬɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ
ɢɥɢɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɨɣɪɟɚɤɰɢɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɱɟɦɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɵɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɂɧɚɱɟ
ɝɨɜɨɪɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɤ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɨɡɚɛɨɱɟɧɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɪɟɩɭɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɭɪɨɧɨɦ ɨɬɫɜɨɢɯ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɱɟɦɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɜɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɪɟɩɭɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɟ 'ɬɟɨ
ɪɢɹɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ').
ɍɫɢɥɟɧɢɟɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɥɢɲɚɟɬɪɹɞɨɜɨɝɨɝɪɚɠɞɚ
ɧɢɧɚɲɚɧɫɨɜɫɬɚɬɶɩɨɥɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɵɦɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɦɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɨɫɨɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɶɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɜɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨ
ɜɟɫɬɤɢ ɞɧɹ. Ƚɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ ɬɟɦɵɞɥɹɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɡɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣ
ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɢɥɢɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɫɨ
ɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɥɢɟɟɫɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɦɢɢɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɹɦɢɑɬɨɛɵɨɫɥɚɛɢɬɶɭɹɡɜɢɦɨɫɬɶɤɦɚɧɢ
ɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɦɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ
ɫɤɟɩɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɪɟɮɥɟɤɫ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɨɡ
ɜɨɥɢɥɛɵɨɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟɥɨɠɶɧɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɚɹ
ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɚɦɨ
ɨɛɨɪɨɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɩɪɟɞɜɡɹɬɨɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ
ɮɚɤɬɵ
ɩɪɨɜɟɪɹɬɶɧɚ
ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɹɜɧɵɟɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɹɢɨɬɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɬɶɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɸ
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬɨɬɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɚɫɚɝɟɧɬɚɦɢɢɡ
ɩɨɥɹɩɢɚɪɚ
ɩɨɥɢɬɬɟɯ
ɧɨɥɨɝɚɦɢɢɦɢɞɠɦɟɣɤɟɪɚɦɢɩɢɚɪ-ɤɨɧɫɭɥɶɬɚɧɬɚɦɢɫɩɢɱɪɚɣɬɟɪɚɦɢɫɩɢɧ-ɞɨɤɬɨ
ɪɚɦɢ) ɢɜɫɺɪɟɠɟɜɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɜɩɪɹɦɵɟɢɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɵɟɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɵɫɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɩɪɢ
ɛɟɝɚɹ ɤ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨ-ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɦ
ɫɩɢɧ-ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ'

ɫɩɢɧ-ɞɨɤɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ

ɫɩɢɧɚ') ɤɚɤɫɢɬɭɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɹɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦ ɧɚ
ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ
'ɋɩɢɧ-ɞɨɤɬɨɪ' ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɝɪɭɩɩɭ 'ɢɡɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ' ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɧɵɣɞɨɫɬɭɩɤɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɨɬɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɦɫɩɢɤɟɪɚɦɧɨɢ
40

ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɨɨɳɪɹɸɬɫɹ'ɷɤɫɤɥɸɡɢɜɧɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ'ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɜɪɟɠɢɦɚɯ

ɧɟɩɨɞɡɚɩɢɫɶ
ɢ
ɭɬɟɱɤɚɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ
ɋɩɢɤɟɪɵɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɱɥɟɧɚɦɢɝɪɭɩɩɵ
'ɞɪɭɠɟɫɤɢɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ', ɩɨɞɤɪɟɩɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɨɛɳɢɦɢɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɜɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ
ɩɨɟɡɞɤɚɯ ɧɚɦɟɫɬɚɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɫɬɢɯɢɣɧɵɯɛɟɞɫɬɜɢɣɍɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɤɚɤɱɥɟɧɨɜ
ɝɪɭɩɩɵɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɫɜɨɟɣ ɝɟɧɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɢɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢȼɪɟ
ɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɫɢɦɩɚɬɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɭɢɜɡɚ
ɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬɩɨɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɸ'ɬɵɦɧɟ± ɹɬɟɛɟ' (ɩɪɢɱɟɦɛɟɡɹɜɧɨɝɨɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹɠɭɪ
ɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɷɬɢɤɢ  ɱɬɨ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɭɟɬ ɨɞɨɛɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɧɢ
ɦɭɦ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɋɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɫɩɢɧ-ɞɨɤɬɨɪɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɧɢɠɚɸɬɬɪɭɞɨɡɚɬɪɚɬɵɠɭɪ
ɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɧɚɩɨɢɫɤɢɚɧɚɥɢɡɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɣɩɪɢ
ɬɨɤɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɚɞɚɩɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɤɦɟɞɢɚɮɨɪɦɚɬɭ'ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɫɭɛɫɢɞɢɣ'.
ɋɞɪɭɝɨɣ± ɨɧɢɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɸɬɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɨɬɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɱɚɫɬɧɨ
ɫɬɢɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɮɢɥɶɬɪɭɸɬɫɨɫɬɚɜɫɩɢɤɟɪɨɜ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɯɥɢɰɫ
ɩɪɚɜɨɦɤɨɦɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɸɬɜɪɟɦɹɦɟ
ɫɬɨɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɵɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜ ɫɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ. ɉɨɫɭɬɢ ɞɟɥɚɫɩɢɧ-
ɞɨɤɬɨɪɚ ɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɹɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɦ
ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɤɚɤɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɱɢɤɨɜɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɑɟɦɫɢɥɶɧɟɟɷɬɚ'ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɚɹɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ'ɬɟɦɫɢɥɶɧɟɟɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɚɞɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ
ɤɨɚɥɢ
ɰɢɨɧɧɚɹɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɚ
).
ɍɹɡɜɢɦɨɫɬɶɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɤ ɫɩɢɧ-ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɸ ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɢɯ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɦ ɤɚ
ɡɚɬɶɫɹɢɧɫɚɣɞɟɪɚɦɢɭɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɟɫɬɶɞɨɫɬɭɩɤ'ɩɟɪɜɵɦɥɢɰɚɦ'ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɢɷɤɫ
ɩɟɪɬɚɦ ɧɚ ɡɚɞɧɟɦ ɩɥɚɧɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɭ ɫ ɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ
ɡɧɚɸɬ'ɩɪɚɜɞɢɜɭɸɜɟɪɫɢɸ'Ȼɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɭɜɥɟɤɚɸɬɫɹɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɵɦɨɩɢ
ɫɚɧɢɟɦɪɨɥɢɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɨɧɢɹɤɨɛɵ ɢɝɪɚɸɬɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɮɟɪɟɚɬɚɤɠɟɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɦ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɵɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɦɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɦɟɬɚ-ɨɫɜɟ
ɳɟɧɢɟ').
Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɫɩɢɧ-ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɭɫɤɨɪɹɟɬ'ɩɢɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɸɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ' ɤɚɤ
ɨɤɤɭɩɚɰɢɸ ɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɵ ɩɢɚɪɳɢɤɚɦɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɭɝɚɫɚɧɢɸ 'ɪɚɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶ
ɫɤɨɣɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ' ɢɪɚɫɰɜɟɬɭ 'ɱɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢ' ɚɧɝɥchournalism) ɤɚɤɫɤɥɨɧɧɨ
ɫɬɢɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɫɫ-ɪɟɥɢɡɵ ɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɜ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɩɟɪɜɨ
ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɧɚɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɩɥɨɳɚɞɹɯɢɥɢɜɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɷɮɢɪɟɩɨɞɜɢ
ɞɨɦ 'ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɵɯ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɣ'. Ɉɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɫɩɢɧ-ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ
ɩɨɞɫɬɟɝɢɜɚɟɬ 'ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɭɢɡɛɟɝɚɧɢɹɜɢɧɵ
ɬɟɭɯɨɞɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɨɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɫɥɨɠ
ɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɢ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɢɫ
ɤɭɪɫɚɤɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɸɢɨɬɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɸ
41

ɋɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɨɜɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɦɚɫɫɦɟ
ɞɢɚɢɦɟɞɢɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɧɨɢɜ
ɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ
ɤɚɤɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢɤ
ɥɨɝɢɤɟɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ
 ɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɤ
ɥɨɝɢɤɟɲɨɭ-ɛɢɡ
ɧɟɫɚ

Ⱦɨɧɟɞɚɜɧɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɵɦɦɟɞɢɚɮɨɪɦɚɬɨɦɫɱɢɬɚɥɢɫɶ
ɠɟɫɬɤɢɟɧɨ
ɜɨɫɬɢ
ɤɚɤ
ɛɟɫɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɟɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɝɚɪɚɧɬɢ
ɪɭɸɬ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɜɵɛɨɪ
 Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ ɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɵ
ɦɹɝɤɢɦɢ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɹɦɢ
 ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ
ɫɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɫɬɶɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɟɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɬɩɪɨɫɬɨɣɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɣɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɸɬɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɸɢɳɭɳɭɸ
ɫɤɨɪɟɟɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɣɚɧɟɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɹɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɫɜɹɡɟɣɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨ
ɪɨɞɚ
ɞɟɲɟɜɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɧɵɦɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹɦɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɬɶɧɚɤɨ
ɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯɭɫɢɥɢɹɯɢɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɨɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɚɟɬɢɯɤɚɤɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɨɬɥɢɱɧɨɣɨɬ
ɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɡɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɧɟɭɪɹɞɢɰɵ
ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɵɟɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɬɟɧɬɚ± ɧɨɜɨɫɬɢɪɟɤɥɚɦɚɢɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ±
ɞɨɥɠɧɵɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɚɪɤɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɨɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɜɫɺɱɚɳɟɜɦɟɫɬɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɟɧ
ɧɵɯɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɝɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɣɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɢɢɪɟɩɨɪɬɚɠɚɫɦɟɫɬɚɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɹɜɵɞɚɸɬɜɷɮɢɪɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹȾɪɭɝɢɦɢɫɥɨɜɚɦɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɚɫɨɩɪɹɝɚɟɬɫɹ
ɫ ɲɨɭ-ɛɢɡɧɟɫɨɦ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɱɚɫɬɹɦɢ ɟɞɢɧɨɝɨ ɡɪɟɥɢɳɚ
ɫɰɟɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨɪɟɤɥɚɦɨɣɊɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɢɞɨ
ɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɢɥɶɦɨɜɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɯɪɨɥɢɤɨɜɤɨɦɢɤɫɨɜɢɞɚɠɟɜɵɩɭɫɤɨɜɧɨɜɨ
ɫɬɟɣɟɳɟɛɨɥɶɲɟɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɟɬɝɪɚɧɢɰɵɦɟɠɞɭɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢɢɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɦɜɵɦɵɫ
ɥɨɦɢɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸɌɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚ'ɦɟɞɢɚɮɢɤɰɢɢ' ɜɛɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢ
ɪɭɸɬɥɸɞɟɣɦɟɫɬɚɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɢɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɧɨɜ ɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɨɧɢɢɦɟɸɬɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɳɟɝɨ
ɫ
ɦɹɝɤɢɦɢɧɨɜɨɫɬɹɦɢ
ɧɚɩɪ.ɫɢɬɤɨɦɵɬɨɠɟɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɚ
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɫ
ɬɨɪɢɹɯ
ɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɵɢɫɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵ
Ʌɸɛɨɣɜɵɦɵɫɟɥɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɞɜɚɜɢɞɚɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɉɟɪɜɵɟɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɬɨɥɶɤɨɤ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɫɜɹɡɧɨɫɬɶɢɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɤɚɤ'ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɜɨɫɩɪɢ
ɧɹɬɵɣɪɟɚɥɢɡɦ'ɉɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɜɬɨɪɵɯɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɤɚɤ'ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɹ
ɬɵɣɪɟɚɥɢɡɦ'ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɤɚɤɛɵɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ'ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɭɸɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ'ɏɨɬɹɡɪɢɬɟɥɢ
ɫɦɨɬɪɹɬ ɜɵɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɧɢ ɜɫɺ ɠɟ
ɭɡɧɚɸɬ ɧɟɱɬɨ ɢ ɨ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɦɢɪɟ ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɢɤɰɢɢ ɚ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
'ɠɟɫɬɤɢɟ' ɢ'ɦɹɝɤɢɟ' ɧɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɢɨɰɟɧɤɭɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨ
ɦɟɧɨɜɱɟɦɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɜɫɺɛɨɥɟɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɜɤɚɤɢɯɭɝɨɞɧɨɬɨɤ-
ɲɨɭ
Ʉɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɬɟɧɬɚɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɤɨɧɬɢɧɭɭɦɧɚɨɫɢ'ɮɚɤɬ± ɜɵɦɵɫɟɥ'
42

ɟɫɥɢɩɨɞ'ɮɚɤɬɨɦ' ɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɨɛɵɬɢɟɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɩɪɢɡɧɚɸɬɩɨɦɟɧɶ
ɲɟɣɦɟɪɟɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɟɣ 
1. ɪɟɩɨɪɬɚɠɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚ-ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɹɫɦɟɫɬɚɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɢ
2. ɪɟɩɨɪɬɚɠ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚ-ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚ ɫ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɢ
3. ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɩɭɫɬɹɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɩɨɫɥɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ
4. ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ'ɮɚɤɬɨɜ' ɢ'ɜɵɦɵɫɥɚ' ('ɮɚɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɚɹɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɚ');
5. 'ɩɢɚɪ-ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɚ' ɤɚɤɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɟɜɩɨɥɶɡɭɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ
ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɵɯɢɥɢɢɧɫɰɟɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ
6. ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɚɹɢ/ɢɥɢɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ ɞɨ
ɤɭɞɪɚɦɚ 
7. ɢɧɫɰɟɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɯ ɬɨɤ-ɲɨɭ 
8. ɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɟɪɨɥɢɤɢɢɫɸɠɟɬɵɫ'ɩɪɨɞɚɤɬɩɥɟɣɫɦɟɧɬ';
9. ɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢɛɟɡɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ
Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɞɨɥɸ
ɦɹɝɤɢɯɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ
ɢɦɟɞɢɚɮɢɤ
ɰɢɣɜɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɬɟɧɬɟ, ɧɨɢɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɭɞɨɦɵɫɥɵɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɤɚɤ
ɧɨɜɨɫɬɢɧɟɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɧɵɟɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɤɚɤ
ɮɚɤɬ
ɫɥɭɯɢɤɚɤɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦɟ
ɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɫɹɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɪɟɤɪɟɚ
ɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ
ɩɨɜɵɲɚɟɬ
ɦɨɧɟɬɢɡɚɰɢɸɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ
ɬɟɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɸɧɟɛɟɡɜɨɡ
ɦɟɡɞɧɨɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶɩɢɚɪ-ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɜɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɯɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɨɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɚɩɨ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɨɞɧɨɣɢɡɮɨɪɦ
ɬɪɚɧɫɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɝɨɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɚ
ɤɚɤɤɨɦɦɟɪ
ɱɟɫɤɢɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɝɨɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɫɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɧɟ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦ ɤɧɢɝɚɮɢɥɶɦɜɟɛɫɚɣɬɢɝɪɚɮɚɧɮɢɤ 
Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɭɫɤɨɪɹɟɬ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɩɭɛɥɢɱ
ɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɇɚɩɪ.ɮɨɪɦɚɬ
ɪɟɚɥɢɬɢɧɶɸɫ
ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɢɧɫɰɟɧɢɪɨɜɤɟɢ
ɪɟɠɢɫɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɦɢɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɞɥɹɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɨɧɮɥɢɤ
ɬɨɜɜɜɢɞɟɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɦɟɠɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɵɯɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɨɰɟ
ɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɟɣ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɦ ɬɟɥɟɞɪɚɦ ɬɟ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟɡɚɜɢ
ɫɢɦɨɨɬ
ɮɚɤɬɨɜɢɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɜɰɟɥɨɦɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɱɟ
ɪɟɡɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɢɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɫɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɦɢɫɰɟɧɚ
ɪɢɹɦɢɚɤɬɺɪɚɦɢɢɛɭɬɚɮɨɪɢɟɣɉɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɚɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚɢɲɨɭ-ɛɢɡɧɟɫɜɫɺɛɨɥɶɲɟ
ɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɭɄɫɬɚɬɢɨɬɜɟɪɠɟɧɢɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɭɪɫɨɜɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɭɦɟɧɢɟɦɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɩɨɞ
ɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɤ
ɥɨɝɢɤɟɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ'.
ɋɬɟɩɟɧɶɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɚɤɰɢɢɢɥɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɧɚɩɪɹɦɭɸ
43

ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɫɟɟɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸɗɦɨɰɢɢɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɧɨɢɩɨ
ɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɨɰɟɧɤɭɢɭɦɨɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɧɟ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɫɢɥɚ ɞɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɜ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɫɦɵɫɥɟ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚ ɫɢɥɟ
ɱɭɜɫɬɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɧɢɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɚɸɬɄɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɵɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɧɟɭɫɬɪɚɧɹɸɬɷɦɨɰɢɢ
ɢɡɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚ ɤɚɤɷɬɨɝɨɬɪɟɛɭɸɬɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɢɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜ
ɧɨɣɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢ ɚɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ
ɫɬɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɯɨɥɨɞɧɚɹɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɦɩɥɚɧɟɧɢɱɭɬɶ
ɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɟɟɝɨɪɹɱɟɣ ɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɢ.
ȼɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɷɦɨɰɢɢɩɨɦɨɝɚɸɬɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɫ
ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɟɣɇɚɩɪ., ɯɨɬɹɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɤɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɩɪɨɛɥɟ
ɦɚɦɨɧɢɜɵɛɢɪɚɸɬ ɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɬɟɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɟɡɚɳɢɳɚɸɬ
ɫɜɨɢɢɞɟɢɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɬɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɬɤɥɢɤɭɦɟɥɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɩɪɢɟɦɵɜɤɥɸɱɚɹɫɚɬɢɪɭɢɪɨɧɢɸɢɨɫɦɟɹɧɢɟ
ɇɚɢɦɟɧɟɟɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɧɵɟɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵɧɟɢɦɟɸɬɧɢɤɚɤɢɯɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɣɧɟɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹɜ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɯɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ'ɠɟɫɬɤɢɟ
ɧɨɜɨɫɬɢ', ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɬɪɟɛɭɸɬɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɭɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɭɫɢɥɢɣɧɢɤɚɤɧɟɦɨɝɭɬɧɚ
ɧɢɯ ɩɨɜɥɢɹɬɶ Ɉɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɦɢ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɱɧɨ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɛɨɫɧɨ
ɜɚɧɧɵɟɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟɢɯɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦ'ɠɟɫɬɤɢɟɧɨɜɨɫɬɢ'Ⱦɨɛɚɜɢɦɱɬɨɧɟɢɡ
ɜɟɫɬɧɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɢɤɚɤɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɚɦɞɥɹɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹɪɚɰɢ
ɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ
ɋɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɚɹɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ'ɦɹɝɤɢɟɧɨɜɨɫɬɢ'ɭɫɜɚɢɜɚ
ɸɬɫɹɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɟɣ'ɩɪɢɰɟɩɨɦ'ɬɚɤɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ'ɧɚɡɚɤɨɪɤɚɯ' ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹɬɨɤ-ɲɨɭɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɜɵɛɨɪɩɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɣɦɟɪɟɚɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɱɧɵɯɢɡɛɢɪɚɬɟɥɟɣ 'ɷɮɮɟɤɬɈɩɪɵ')Ɋɨɫɬɞɨɥɢ'ɦɹɝɤɢɯɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ' ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɤɚɦ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɣ ɫ ɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɢɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɝɪɭɩɩɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢɢɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɥɢɞɟɪ
ɫɤɢɯɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ.
Ɏɢɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɧɚɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɬɟɫɧɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɫ
ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɨɦɢɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɨɣ ɤɚɤɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɦɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɚɤɰɢɣ ɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɦɨɝɚɸɬɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɨ
ɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵɜɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ (ɦɚɪɲɢɦɢɬɢɧɝɢɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚ
ɰɢɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɟɚɤɰɢɢ'ɭɥɢɱɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪ', ɧɚɫɬɟɧɧɵɟɪɨɫɩɢɫɢɩɥɚɤɚɬɵɤɚɪɢɤɚ
ɬɭɪɵɦɟɞɢɚɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɟɬɪɸɤɢ ɋɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɚɤɰɢɢɜɨɫɧɨɜɟɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɯɥɟɠɚɬɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɨɞɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɬɨɫɩɚɪɢɜɚɸɬɢɥɢ
ɩɟɪɟɮɨɪɦɚɬɢɪɭɸɬɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɟɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɹɢɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɤɨɥɥɟɤ
ɬɢɜɧɨɟɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɢɩɪɟɭɦɧɨɠɚɸɬ
ɢɦɢɞɠɟɜɵɟɤɪɟɞɢɬɵ
 ȼɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟ
44

ɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɦɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɧɚɫɟɛɹɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɪɢɬɭɚɥɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɦɨɠɟɬɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɛɥɨɤɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɪɚɫ
ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɜɫɟɯɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɵɯɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɮɢɚ
ɫɤɨɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɯɥɢɰ.
ɉɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɜɫɺɱɚɳɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɞɥɹɪɟɤɥɚɦɵɢɩɢɚɪɚɱɟɦɞɥɹ
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɢɧɫɰɟɧɢɪɭɸɬ ɫɩɟɤ
ɬɚɤɥɢɞɥɹɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɸɬɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɰɟɥɢȾɚɠɟ'ɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶ
ɧɚɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
ɤɚɤɮɨɪɦɚ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɡɚɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹɦɟɞɢ
ɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢɪɢɬɭɚɥɚɦɢɧɟɨɬɥɢɱɢɦɵɦɢɨɬɝɨɥɥɢɜɭɞɫɤɢɯɡɪɟɥɢɳ
ɂɬɚɤɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɜɮɨɪɦɟɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɢɦɟɞɢɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɫɤɨɪɹɸɬɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚ
ɧɢɟ ɝɢɛɪɢɞɧɨɝɨɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ. ɉɨɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɢɢ
ɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɢɤɥɨɝɢɤɟɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɠɭɪɧɚ
ɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɱɬɨɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɤɚɤɧɚɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢɬɚɤɢɧɚɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɚɯɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ.
45

ȽɅȺȼȺ 9
ɋɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝ
©Ʉɨɝɞɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɚɤɬɨɪɵɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɭɸɬɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɨɧɢɩɵɬɚ
ɸɬɫɹɞɨɛɢɬɶɫɹɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɛɵɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɢɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɚɪɬɢɢ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɵ ɫɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ
ɥɢɰɚ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɞɢɥɚɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɞɥɹɧɢɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɪɟɰɟɩɬª>Boswell
2010].
ȼɩɨɥɟɦɟɞɢɚɪɢɥɟɣɲɧɡɨɪɝɚɧɵɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɢɷɤɨɧɨ
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɚɬɚɤɠɟɫɜɨɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɚɤɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɱɬɨɛɵɜɥɢɹɬɶɧɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɢɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹ'Ɇɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ' ɤɚɤɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜ
ɧɵɣɚɫɩɟɤɬɦɟɞɢɚɪɢɥɟɣɲɧɡ ± ɷɬɨɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɦ ɩɪɨ
ɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɢɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɬɟɧɬɚɜɰɟɥɨɦɡɚɫɱɟɬɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦ
ɢɛɥɨɝɟɪɚɦɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟ ɜɮɨɪɦɟɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɨɜ . Ɋɟɡɭɥɶ
ɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɦ ɜ ɤɚɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɦɟɞɢɚɞɢɫ
ɤɭɪɫɨɛ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯ ɩɨɫɜɨɢɦɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɦɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɦ ɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜ
ɧɵɦɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɚɤɬɨɪɚ, ɚɢɦɟɧɧɨɦɟɞɢɣɧɚɹ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚ
ɞɧɹ± ɞɟɤɥɚɪɢɪɭɟɦɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɟɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵ ± ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɦɮɪɟɣɦɚɦɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫ
ɬɨɪɢɢ ± ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɦ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦ ɍɫɩɟɲɧɵɟ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɵɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɜɟɧɰɢɢ ɜ ɦɟ
ɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɭɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɬ ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɜɥɚɫɬɢɱɬɨɜɫɜɨɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɪɟ
ɫɭɪɫɵɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟɞɥɹɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ (ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ
ɤɭɦɭɥɹɬɢɜɧɨɟɧɟɪɚ
ɜɟɧɫɬɜɨ
).
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭ ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɟɦɨɜ ɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɜ
ɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɢɨɪɝɚɧɵɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɫɺɱɚɳɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɚɬɟ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɢɬɪɚɧɫɥɹɰɢɢ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢ
ɠɟɧɢɹɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɰɟɥɟɣ.
ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹ ± ɷɬɨɫɟɦɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯɜɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɥɢɜɵɞɭɦɚɧɧɵɯɩɪɨɢɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɣɫɭɱɚ
ɫɬɢɟɦɪɚɡɭɦɧɵɯɢɱɭɜɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜɫɦɵɫɥɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹ
ɟɬɫɹɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɣɤɨɧɮɢɝɭɪɚɰɢɟɣɢɟɞɢɧɵɦɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦɂɫɬɨɪɢɢɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɸɬɛɨɥɟɟ
ɹɪɤɢɟɢɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɜɩɚɦɹɬɢɱɟɦɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɵɟɨɬɱɟɬɵɜɪɨɞɟɪɢ
ɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɥɢ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜ ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟ
ɫɤɨɣɫɤɥɨɧɧɨɫɬɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɜɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɮɨɪɦɚɬɟ.
ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹ± ɷɬɨɮɨɪɦɚɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɫɨ
ɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɪɨɞɟ ɛɵ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɯ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɨɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɟ
46

ɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɱɚɫɬɢ ɰɟɥɨɝɨ ɂɫɬɨɪɢɢɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɢɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɞɥɹɬɨɝɨ


ɱɬɨɛɵɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɟɣɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɩɪɟ
ɞɭɩɪɟɠɞɚɬɶɡɚɩɭɝɢɜɚɬɶɦɨɪɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɭɛɟɠɞɚɬɶ, ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɬɶ,
ɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɚɬɶ ɫɢɦɩɚɬɢɸɜɫɟɥɹɬɶɧɚɞɟɠɞɭ.
ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬ ɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɢ ɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɫɜɹɡɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɜɜɢɞɟɫɸɠɟɬɚ ɢɛɟɡɩɪɹɦɨɣɨɬɫɵɥɤɢɧɚ 'ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ',
ɜɧɟɲɧɢɟɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤ'ɦɢɪɭɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵɌɚɤɚɹ'ɭɬɢɥɢɬɚɪɧɚɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ'
ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡ ɫɟɬɢɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɞɪɭɝ ɞɪɭɝɚ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɮɪɟɣɦɨɜɉɟɪɜɵɟɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬɝɥɚɜɧɵɟɞɨɜɨɞɵɚɜɬɨɪɚɚɜɬɨɪɵɟɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬɢɫ
ɬɨɪɢɢ'ɫɜɹɡɧɨɫɬɶ'ɯɨɬɹɱɚɫɬɨɧɟɢɦɟɸɬɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɤ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɟɦɵɦɜɵɜɨɞɚɦ
ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɩɚɦɹɬɢ ɭɠɟ ɭɫɜɨɟɧɧɨɣ ɭɬɢɥɢɬɚɪɧɨɣ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɬɶɟɟ ɚɞɪɨɟɫɚɬɭ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɶɤɥɸ
ɱɟɜɵɟɥɟɤɫɟɦɵɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɵɢɨɛɪɚɡɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦ
ȼɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɚɹɢɧɜɟɧɬɚɪɧɚɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɨɬɫɥɭɯɨɜɢ
ɬɟɥɟɪɟɤɥɚɦɵɞɨ ɪɨɦɚɧɨɜ ɢ ɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɨɬɫɤɚɡɨɤɞɨɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɣ) ɩɪɨɟɰɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɟɢɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɟ ɞɥɹ
ɚɤɬɨɪɚ/ ɚɜɬɨɪɚɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɡɜɨ
ɥɹɟɬɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɨɞɧɨɝɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ ɫɩɪɨɟɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɚɦɟɧɟɟɱɟɬɤɢɣ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ ɂɧɚɱɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɹ ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹ ± ɷɬɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɧɨɪɦɚɥɢɡɭɟɬ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɫɱɟɬɤɚɪɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɧɚ'ɨɛɟɫɤɭɪɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ', ɧɚɩɪɦɢɮɨɜɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɞɥɹɱɥɟɧɨɜ
ɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɟɜ.
Ɇɢɮɵɤɚɤ'ɦɢɪɨɬɜɨɪɹɳɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɩɪɟɬɟɧɞɭɸɬ ɧɚɢɫɬɢɧɭɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣɢɧ
ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɩɨɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɤɞɨɥɠɧɵɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢɡɚɩɪɟɬɵɧɟɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɯ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ
Ɋɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɢɮɵ
ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɵɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɨɛ
ɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɢɦɦɭɧɢɬɟɬɨɦ ɤ ɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɚɸɳɢɦ 'ɮɚɤɬɚɦ ɢ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦ
 ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵɷɤɨɧɨɦɹɬɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɭɫɢɥɢɹɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɤɢɧɚɢɫɬɢɧ
ɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɹɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɧɚɜɟɪɭɜɪɨɞɟɛɵɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɟ ɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɡɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɦɵɟɜɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɦɵɟɢɞɨɫɬɨɣɧɵɟɩɟɪɟɫɤɚɡɚ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɞɨɥɠɧɵɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ'ɮɚɤɬɚɦ'Ȼɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɞɚɠɟɨɱɟ
ɜɢɞɧɨɧɟɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɟɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɫɤɥɨɧɧɵɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɞɥɹɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɜɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɟɫɥɢɟɳɟɧɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɧɢɤɚɤɢɦɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ
ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ
. ȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɨɛɨɞ
ɧɨɦɢɬɨɦɠɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɢ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɬɧɟɡɚɫɬɚɬɭɫɛɨɥɟɟɢɫɬɢɧɧɵɯɢɥɢɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɛɨɥɟɟɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɚɡɚɫɬɚɬɭɫɛɨɥɟɟɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɪɚɡɧɵɯɚɞɪɟ
ɫɚɬɨɜɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɧɵɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɬɶɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɯɫɹɜɧɢɯ
ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ. ɉɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɭɸ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɧɭɬɶ ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
47

ɜɧɭɬɪɢɧɟɟ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɢɪɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɵɧɟɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɦɵɚ'ɮɚɤɬɵ


ɢɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ' ɜɵɛɪɚɧɵɢɫɩɥɟɬɟɧɵɜɫɸɠɟɬ ɩɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɭɚɜɬɨɪɚ/ ɚɤɬɨɪɚ.
ɋɚɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɵɧɟɩɨɞɞɚɸɬɫɹ
ɥɭɱɲɢɦɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɦ'ɚɪɹɞɨɜɵɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɷɦɨ
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɤ ɩɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɦ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɹɦ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭ
ɸɬɫɹɩɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɦɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ. ɂɫɬɨɪɢɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɧɟɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɦɵɟɫɬɨɱɤɢ
ɡɪɟɧɢɹ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ
ɷɩɢɡɨɞɵɜɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɟɰɟɥɨɟɛɟɡɲɜɨɜɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɢɯ
ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɦ ɧɚɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɧɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵ ɢ
ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɚɧɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣɢɫɬɢɧɟ
.
ɋɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝ ɤɚɤɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɜɫɺɱɚɳɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɩɢɚɪɟ
ɦɚɪɤɟɬɢɧɝɟ ɪɟɤɥɚɦɟ ɫɭɞɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ ɩɫɢɯɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɯ ɉɨɦɢɦɨɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɜɬɨɪɚ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɱɢɤɚ (ɚɜ
ɬɨɪɢɬɚɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ 'ɫɟɦɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨ'.
ɫɬɚɬɭɫɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɥɟɞɭɸ
ɳɢɦɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ:
x
ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɤɚɤɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ ɟɟɫɸɠɟɬɚɨɬɢɧɜɟɧɬɚɪ
ɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɤɚɤɤɚɧɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣ ɫɯɨɞɧɵɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ;
x 'ɫɜɹɡɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɤɚɤ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɧɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɫɨɫɬɨ
ɹɧɢɣɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ;
x
ɠɚɧɪɨɜɚɹɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɤɚɤɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɠɚɧ
ɪɨɜɵɦɤɚɧɨɧɚɦ
x 'ɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɤɚɤ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɢɧɜɟɧɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɢɫɬɨ
ɪɢɣ;
x 'ɭɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɤɚɤɫɸɠɟɬɧɚɹɧɟɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɫɬɶ;
x 'ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɤɚɤ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɢɥɶɧɵɟ
ɷɦɨɰɢɢ
ȼɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢɜɫɟɷɬɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɦɨɝɭɬɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪ
ɬɚɰɢɢ': ɧɚɫɵɳɟɧɧɚɹ ɷɦɨɰɢɹɦɢɢɨɛɪɚɡɚɦɢ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɟɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɢɤɨ
ɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɚɞɪɟɫɚɬɨɜ ɧɚɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɦ
ɦɢɪɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ'ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚ
ɟɬɫɹɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɨɦɤɚɤ ɥɢɱɧɨɟɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦɦɢɪɟ. ɗɬɨɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɚɮ
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚɰɢɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɛɨɣɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɹɜ
ɥɟɧɢɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ
ɬɟɥɟɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ
, ɤɨɝɞɚɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɟɬ
ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɭɬɟ
ɲɟɫɬɜɢɟ
 ɢɡ ɫɟɧɫɨɦɨɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ
ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ
ɜ ɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɦɵɣ 'ɦɢɪɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɢ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ
ɮɚɤɬɵɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɤɚɤ
ɮɚɤɬɵɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ'ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɟɬɷɦɨɰɢɢɧɟ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɦɵɟɨɬɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɪɟɚɤɰɢɣɜ 'ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦɦɢɪɟ', ɢɧɟɤɪɢɬɢɱɧɨɭɫɜɚɢ
48

ɜɚɟɬɞɚɠɟɬɟɢɞɟɢ
ɦɢɪɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ'ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɚɬɟɝɨɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɦ ɮɟɧɨ
ɦɟɧ
ɨɬɤɚɡɨɬɧɟɞɨɜɟɪɢɹ
. Ɍɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɚɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɢɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɞɨɜɨɞɚɦɚɜɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ'ɦɢɪɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɢɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧ
ɧɨɝɨɭɫɜɨɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯɧɨɪɦɢɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɟɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ.
Ɍɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚɰɢɹɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɡɚɫɱɟɬɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɟɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɦɧɟɧɢɣɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɵɯɮɢɝɭɪ
ɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɨɰɟɧɨɤ
ɹɪɤɢɯɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ
ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɢ
ɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ
 ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɦɢɤɪɨ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ
ɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɨɜ
ɢ
ɨɬɱɟɬɨɜ
ɨɱɟɜɢɞɰɟɜ

ɂɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɜɨɩɥɨɳɚɸɬɫɹɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹɯɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɯ ɜɞɢɟɝɟɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɣɮɨɪɦɟ)ɧɨɢɜɬɚɤɢɯ'ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɤɰɢɹɯ' ɜɦɢɦɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɮɨɪɦɟ ɤɚɤ
ɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɸɤɢ ɩɫɟɜɞɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɦɟɞɢɚɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ, ɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɵ ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ

ɪɢɬɭɚɥɵɞɨɜɟɪɢɹ
ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɩɪɢɜɟɪɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɱɥɟɧɨɜɨɪɝɚ
ɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɞɟɚɥɚɦɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɚɤɰɢɢ ɧɚ
ɫɨɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɢɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɟɟɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɪɟɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɚɦɨɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɢɢɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ.
Cɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɬ ɫ 'ɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢ' ɤɚɤ
ɧɟɨɠɢɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɪɟɞɤɢɦɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɹɬ ɧɟɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɵɣ
ɭɳɟɪɛ ɢɥɢɫɢɝɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɬ ɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɜ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ 
ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦ. Ƚɪɚɠɞɚɧɟ ɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɭɡɧɚɸɬɨ'ɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɸɳɟɦɫɨɛɵɬɢɢ' ɩɪɚɤ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɱɬɨɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɟɬɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɨɫɬɢɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɩɟɪɜɵɦɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɢɧɚɜɹɡɚɬɶɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɚɞɜɨ
ɤɚɬɫɤɭɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɇɟɨɠɢɞɚɧɧɚɹɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹɝɪɭɩɩɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩ
ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɨɜɧɨɜɨɫɬɧɵɯɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɞɟɜɢɚɧɬɧɵɯɢɡɚ
ɜɢɫɢɦɵɯɝɪɭɩɩɦɨɠɟɬɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢɤɧɨɜɵɦɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɦ ȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɚɤɬɨɪɵɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɤɪɚɣɧɟɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ
ɞɥɹɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹɜɡɜɟɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
'Ɏɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ' ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɚɦɢ ɞɥɹ
ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɣɜɮɨɪɦɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɡɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ
'ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ-ɬɪɢɝɝɟɪɨɜ' ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɬɜɩɨɥɟɡɪɟɧɢɹɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɜɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɭɫɬɨɣ
ɱɢɜɵɟɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵɢ'ɪɚɡɝɨɧɹɸɬɫɹ' ɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟɞɨ'ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɜɨɥɧ'ɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɟɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɸɬ'ɝɨɪɹɱɢɟɬɟɦɵ' ɢɡɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢɞɧɹ.
ɉɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɨɬɛɢɪɚɸɬ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɪɭɸɬ, ɜɟɪɛɚɥɢ
ɡɭɸɬɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɜɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵɢ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɦɟɠɞɭɧɢɦɢ ɩɫɟɜɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ) ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɫɜɹɡɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɸɬɨɞɧɢɢɢɫɤɥɸɱɚɸɬɞɪɭɝɢɟɜɵɜɨɞɵɗɬɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
49

ɢɥɢ
ɤɚɭɡɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɬɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬ
ɧɵɯ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯɬɟ ɢɯ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ 'ɥɨɝɢɤɟɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ' ɢ
ɥɨɝɢɤɟɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ
.
Ɂɚɤɪɟɩɢɜɲɢɟɫɹɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɚɬɟɦɛɨɥɟɟɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɢɟɫɬɚɬɭɫ
ɢɧɜɟɧɬɚɪɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸɞɚɠɟɩɪɢɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɩɪɨɬɢɜɨ
ɪɟɱɢɜɵɯɞɚɧɧɵɯɢɡɦɟɪɹɟɦɵɯ 'ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɚɦɢɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ'. ȼɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɚɛɫɨɥɸɬ
ɧɨɟɢɜɟɱɧɨɟɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɨɥɸɛɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɩɨ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɥɸɛɚɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɫɭɦɟɜɲɚɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ 'ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜ
ɧɭɸɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɸ'ɦɨɠɟɬɫɞɜɢɧɭɬɶɟɟɧɚɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɸ.
ɋɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝ ɤɚɤ ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɤɨɨɪɞɢ
ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ, ɝɞɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɢɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɟɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɺɪɵɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɬɞɪɭɝɢɦɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɝɧɢ
ɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɢɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɫɨ
ɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɢɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ. ɉɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹɞɜɟɞɢɯɨɬɨɦɢɢɞɥɹ
ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɧɵɟ   ɢɥɢ
ɧɟɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ  ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɢɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɟ  ɢɧɟɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɟ  ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ
ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɬɢɩɚ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ 'ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɦ' (2+3), 'ɫɥɭɱɚɣ
ɧɨɫɬɶ' (2+4), 'ɭɦɵɫɟɥ'  ɢ'ɩɪɨɦɚɲɤɚ'  ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢ
ɡɢɪɭɟɬɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɧɚɩɪ'ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɭɩɚɞɤɚ' ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɸɬɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɚɹ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɦɨɠɟɬɫɩɚɫɬɢɨɬɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɵɚ'ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ' ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ
ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɩɨɤɨɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ
Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɢɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɤɚɤɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɯɤɨɨɪɞɢ
ɧɚɬɬɨɠɟɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɧ
ɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɣɢɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ
ɇɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɫɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɤɰɢɣɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɩɨɞɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɫɹɤɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹɦɢɪɹɞɨɜɵɯ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫ ɤɚɤɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɚɤɰɢɹ±
ɷɬɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɨɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɦɵɯɩɨɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɦɭɞɥɹɚɤɬɨɪɚɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɭɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɸɢɦɚɫɤɢɪɭ
ɟɦɵɯɩɨɞɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɨɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɟȼɪɟɦɹɢɦɟɫɬɨɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɟɝɨɦɚ
ɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟɢɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɹɜɵɛɢɪɚɸɬɫɹɫɭɱɟɬɨɦɦɟɞɢɚ
ɥɨɝɢɤɢɢɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɦɟɞɢɚɮɨɪɦɚɬɚȼɢɞɟɚɥɟɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɢɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɢɠɭɪ
ɧɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɟɝɨ ɧɟ ɤɚɤ ɥɢɰɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɚ ɤɚɤ ɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɟ
ɍɫɩɟɲɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɵ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɭ ɩɪɟɞɭɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɯ

ɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ
ɯɨɬɹɢɧɨɝɞɚɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɶɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɵɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɨɬɩɟɪɮɨɪ
ɦɚɧɫɨɜɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɁɥɨɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɦɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶɭɪɹɞɨɜɵɯ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɨɬɨɦɱɬɨɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɤɚɤ ɩɟɪɫɨ
50

ɧɚɠɢ ɧɟɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɧɢɤɚɤɢɯɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɞɥɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ


ɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
ɂɬɚɤɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɤɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɢɥɢɪɚɡɵɝɪɵ
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɜɫɟɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ ɢɦɩɥɢ
ɰɢɬɧɨɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɹɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɧɨɪɦɵɢɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɚɬɬɟɪɧɵɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ.
51

ȽɅȺȼȺ 10
Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫ
©Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɢ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɟɥɚɸɬ ɧɟɜɟɪɨɹɬ
ɧɵɦɱɬɨɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɦɨɝɭɬɤɨɝɞɚ-ɥɢɛɨɞɨɫɬɢɱɶɭɪɨɜɧɟɣɡɧɚɧɢɹɢ
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯɞɥɹɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢɞɚɠɟɟɫɥɢɛɵ
ɨɧɢɛɭɞɭɬɥɭɱɲɟɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢɱɟɦɜɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟɜɪɟɦɹª>6RPLQ@
ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬɬɨɝɨɧɚɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɲɢɪɨɤɢɦɢ ɢɞɨ
ɫɬɭɩɧɵɦɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɞɥɹɭɱɚɫɬɢɹɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫ
ɤɭɪɫɟ ɩɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸɢɨɰɟɧɤɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭɢɨɬɛɨɪɭɢɯɪɟɲɟ
ɧɢɣɜɤɚɤɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɚɹɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚɞɧɹɜɥɢɹɟɬɧɚɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɨ
ɜɟɫɬɤɭɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɧɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɨɪɝɚɧɨɜɜɥɚɫɬɢ. Ƚɪɚɠɞɚɧɟ ɨɯɨɬɧɟɟ ɩɪɢ
ɡɧɚɸɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɜɥɚɫɬɢɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɦɢɚɢɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɞɚɠɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɚɳɢɟɢɯ
ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɦɢɟɫɥɢɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ
ɤɚɤɜɪɚɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɢɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɵɟ.
Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹ± ɷɬɨɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɢɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɨɛ
ɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɦɧɟɧɢɣɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɜɨ
ɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜɢɫɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɟɦɩɪɢɣɬɢɤɪɚɡɭɦɧɨɦɭ
ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɦɭɜɵɛɨɪɭ, ɫɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶɫɜɨɢɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɣ ɫɨɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɧɚɰɟ
ɥɟɧɚɧɟ ɧɚɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɟ'ɢɫɬɢɧɵ' ɢɥɢɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɩɨɛɟɞɵɚɧɚɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɭɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ,
ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɢɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɯ ɞɥɹɜɫɟɯɟɟɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ, ɢɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɨɬɜɟɱɚɸ
ɳɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɡɚɬɪɚɝɢɜɚɟɦɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɝɪɭɩɩ ɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ. Ƚɚ
ɪɚɧɬɢɟɣ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɣ ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɨ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ
ɡɧɚɧɢɹɦɢɨɩɵɬɨɦɢɞɨɜɨɞɚɦɢɝɨɬɨɜɵɦɢɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɜɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɤɨɧɬɪɞɨɜɨɞɵ
ɫɨɦɧɟɜɚɸɳɢɦɢɫɹɜɫɜɨɟɣɩɪɚɜɨɬɟɧɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɦɢɤɫɦɟɧɟɩɨɡɢɰɢɣɱɬɨɛɵɞɨ
ɫɬɢɱɶɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹ Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɨɞɧɢɦɢɡɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢɜɥɚɫɬɢ
ɢɥɢɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɟɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɣɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɢ.
Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɜɫɟɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɚɹ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨ
ɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɸɳɚɹ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɤɨɪɪɟɤɰɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶ'ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢ' ɢɥɢ
ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɣɞɟɦɨɤɪɚ
ɬɢɢ
 ɤɚɤ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɪɚɜɧɵɟ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟ ɢɥɢɢɯɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɸɬɫɜɨɢɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɨɛ
ɦɟɧɢɜɚɹɫɶɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɦɢɢɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɦɢɞɨɜɨɞɚɦɢɱɬɨɛɵɩɪɢɧɹɬɶɨɛɹɡɵ
ɜɚɸɳɢɟɜɫɟɯɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɞɥɹɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɜɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɧɨ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢ ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɹɸɬ ɨɛ
52

ɨɛɳɟɦɛɥɚɝɟɜɵɯɨɞɹɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɵɥɢɱɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɭɹɢɫɨɝɥɚɫɭɹɫɜɨɢ
ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɫɛɨɥɟɟɨɛɳɢɦɢɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɦɟɫɬɧɵɯɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɢ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɜɰɟɥɨɦ. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɹɩɨɨɳɪɹɟɬɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸɨɬ
ɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɭɬɚɢɜɚɧɢɹɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɨɛɦɚɧɥɨɠɶɭɝɪɨɡɵɢɥɢɨɛɟɳɚ
ɧɢɹɇɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɩɥɚɧɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɸɬɫɹɞɢɚɥɨɝɚɧɟɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɧɵɟɫɞɟɥɤɢɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧ
ɬɨɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɜɡɜɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟɢɥɢɨɬɜɟɪɠɟɧɢɟɞɨɜɨɞɨɜ
ɚɧɟɩɪɢɜɚɬɧɵɣɚɤɬɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɧɢɹɧɚɤɨɧɟɰɜɨɫɩɪɢɢɦɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɜɥɚɫɬɢɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟ
ɧɢɸɤɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɩɨɠɟɥɚɧɢɹɦɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɧɟɤɫɬɨɯɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɦɧɟɧɢɸɛɨɥɶ
ɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ
ɉɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɨɬɛɨɪɚ ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ ɜ ɤɨɧ
ɤɪɟɬɧɨɣɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɸɬ ɨɬɫɚɦɨɢɡɛɪɚɧɧɨɝɨɩɨɞɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɜɵɛɨɪɤɢɞɨɨɩɥɚɱɢɜɚɟɦɵɯɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɢɤɨɜɨɬɡɪɢɬɟɥɹɧɚɩɭɛ
ɥɢɱɧɵɯɫɥɭɲɚɧɢɹɯɞɨɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɨɝɨɥɢɰɚɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɚɨɬɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟ
ɧɢɹɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɞɨɥɝɚɞɨɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɨɫɨɛɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜɫɨɭɱɚɫɬɢɹɜ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɢɦɭɧɢɰɢɩɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɋɧɚɱɚɥɚɨɪɝɚɧɜɥɚɫɬɢɩɪɟɞɥɚ
ɝɚɟɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɭɨɪɝɚɧɭɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɨɫɥɟɨɛ
ɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɢɫɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɭɸɜɟɪɫɢɸɞɚɥɟɟ ɜɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɜɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɨɩɪɚɜɤɢ
ɨɧɨɫɧɨɜɚɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬɫɹɜɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɬɞ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ
ɦɧɨɝɨɤɪɚɬɧɨɣɞɟ
ɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢ
 ɗɬɚ
ɩɟɬɥɹ ɨɛɪɚɬɧɨɣ ɫɜɹɡɢ
 ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɜɥɟɤɚɹ ɜ
ɫɟɛɹɞɪɭɝɢɟɨɪɝɚɧɵɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɝɪɭɩɩɵȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɩɥɨɳɚɞɨɤɞɥɹ
ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɩɚɪɥɚɦɟɧɬɫɤɢɟ ɫɥɭɲɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɨɜɟɬɵ
ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɟɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɟɩɚɧɟɥɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɟɠɸɪɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɬɨɤ-ɲɨɭ
ɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɨɧɧɵɟɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬ-ɮɨɪɭɦɵɜɪɟɠɢɦɟɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ.
Ɉɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɦ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɵ ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢ.
1. Ʉɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣɞɭɯ
ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɤɚɤɭɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɟɧɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵɢɰɟɧ
ɧɨɫɬɢɫɜɨɢɯɝɪɭɩɩ, ɧɨɩɪɢɷɬɨɦ ɫɬɚɪɚɸɬɫɹɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɫɜɨɢɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɫɭɱɟɬɨɦɧɨɜɵɯ
ɞɨɜɨɞɨɜɤɨɧɬɪɞɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɢɫɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɟɣɧɚɨɛɳɟɟɛɥɚɝɨ ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹ
ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɚ ɫ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɦ ɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɷɝɨɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɨɬɢɜɨɜ ɩɨ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɟɟɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɝɨɥɢɰɟɦɟɪɢɹɍɱɚɫɬ
ɧɢɤɢɨɫɨɡɧɚɸɬɱɬɨɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɟɟɩɟɪɟɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɜɨɢɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɤ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɟɚɧɟɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɧɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɩɥɚɧɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵȾɚɠɟɭɱɚɫɬ
ɧɢɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɧɚɦɟɪɟɜɚɥɢɫɶɧɚɜɹɡɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɸɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɫɨɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦ
ɜɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɦɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɧɚɫɚɦɨɦɞɟɥɟ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚ
ɞɭɯ
ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
 ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ
ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɭɸɳɚɹɫɢɥɚɥɢɰɟɦɟɪɢɹ
Ɂɚɦɟɬɢɦɱɬɨɚɛɫɨ
ɥɸɬɧɨɟɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɨɩɪɨɜɨɡɝɥɚɲɟɧɧɵɯɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɦɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɣɟɝɨɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɵɦ, ɩɨ
ɦɧɟɧɢɸɫɨɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ, ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɦɨɠɟɬɢɦɢɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɨɛɦɚɧɚ
53


ɩɚɪɚɞɨɤɫɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ

2. ɉɨɢɫɤɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫɚ
ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹɩɪɢɧɹɬɶɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɨɛɳɟɝɨɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹ ɧɨɧɟ
ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɞɢɧɨɞɭɲɢɹ ɛɟɡɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɧɢɹɩɨɩɪɚɜɢɥɭɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɟɫɥɢɷɬɢɩɨɩɵɬɤɢɧɟɭɜɟɧɱɚɸɬɫɹɭɫɩɟ
ɯɨɦ
3. ȼɡɚɢɦɧɨɟɭɜɚɠɟɧɢɟ
ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɜɨɫɩɪɢɢɦɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɢɬɟɪɩɢɦɨɫɬɶɤɞɪɭɝɢɦɦɧɟɧɢɹɦ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɸɬɢɯɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɟɞɨɜɨɞɵɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɨɫɩɚɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɜɢ
ɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹɢɜɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɨɝɲɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɜ
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ
4. Ɋɚɜɧɨɟɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ
ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɨɬɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɜɥɚɫɬɢɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɚɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɟɣɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɧɚɜɵɤɨɜɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɦɢɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɞɨɜɨɞɵɨɬɜɟɱɚɬɶɧɚɤɨɧɬɪɞɨɜɨɞɵ ɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɨɝɨɫɩɨɪɧɨɝɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ
5. Ɋɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɸɬɢɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɵ
6. ɂɧɤɥɸɡɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ ɤɚɤɦɨɠɧɨɛɨɥɶɲɟɝɨɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɡɚɬɪɚ
ɝɢɜɚɟɦɵɯɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦɫɩɨɪɧɵɦɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɦ ɝɪɭɩɩɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹɢɨɬɛɢ
ɪɚɸɬɫɹ ɡɚɪɚɧɟɟ ɱɬɨ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɟɬ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɞɥɹ
ɩɥɨɞɨɬɜɨɪɧɨɝɨɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ
7. ɉɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
ɂɧɢɰɢɚɬɨɪɵɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɡɚɪɚɧɟɟɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɬɜɫɟɦɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨ
ɜɚɧɧɵɦɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɟɟɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɭɢɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵɚɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬɞɨɫɬɭɩ
ɧɭɸɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɭɞɥɹ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚɩɨɩɨɜɨɞɭɫɩɨɪɧɨɝɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɞɨɧɚɱɚɥɚ
ɢɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɹ 'ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɬɟɧɬ

ɤɚɤɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɭɸɳɢɯɦɧɟɧɢɣɢɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɣ
8. Ɉɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɦɨɫɬɶɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ
ɍɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɸɬ ɫɜɨɢ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɟ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɧɨɟɫɥɢɨɧɨɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɩɨɩɪɚɜɢɥɭɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚɬɨɦɟɧɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɜɩɪɚɜɟ
ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɧɚɟɝɨɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪ ɢɥɢɞɚɠɟɧɚɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɨɬɛɨɪɚɭɱɚɫɬ
ɧɢɤɨɜɢ ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧɬɚɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɟɫɥɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɜɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɦɪɚɭɧɞɟɛɨɥɟɟɜɟ
ɫɨɦɵɟɞɨɜɨɞɵɤɨɧɬɪɞɨɜɨɞɵ
54

9. ȼɧɟɲɧɟɟɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɩɪɹɦɨɢɥɢɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɧɚɧɟɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨɦ
ɢɥɢɨɬɫɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɦɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɞɚɠɟɬɟɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɟɟ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢɄɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɪɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɨɛɭɱɟɬɟɜɵɪɚɛɨ
ɬɚɧɧɵɯɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɣɩɪɢɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɟɢɤɨɪɪɟɤɰɢɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ
ɉɨɥɧɨɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɣ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ
ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ.
x ɋɬɪɟɦɹɫɶɤɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫɭɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɩɨɞɞɚɸɬɫɹɜɧɭɬɪɢɝ
ɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɦɭɤɨɧɮɨɪɦɢɡɦɭɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɚɸɬɩɨɢɫɤɢɧɨɜɵɯɞɨɜɨɞɨɜɤɨɧɬɪɞɨɜɨɞɨɜɢ
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɥɢɛɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɪɢɫɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɥɢɛɨɬɪɢɜɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ
ɝɪɭɩ
ɩɨɜɨɣɩɨɥɹɪɢɡɚɰɢɢ

x Ɋɹɞɨɜɵɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɧɟɢɦɟɸɬɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɟɣɡɧɚɧɢɣɧɚɜɵ
ɤɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ ɤ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɦ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
ɍɩɨɪɧɨɟɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɤɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɤɨɧɫɟɧ
ɫɭɫɭɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬɧɟɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɟɢɛɟɞɧɨɟɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢɦɟɧɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɤɛɟɡɪɚɫ
ɫɭɞɧɵɦɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɚɦɡɚɪɚɦɤɚɦɢɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ
ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚ
ɬɢɹɢɧɫɭɪɝɟɧɬɨɜ
 Ȼɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɨɰɟɧɤɚɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢɞɨɜɨɞɚɤɨɧɬɪɞɨɜɨɞɚɫɢɥɶɧɟɟ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɱɚɫɬɨɬɵɟɝɨɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɟɧɢɣɱɟɦɨɬɟɝɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɚɤ
ɬɢɜɧɵɟɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɢɫɤɭɲɟɧɧɵɟɜɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɟ ɞɨ
ɛɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɛɨɥɟɟɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɯɞɥɹɫɟɛɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
x ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɱɢɫɥɚɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɢɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɚɫɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɜɨ
ɩɪɨɫɨɜɱɚɫɬɨɫɜɨɞɢɬɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɸɤɩɭɫɬɨɣɝɨɜɨɪɢɥɶɧɟɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɤɚɤɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɫɬɚɥɢɫɶɜɧɟɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɤɚɤɧɟɞɨɫɬɚ
ɬɨɱɧɨ ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɵɟ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚ
 Ⱦɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɤɥɸ
ɡɢɜɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɜɵɲɚɟɬɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɰɢɢɢɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɨɫɥɚɛɥɹɟɬɟɟ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɚɹɞɢɥɟɦɦɚ

x ɉɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɜɵɧɭɠɞɚɟɬɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɫɜɨɢɦɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɞɚɠɟɭɬɚɢɜɚɬɶɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɦɨɝɥɚ
ɛɵɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɣɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɚ. ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ
ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɜɫɺɱɚɳɟɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɧɟɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɟɚɪɟɧɵ ɢɧɟɩɪɨ
ɡɪɚɱɧɵɟɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɢɝɞɟɚɤɬɨɪɵɫɤɨɪɟɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɬɫɞɟɥɤɢɱɟɦɨɛɦɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɪɚ
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ.
Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬ ɲɟɫɬɶɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢɜɥɚɫɬɶɸ.
1. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ
ɝɪɭɩɩɵɫɭɱɟɬɨɦɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɢɫɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦɫɜɨɢɯɩɪɟɞ
55

ɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣɱɬɨɛɵɞɨɛɢɬɶɫɹɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɹɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɣɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ
2. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɜɥɚɫɬɢɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɢ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɛɧɚɪɨɞɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɢ ɨɬɜɟɬɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ.
3. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɤɨɧɫɭɥɶɬɚɰɢɢ ɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɟɬ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɥɭ
ɲɚɧɢɹɱɬɨɛɵɞɚɬɶɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɵɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɢɦɧɟɧɢɹɢɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɹ ɱɚɳɟɜɫɟɝɨɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɤɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ .
4. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹɤɚɤɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɫɬɜɨɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɨɜɟɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɪɝɚɧɵ
ɨɛɹɡɵɜɚɸɬɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɯɥɢɰɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɬɶɫɜɨɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɢɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɵ
ɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɟɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ
5. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹɤɚɤɞɟɥɟɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɜɥɚɫɬɢɜɥɚɫɬɶɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ'ɨɤɪɭɠɧɵɟɚɫ
ɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢ' ɫɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɹɦɢɩɨɪɚɫɩɨɪɹɠɟɧɢɸɡɟɦɥɟɣ ɢɢɦɭɳɟ
ɫɬɜɨɦ
6. Ⱦɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹɤɚɤɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɣɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɜɥɚɫɬɶɫɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬɮɨɪɦɢ
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ
ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɣ
ɧɚɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɹɦɢɞɥɹɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹɪɟɲɟ
ɧɢɣɩɨɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɦɭɫɩɢɫɤɭɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ
ɂɬɚɤɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɦɨɠɟɬɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɢɜɥɚ
ɫɬɢ ɜ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ ɜ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɯ ɜɪɹɞ ɥɢ
ɦɨɠɟɬɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɞɥɹɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ ɢɞɨɥɠɧɚɫɬɚɬɶɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚɜɥɚ
ɫɬɢɤɚɤɨɞɢɧɢɡɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɟɟɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɢ.
56

ȽɅȺȼȺ 11
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ
©ɇɟɥɟɩɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ ɱɬɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɟɣ
©ɒɟɥɥ Ɉɣɥª ɢ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɣ ɢɡ ɧɟɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɟɣɫɹ
ɫɬɪɚɧɟɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɵɦɩɪɨɫɬɨɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɷɬɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ
ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɟ ȿɳɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɟɥɟɩɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ ɨɛɪɚɬɧɨɟ ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ
ɱɬɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦɟɠɞɭɷɬɨɣɪɚɛɨɱɟɣɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɣɢ©ɒɟɥɥɈɣɥªɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶ
ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɵɦɟɫɥɢɪɚɛɨɱɢɟɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɭɸɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɢɠɟɥɚɸɬɤɨɦɩɪɨ
ɦɢɫɫɚª [Leitch, Neilson 1997: 19]
ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɨɩɢɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɢɧ
ɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜɤɫɜɹɡɹɦɫɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɭ
ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɭ)ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɜɧɚɭɱɧɨɦɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɢɩɪɟɩɨɞɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟɞɨ
ɫɢɯɩɨɪɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɟɬ 'ɦɨɞɟɥɶɜɵɫɲɟɝɨɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ' ȾɠɟɣɦɫɚȽɪɸɧɢɝɚ
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɷɬɨɣɦɨɞɟɥɢɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɤɚɤɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɫɜɹɡɟɣɫɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɬɶɸɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɤɚɤɚɞɪɟɫɚɬɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɜɡɚɢɦɨ
ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɜɨɢɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɟɫɥɢɬɚɤɨɜɵɟɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɭɐɟɥɶɩɢɚɪɚ± ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɵɣɞɢɚɥɨɝ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
ɞɥɹ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹɢɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɜɡɚɢɦɨɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɯɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɢɭɜɚ
ɠɟɧɢɹɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ'ɜɫɟɜɵɢɝɪɵɜɚɸɬ'Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɫɹɤɫɨɛɥɸɞɟ
ɧɢɸɛɚɥɚɧɫɚɫɜɨɢɯɱɚɫɬɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɫɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
ɢɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɟɬɭɫɢɥɢɹ
ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɷɬɢɱɧɨ ɢɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɹ ɱɬɨ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɤɚɤ
ɱɥɟɧɵ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
ɜɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɢɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɟɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹɞɨɫɬɢɱɶɤɨɧɫɟɧ
ɫɭɫɚɉɢɚɪ-ɞɢɚɥɨɝɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɩɢɚɪɳɢɤɢɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɦɟɞɢɚɬɨɪɨɜɨɪɝɚ
ɧɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɫɧɨɪɦɚɦɢɷɬɢɤɢɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɟɝɨɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɷɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɦɢɯɨɬɹɧɢɤɨɝɞɚɧɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɨɪɝɚ
ɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
 ɉɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɱɬɨɪɟɱɶɧɢɜɤɨɟɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɧɟɢɞɟɬɨɛɭɛɟɠ
ɞɟɧɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɧɟɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɜɩɢɚɪɟɤɚɤɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɦɞɢɚɥɨɝɟ ȼ
ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤ
ɬɢɜɟɫɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
± ɷɬɨɪɚɜɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɵɟɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɨɬɧɨ
ɲɟɧɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɞɥɹɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɟɟɰɟɥɟɣ
ɉɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɧɟɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹ
ɜɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɵɧɨɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚɦɢɩɪɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
'Ⱦɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɩɢɚɪɚ
ɤɚɤɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɞɜɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟɣɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɣɦɨ
ɞɟɥɢ' ɡɢɠɞɟɬɫɹɧɚɩɹɬɢɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɯ:
1. 'ɞɭɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɚ': ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
 ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɧɚ
ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɹɰɢɢɢɥɢɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɡɚɩɪɟɳɟɧɵ
2. 'ɪɟɥɟɜɚɧɬɧɨɫɬɶɢɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ': ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɫɨɨɛɳɚɟɬ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɦ
ɨɡɚ
ɬɪɚɝɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɸɳɢɯ ɢɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ ɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
 ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɢ ɠɟɥɚɸɬ
57

ɱɟɬɤɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɢɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɬɶɫɜɨɢɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɤɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
3. 'ɷɦɩɚɬɢɹ': ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɞɨɜɟɪɹɸɬɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɭɜɵɫɥɭɲɢɜɚɸɬ
ɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɛɟɡɩɪɟɞɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɣ, ɫɩɨɪɨɜɢɩɨɫɩɟɲɧɵɯɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɠɟɧɢɣ
4. 'ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɪɢɫɤɚ': ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɨɫɨɡɧɚɸɬɱɬɨɭɹɡɜɢɦɵɤɦɚ
ɧɢɩɭɥɹɰɢɢɡɚɪɚɧɟɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚ
5. 'ɩɪɢɜɟɪɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ': ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɱɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɢɩɪɹ
ɦɨɬɭɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɞɥɹɧɢɯɜɵɲɟɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɜɵɝɨɞɵɨɧɢɫɬɪɟ
ɦɹɬɫɹɩɨɧɹɬɶɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚ
ȼɝɨɞɭȾɠɟɣɦɫȽɪɸɧɢɝ ɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɢɥɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɣɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɦɨɞɟɥɢɩɨɞ
ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ'ɩɚɪɚɞɢɝɦɚɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ'ɭɠɟɫɬɨɱɚɸɳɟɣɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɤɩɢɚɪɳɢɤɚɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɞɨɥɠɧɵɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɜɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢɨɪɝɚ
ɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɧɨɢɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɱɥɟɧɨɜ
ɩɭɛ
ɥɢɤ
ɫɩɪɚɜɨɦɝɨɥɨɫɚ.
ȼɟɪɹɜɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
ȾɠɟɣɦɫȽɪɸɧɢɝɢɟɝɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɢɜɨɡɥɚ
ɝɚɸɬɧɚɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɤɚɤɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɩɢɚɪɚ ɠɟɫɬɤɢɟ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
1.
ɞɨɫɬɭɩ
 ɱɥɟɧɵ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
 ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɤ ɩɢɚɪɳɢɤɚɦ ɚ ɜɵɫɲɢɟ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɰɵ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɱɥɟɧɚɦ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
 ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɤ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ

ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶ
 ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɱɥɟɧɵ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
 ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵ ɢ ɨɬɤɪɨɜɟɧɧɵ
ɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɯɨɬɹɬɞɟɥɢɬɶɫɹɫɜɨɢɦɢɦɵɫɥɹɦɢɡɚɛɨɬɚɦɢɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦɢɚɬɚɤɠɟ
ɫɜɨɟɣɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸɢɥɢɧɟɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɨɦ

ɭɜɟɪɟɧɢɹɜɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɤɚɠɞɚɹɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵɞɪɭɝɨɣ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢɢɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɜɨɸɩɪɢɜɟɪɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ
4. 'ɪɚɛɨɬɚɜɫɟɬɹɯ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɟɬɢɢɥɢɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɢɫɬɟɦɢɠɟɫɨɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢɱɬɨɢɟɟ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ


ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɡɚɞɚɱ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɦɟɠɞɭɫɨ
ɛɨɣ ɨɛɳɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨ
ɛɥɟɦ

ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɢ
ɩɭɛ
ɥɢɤɢ
ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬɢɫɤɨɦɭɸɜɵɝɨɞɭɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɩɨɢɫɤɭɨɛɳɢɯɢɥɢɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɨɩɨɥ
ɧɹɸɳɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɸɤɪɟɲɟɧɢɸɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɜɞɢɚɥɨɝɟ ɢɤɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɦɭ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɸɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ
Ɋɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɨɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ'ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ' ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɟɪɟɞ
ɩɭɛ
ɥɢɤɚɦɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɢɦɟɟɬɬɪɢɚɫɩɟɤɬɚɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɧɵɟɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɹɚɧɟɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɷɝɨɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɦɨɬɢɜɚɦɢɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɬɶɱɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɢ
58

ɭɜɚɠɟɧɢɟɤ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɦ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɩɪɢɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢɜɵɝɨɞɢɛɪɟ
ɦɟɧɢ'ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ' ɜɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢɍɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɜɷɬɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɟɤɨɨɪ
ɞɢɧɚɬɷɬɢɱɧɨɬɨɥɶɤɨɟɫɥɢɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɫɬɪɨɝɢɣ'ɬɟɫɬ7$5(6': 'ɩɪɚɜɞɢɜɨɫɬɶɫɨɨɛɳɟ
ɧɢɣ', 'ɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɭɛɟɠɞɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ', 'ɭɜɚɠɟɧɢɟɤɭɛɟɠɞɚɟɦɨɦɭɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɭ',
'ɛɟɫɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɭɛɟɠɞɚɸɳɟɝɨɩɪɢɡɵɜɚ', 'ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɭɛɟɠ
ɞɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ'.
ɑɥɟɧɵ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ 'ɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɢɚɪɚ' ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ 'ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨ ɦɚ
ɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ' ɤɚɤ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɭ ɫɨɜɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɜ ɢɧ
ɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɢɞɟɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦɢ ɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɘɪɝɟɧɭɏɚɛɟɪɦɚɫɭ.
ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ 'ɦɨɞɟɥɢɜɵɫɲɟɝɨɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ' ɥɟɠɚɬɤɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɫɟɦɶɧɟɹɜɧɵɯ
ɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɣ
1. Ɋɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɷɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
 ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɢɷɬɢɱɧɨɜɨɡɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɹɫɶɨɬɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɢȿɫɥɢɨɪ
ɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɭɛɟɞɢɬɶ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɭ
ɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɧɟɦɟɧɹɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɣɬɨɫɥɟɞɭɹɥɨɝɢɤɟȾɠɟɣɦɫɚȽɪɸɧɢɝɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚ
ɫɨɜɟɪɲɢɥɚɧɟ
ɜɵɝɨɞɧɭɸɫɞɟɥɤɭɚɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɥɢɛɨɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɥɚɨɛɦɚɧɢɥɢɯɢɬɪɨɫɬɶɥɢɛɨɩɪɢ
ɧɭɞɢɥɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɭ
ɤɫɞɟɥɤɟɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɭɝɪɨɡȿɫɥɢɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶɤɚɤɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɤɧɟɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɣɫɞɟɥɤɟɬɨɨɧɨɢɜɫɚɦɨɦɞɟɥɟɪɚɜɧɨ
ɫɢɥɶɧɨɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɹɰɢɢɢɜɥɟɱɟɬɡɚɫɨɛɨɣɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜɇɨɤɚɤ
ɛɵɬɶ ɫ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɛɟɠɞɚɸɬ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɭ

ɧɚɩɪ.ɜɨɜɪɟɞɟɤɭɪɟɧɢɹɢɥɢɩɨɥɶɡɟɝɢɦɧɚɫɬɢɤɢ"Ⱦɨɛɚɜɢɦɱɬɨɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɦɹɝɤɨɣ
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ' ɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɩɨɫɬɭɥɚɬɨɩɨɜɫɟɦɟɫɬɧɨɣɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
2. Ɋɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɟ ɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
 ɢɦɟɸɬ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɣ
ɞɨɫɬɭɩɤɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɧɨ ɧɚɫɚɦɨɦɞɟɥɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹɞɪɭɝɨɬ
ɞɪɭɝɚ ɩɨ ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɭ ɞɨɯɨɞɭ ɫɬɚɬɭɫɭ ɧɚɜɵɤɚɦ ɡɧɚɧɢɹɦ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹɢɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ ɤɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɚɤɬɨɪɚɦ.
3. ɉɪɢɦɚɬɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫɚɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɜɫɟɝɞɚɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ
ɧɚɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟȿɫɥɢɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫ ɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɹ ± ɷɬɨɜɵɫɲɚɹɰɟɥɶ
ɩɢɚɪɚɬɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɟɦɭɩɪɟ
ɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɭɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɟɦɭɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬɂɧɚɱɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚ
ɜɫɟ-ɬɚɤɢɩɪɢɛɟɝɧɭɬɤɦɚɧɢɩɭ
ɥɹɰɢɹɦɩɭɫɬɶɞɚɠɟɢɡɛɥɚɝɢɯɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɞɨɫɬɢɱɶɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɩɨɪɨɠ
ɞɚɟɬɫɹɩɨɪɨɱɧɵɣɤɪɭɝɫɢɬɭɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɥɨɠɧɵɯɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɸɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɯɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɣ Ⱥɤɬɨɪɚɦɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɫɬɪɟɦɥɟ
ɧɢɹ ɤ ɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫɭ ɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɬɶɫɹ 'ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ' ɤɚɤ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɢɟɦ
59

ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟɦɢɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɟɦɨɬɥɢɱɧɨɣɨɬɦɧɟɧɢɹ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ
ɩɨɫɩɨɪɧɨɦɭɜɨɩɪɨɫɭɉɪɚɜɞɚɬɚɤɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹɬɨɠɟɧɟɛɟɡɢɡɴɹɧɨɜɦɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɟɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɵɦɢɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɹɦɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
ɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɰɟɥɹɦɢ ɜɵ
ɧɭɠɞɚɟɬ ɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɨɬɤɚɡɚ ɨɬ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɟ ɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɣɡɚɫɱɟɬɹɜɧɨɧɟɜɵɩɨɥɧɢɦɵɯɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɨɛɟɳɚɧɢɣ.
4. Ⱦɢɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
± ɷɬɨɨɬɤɪɵ
ɬɵɣ ɞɢɚɥɨɝ ɇɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ
ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɱɚɳɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɚ ɧɟ 'ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ' ɜɞɭɯɟ'ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɱɟɜɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ'. Ȼɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɤɨɦ
ɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹɤɚɤɨɛɦɟɧɢɞɟɹɦɢɜɨɜɫɟɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɟɫɨ
ɝɥɚɫɢɟɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɢɞɚɠɟɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚ
ɝɚɟɬɭɱɟɬɨɬɜɟɬɧɨɣ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢɈɫɨɡɧɚɜɛɟɡɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɥɢɞɚɠɟɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɩɵ
ɬɨɤ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ ɫ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ

ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦɢɫ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɦɢ
-ɟɞɢɧɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɢɤɚɦɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɸɛɭɞɭɬɨɬɜɟɱɚɬɶɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɸɢɩɨɞɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɤɟɟɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɗɬɨɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟ'ɝɨɦɨɝɟɧɧɵɯɩɭɛɥɢɤ' ɜɢɬɨɝɟɩɪɟɜɪɚ
ɬɢɬ 'ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɵɣ ɩɢɚɪ' ɜ ɧɟɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɭɸ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɸ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɜɪɟɲɟɧɢɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɩɨɪɨɠɞɟɧɧɵɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ ɨɪ
ɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɨɫɬɚɧɭɬɫɹɛɟɡɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɢɭɠɬɟɦɛɨɥɟɟɛɟɡɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
ɜɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ Ȼɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨ ɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜ'ɞɢɚɥɨ
ɝɨɜɨɝɨɩɢɚɪɚ' ɫɚɤɰɟɧɬɨɦɧɚɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɟɢɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫɟɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨ 'ɰɟɧ
ɧɨɫɬɧɨɟɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɠɟɧɢɟ' ɩɪɢɨɬɛɨɪɟ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
ɧɨɢ'ɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɧɟɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢ
ɜɨɫɬɶ'ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɜɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɜɞɢɚɥɨɝɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɬɟɦɢɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɟɟɪɭɤɨ
ɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢɫɱɢɬɚɸɬɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɦɢ, ɢɥɢɨɡɜɭɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɫɚɦɵɟɝɪɨɦɤɢɟɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɢ, ɢɝɧɨ
ɪɢɪɭɹ ɫɥɚɛɵɟɢɫɚɦɵɟɭɹɡɜɢɦɵɟɝɪɭɩɩɵ.
5. ɇɟɫɫɢɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɚɹɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɫɬɶɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɞɨɥɠɧɚɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɢɧ
ɬɟɪɟɫɵ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɫɜɨɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɧɵɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɟɟɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɟɰɟɥɢɄɚɤɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵɜɫɟɯɫɨɰɢɟɬɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɥɟɣɢɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɨɜɜɬɨɣ
ɢɥɢɢɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɚɥɨɝɢɤɢɫɜɨɢɯɤɨɧɬɪɚɝɟɧɬɨɜɢɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ

ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɚɞɚɩɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɤɥɨɝɢɤɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
6. ȼɧɟɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɫ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɦɢ
ɧɟɡɚ
ɜɢɫɹɬɨɬɟɟɩɨɥɟɜɨɣɢɥɢɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɢɇɚɩɨɦɧɢɦɱɬɨɤɚɠɞɨɟ
ɫɨɰɢɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɨɥɟɢ ɤɚɠɞɵɣɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɥɨɝɢɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɧɨɪɦɵɢɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɟɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɣ.
7. Ⱦɭɯɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɰɟɥɶɩɢɚɪɚ ± ɷɬɨɦɚɤɫɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɜɵ
ɝɨɞɵɈɞɧɚɤɨɩɢɚɪ± ɷɬɨɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɢɪɭɸɬ
ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɟɣɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɰɟɥɟɣɱɬɨɜɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟɦɨɠɟɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɬɶ
60

ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɛɥɚɝɨ.
'Ɇɨɞɟɥɶɜɵɫɲɟɝɨɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ' ɧɟɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɢɰɟɥɹɦɩɢɚɪɚɤɚɤɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚ
ɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚɧɢɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɢɥɢɩɪɢ
ɦɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦ ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɧɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɸɬ ɷɝɨɢɫɬɢɱɧɵɦ
ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦ: ɩɢɚɪ-ɞɢɚɥɨɝ ɢɡɚɳɢɬɚɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɦɨɝɭɬ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɬɶ ɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɭ.
'Ⱦɜɭɯɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɹɹ ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ' ɧɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɶ
ɬɟɦɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɦɞɨɫɬɭɩɨɦɤ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɇɚɩɪ.ɜ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɮɟɪɟɩɪɟɜɚɥɢɪɭɸɬ ɭɛɟɠɞɚɸɳɢɟɢ
ɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɟɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɢɤɚɤɧɟɥɶɡɹɧɚɡɜɚɬɶɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɵɦɢɧɨɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɟɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɜɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɦɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɟɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɧɚɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ
ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɪɚɫɩɥɵɜɱɚɬɵɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɦɢ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ, ɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɨɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɢɜɚɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɭ.
ɇɚɩɨɦɧɢɦɱɬɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɜɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɯɭɫɢɥɢɬɶɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɧɚɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɛɨɥɶɲɟ
ɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹɧɚɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɢɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɰɢɸ'ɛɪɨɫɤɢɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜ
ɚɧɟɧɚɪɚɰɢɨ
ɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɸ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɚɹ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɢ ɦɟɞɢɚɮɨɪɦɚɬ.
ɂɧɚɱɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɧɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɩɥɚɧɜɵɯɨɞɢɬ'ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɜɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ' ɢ
ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬ
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ
. Ɂɚɦɟɬɢɦɱɬɨ 'ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɚɹɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ' ɜɨɨɛɳɟɜɵɩɚɞɚɟɬɢɡɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ'ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ± ɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫ± ɷɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ'.
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɢɚɪɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹɢɡ'ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ' ɜ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟ
ɧɢɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɫɺɱɚɳɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɨɢɛɟɡɩɪɹ
ɦɵɯɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜɚɤɬɨɪɚɫɨɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɨɬɚɤɬɨɪɚɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ
ɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ.
ɉɢɚɪɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɤɚɤɧɚɛɨɪɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɵɯɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɵɯ
ɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢ ɜɥɚɫɬɧɵɟ
ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚ ɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ. ɉɢɚɪɨɛɟɫɩɟ
ɱɢɜɚɟɬɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɸɚɤɬɨɪɚɡɚɫɱɟɬɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɜɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚɯɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚ ɰɟ
ɥɟɜɵɯɝɪɭɩɩ ɫɤɨɪɟɟ
ɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɹɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɹ
ɚɧɟ'ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɟɞɢɧɨɞɭɲɢɹ'.
Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ'ɪɟɮɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ' ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬ ɜɡɚ
ɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɪɟɲɚɟɦɵɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɧɚɛɨɪɨɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ
ɭɛɟɠɞɚɸɳɢɯɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɢɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɵɯɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚ
ɰɢɢɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢɜɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯɚɤɬɨɪɚ
1.
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ' ± ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟ
ɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜɨɩɥɚɧɚɯɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɯɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɞɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɹɹɢɪɚ
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹ 
2.
ɭɛɟɠɞɚɸɳɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ' ± ɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɩɥɚɧɨɜɢɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɞɥɹɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹɧɚɞɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢ ɨɞɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɹɹɢɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ
61

ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹ 
3.
ɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ' ± ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟɢɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɯ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɨɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹɩɨɡɧɚɱɢ
ɦɵɦɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɱɬɨɛɵɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɢɢɡɛɟɠɚɬɶɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ ɞɜɭ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɹɹɢɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹ 
4.
ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ' ± ɫɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɭɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥ
ɞɟɪɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜ ɞɜɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɹɹ ɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨ ɪɚɰɢɨ
ɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹ 
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɷɬɚɦɨɞɟɥɶɜɫɟ-ɬɚɤɢ ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚ
ɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤ
 ɢ ɧɟ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɧɚɩɪ.ɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɩɢɚɪɟ(ɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɵɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɟɬɪɸɤɢɢɥɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɉɨɜɫɟɣɜɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɛɪɚɡɰɵɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ'ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɝɨɩɢɚɪɚ' ɛɟɫɫɦɵɫ
ɥɟɧɧɨɢɫɤɚɬɶɜɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟɤɨɦɦɟɪɰɢɢɢɥɢɲɨɭ-ɛɢɡɧɟɫɟɧɨɫɬɨɢɬɩɪɢɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶɫɹ
ɤ'ɛɥɚɝɨɬɜɨɪɧɨɦɭɩɢɚɪɭ' ɩɚɰɢɟɧɬɫɤɢɯɢɥɢɛɥɚɝɨɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣɤɨ
ɬɨɪɵɣ ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɤɨɪɪɟɤɰɢɸɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɜɨɬɜɟɬɧɚ
ɪɟɚɤɰɢɸ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ.
Ɉɛɪɚɬɢɦɫɹɤɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɤɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ.
ȾɠɟɣɦɫȽɪɸɧɢɝɫɱɢɬɚɥɱɬɨɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɵɣɞɢɚɥɨɝɫɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɦɢ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚ
ɦɢ
ɢɡɛɚɜɢɬɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸɨɬɪɢɫɤɨɜɜɧɟɡɚɩɧɨɝɨɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɹɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɭɝɪɨɠɚ
ɸɳɢɯɟɟɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɫɩɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɭɡɧɚɟɬɨɩɨɬɟɧɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯɡɚɪɚɧɟɟ: ɱɟɦɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɟɟɩɢɚɪɬɟɦɦɟɧɶɲɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶɨɪ
ɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɨɬɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɇɚɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟɜɫɺɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɫɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ
ɢɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɪɢɥɟɣɲɧɡ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɪɚɫɬɢ.
ȼ'ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ' ɩɢɚɪɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɚɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤɨɬ
ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɜɧɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɜɥɢɹɸɬɞɪɭɝɧɚɞɪɭɝɚɢɩɨɞ
ɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɞɪɭɝɤɞɪɭɝɭ ɧɚɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɢɦɟɠɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɨɦɭɪɨɜɧɹɯɋ ɨɞ
ɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɩɢɚɪ-ɫɥɭɠɛɚɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɟɬɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹ
ɱɬɨɛɵɩɨɜɥɢɹɬɶɧɚɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹɚɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɤɨɪɩɨɪɚ
ɬɢɜɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹ ɷɬɨɩɪɢɦɟɪ'ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɣɢɧɞɭɤɰɢɢ' ɉɢɚɪ-ɫɥɭɠɛɚɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚ
ɰɢɢɩɨɞɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɤɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɟɱɬɨɛɵɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɬɶɩɢɚɪ-ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɜɦɟɞɢɚ-
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɚɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɜɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɱɬɨɛɵ
ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶɨɬɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɢɚɪ-ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸɫɭɛɫɢɞɢɸ ɩɨ'ɝɨ
ɪɹɱɟɣɬɟɦɟ' ɷɬɨɩɪɢɦɟɪ'ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɣ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ').
ɋɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɩɢɚɪɳɢɤɨɜɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɤɨ
ɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɚɧɢɦɚɸɬɢɯɞɥɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɢɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨ
ɪɢɣɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɦɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɢɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ. ȼɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹ
62

ɩɢɚɪɳɢɤɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ


ɪɨɥɶɜɭɜɟɤɨɜɟɱɢɜɚɧɢɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɧɨɪɦɢɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɩɨɦɨɝɚɹɚɤɬɨɪɚɦ
ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶɫɹɢɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɚɝɟɧɬɚɦɢ.
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɭɫɜɨɢɥɢ ɱɬɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ± ɷɬɨ
ɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɭɪɫɨɜɢɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɣɞɥɹɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɨɛ
ɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɹ. Ɇɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɢɧ
ɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɨɞɚ ɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨ ɮɨɪɦɚɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɣ ɫ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɛɵ ɩɟɪɜɨɨɱɟɪɟɞɧɨɟɜɨɫɩɪɢ
ɹɬɢɟ ɢ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɨɣ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɜ ɧɭɠɧɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɐɟɥɶ ± ɞɨ
ɛɢɬɶɫɹɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɛɵɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɢɛɥɨɝɟɪɵɫɨɨɛɳɢɥɢɨɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɟɞɧɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɧɚɩɪɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ  ɜɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɣɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɢɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɦɤɨɧ
ɬɟɤɫɬɟɤɪɢɬɢɤɭɹɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜɢɜɧɭɬɪɢɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɵɯɞɢɫɫɢɞɟɧɬɨɜ
ɂɬɚɤ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ
ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɢɚɪɚ
, ɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ
ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢɥɢɲɶɜɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵɞɥɹɤɨɦɦɭ
ɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɭɪɫɨɜ
63

ȽɅȺȼȺ 12
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɢɚɪ
©Ⱦɢɫɤɭɪɫɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɛɨɣɦɨɳɧɵɣɜɥɚɫɬɧɵɣɪɟɫɭɪɫɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɵɢɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬɫɜɨɸɫɚɦɨɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɸ
ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɸɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɸɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɢɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɬɟɯɢɥɢɢɧɵɯ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɜɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟª>ɊɭɫɚɤɨɜɚɊɭɫɚɤɨɜ@.
Ⱦɥɹɨɰɟɧɤɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɞɟɫɹɬɶɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜ
1.
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɬɟɤɭɳɟɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɢɟɟɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɹ
ɨɬɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɢɥɢɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ
2.
ɤɚɭɡɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
 ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɤɭɳɟɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɩɪɢɱɢɧɢɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɟɟɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɧɢɟɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɡɚ
ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦɚɤɬɨɪɚɦ;
3.
ɰɟɥɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ
 ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɢɥɢɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢ
ɬɭɚɰɢɢ
4. 'ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ'ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢɠɟ
ɧɢɹɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯɰɟɥɟɣɜɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɯ'ɰɟɥɢ-ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ';
5.
ɞɟɥɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
 ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ
6.
ɤɥɢɟɧɬɨɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
 ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɝɪɭɩɩɡɚ
ɬɪɨɧɭɬɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɯɝɪɭɩɩ ɚɬɚɤɠɟɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚ
ɡɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɟɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦ
7.
ɛɸɞɠɟɬɨɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
 ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜɢɨɛɴɟɦɚɮɢɧɚɧɫɢ
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɯɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ;
8.
ɜɚɥɢɞɧɨɫɬɶ
 ɫɫɵɥɤɢɧɚɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢɢɥɢɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɵɞɥɹ
ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɬɟɤɭɳɟɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚ
ɟɦɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɢɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɯɝɪɭɩɩ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨ
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɵ
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɧɨɪɦɵɢɬɩ 
9.
ɞɟɬɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɫɬɶɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɝɨɢɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ
10.
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɚɹɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɟ
ɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢɢɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɫɜɹɡɟɣɭɫɬɚɧɨɜ
ɥɟɧɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɢɤɚɤɨɧɚɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɸɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ
64

ɂɬɨɝɨɜɵɣɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ± 'ɩɨɥɧɨɬɚ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ


± ɪɚɧɠɢɪɭɟɬɩɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɭɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯɨɞɧɨɣɢɬɨɣɠɟ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɇɚɩɨɦɧɢɦ ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɚɪɚɞɢɝɦɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢ
ɜɢɡɦɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɜɚɠɧɟɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɚ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ ɰɟɥɟɣ ±
ɜɚɠɧɟɟɜɵɛɨɪɚɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜɢɯɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɢɚɪ ɢɥɢ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬ 
± ɷɬɨɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɚɹɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɤɬɨɪ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ  ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨ (
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɫɬɢ

ɪɚɡɴɹɫɧɹɟɬ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦ ɫɜɨɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨ
ɝɪɚɦɦɵɜɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɦɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɱɬɨɛɵɜɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɢɬɨɝɟɭɤɪɟ
ɩɢɬɶɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶȼɵɛɨɪɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɩɪɨ
ɛɥɟɦɧɵɣɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ ɢɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ (ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɹɜɢɡɭɚɥɢɡɚ
ɰɢɹ, ɫɸɠɟɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ, ɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ, ɩɪɚɣɦɢɧɝ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɚ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚ
ɰɢɹ), ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ (ɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢɥɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɚɤɰɢɹ ɫɟɦɢɨ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɨɞɨɜ ɜɟɪɛɚɥɶɧɵɟɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɟɚɭɞɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɮɢɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ
ɫɬɢ (
ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ± ɜɵɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ' ɢɤɚɧɚɥɨɜ ɬɪɚɧɫɥɹɰɢɢ ɩɢɚɪ-ɫɨɨɛɳɟ
ɧɢɣ ('ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ± ɩɪɹɦɵɟ± ɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ') ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɩɪɚɝɦɚ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɢɫɢɬɭɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɢɡɚɞɚɱɚɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɛɟɠ
ɞɚɬɶɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɬɶ ɤɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɞɨɜɟɪɢɟ).
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɛɚɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɟɤɥɚɪɢɪɭɟ
ɦɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɟɞɧɹɢɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɟɦɵɦ ɤɩɭɛ
ɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɰɢɢ ('ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɞɭɯ
 'ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
 'ɩɨɢɫɤ ɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫɚ

'ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɞɨɜɨɞɨɜ

ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɫɬɶɞɨɜɨɞɨɜ
'ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɫɬɶ') ɢɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜ
ɧɨɦɭɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥɥɢɧɝɭ ('ɫɜɹɡɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ', 'ɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ

ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
. ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɦɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɵɣɫɩɢɫɨɤɬɟɦɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɢɚɪɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜɝɨɫɭ
ɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɚɦɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ:
x ɬɟɤɭɳɢɟɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɩɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɢɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ
x ɧɟɨɬɥɨɠɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɪɢɮɨɪɫ-ɦɚɠɨɪɧɵɯɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɯ
x ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɦɢɢɪɚɣɨɧɚɦɢɞɥɹɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚɦɟɫɬɧɵɯɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜɜɤɨɧ
ɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢɫɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢɢɡɞɪɭɝɢɯɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ
x ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɪɚɫɫɥɨɟɧɢɹɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɟɦɟɪɵɩɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɡɚɳɢɬɟɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɝɪɭɩ
ɩɚɦ ɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
65

x ɩɨɨɳɪɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ


ɫɤɢɦɢɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɢɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ ɜ
ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɡɚɫɱɟɬɥɨɛɛɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɩɨɞɜɟ
ɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɧɟɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɧɚ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɡɚ
ɫɱɟɬɤɪɭɩɧɵɯɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɣɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɩɪɟɞɭɩɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɚɞɦɢɧɢ
ɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɢ
x ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɜɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɢɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɝɪɭɩɩɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɧɚɩɨɞɜɟ
ɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɧɚɩɪ. ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɬɪɟɯɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɣ ɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ
ɩɪɨɮɫɨɸɡɨɜɪɚɛɨɬɨɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɢɜɥɚɫɬɢ
x ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɝɪɭɩɩɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɠɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɫɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢɩɪɚɜɨɩɨɪɹɞɤɚɢɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɥɭɠɛɚɦɢ
ɚɬɚɤɠɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɚɹɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚɦɢɥɢɰɢɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨ
ɫɬɢ
x ɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɚɬɪɢɨɬɢɡɦ
ɡɚ
ɛɨɬɚɨɛɥɢɠɧɟɦ
 ɫɟɦɶɹ ɜɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɢ
x ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɦɢɞɠɚ ɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɧɚɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɦɢɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ
ɞɥɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɪɤɟɬɢɧɝ ɢ ɛɪɟɧɞɢɧɝ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ 
x ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫ ɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦɢ ɷɤɨ
ɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɭɸɬɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɚɹɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɢɢɫɤɭɫ
ɫɬɜɚ
x ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɭɛɴɟɤ
ɬɨɜɤɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɚɹɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚɦɟɫɬɧɵɯɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ
x ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɚɧɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɧɟɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɛɴ
ɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɣɜɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɜ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɮɟɪɟ

x ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɝɪɚɧɬɨɜɧɚɭɱɧɵɦɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɧɚɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɭɢɪɟɚɥɢɡɚ
ɰɢɸɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
66

x ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɫɦɟɫɬɧɵɦɢɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɦɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɩɚɪɬɢɣɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ-ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɣ
x ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɭɱɟɬɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɹɩɪɢɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢɢɤɨɪ
ɪɟɤɰɢɢɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢɢɬɚɤɬɢɤɢɫɜɨɟɣɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
x ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɹɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɹɩɨɚɤɬɭ
ɚɥɶɧɵɦɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦ
x ɜɤɥɚɞ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɨɜɟɬɨɜ ɢ ɞɟɥɢɛɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ
ɝɪɭɩɩɜɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɭɢɤɨɪɪɟɤɰɢɸɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ
x ɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɵɟɤɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɢɤɫɜɟɠɢɦɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɞɚɧɧɵɦɨɫɢɬɭ
ɚɰɢɢɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
x ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɨɫɬɢɪɟɲɚɟɦɵɯɨɪɝɚɧɨɦɜɥɚɫɬɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
x ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣɢɪɚɛɨɬɧɢɤɨɜɤɚɤɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɰɟɜ
x ɧɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣɢɪɚɛɨɬɧɢɤɨɜɤɚɤɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ
x ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɢɦɢɞɠɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ
Ⱦɥɹɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨ
ɪɢɣɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ
x
ɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɞɟɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɨɦɭɮɪɟɣɦɭ
x
ɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɸɠɟɬɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣ
ɢɧɜɟɧ
ɬɚɪɧɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɢɥɢɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
x
ɹɪɤɨɫɬɶ
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɜɢɢɥɥɸɫɬɪɚɰɢɣ
x
ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
ɭɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
x
ɡɥɨɛɨɞɧɟɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɫɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣɚɞɪɟɫɚɬɚ
x
ɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɟɢɦɟɞɢɚɮɨɪɦɚɬɭ
x
ɩɨɧɹɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɦɧɚɜɵɤɚɦɚɞɪɟɫɚɬɚ
x
ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɚɞɪɟɫɚɬɚ
x
ɮɚɤɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
 ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɥɟɝɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪ
ɠɞɟɧɢɟ
x
ɤɪɟɞɢɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɱɢɤ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɬɟɦɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬ ɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɩɹɬɢɬɢɩɨɜ
x Ɋɭɬɢɧɧɚɹɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸɢɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸɩɨ
ɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹɜɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɦɞɥɹɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ
x ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɚɹ ɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹ ɨɫɜɟɳɚɟɬɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɦ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ.
x ɂɦɢɞɠɟɜɚɹ ɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɟɦɧɟɧɢɟɨɛɨɪɝɚɧɟ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ
x ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɚɹ ɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɚ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ
67

ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣɞɥɹɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɹɢɥɢɤɪɢɡɢɫɧɨɣɫɢ
ɬɭɚɰɢɢ
x Ʉɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɚɹɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹɜɨɣɧɚ
ɧɚɰɟɥɟɧɚɧɚ
ɞɢɫɤɪɟɞɢɬɚɰɢɸ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɢɢɥɢ ɞɟɦɨɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɵɯ
ɝɪɭɩɩ Ɍɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɜɚɥɵ ɢɢɥɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɮɢɚɫɤɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ
ɜɪɟɦɹɨɬɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɬɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɜɜɢɞɟɲɟɫɬɜɢɣ
ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɰɢɣɩɢɤɟɬɨɜɚɤɬɨɜɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɧɟɩɨɜɢɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹɬɧ
ɦɚɣ
ɞɚɧ
ɢ
ɨɤɤɭɩɚɣ
Ɍɚɤɨɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢɧɨɝɞɚɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɩɪɨɜɨ
ɤɚɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɜ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɬɚɝɟɦɵ
ɜɛɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɥɢɧ
 ɢ
ɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɬɶ ɥɛɚɦɢ
 Ⱦɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɨ
ɬɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɩɨɞɪɵɜɚɸɬ ɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɩɥɨɬɶ ɞɨ ɞɟɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɚɰɢɢ  ɢ ɜɵɧɭɠ
ɞɚɸɬ ɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɜɧɨɫɢɬɶ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɜ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɢɥɢɞɚɠɟɢɡ
ɦɟɧɹɬɶɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɭɪɫɇɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɧɟ
ɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɢɡ-ɡɚɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ
ɢɧ
ɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɚɦɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɢɡ-ɡɚɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɟɟɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɚɬɪɚɧɟɟ
ɫɞɟɥɚɧɧɵɦɜɥɚɫɬɶɸɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɨɛɟɳɚɧɢɹɦ
ɡɚɤɨɧɌɨɤɜɢɥɹ
ɋɨɛɵ
ɬɢɟɦ-ɬɪɢɝɝɟɪɨɦ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɜɨ
ɩɪɟɤɢɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɟɦɭɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɦɧɟɧɢɸɢɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɝɪɚɠ
ɞɚɧɚɦɢɤɚɤɭɳɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɢɯɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɯɩɪɚɜɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɢɥɢɧɟɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɫɬɶɉɪɨ
ɬɟɫɬɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɩɩɨɡɢ
ɰɢɟɣ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɟ-ɬɪɢɝɝɟɪ ɜ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɹ
ɷɧɟɪɝɢɸɫɬɢɯɢɣɧɨɝɨɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɝɨɧɟɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɚɇɚɩɟɪɜɨɦɷɬɚɩɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɜɥɚ
ɫɬɶɸɧɚɫɢɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɦɟɪɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɨɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɢɧɟɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɦɨɠɟɬɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢɤɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɉɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɚɝɟɦɚ
±
ɜɵɬɚɫɤɢɜɚɬɶɯɜɨɪɨɫɬɢɡ-ɩɨɞɨɱɚɝɚ
± ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯɫɹɭɜɥɚɫɬɢɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɯɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ
ɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɚɧɤɰɢɢɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɥɸɛɨɦɭɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɭɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɗɬɨ ɧɟɱɬɨɢɧɨɟɤɚɤɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɧɚ
ɥɢɞɟɪɨɜɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɚɫɬɪɨɝɨɜɪɚɦɤɚɯɡɚɤɨɧɚɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɡɚɫɱɟɬɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹɜɧɢ
ɦɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɢɯ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɡɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɭ ɤɨɧ
ɮɥɢɤɬɚ  ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ ɉɪɟɠɞɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɦɪɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɹɦɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɢɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɫɬɪɚɬɚɝɟɦɚ
ɝɪɨ
ɡɢɬɶ ɚɤɚɰɢɢ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɹ ɧɚ ɲɟɥɤɨɜɢɰɭ
 ɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɡɚɩɪɟɳɚɸɬɫɹ
ɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ
ɠɢɡɧɟɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ
 ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɪɟ
ɤɥɚɦɧɵɟɢɩɢɚɪ-ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɢɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɣɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ
68

ɤɨɬɤɚɡɭɨɬɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜFɥɢɞɟɪɚɦɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɚɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɚɸɬɫɹɚɝɢɬɚ
ɰɢɨɧɧɵɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɞɨɫɬɭɩɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɭȿɫɥɢɷɬɢɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧ
ɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɬɨɞɵɧɟɜɟɞɭɬɤɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɸɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɚɤɰɢɢɩɪɨ
ɬɟɫɬɧɚɹɝɪɭɩɩɚɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬɫɬɚɬɭɫɧɶɸɫɦɟɣɤɟɪɚɚɟɟɜɨɠɚɤɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɥɢɞɟɪɨɦɨɛ
ɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɹɬɨɝɞɚɧɚɜɬɨɪɨɦɷɬɚɩɟɜɥɚɫɬɶɪɚɡɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɩɨɡɢ
ɰɢɢ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸɜɨɣɧɭ
ɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɢɦɟɟɬɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɷɮ
ɮɟɤɬ
ɛɨɧɭɫ ɜɥɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɹ
 ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɜɨɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɤɚɤ
ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɵɟ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɦɧɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɩɪɢɟɦɵ
ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚɨɛɜɢɧɟɧɢɣ
ɢ
ɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɑɬɨɛɵɩɪɟɞɨɬ
ɜɪɚɬɢɬɶ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɞɟɬɨɧɚɰɢɢɢ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɞɨɦɢɧɨ
ɜɥɚɫɬɶɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɟɬ ɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦ
ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɤɨɧɬɪ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ
ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣɢɫ
ɬɨɪɢɢ
ɢɞɢɫɤɪɟɞɢɬɢɪɭɟɬɥɢɞɟɪɨɜɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɚɉɪɨɳɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɜɥɚɫɬɶɢɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ
ɜɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɜ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸɜɨɣɧɭ
ɤɚɤɨɫɨɛɭɸɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧ
ɧɵɯɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɣ
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɪɟɲɢɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɝɨ
ɬɨɜɤɟɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵɥɸɛɨɣɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ.
I. ɐɟɥɶɢɢɞɟɹɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ
ɐɟɥɶ ɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ ± ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɭ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɝɨɞɥɹɜɥɚɫɬɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɚɞɨ ɫɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟ
ɮɪɟɣɦɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɭɫɬɪɨɹɬɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜɢɜɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɹɬɢɞɟɸɦɟɞɢɚ
ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɧɭɸɜɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ. Ⱦɚɥɟɟɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɚɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɩɪɟ
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹɜ'ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' ɫ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɮɪɟɣɦɚɦɢ'ɩɨɯɨɠɢɦɢɧɚɚɞɜɨ
ɤɚɬɫɤɢɟɮɪɟɣɦɵ
II. Ⱥɭɞɢɬɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɣɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ
Ⱥɭɞɢɬɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɣɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬɫɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɢɯɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹȺɭɞɢɬɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɤ
ɢɧɜɟɧɬɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɨɰɟɧɤɟɪɟɥɶɟɮɧɨɫɬɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚ
ɸɬɫɹɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦɢɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟ ɢɜɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɫɱɟɬɟɤɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɸɢɯ
ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɮɪɟɣɦɨɜɤɚɤɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɢɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ
III. Ⱥɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɣɮɪɟɣɦɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ
Ⱥɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɣɮɪɟɣɦɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɡɚɞɚɟɬɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɫɬɟɣɤ
ɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢɬɪɚɧɫɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɯɨɪɝɚɧɨɦɜɥɚɫɬɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣȼɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɨɦ
ɮɪɟɣɦɟɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɫɹɨɰɟɧɤɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɯɢɥɢɧɟ
ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɯ
69

ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɯ  ɚ


ɬɚɤɠɟɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɸɬɫɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɞɨɥɠɧɵɧɟɫɬɢɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɢɢɥɢɟɝɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ
IV. ȼɵɛɨɪɬɟɦɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ
ɉɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɟɬ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬ
ɫɤɨɝɨɮɪɟɣɦɚɧɨɢɬɟɦɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ.
V. ȼɵɛɨɪɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɤɩɟɪɟɫɤɚɡɱɢɤɨɜɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɦɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɰɟɥɟɣɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ:
1. Ɉɛɴɟɦ ɥɨɹɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɚɤ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɤɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣ
2. Ɉɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɤɚɤɫɪɟɞɧɢɣɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɤɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɦɟɠɞɭɫɨɛɵɬɢɟɦɢ
ɧɨɜɨɫɬɹɦɢɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɢɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ
3. ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɞɨɜɟɪɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɨɜɨ
ɫɬɟɣɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ
4. Ʉɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶɢɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɦɚɜɬɨɪɨɜɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɧɬɟɧɬɚ
5. ɋɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɤɚɤɞɨɥɹɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜɜɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ
6. Ɇɟɞɢɚɮɨɪɦɚɬɤɚɤɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɢɫɨ
ɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ. ɉɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ± ɷɬɨɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɪɚɡɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɚɬɨɜ
VI. Ɉɬɛɨɪɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɱɢɤɨɜɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ
ɜɟɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ').
Ⱥɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɡɜɭɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɥɢɰɚ ɭɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɟɧɧɵɟ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢɢɥɢɧɟɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɜɟɫɬɧɢɤɢɩɨɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɢɸɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ
ȼɟɫɬ
ɧɢɤ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɩɨɪɧɵɣɜɨɩɪɨɫɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɭɩɪɢɥɢɱɧɵɯɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɯɢɥɢɱɟɪɟɡ
ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɢ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɵɣ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɹɜɧɨɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜȼɧɟɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɟɟ
ɜɟɫɬɧɢɤɢ
ɢɡɱɢɫɥɚɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɵɯɮɢɝɭɪɮɨɪ
ɦɚɥɶɧɨɧɟɢɦɟɸɳɢɯɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɤɨɪɝɚɧɭɜɥɚɫɬɢ
VII. Ɍɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ
ɏɨɬɹɜɫɜɹɡɢɫɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɜɨɡɪɨɫɥɨɱɢɫɥɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ
ɪɟɬɪɚɧɫɥɹɰɢɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɨɜɫɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɵɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜ ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ ɩɨɜɵɫɢɥɚɫɶ Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɮɨɪ
ɦɚɧɫɞɨɥɠɟɧɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ
x ɬɟɦɚɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɢɢɦɢɞɠɭɚɤɬɨɪɚɢɨɞ
ɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜ
x ɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɡɧɚɤɨɦɨɦ ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦ ɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦ
ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɚɤɬɨɪɟɤɚɤɝɥɚɜɧɨɦɝɟɪɨɟ
x ɫɪɟɞɢɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɟɫɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ
70

x ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɣɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟ
ɥɟɣɜɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɵɟɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
x ɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɩɪɨɜɨɰɢɪɭɟɬ ɩɨɞɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟ
ɪɨɜɤɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɬɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɚɤɬɨɪɚ
x ɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɧɚɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɣɢɥɢɨɝɨɪɨɠɟɧɧɨɣɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɟ
ɫɰɟɧɟ  ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚ 
ɉɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɚɤɬɨɪɭɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɪɟɲɢɬɶɬɪɢɡɚɞɚɱɢ
1. ɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɧɚɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɢɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɦɨɳɧɨɟɩɪɹɦɨɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ
ɡɚɫɱɟɬɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ
2. ɩɟɪɟɞɚɬɶɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɚɦɢɞɟɸɚɤɬɨɪɚɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɜɨɡɧɢɤɲɢɯɩɨɩɨ
ɜɨɞɭɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯɫɥɭɯɨɜ
3. ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫ ɤɚɤ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɨɜɨɞ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɨɪɨɞɢɬɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɧɨɢɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɨɩɨɜɥɢɹɟɬɧɚɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ
ɫɬɟɣɤɯɨɥɞɟɪɨɜ
ɐɟɥɶ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɤɚɤ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ ɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ ± ɞɨɛɢɬɶɫɹ
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɦɟɞɢɚɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɚ ɤɚɤ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ
ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ
ɦɟɞɢɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ

ɱɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɢɯɩɭɛ
ɥɢɤɚɰɢɣ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɚɯɪɟɤɥɚɦɵ
ɢ
ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɵɯɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɢɯɩɭɛɥɢ
ɤɚɰɢɣ
ɧɚɬɟɦɭɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɫɨɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɩɢɚɪ-ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɨɦɤɚɤɫɨɜɨ
ɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɩɪɟɫɫ-ɪɟɥɢɡɨɜ
ɩɢɚɪ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɨɜɢɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɯɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ 
Ⱦɥɹɨɰɟɧɤɢɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɩɹɬɶɢɧɞɟɤɫɨɜ:
1. ɢɧɞɟɤɫ
ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɪɭɸɳɚɹɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ
± ɷɬɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɫɨ
ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɹɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɝɨɦɟɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɟɝɨɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɨɦɭɮɪɟɣɦɭ
2. ɢɧɞɟɤɫ
ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɚɹɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ
 ± ɷɬɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɢɹɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɯɨɰɟɧɨɤɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɜɦɟɞɢɚɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɟɟɝɨɨɰɟɧɤɚɦɜɩɢɚɪ-
ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɟ
3. ɢɧɞɟɤɫ
ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɚɹɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ
± ɷɬɨɞɨɥɹ
ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦ
ɧɵɯɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɢɯɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɣ
ɩɨɬɟɦɚɦɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɜɨɛɳɟɦɱɢɫɥɟɬɟ
ɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɜɦɟɞɢɚɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɟ
4. ɢɧɞɟɤɫ
ɦɟɞɢɚɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ
± ɷɬɨɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɪɚɧɝɚɬɟɦɵ
ɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɜɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɟɞɧɹ ɩɨɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸɫɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚ
ɰɢɟɣ
5. ɢɧɞɟɤɫ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ
± ɷɬɨɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɪɚɧɝɚ
ɢɨɰɟɧɤɢɬɟɦɵɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɟɞɧɹɢɥɢɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɨɛ
ɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɹɩɨɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸɫɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɟɣ
71

ɉɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɟɦɱɬɨɧɢɤɚɤɨɣɨɪɝɚɧɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɟɜɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɤɨɧɬɪɨ
ɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵɦɟɞɢɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢɆɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɢɬɟɯ
ɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɤɚɧɚɥɚɦɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɢɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɟ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɢ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɚ

ɩɪɨɫɟɢɜɚɸɬ
ɢɯɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜɢɜɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɜɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟɨɰɟɧɤɢɢɦɧɟɧɢɹȻɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɢɨɰɟɧɤɢɤɨɧ
ɤɪɟɬɧɨɣɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɧɟɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɵɦɞɥɹɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹɤɨɧɤɪɟɬ
ɧɵɦɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɢɩɨɫɜɨɟɦɭɩɪɨɢɡ
ɜɨɥɭɮɨɪɦɚɬɢɪɭɟɬɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɣɧɨɦɟɪɝɚɡɟɬɵɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɭɸɬɟɥɟ- ɢɥɢɪɚɞɢɨɩɟɪɟ
ɞɚɱɭɟɠɟɞɧɟɜɧɵɣɤɨɧɬɟɧɬɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬ-ɫɚɣɬɚ
ɂɬɚɤ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜ
ɜɢɞɟɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɣɫɟɪɢɢɩɢɚɪ-ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɣ ɪɚɡɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜ.
72

ȽɅȺȼȺ
ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɵɟɝɪɭɩɩɵ
©Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɜɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɢɬɨɝɟɩɨɤɨɹɬɫɹɧɚɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯɫɛɨɹɯɚɭɞɢ
ɬɨɪɢɢ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬ ɩɨɞɨɡɪɟɜɚɬɶ ɱɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶ
ɬɚɬɵɨɩɚɫɧɵɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ± ɷɬɨɬɪɸɤɢɩɪɟɞ
ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɵɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ± ɷɬɨɮɚɫɚɞɵª>Suchman 1995: 597].
Ʉɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɡɚ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɠ
ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɵɟɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɹɱɚɫɬɨɩɟɪɟɪɚɫɬɚɸɬɜɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɵɟɜɡɚɢɦɨ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɦɵɟ ɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɨɣ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɨɣ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɨɛɨɫɬɪɹɸɬɜɡɚɢɦɧɭɸɧɟɩɪɢɹɡɧɶɫɬɨɪɨɧ 'ɡɚɤɨɧȾɨɣɱɚ' ɢɜɨɜɥɟɤɚɸɬɜɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬ
ɧɨɜɵɯɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɌɚɤɨɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɢɧɨɝɞɚɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɩɪɨ
ɜɨɤɚɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɜ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɦɢ
ɫɬɪɚɬɚɝɟɦɭ 'ɜɛɢɜɚɬɶɤɥɢɧ' ɢ
ɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɬɶɥɛɚɦɢ').
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦɷɬɚɩɵɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚ
ɇɚɩɪɟɞɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɨɣɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɢɡ-ɡɚɛɟɡɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɯɩɨɩɵɬɨɤɞɨɫɬɢɱɶɡɧɚɱɢ
ɦɨɣɰɟɥɢɱɥɟɧɵɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɦɨɟɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɦɢɷɦɨɰɢɹɦɢɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɮɪɭɫɬɪɚɰɢɢɢɛɭɞɭɱɢɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɵɦɢɜɫɜɨɟɣɩɪɚɜɨɬɟ
('ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɝɨ ɮɚɜɨɪɢɬɢɡɦɚ'  ɢɳɭɬ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ ɜɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ 'ɷɮɮɟɤɬ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɚɬɪɢɛɭɰɢɢ' ȼɡɥɨɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɞɨɡɪɟɜɚɸɬɫɹɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨ'ɱɭ
ɠɢɟɝɪɭɩɩɵ'ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹɜɫɯɨɞɧɵɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɯɢɢɥɢɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɸɬ'ɧɟɩɪɚ
ɜɢɥɶɧɵɟ' ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɜɫɢɥɭɱɟɝɨɦɚɪɤɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɤɚɤ'ɜɪɚɝɢ'.
Ⱦɚɥɟɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɜɨɢɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɭɸɫɩɥɨɱɟɧ
ɧɨɫɬɶɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɚɤɬɢɜɚɰɢɢ'ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚɫɛɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹɩɪɨɪɨɱɟɫɬɜɚ'ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɢ
ɪɭɸɬ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ'ɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɩɨɬɟɪɢ' ɜɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɨɛɟɞɵɢɥɢɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɢɩɪɢɧɢ
ɦɚɸɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɥɢɛɨɭɤɥɨɧɢɬɶɫɹɨɬɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹɥɢɛɨɜɫɬɭɩɢɬɶɜɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɵ
ɥɢɛɨɧɚɱɚɬɶɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɉɪɢɜɵɛɨɪɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɫɹ
ɚɥɶɹɧɫɵɫɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɟɞɢɧɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɣ ɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɚɹ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɜɫɟɥɢɬ ɜ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɟɣ
ɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɩɨɛɟɞɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬ ɟɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɩɨɞ
ɞɟɪɠɤɭ 'ɷɮɮɟɤɬɩɨɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɹ').
ɇɚɜɬɨɪɨɣɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɢɧɰɢɞɟɧɬ) ɝɪɭɩɩɚɜɨɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɜɲɢɫɶɥɸɛɵɦɩɨɜɨɞɨɦ
ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟɢɥɢɫɤɪɵɬɵɟɜɪɚɠɞɟɛɧɵɟɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɤɨɦɦɭ
ɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɭɗɬɚɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɹ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɨɩɟɪ
ɧɢɤɚ ɥɢɛɨ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɢɬɶɫɹ ɥɢɛɨ ɨɬɜɟɬɢɬɶ ɬɟɦ ɠɟ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɪɨɫɬɭ
ɭɪɨɜɧɹɧɚɫɢɥɢɹɢɜɨɜɥɟɤɚɟɬɜɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɧɨɜɵɯɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɚɛɥɸ
ɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɜɢɥɢɩɪɨɜɨɤɚɬɨɪɨɜ 'ɷɮɮɟɤɬɞɟɬɨɧɚɰɢɢ').
73

Ɍɪɟɬɶɹɫɬɚɞɢɹ± ɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ± ɧɚɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɤɨɝɞɚɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɢɢɡ


ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜɚɥɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸɱɚɫɬɶɫɜɨɢɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜɉɨɷɬɨɣɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɥɢɛɨɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɧɨɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɚɸɬɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɨɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɱɬɨɛɵɧɚɤɨɩɢɬɶɪɟɫɭɪɫɵɥɢɛɨ
ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɤɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɚɦɞɥɹɭɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɪɚɡɧɨɝɥɚɫɢɣȼɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟ
ɡɚɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɨɱɤɨɣɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɬɭɩɢɤɨɜɚɹɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɜɵɯɨɞɢɡɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɜɨɡɦɨɠɟɧ
ɩɨɨɞɧɨɦɭɢɡɬɪɟɯɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɟɜ
1. ɋɦɟɧɚɥɢɞɟɪɨɜɝɪɭɩɩɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɚɦɩɪɢɣɬɢɤɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɭ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɧɟɭɫɬɪɚɧɹɟɬɩɪɢɱɢɧɵɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚɧɨɥɢɲɶɜɟɞɟɬɤɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɭɩɪɢɦɢ
ɪɟɧɢɸ
2. ɋɬɨɪɨɧɵɨɛɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹɤɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɢɤɚɦɢɥɢɚɪɛɢɬɪɚɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɦɨ
ɝɚɸɬɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶɫɹɨɛɭɱɟɬɟɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɉɟɪɜɨɨɱɟɪɟɞɧɚɹɦɟɪɚ± ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ
ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɧɚɫɢɥɢɹɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɇɚ ɩɟɪɟɝɨ
ɜɨɪɚɯɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɦɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɨɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɨɣɫɢɬɭ
ɚɰɢɢɢɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɢɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɹɬɤɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɭɗɬɨɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚ
3. ȼ ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɜɦɟɲɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɡɧɚɱɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɨɜ ɩɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ Ȼɨɫɫ  ɢ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɹɟɬ ɫɟɛɟ ɨɛɟ ɫɬɨ
ɪɨɧɵȼɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɨɧɢɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɩɪɨɢɝɪɵɲɟɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹɜɟɪɨ
ɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɜɬɨɪɟɧɢɹɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɝɨɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹɜɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ
ȼɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɮɟɪɟɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɵɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɚɯɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɚ ɤ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɲɟɫɬɜɢɹ ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɢɤɟɬɵ
ɚɤɰɢɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣɚɤɬɵɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɧɟɩɨɜɢɧɨɜɟɧɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɟɪɟɡɨɥɸɰɢɢɩɚɪɬɢɣɞɟɩɭɬɚɬɫɤɢɟɡɚɩɪɨɫɵɬɟɪɪɨɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɚɤɬɵɢɪɟɜɨ
ɥɸɰɢɢ
Ɋɚɫɲɚɬɵɜɚɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɵ ɜɦɟɫɬɟɫ
ɬɟɦ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɬ ɨ ɧɟɨɬɥɨɠɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɨɪɝɚɧɨɜɜɥɚɫɬɢɩɨɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɸɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɜɵɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɜɧɨɫɢɬɶɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɜɵɜɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɵɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɸɬɚɤ
ɬɢɤɭɢɦɟɬɨɞɵɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɋɜɨɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɢɷɮ
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚɦɢ ± ɨɞɧɚ ɢɡɝɥɚɜɧɵɯɡɚɞɚɱɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧ
ɧɨɝɨɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ
ɋɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɜɢɞɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚ± ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɵɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɝɪɚɠ
ɞɚɧɉɨɜɨɞɨɦɞɥɹɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɚɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɬɚɤɨɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɜɥɚ
ɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɥɢɛɨɛɟɡɲɢɪɨɤɨɝɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɥɢɛɨ
ɜɨɩɪɟɤɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦɭ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚ
ɧɚɦɢɤɚɤɭɳɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɢɥɢɧɟɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ
ɉɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɦɧɟɧɢɟɨɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɟɦɨɠɟɬɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɤɚɤɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢɢɪɟɞɤɨɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɜɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ
74

ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɟ ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɇɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟ ɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɟ


ɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɢɡ-ɡɚɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ'ɢɧ
ɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɚɦɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ' ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɢɡ-ɡɚɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɨɧɚɧɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɪɚɧɟɟɞɚɧ
ɧɵɦɜɥɚɫɬɶɸɨɛɟɳɚɧɢɹɦ 'ɡɚɤɨɧɌɨɤɜɢɥɹ').
ɋɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢ-ɬɪɢɝɝɟɪɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɚɤɰɢɣ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɭɩɥɨɬɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɞɜɨɪɨɜɵɯɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣɧɚɱɚɥɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɨɩɚɫɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɚɜɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɪɭɤɢɦɭɧɢɰɢɩɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ
ɥɢɤɜɢɞɚɰɢɢɩɚɪɤɨɜɢɫɤɜɟɪɨɜɜɵɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɢɡɨɛɳɟɠɢɬɢɣɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟɭɜɨɥɶɧɟɧɢɹ
ɗɬɨɬɚɤɠɟɥɸɛɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɤɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɦɭɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɧɢɸɜɩɨ
ɜɟɫɬɤɟɞɧɹɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ'ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ'ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɡɚɫɱɟɬ
ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɵɯɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɞɨɯɨɞɵɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜɢ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɬɤɚɤɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɬɚɤɢɡɚ
ɩɪɨɫɚɦɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɝɪɭɩɩ
Ƚɪɚɠɞɚɧɟɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɜɥɚɫɬɢɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɹɫɶɢɧɚɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɭɸɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɢɧɚɦɟɞɢɣɧɭɸ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɞɧɹȼɫɢɥɭ
ɷɬɨɝɨɧɚɮɨɧɟ'ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ' ɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɹ ɜɥɚɫɬɢɚɤɬɢɜɧɚɹɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢ ɤɚɤ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɚɹ 'ɷɮɮɟɤɬ
ɡɟɪɤɚɥɚ').
ɉɟɪɜɵɣɷɬɚɩɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɜɧɨɝɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɤɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯɢɧ
ɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɞɥɹɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹɧɚɞɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟɦɪɟɲɟɧɢɣɢɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɦɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹɫɟɟɩɨɹɜɥɟ
ɧɢɹɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɨɝɨɨɞɧɢɦɢɡɬɪɟɯɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɢɥɢɢɯɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɦ 
1. ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹɝɪɭɩɩɚɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɩɪɨɜɨɤɚɬɨɪɚɦɢɜɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯɩɨɥɢɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɚɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨɢɧɟɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɚɜɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɜɞɢɚ
ɥɨɝɫɜɥɚɫɬɶɸɈɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ± ɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɜɧɨɟɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɷɬɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɨɣɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ'ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɚɤɰɢɣ' ɢɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ
2. ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹɝɪɭɩɩɚɫɬɢɯɢɣɧɨɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɢɡɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɧɟɞɨɜɨɥɶ
ɧɵɯ'ɡɥɨɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɦɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢɜɥɚɫɬɢ'Ʌɭɱɲɢɣɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɪɟ
ɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ± ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟɡɚɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɛɟɡɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
ȼɩɨɥɧɟ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɱɬɨɫɬɢɯɢɣɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɟ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɫɬɫɹɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɶɧɚ ɫɜɨɸɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ
ɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɜɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢɱɬɨɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɬɤɛɵɫɬɪɨɦɭɫɚ
ɦɨɪɚɫɩɚɞɭɛɟɡɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɯɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ
3. ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɹɥɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɟ-ɬɪɢɝɝɟɪɤɚɤɩɨɜɨɞɞɥɹɜɵɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɫɜɨɢɯɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣɤɜɥɚ
ɫɬɢȼɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɜɥɚɫɬɶɞɨɥɠɧɚɤɚɤɦɨɠɧɨɫɤɨɪɟɟɜɫɬɭɩɢɬɶɫɥɢɞɟɪɚɦɢɝɪɭɩɩɵ
75

ɜɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɵɢɩɨɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹɪɚɡɪɟɲɢɬɶɨɛɨɫɬɪɢɜɲɢɣɫɹɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɉɨ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɹɦɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɚɤɰɢɢɤɚɤɢɧɰɢɞɟɧɬɚɩɨɤɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɠɢɬɟɥɢɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɬɨɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɟɥɶɡɹɭɩɭɫɬɢɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɬɢɬɶ 'ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɞɟɬɨɧɚɰɢɢ' ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɫɢɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɟɪ ɜɨɡɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɹɢɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɣɩɨɛɟɞɵɡɞɟɫɶɧɟɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛ
ɪɚɡɧɨɧɟɩɪɚɜɨɦɟɪɧɨɟɢɥɢɧɟɫɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɮɢɡɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɝɨɧɚɫɢɥɢɹɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɨɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɯɨɬɹɢɞɨɩɭɫ
ɤɚɟɬɫɹɟɫɥɢɪɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɬɟɪɪɨɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɝɪɭɩɩɢ
ɪɨɜɤɚɯ
ȿɫɥɢɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɵɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶɛɟɡɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɦɢɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɨɰɟɧɢɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɵɟɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɞɥɹɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɞɥɹɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɞɨɥɝɨ
ɫɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɑɬɨɛɵ ɩɨɤɚ ɟɳɟ
ɚɦɨɪɮɧɚɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨ ɫɬɢɯɢɣɧɵɦɢ ɜɨɠɚɤɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɥɚɫɶ ɜ
ɫɩɥɨɱɟɧɧɭɸɝɪɭɩɩɭɫɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɥɢɞɟɪɨɦɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɜɵɹɜɢɬɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɧɚɦɟ
ɪɟɧɢɹɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ'ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɩɨɧɫɨɪɨɜ' ɧɚɩɪ., 'ɢɧɨɫɬɪɚɧɧɵɯɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ'),
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɜ ɢɡ ɱɢɫɥɚ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɯɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɬɨɜ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ'ɞɟɹɬɟɥɟɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ' ȿɫɥɢɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɮɨɪ
ɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɢɯɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɢɫɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɨɣɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɪɟɡɤɨɝɨɭɫɢɥɟ
ɧɢɹɡɚɫɱɟɬɢɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜɜɵɫɨɤɚɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɣ
ɮɪɟɣɦɢɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɭɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɸ
ɉɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɬɚɝɟɦɚ± 'ɜɵɬɚɫɤɢɜɚɬɶɯɜɨɪɨɫɬɢɡ-ɩɨɞɨɱɚɝɚ' ± ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭ
ɟɬɫɹɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɢɦɟɸɳɢɯɫɹɭɜɥɚɫɬɢɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɨɥ
ɧɨɦɨɱɢɣɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɯɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɚɧɤɰɢɢɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɥɸ
ɛɨɦɭɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɭɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨ
ɪɢɢɗɬɨɧɟɱɬɨɢɧɨɟɤɚɤɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɫɬɪɨɝɨɜɪɚɦɤɚɯɡɚɤɨɧɚɜ
ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɡɚɫɱɟɬɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɫɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɢɩɪɚɜɨ
ɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ Ɍɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɩɨɥɭ
ɫɤɪɵɬɵɦɢɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɢɤɨɝɞɚɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɦɪɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɹɦɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɢɨɩɩɨ
ɡɢɰɢɢɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɫɬɪɚɬɚɝɟɦɟ'ɝɪɨɡɢɬɶɚɤɚɰɢɢɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɹɧɚɲɟɥɤɨɜɢɰɭ'.
Ȼɨɥɟɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɦɟɪɵ± ɩɪɨɜɨɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɫ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɫɩɨɧɫɨɪɚɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɬɚɝɟɦɚ 'ɭɛɢɬɶ ɱɭɠɢɦ ɧɨ
ɠɨɦ' ɗɬɢɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɩɨɞɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɬɫɹɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɦɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɦɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫ
ɬɨɪɢɣ ɛɟɡɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɹɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɭɸɨɰɟɧɤɭ
ɦɟɫɬɧɵɦɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦɟɟɫɩɨɧɫɨɪɨɜɢɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɜɗɬɨɫɬɪɚɬɚɝɟɦɚ'ɩɨɞɧɹɬɶɲɭɦ
ɧɚɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ± ɧɚɩɚɫɬɶɧɚɡɚɩɚɞɟ'ɉɨɞɨɛɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɜɨɫɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɦ
ɥɢɞɟɪɚɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɜɜɟɫɬɢɦɟɫɬɧɨɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɡɚɛɥɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ
ɥɹɹɫɟɛɹɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɚɤɬɨɪɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ'ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɲɢɪɨɤɚɹɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ'.
76

Ⱦɪɭɝɨɣɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ± ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɜɵɜɟɫɬɢɧɚɱɢɫɬɭɸɜɨɞɭ' ± ɟɫɬɶɧɟɱɬɨɢɧɨɟɤɚɤ


ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɥɢɞɟɪɚɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɦɚɪɢɨɧɟɬɤɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣɪɚɞɢɤɨɪɵɫɬɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɢɜɨɜɪɟɞɦɟɫɬɧɨɦɭɫɨɨɛ
ɳɟɫɬɜɭ Ɉɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɫɩɨɧɫɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɜ
ɥɢɲɚɟɬɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɭɸɝɪɭɩɩɭɞɨɫɬɭɩɚɤɧɨɜɵɦɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɱɬɨɜɟɞɟɬɤɟɟɨɫɥɚɛɥɟ
ɧɢɸ
ɇɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɪɵ ɞɥɹ ɞɟɦɨɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨ
ɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɚɥɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɣ ɱɥɟɧɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɵ
ɨɛɳɟɣɰɟɥɶɸ± ɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɜɫɜɨɸɩɨɥɶɡɭɄɚɤɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɥɟɧɵɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɣ ɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɥɢɞɟɪɨɦ ɜ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɫ 'ɱɭɠɢɦɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ'
ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɨɳɧɨɦɭ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɦɭ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɟɬ ɢɯ
ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɭɸɥɨɹɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɪɟɲɢɦɨɫɬɶɢɞɬɢɞɨɤɨɧɰɚɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹɚɤɰɢɹ± ɷɬɨɢɟɫɬɶ
ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɨɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɜɥɚɫɬɶɪɚɫɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɤɚɤ'ɱɭɠɚɹɝɪɭɩ
ɩɚ'Ȼɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɟɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɹɦɢɟɞɢɧɨɞɭɲɢɟɝɪɭɩɩɵɞɟɥɚɟɬɟɟ
ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɞɥɹɞɪɭɝɢɯɠɢɬɟɥɟɣɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɱɬɨɝɪɨɡɢɬɟɟɪɚɡɪɚɫ
ɬɚɧɢɟɦ ɍɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɟ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɟɟɛɵɫɬɪɨɦɭɪɚɫɩɚɞɭɢɡɚɬɭɯɚɧɢɸɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚ
ɇɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɩɥɚɧɜɵɯɨɞɢɬɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɟɦɟɠɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɵɯɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɣɥɢ
ɞɟɪɚɫɱɥɟɧɚɦɢɝɪɭɩɩɵɧɚɩɪɸɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɩɨɞɤɭɩɚɢɥɢɫɤɪɵɬɵɯɭɝɪɨɡɩɨɨɬɧɨ
ɲɟɧɢɸɤɪɹɞɨɜɵɦɱɥɟɧɚɦɝɪɭɩɩɵɢɮɚɛɪɢɤɚɰɢɢɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɜɧɭɬɪɢɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɵɯ
ɫɥɭɯɨɜ ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɧɭɠɧɨ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɵɯ ɞɢɫɫɢɞɟɧɬɨɜ
ɢɧɚɤɨɦɵɫɥɹɳɢɯ ɢɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɦɟɧɵɥɢɞɟɪɚɧɚɥɨɹɥɶɧɭɸɜɥɚɫɬɢɮɢɝɭɪɭɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ'ɷɮɮɟɤɬɦɟɧɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ': ɝɪɭɩɩɚɞɢɫɫɢɞɟɧɬɨɜɨɛɵɱɧɨɫɩɥɨɱɟɧɧɟɟɢɩɨɫɥɟ
ɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɟɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɚɩɪɢɜɧɭɬɪɢɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɣɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɢɜɵɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ
ɛɨɥɶɲɟɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɞɨɜɨɞɨɜɢɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɧɨɜɨɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ
ɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɟɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɜɥɚɫɬɢɦɟɧɟɟɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨ
Ɉɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɧɚɞɨɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɬɶɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɫɦɟɫɬ
ɧɵɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦɱɬɨɛɵɧɟɞɚɬɶɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɭɩɨɱɚɫɬɧɨɣɬɟɦɟɩɟɪɟ
ɪɚɫɬɢɜɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟɚɤɰɢɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɚ 'ɷɮɮɟɤɬɞɟɬɨɧɚɰɢɢɢ'ɷɮɮɟɤɬɞɨ
ɦɢɧɨ' ɉɪɨɳɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɥɢɲɢɬɶɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɭɸɝɪɭɩɩɭɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɬɶɩɨ
ɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɨɫɟɛɟɢɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ± ɨɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨɜ
ɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟɡɚɫɱɟɬɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɧɟɝɥɚɫɧɨɣɰɟɧɡɭɪɵɢɥɢɭɝɪɨɡɵɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɚɞɦɢ
ɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɦɟɪ ɩɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ȿɫɥɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɡɚɪɭ
ɱɢɬɫɹɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɨɣɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɯɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɢɥɢɞɚɠɟɫɬɚɧɟɬɧɶɸɫɦɟɣɤɟɪɨɦ
ɬɨɫɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɸɨɧɚɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɫɜɨɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɚɬɭɫɢɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɬɜ
ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ 'ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ'ɱɬɨ
77

ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɬɤɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɸɟɟɥɢɞɟɪɚɜɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɧɟ
ɧɢɹ Ɍɚɤ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɶɫɹ ɟɳɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬ ɱɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɭɯɭɞɲɢɬɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɜɰɟɥɨɦɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɞɥɹɦɟɫɬɧɵɯɧɨɢɞɥɹɜɵɲɟɫɬɨɹɳɢɯɨɪɝɚ
ɧɨɜɜɥɚɫɬɢɄɚɤɷɬɨɦɭɩɨɦɟɲɚɬɶ"
ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɸɬ ɨɬ ɥɢɤɜɢɞɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɟ
ɦɵɯɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɨɣɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣɢɫɪɵɜɚɟɟɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɞɨ'ɢɧ
ɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣɛɥɨɤɚɞɵ' ɤɚɤ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɛɥɨɤɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ ɱɥɟɧɨɜ
ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɜ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ 'ɝɥɭɲɟɧɢɹ' ȼ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ
ɫɦɵɫɥɟɷɬɨ'ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹɜɨɣɧɚ'ɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɜɥɚɫɬɶɚɩɪɢɨɪɢɢɦɟɟɬɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟ
ɫɬɜɨɡɚɫɱɟɬɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ'ɛɨɧɭɫɜɥɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɹ'Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɜɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟɫɥɭɱɚɟɜɰɟɥɟɫɨ
ɨɛɪɚɡɧɟɟɨɬɜɥɟɱɶɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ ɨɬɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɡɚɫɱɟɬ
ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɝɨ'ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɜɵɬɟɫɧɟɧɢɹ'ɬɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɩɨɬɨɤɚɭɜɥɟɤɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɂɧɨɝɞɚɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɟɟɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹɩɨɞɢɫɤɪɟɞɢɬɚɰɢɢ
ɬɟɯɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɵɬɚɸɬɫɹɨɫɜɟɳɚɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɜɩɨɡɢ
ɬɢɜɧɨɦɬɨɧɟ
ȿɫɥɢɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɶɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɟɜɵɯɨɞɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɭɧɟɭɞɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɨɛ
ɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɢɬɶ ɤ ɟɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɜ ɦɟ
ɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟɡɚɫɱɟɬɪɚɫɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɧɢɹ'ɫɩɢɪɚɥɢɭɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɹ'. ɗɬɨɬɷɮɮɟɤɬɤɚɤɢɜɧɭɬ
ɪɢɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɣɤɨɧɮɨɪɦɢɡɦɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɫɬɪɚɯɟɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɚɨɫɬɚɬɶɫɹɜɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɢɢ
ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɧɭɬɶɫɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɚɧɤɰɢɹɦ ɧɨ ɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɟɦ ɦɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ
ɡɞɟɫɶɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɧɟɥɢɞɟɪ'Ɇɵ-ɝɪɭɩɩɵ'ɚɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɢɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɟɞɥɹɧɟɝɨɥɢɱɧɨ
ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɉɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɟɟɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɦɧɟɧɢɟ± ɷɬɨɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɟɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶ
ɫɬɜɨɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɝɨɟɞɢɧɨɞɭɲɢɹɇɚɩɨɦɧɢɦɱɬɨɦɧɨɝɢɟɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵɜɬɟɯɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ
ɤɨɝɞɚɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɢɪɭɟɦɵɟɜɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɜɡɝɥɹɞɵɧɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭɪɚɫɯɨ
ɞɹɬɫɹɫɢɯɥɢɱɧɵɦɦɧɟɧɢɟɦɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬɥɢɛɨɩɪɢɦɤɧɭɬɶɤɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɟɣɜ
ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɢɜɵɣɬɢɢɡɝɪɭɩɩɵɥɢɛɨɜɨɡɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɜɵɫɤɚ
ɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɫɜɨɟɣɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɢɫɧɢɡɢɬɶɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɜɝɪɭɩɩɟȼɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɹɦɢɢɧɬɟ
ɪɟɫɨɜɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɵɟɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɹɜɧɵɟɢɫɤɪɵɬɵɟ
ɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɢɜɥɚɫɬɢɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɜɧɨɜɨɣɞɥɹɫɟɛɹɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵɫɤɥɨɧɧɵɨɪɢ
ɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɹ ɟɝɨ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɟ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɬɨɱɧɨɬɚɤɠɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ'ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ' ɬɨ'ɧɨɜɢɱɤɢ' ɬɟ,
ɤɬɨɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɟɬɜɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɚɤɰɢɢ ɫɤɨɪɟɟɜɫɟɝɨɩɨɤɢɧɭɬɝɪɭɩɩɭ.
ȼɥɚɫɬɶɞɨɥɠɧɚɩɟɪɟɯɜɚɬɢɬɶɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɭɢɞɚɬɶɫɜɨɸɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɸɫɢɬɭ
ɚɰɢɢ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɜɨɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɦ 'ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ' ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɟɬ
ɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣɜɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬɩɨɪɹɞɤɚɢɯɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɟɫɥɢɫɨ
ɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɞɜɭɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɛɵɫɬɪɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɬɞɪɭɝɡɚɞɪɭɝɨɦɚɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ
78

ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɫɩɭɫɬɹɞɨɥɝɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɩɨɫɥɟɜɵɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹɜɬɨɪɨɝɨɚɤɬɨɪɚɬɨɛɨɥɟɟɭɛɟ
ɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɩɟɪɜɨɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ
Ⱦɚɥɟɟɧɚɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɫɬɚɞɢɹɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɞɢɫɤɪɟɞɢɬɚɰɢɢɥɢɞɟɪɚɢɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɑɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɚɤɬɨɪ ɧɪɚɜɢɬɫɹ ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɬɟɦ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɣ ɤ ɧɟɦɭ
ɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ 'ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɧɟɩɨɝɪɟɲɢɦɨɫɬɢ'  ɂɧɚɱɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɹ ɞɨɛɪɨɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ
ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹɥɢɛɨɧɟɡɚɦɟɱɚɟɬɟɝɨɩɪɨɦɚɯɢɥɢɛɨɫɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɟɝɨɧɟɭɞɚɱɢɧɚ'ɨɛɴɟɤ
ɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ' ɢ'ɩɪɨɢɫɤɢɜɪɚɝɨɜ' ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ'ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɚɬɪɢɛɭ
ɰɢɹ' ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɩɚɞɟɧɢɟɦɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɫɢɦɩɚɬɢɣɩɚɞɚɟɬɞɨɜɟɪɢɟ
ɤɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɦɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɨɛɚɤɬɨɪɟɢɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɨɬ
ɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɨɰɟɧɨɤɟɝɨɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɦɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟɢɞɟɢɢɫɸɠɟɬɵ
ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚɨɛɜɢɧɟɧɢɣ

x ɫɫɵɥɤɢɧɚɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɨɰɟɧɤɭɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɪɟɮɟ
ɪɟɧɬɧɨɣɞɥɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɮɢɝɭɪɨɣ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɚ');
x ɩɪɢɤɥɟɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɥɢɞɟɪɭ ɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɹɪɥɵɤɚ ɢ
ɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɧɢɟɟɦɭ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɤɨɡɟɥɨɬɩɭɳɟɧɢɹ');
x ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɥɢɞɟɪɚ ɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɡɚɳɢɬɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ ɤɚɤ ɲɭɬɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɲɨɭ ɩɪɢɟɦ 'ɜɪɚɠɞɟɛɧɚɹ ɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɢɡɚ
ɰɢɹ');
x ɡɚɩɭɝɢɜɚɧɢɟɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟɦɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɜɫɥɭɱɚɟɭɫɬɭɩɤɢɟɝɨɡɚɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɦɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɚɡɚɜ
ɬɪɚɪɨɞɢɧɭɩɪɨɞɚɫɬ');
x ɮɚɛɪɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɫɥɭɯɨɜɨ ɫɤɪɵɬɨɦ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɫ
ɨɞɢɨɡɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɮɢɝɭɪɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɮɚɥɶɲɢɜɵɟɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɢ')
ɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɢɯɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɨɬɡɵɜɚɦɢɨɥɢɞɟɪɟ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɚɧɬɢɩɨɯɜɚɥɚ');
x ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɧɢɟɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɝɨɥɢɞɟɪɨɦɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɞɥɹɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɞɟɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ');
x ɞɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɫɚɦɨɪɟɤɥɚɦɵɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɞɨɚɛɫɭɪɞɚɫɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɦ
ɹɜɧɨɧɟɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɪɚɡɞɭɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɚ');
x ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɯɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɵɯɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɩ
ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɤɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɦɟɥɨɱɧɚɹɩɨɯɜɚɥɚ');
x ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɚɤɰɢɢɫɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɦɢ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɦɭ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɭ ɧɨ ɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɨ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ
ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɜɵɫɦɟɢɜɚɧɢɟ').
ɐɟɥɶ± ɧɚɫɢɥɶɧɨ'ɜɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ' ɥɢɞɟɪɚɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɝɟɪɨɹɜɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɫɸɠɟɬɜ
ɬɨɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɬ ɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɟɦɨɦɭ ɢɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɢɦɢɞɠɭ
Ɍɚɤɨɟɭɩɨɞɨɛɥɟɧɢɟɜɧɟɹɜɧɨɦɜɢɞɟɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɟɦɭɜɫɟɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ,
79

ɫɰɟɧɚɪɧɨɝɨɢɥɢɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ
ɑɥɟɧɨɜɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɧɚɞɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɦɚɪɝɢɧɚɥɚɦɢɚɢɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɤɚɤɜɪɟɞɧɵɟɞɥɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚȾɥɹɷɬɨɝɨɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɫɹɢɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɸɬɫɹ
ɨɬɢɦɟɧɢɝɪɭɩɩɵɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɮɨɪɦɟɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɬɭɠɟɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧ
ɧɵɟɟɸɢɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɟɰɟɥɟɜɵɦɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɚɩɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ± ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɚɬ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɥɢɞɟɪɚɢɥɢɩɨɪɨɱɚɬɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɵɟɞɥɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟ
ɫɬɜɚɮɢɝɭɪɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɟɝɨɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɚɦɢ
ɇɚɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɥɨɪɢɬɧɵɟ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɢɡ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɯɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɬɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɟɧɟɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɟ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣɢɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɣɥɢɞɟɪɚ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɩɨɞɫɚɞɧɵɟɭɬɤɢ' ȿɳɟɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ± ɫɨɡɞɚ
ɧɢɟɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ-ɨɞɧɨɞɧɟɜɨɤɞɥɹɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɨɥɢɞɟɪɟ
ɧɨɜɧɟɭɞɨɛɧɨɟɞɥɹɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɜɪɟɦɹɜɧɟɭɞɨɛɧɨɦɦɟɫɬɟɢɜɧɟɭɞɨɛɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɢɢɥɢ
ɨɞɢɨɡɧɵɦɢɮɢɝɭɪɚɦɢ
Ɉɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɩɪɨ
ɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɦɟɬɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ' Ȼɨɥɟɟɫɥɨɠɧɵɣɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ± ɨɪ
ɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɢ ɩɨɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɫɰɟɧɵ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɨɬɜɥɟɤɚɸ
ɳɟɝɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɧɚɩɪɫɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɯɚɪɬɢɫɬɨɜ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɟ-ɫɩɨɣɥɟɪ').
ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɚɤɰɢɢɧɟɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɨɪɝɚɧɭɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɧɨɝɨɜɵɛɨɪɚ
ɤɪɨɦɟɤɚɤɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɩɪɨɬɢɜɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɢɟɟɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɬɤɪɵɬɭɸɚɧɬɢɩɪɨ
ɩɚɝɚɧɞɭ ȿɟ ɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɥɢɛɨ ɬɧ 'ɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɬ-ɬɨɪɩɟɞɚ' ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɭ ɜɥɚɫɬɶ
ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧ
ɧɵɟɢɩɪɨɱɢɟɪɟɫɭɪɫɵɥɢɛɨɚɧɨɧɢɦɧɵɟɚɤɬɨɪɵɉɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɟɦɱɬɨɞɨɷɬɨɝɨɦɨ
ɦɟɧɬɚ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɨɱɤɢɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɨɝɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɟɩɪɢ
ɛɟɝɚɟɬɤ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɮɚɛɪɢɤɚɰɢɢɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɨɝɪɭɩɩɟɢɥɢ
ɞɟɪɟ
ɉɪɢɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɩɢɤɟɪɨɜɦɨɠɧɨɜɵɡɜɚɬɶɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ
ɧɚɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɸɜɩɪɹɦɨɦɷɮɢɪɟ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɲɨɭ-ɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɤɚ' ɱɬɨɛɵɜɩɨɥɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɞɥɹɟɝɨɞɢɫɤɪɟɞɢɬɚɰɢɢɪɟɱɟɜɵɟɩɪɢɟɦɵɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɹɰɢɢɄɪɚɣɧɹɹɦɟɪɚ
± ɮɚɛɪɢɤɚɰɢɹɢɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɩɨɪɚɡɧɵɦɤɚɧɚɥɚɦɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɤɚɤɞɨɫɬɨ
ɜɟɪɧɵɯ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɨɥɢɞɟɪɟɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɟɦ'ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɚɬ').
ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɫɜɨɢ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɦɭɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɭɤɚɤɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɵɟɢɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟɧɨɢɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨ
ɜɚɬɶɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɦɧɟɧɢɟɨɛɨɪɝɚɧɟɜɥɚɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɹɤɨɛɵ ɧɟ
ɫɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɦɜɨɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯɧɚɧɟɝɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɭɧɤ
ɰɢɣɄɚɤɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɬɶɷɬɨɣɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɟ?
80

ȼɨ-ɩɟɪɜɵɯɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɦɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɨɬɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɟɛɟɜɨɬ
ɱɟɬɜɬɨɦɤɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦɢ
ɢɩɨɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɧɟɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɬɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ
ȼɨ-ɜɬɨɪɵɯɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɭɜɥɟɤɚɹɫɶɫɚɦɨɪɟɤɥɚ
ɦɨɣɚɮɚɛɪɢɤɭɹɛɥɚɝɨɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɬɡɵɜɵɢɡɭɫɬɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɵɯɞɥɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɮɢɝɭɪɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ'ɫɚɦɨɤɪɢɬɢɤɭɩɨɩɭɫɬɹɤɚɦ'ɬɟɫɨɨɛɳɚɹɨɧɟɡɧɚɱɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɯɜɫɜɨɟɣɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɢɷɬɨɦ ɧɟɞɨ
ɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɧɢɩɚɮɨɫɧɨɟɯɜɚɫɬɨɜɫɬɜɨɧɢɫɚɦɨɛɢɱɟɜɚɧɢɟ
ȼ-ɬɪɟɬɶɢɯ ɞɥɹ ɚɦɨɪɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɣ ɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɡɚɪɚɧɟɟ
ɭɜɟɞɨɦɥɹɬɶɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ ɨɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɧɵɯɨɲɢɛɤɚɯɧɨɜɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɣɞɥɹɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɧɬɟɪ
ɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɟɦ
ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢɹ').
ɉɨɫɩɟɲɧɵɟɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɩɵɬɤɢɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟ
ɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɭɯɚ  ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɧɚɧɨɫɹɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦ ɠɟɪɬɜɵ ɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɣɭɳɟɪɛɱɟɦɯɥɚɞɧɨɤɪɨɜɧɨɟɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ
ɧɟɬɞɵɦɚɛɟɡɨɝɧɹ
ɧɟɝɚ
ɬɢɜɧɨɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɟ ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨɟɩɪɨɢɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɟɢɥɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹɚɤɰɢɹ ɢɥɢ
ɪɚɡɨɛ
ɥɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ
 ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɸɬ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɦɨ
ɦɟɧɬ ɢɯ ɫɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ  ɢ ɛɟɡ ɩɨɞɩɢɬɤɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ
ɛɵɫɬɪɨɧɚɫɤɭɱɢɜɚɸɬɢɡɚɛɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɟɫɥɢɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɟɪɚɡɝɨɧɹɸɬɫɹɞɨ
ɧɨɜɨɫɬɧɨɣ
ɜɨɥɧɵ

Ɉɪɝɚɧɭɜɥɚɫɬɢɥɭɱɲɟɜɨɡɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɧɚɚɧɬɢ
ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɭɟɫɥɢɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɩɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɣɦɟɪɟɨɞɧɨɢɡɬɪɟɯɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ
1. ɉɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɳɚɹ ɟɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ
ɧɟ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɦɟɫɬɧɨɦɭɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɭɢɥɢɭɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢɟɫɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ
ɫɬɢɡɚɤɪɵɬɶɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɶɞɨɫɬɭɩɤɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɦɤɚɧɚɥɚɦɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ
ɇɚɩɪɧɚɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɯɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɯɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɡɚɩɪɟɬɢɬɶɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ɨɩɚɫɧɵɯɞɥɹ
ɠɢɡɧɟɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ
ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɩɪɢɟɦ
ɠɟɥɟɡ
ɧɵɣɡɚɧɚɜɟɫ
ɜɵɧɭɞɢɬɶɦɟɫɬɧɵɟɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɟɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɨɜɩɨɦɟɳɟ
ɧɢɣ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚ ɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜ ɫ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɣ
ɩɪɢɟɦ
ɲɚɧɬɚɠɢɥɢɩɨɞɤɭɩ
ɢɧɚɤɨɧɟɰɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɶɫɛɨɪɢɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɟɬɟɤ
ɫɬɨɜɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ ɩɪɢɟɦ
ɜɵɟɦɤɚɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ

2. ɇɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɢ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɦɢ ɧɢ
ɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɦɢɧɢɩɨɧɹɬɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɱɥɟɧɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɧɟɫɬɨɢɬɨɛɪɚɳɚɬɶ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɧɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɢɪɚɫɩɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
3. ɇɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɧɟɤɚɫɚɸɬɫɹɫɭɬɢɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɦɵɯɨɪɝɚ
81

ɧɨɦɜɥɚɫɬɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɢɥɢɧɟɩɨɞɪɵɜɚɸɬɟɝɨɥɟɝɢɬɢɦ
ɧɨɫɬɶɢɥɢɧɟɧɚɧɨɫɹɬɭɪɨɧɟɝɨɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢɌɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɚɟɫɥɢ
ɢɧɚɧɨɫɢɬɭɳɟɪɛɬɨɧɟɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɦɭɨɪɝɚɧɭɜɥɚɫɬɢɚɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨɣɜɥɚɫɬɢɜɰɟɥɨɦ
ɐɟɥɶɤɨɧɬɪɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ± ɜɨɫɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɸɰɟɥɟɜɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɨɣ
ɭɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɨɦɢɥɢɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɨɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɜɜɢɞɟɫɥɭɯɨɜ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɨɛɚɤɬɨɪɟɢɢɥɢɥɢɲɢɬɶɷɬɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɞɨɫɬɨ
ɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɢɢɢɥɢɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɧɭɬɶɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɟɫɹɜɧɢɯɞɨɜɨɞɵɄɨɧɬɪɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɚ ±
ɷɬɨɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹɞɥɹɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɹɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵɫɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɨɧɚ
>ɤɨɧɬɪɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɚ@ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɩɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɚɤɬɨɪɚɤɨɧɬɪɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ
ɱɚɳɟɜɫɟɝɨɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɧɟɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɩɢɤɟɪɵɚɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɟɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɢɨɪɝɚɧɚ
ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɉɨɦɢɦɨ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɬɟɫɧɟɧɢɹ
 ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɨɬɜɥɟɤɚɟɬ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ
ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɨɬɚɧɬɢɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵɢɫɚɦɨɪɟɤɥɚɦɵɫɨɩɟɪ
ɧɢɤɚɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹɩɪɢɟɦ
ɪɚɡɞɭɜɚɧɢɟɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɚ
 ɤɨɝɞɚɨɛɜɢɧɟɧɢɹɫɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɞɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɞɨɚɛɫɭɪɞɚ
ȿɫɥɢ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɫɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɶ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɤ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ ɨɧɚ
ɛɵɫɬɪɨɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɬɫɹɜɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɧɶɸɫɦɟɣɤɟɪɚɚɟɟɜɨɠɚɤ± ɜɥɢɞɟɪɚɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɝɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɞɚɥɟɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɢɬɶ ɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɧɚɱɧɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɜɵɛɨɪɧɭɸ
ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɸ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬɚ Ɍɨɝɞɚ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɞɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɛɨ ɫ
ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɜɵɬɟɫɧɢɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɢɡ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢɢɥɢ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɣɫɮɟɪɵɥɢɛɨɩɨɣɬɢɧɚɩɪɹɦɵɟɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɵɱɬɨɛɵɫɤɥɨɧɢɬɶɧɚɫɜɨɸ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭɢɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɦȾɚɠɟɟɫɥɢɛɵɜɲɟɦɭɜɨɠɚɤɭɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɧɟɭɞɚɫɬɫɹɫɬɚɬɶɜɥɚɫɬɧɵɦɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɦ ɞɟɩɭɬɚɬɨɦɢɥɢɝɥɚɜɨɣɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɧ
ɫɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɸɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɬɫɹɜɥɨɛɛɢɫɬɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɪɚɧɟɟɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɜɲɢɯ
ɟɝɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɩɨɧɫɨɪɨɜɱɬɨɜɵɧɭɞɢɬɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɜɤɚɤɢɯ-ɬɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɯɢɞɬɢɟɦɭ
ɧɚɜɫɬɪɟɱɭȼɥɸɛɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɡɚɬɪɚɬɵɨɪɝɚɧɚɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɚɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɧɚɩɨɞɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɪɟɡɤɨɭɜɟɥɢɱɚɬɫɹ
ɂɬɚɤ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɨɡ
ɪɚɫɬɚɟɬɩɪɢɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɢɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɣɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɊɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɜɧɨɟɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɣ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɟ ɧɚɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ
ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɧɚɟɟɥɢɞɟɪɨɜɱɥɟɧɨɜɫɩɨɧɫɨɪɨɜɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɜɫɨɞ
ɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢɩɨɫɪɵɜɭɟɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɣɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢɢɟɟɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɟɣɜɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟ
82

ɁȺɄɅɘɑȿɇɂȿ

ɋɬɪɟɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɩɟ
ɪɟɫɦɨɬɪɚɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɦɨɞɟɥɟɣɥɟɠɚɳɢɯɜɨɫɧɨɜɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢ
ɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ ɤɚɤ ɰɟɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɜɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɩɪɨ
ɱɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ
Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ±
ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɫɬɶɸ
 ± ɧɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɟɟ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɩɹɬ
ɫɬɜɭɟɬɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɣɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟɟɟɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɇɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɜɹɩɚ
ɪɚɞɢɝɦɚ
ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨ ɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ
 ɩɪɨɜɨɰɢɪɭɟɬ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɤ ɛɟɫɩɥɨɞ
ɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɦ ɩɟɪɟɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɫɩɥɵɜɱɚɬɵɯ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ

ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɫɜɹɡɢ

ɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ

ɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫ
ɢɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɜɵɧɭɠɞɚɟɬɚɤɬɨ
ɪɨɜɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜɚɬɶɞɟɮɢɰɢɬɧɵɟɪɟɫɭɪɫɵɧɚɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɸɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚ
ɰɢɣɤɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɧɟɜɵɩɨɥɧɢɦɵɦɢɜɨɦɧɨɝɨɦɩɚɝɭɛɧɵɦɞɥɹɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɰɟɥɟɣɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɚɦ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɦ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɵɜɨɞɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɬ ɢɡ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɟ
ɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ
Ɋɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɨɬɢɧ
ɞɢɜɢɞɨɜ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɯ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɧɚɜɵɤɨɜ ɢ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣ
ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɭɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɦɟɫɬɨɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɣɧɵɦɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹɦɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢɢɧɮɨɪɦɚ
ɰɢɢɉɪɢɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɢɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɢɨɰɟɧɤɟɩɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɣɦɟɪɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɵ ɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɭɰɢɪɨ
ɜɚɧɧɵɟɩɨɞɫɤɚɡɤɚɦɢɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɬɢɦɭɥɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɵɜɫɨɨɛ
ɳɟɧɢɹɯɜɟɪɛɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɢɩɪɨɱɢɦɢɦɚɪɤɟɪɚɦɢ
ɂɧɞɢɜɢɞɵɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɩɪɟɞ
ɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɫɤɨɪɟɟɜɜɢɞɟɛɨɥɟɟ
ɢɥɢɦɟɧɟɟɫɜɹɡɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɱɟɦɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɣɢɥɢɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɣ
ɉɪɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣ
 ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝɚ
ɤɚɤ ɚɤɬɢɜɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɯɟɦ  ɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɫɤɨɪɟɟ ɩɪɢɛɟɝɚɸɬ ɤ ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɟɢɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɢɱɟɦɤɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ
ɉɭɛɥɢɱɧɚɹ ɩɨɞɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɤɚɤ ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚ
ɧɢɹɢɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɹɟɟɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɦɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ
ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɨɜɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɢ
Ɉɪɝɚɧɵɜɥɚɫɬɢɤɚɤɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɚɤɬɨɪɵɜɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɧɨɣɛɨɪɶɛɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭ
ɢɪɭɸɬɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɵɤɚɤ ɜɟɪɛɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɜɢɡɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚ
ɰɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɭɪɫɨɜɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɫɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɨɣɢɞɚɥɟɟɩɪɨ
83

ɞɜɢɝɚɸɬɢɯɜɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɭɸɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɢɦɟɞɢɚɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭɜɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɢɫɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢ
ɤɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɨɣɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɦɧɟɧɢɟɦ
ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɜɧɨɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɚɤɬɨ
ɪɚɦɢɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɢɫɭɱɟɬɨɦɩɨɪɨɝɨɜɵɯɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ
ɢɧɞɢɤɚ
ɬɨɪɨɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ

ɀɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɵɩɪɢɫɟɥɟɤɰɢɢɢɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɪɭɤɨɜɨɞ
ɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɹɦɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɤɨɣɚɬɚɤɠɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɟɢɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɸɬɧɨɜɵɟɦɟ
ɞɢɚɮɪɟɣɦɵɤɚɤɫɯɟɦɵɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɢɨɰɟɧɤɢ
Ɇɟɞɢɚɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɚ ɞɧɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɦɟɞɢɚɥɨ
ɝɢɤɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɢɢɥɨɝɢɤɢɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɚɬɚɤɠɟɪɟɮɪɚɤɰɢɢ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɩɨɜɟɫɬɨɤɞɧɹ
ɉɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɚɹɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹɢɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɜɵɩɭɫɤɢɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɜɫɟɛɨɥɶɲɟɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɬɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɵɟɮɢɥɶɦɵɫɨɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɦɢɩɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɩɪɨɞɚɤɬɩɥɟɣɫɦɟɧɬ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɦɢɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɤɨɧɤɭ
ɪɟɧɰɢɸɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɨɜ
ɇɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹɢɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɢɯ
ɜɡɚɢɦɧɭɸɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɸɢɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɩɢɚɪɚɢɦɚɪ
ɤɟɬɢɧɝɚɜɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɭɸɳɟɟɫɨɰɢɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɨɥɟɫɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɩɢɚɪ-ɥɨɝɢɤɨɣ
&ɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ
ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɮɪɟɣ
ɦɢɧɝɚ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɟɧɟɪɵɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɸɬɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɜɮɨɪɦɟɚɞɜɨɤɚɬ
ɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɣɢɞɚɥɟɟɬɪɚɧɫɥɢɪɭɸɬɢɯ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɜɧɚɞɟɠɞɟɧɚ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɜ
ɦɟɞɢɚɫɮɟɪɟ ɰɢɤɥɚ ɭɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɣ ɗɬɢ ɭɬɢɥɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɨɩɪɚɜɞɵɜɚɸɬɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜɜɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɯɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯɚɩɟɥɥɢ
ɪɭɹɤɬɚɤɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɦɭ
ɡɞɪɚɜɨɦɭɫɦɵɫɥɭ
ɚɧɟɤɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦ
ɋɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɬɫɜɨɢɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɡɚɫɱɟɬɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹɜ
ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɟɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɱɟɪɟɡɦɟɞɢɚɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɟɞɥɹɫɟɛɹɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɟ
ɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɭɥɭɱɲɚɸɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɭɪɫɚ
ɋɞɪɭɝɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɦɢɧɟɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɟɦɟɪɵɤɨ
ɬɨɪɵɟɧɚɩɪɹɦɭɸɢɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɜɥɢɹɸɬɧɚɠɢɡɧɢɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹɞɟ
ɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɧɟɜɵɡɵɜɚɹɚɠɢɨɬɚɠɚɢɥɢɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɵɯɚɤɰɢɣɌɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚ
ɫɢɦɜɨ
ɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɵ
ɧɟɪɟɞɤɨɫɚɦɢɦɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɦɢɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹɤɚɤ
ɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɚɹ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɚɹɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɱɬɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɸɧɟɜɟɪɧɵɯɪɟɲɟ
ɧɢɣɢɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɸɚɧɟɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɸɥɟɝɢɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢ
ɉɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɥɫɹɜɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɸɚɞɜɨɤɚɬɫɤɢɯɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɨɜ
84

ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɫɢɥɨɜɨɦɩɨɥɟɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɸɬɫɹɦɟɞɢɚ-ɚɝɟɧɬɚɦɢɩɨ
ɛɭɠɞɚɟɦɵɯɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɉɨɜɫɟɦɟɫɬɧɚɹɫɸɠɟɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɢɪɟɤɪɟɚɬɢɡɚ
ɰɢɹɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɣɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɤɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɢɜɵɩɭɫɤɢɧɨɜɨɫɬɟɣɢɩɭɛ
ɥɢɱɧɵɟɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɢɦɚɥɨɱɟɦɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹɨɬɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɬɨɪɢɬɟɥ
ɥɢɧɝɚɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɧɨɝɨɦɚɪɤɟɬɢɧɝɚɜɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɇɚɫɬɭ
ɩɢɥɚɷɩɨɯɚ©ɬɪɚɧɫɦɟɞɢɣɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɣªɤɨɝɞɚ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɣɞɥɹɚɤɬɨɪɚɮɪɟɣɦɢɧɝ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹɟɝɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɨɜɨɫɬɧɵɯɧɨɢɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɦɟ
ɞɢɚɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜɂɧɚɱɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɧɚɫɦɟɧɭɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɦɭ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɢɧɮɨɪɦɢ
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ ɩɪɢɲɥɨ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɟ µɛɪɟɧɞɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɝɟɣɦɟɪɨɜɢɩɪɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ¶.
85

ɋɉɂɋɈɄɂɋɉɈɅɖɁɈȼȺɇɇɈɃɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊɕ

1. ȺɧɬɨɧɨɜɫɤɢɣȺɘɉɨɫɥɟɫɥɨɜɢɟɆɚɫɫ-ɦɟɞɢɚ± ɬɪɚɧɫɰɟɧɞɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɚɹɢɥ
ɥɸɡɢɹɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ"ɇɅɭɦɚɧɊɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɦɚɫɫ-ɦɟɞɢɚɆɋ-248.
2. ȺɪɧɨɥɶɞɂȼɋɟɦɚɧɬɢɤɚɋɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɤɚɂɧɬɟɪɬɟɤɫɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɆ
3. Ȼɚɡɵɥɟɜȼɇəɡɵɤ± ɪɢɬɭɚɥ± ɦɢɮɆ
4. ȻɚɪɚɧɨɜȺɇɄɚɪɚɭɥɨɜɘɇɊɭɫɫɤɚɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɚɆ
5. ȻɟɣɬɫɨɧȽɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹɪɚɡɭɦɚɂɡɛɪɚɧɧɵɟɫɬɚɬɶɢɩɨɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɥɨɝɢɢɩɫɢɯɢ
ɚɬɪɢɢɢɷɩɢɫɬɟɦɨɥɨɝɢɢɆ.
6. ȻɟɪɝɟɪɉɅɭɤɦɚɧɌɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɆ
7. ȻɟɪɝɟɪɉɅɉɪɢɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɟɜɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɸɝɭɦɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚ
Ɇ
8. ȻɥɷɤɆɆɟɬɚɮɨɪɚɌɟɨɪɢɹɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɵɪɟɞɇȾȺɪɭɬɸɧɨɜɚɆ
ɋ-172.
9. ȻɭɪɞɶɟɉɄɥɢɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɹɩɨɥɹɧɚɭɤɢɋɨɰɢɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɉɶɟɪɚȻɭɪ
ɞɶɟȺɥɶɦɚɧɚɯɊɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨ-ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɰɟɧɬɪɚɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɢɢɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɢɂɧ
ɫɬɢɬɭɬɚɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɢɊɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣȺɤɚɞɟɦɢɢɧɚɭɤɨɬɜɪɟɞ+$ɒɦɚɬɤɨɆ
2001.
10. ȻɭɪɞɶɟɉɇɚɱɚɥɚɆ
11. ȻɭɪɞɶɟɉɈɬɟɥɟɜɢɞɟɧɢɢɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɢɫɬɢɤɟɆ
12. ȻɭɪɞɶɟɉɋɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɆ
13. ȼɟɠɛɢɰɤɚɹȺɋɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ± ɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɹ± ɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɚɌɟɨɪɢɹɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɵɪɟɞ
ɇȾȺɪɭɬɸɧɨɜɚɆ&-154.
14. ȽɭɞɤɨɜȾȻɉɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɧɵɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵɜɬɟɤɫɬɚɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɚ
əɡɵɤɋɆɂɤɚɤɨɛɴɟɤɬɦɟɠɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚɪɧɨɝɨɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɨɬɜɪɟɞɆɇȼɨ
ɥɨɞɢɧɚɆ
15. ȾɚɣɌɁɢɝɥɟɪɅȾɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɹɞɥɹɷɥɢɬɵȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɜɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɭɸɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɤɭɆ
16. ȾɠɟɪɞɠɟɧɄȾɠȾɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɨɧɢɡɦɚɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧ
ɧɨɣɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɢɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɹɫɚɦɨɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɹɦɚɪɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɏɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢɹɨɬɜɪɟɞɆɉȽɚɩɨɱɤɚɆ
17. ɂɨɧɢɧɅȽɋɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɩɭɬɶɜɧɨɜɨɟɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɟɆ
ɫ
18. ɄɟɥɥɢȾɠɌɟɨɪɢɹɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɹɥɢɱɧɵɯɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɜɋɉɛ
2000.
19. ɄɢɦɥɢɤɚɍɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɹɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɆ
20. ɄɨɷɧȾɠɅȺɪɚɬɨɗȽɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɟɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɬɟɨɪɢɹɆ
2003.
86

21. ɅɚɤɨɮɮȾȾɠɨɧɫɨɧɆɆɟɬɚɮɨɪɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢɦɵɠɢɜɟɦɆ
22. ɅɭɦɚɧɇȼɥɚɫɬɶɆ
23. ɅɭɦɚɧɇɊɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɦɚɫɫɦɟɞɢɚɆ
24. ɅɭɦɚɧɇɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɈɱɟɪɤɨɛɳɟɣɬɟɨɪɢɢɋɉɛ
25. ɆɚɤɥɸɷɧȽɆɉɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɦɟɞɢɚɜɧɟɲɧɢɟɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɆ
2003.
26. ɆɢɧɫɤɢɣɆɈɫɬɪɨɭɦɢɟɢɥɨɝɢɤɚɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɫɫɨɡɧɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɇɨɜɨɟɜɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɨɣɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɟȼɵɩɄɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɚɫɩɟɤɬɵɹɡɵɤɚ
Ɇɋ281-309.
27. ɆɢɧɫɤɢɣɆɎɪɟɣɦɵɞɥɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɡɧɚɧɢɣɆ
28. ɆɨɫɤɨɜɢɱɢɋɈɬɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦȼɨɩɪɨɫɵ
ɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɢɌʋɋ-95.
29. ɆɭɮɮɒɄɚɝɨɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɦɨɞɟɥɢɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɢɅɨɝɨɫʋ  
P. 180-197.
30. ɇɚɣɫɫɟɪ ɍɉɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɢɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɋɦɵɫɥɢɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣɩɫɢ
ɯɨɥɨɝɢɢȻɥɚɝɨɜɟɳɟɧɫɤ
31. ɇɨɷɥɶ-ɇɨɣɦɚɧɗɈɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɦɧɟɧɢɟɈɬɤɪɵɬɢɟɫɩɢɪɚɥɢɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɹ
Ɇ
32. ɈɪɥɨɜɚɗȺɂɫɬɨɪɢɹɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɭɱɟɧɢɣɆ
33. Ɉɪɬɟɝɚ-ɢ-ȽɚɫɫɟɬɏȼɨɫɫɬɚɧɢɟɦɚɫɫɆ 2003.
34. ɉɚɪɟɬɨȼɄɨɦɩɟɧɞɢɭɦɩɨɨɛɳɟɣɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɢɆ
35. ɉɨɩɨɜȼȾ ɨɛɳɪɟɞ ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɆ
36. ɊɟɠɚɛɟɤȿəɎɢɥɚɬɨɜɚȺȺɄɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɥɨɝɢɹɆ
37. ɊɨɡɟɧɮɟɥɶɞɂȾɢɫɤɭɪɫɢɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜ2006. URL: www.cursorinfo.co.il/an-
alize/2006/03/01/discurs.
38. ɊɨɥɡȾɌɟɨɪɢɹɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɫɬɢɇɨɜɨɫɢɛɢɪɫɤ
39. ɊɭɫɚɤɨɜɚɈɎɊɭɫɚɤɨɜȼɆ35-ɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɤɨ-ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡȿɤɚɬɟɪɢɧɛɭɪɝ
40. ɋɵɪɨɜȼɇɈɛɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɟɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɵɄɪɢɬɢɤɚɢɫɟɦɢɨ
ɬɢɤɚʋɋ-92.
41. ɌɨɥɦɟɧɗɄɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɤɚɪɬɵɭɤɪɵɫɢɭɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɂɫɬɨɪɢɹɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɢ
(10-ɟ-30-ɟɝɝɉɟɪɢɨɞɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɝɨɤɪɢɡɢɫɚ ɌɟɤɫɬɵɨɬɜɪɟɞɉəȽɚɥɶɩɟɪɢɧ
ȺɇɀɞɚɧɆɋ-69.
42. ɍɚɣɬɒȽɉɪɟɞɢɫɥɨɜɢɟɆɄɨɭɥɄɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɹ
Ɇ997.
87

43. ɍɥɚɧɨɜɫɤɢɣȺɆɌɟɨɪɢɹɪɟɱɟɜɵɯɚɤɬɨɜɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɨɧɢɡɦ
ɉɨɫɬɧɟɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɹɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɨɧɢɡɦɢɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜ
ɧɵɣɩɨɞɯɨɞʋ
44. ɎɟɫɬɢɧɝɟɪɅɌɟɨɪɢɹɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɞɢɫɫɨɧɚɧɫɚɋɉɛ
45. ɎɢɥɢɩɫɅȾɠɃɨɪɝɟɧɫɟɧɆȼȾɢɫɤɭɪɫ-ɚɧɚɥɢɡɌɟɨɪɢɹɢɦɟɬɨɞɏɚɪɶ
ɤɨɜ
46. ɎɭɤɨɆȼɨɥɹɤɢɫɬɢɧɟɩɨɬɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɭɡɧɚɧɢɹɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɫɟɤɫɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
Ɇ
47. ɏɚɛɟɪɦɚɫɘɌɟɨɪɢɹɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹȼɟɫɬɧɢɤɆɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚɎɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɹʋ&-63.
48. ɏɢɥɝɚɪɬɧɟɪɋȻɨɫɤɑɅɊɨɫɬɢɭɩɚɞɨɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɹ
ɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɚɪɟɧɋɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ
ɯɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢɹɫɨɫɬɂȽəɫɚɜɟɟɜɄɚɡɚɧɶɋ-53.
49. ɑɭɞɢɧɨɜȺɉɊɨɫɫɢɹɜɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɡɟɪɤɚɥɟɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚ
ɧɢɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɵ ± ȿɤɚɬɟɪɢɧɛɭɪɝ
50. ɒɟɧɤɊȺɛɟɥɶɫɨɧɊɋɰɟɧɚɪɢɢɩɥɚɧɵɢɡɧɚɧɢɹɌɪɭɞɵ,9Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚ
ɪɨɞɧɨɣɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɧɨɣɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢɩɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɆ
ɋ-220.
51. ɒɦɚɬɤɨɇȺɎɟɧɨɦɟɧɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɋɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨ
ɜɚɧɢɹʋɋ-112.
52. ɒɭɦɩɟɬɟɪɃȺɄɚɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɦɫɨɰɢɚɥɢɡɦɢɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɹɆ
53. ɒɸɰȺɎɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɧɹɬɢɹɢɬɟɨɪɢɢɜɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɧɚɭɤɚɯȺɦɟ
ɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɚɹɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɦɵɫɥɶɪɟɞɂȾɨɛɪɟɧɶɤɨɜɆ&-496.
54. əɧɨɭȾɜɚɧɏɭɥɶɫɬɆɎɪɟɣɦɵɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɨɬɮɪɟɣɦ-ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɤɚɧɚ
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