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It is hereby to certify that, the original and genuine investigatory work

has been carried out to investigate about the subject ,matter and the

related data collection and investigation has been completed solely,

sincerely and satisfactorily by NIKHIL PRASAD of Class XII A,

Kendriya Vidyalaya, Kollam, regarding her project titled “Foaming

Capacity of Different Soaps Available in the Market”.

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I am equally grateful to my teacher Mr. Sibu John; he gave me moral

support and guided me in different matters regarding the topic. He had

been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of this

project. I thank him for his overall support.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents who helped

me a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding

me from time to time in making this project. Despite their busy

schedules, they gave me different ideas in making this project unique.

Thank you,

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 Introduction
 Aim 1
 Apparatus
 Theory
 Procedure
 Observations
 Conclusions
 Aim 2
 Apparatus
 Theory
 Procedure
 Observation
 Conclusions
 Bibliography

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Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic,
palmitic and oleic acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. They
contain a long hydrocarbon chain of about 10-20 carbon with one
carboxylic acid group as the functional group. A soap molecule a
tadpole shaped structure, whose ends have different polarities. At the
other end is the short polar carboxylate ion which is hydrophilic i.e.,
water soluble but insoluble in oil and grease.

When soap is shaken with water it becomes a soap solution that is


colloidal in nature. Agitating it tends to concentrate the solution on the
surface and causes foaming. This helps the soap molecules make a
unimolecular film on the surface of water and to penetrate the fabric.
The long non-polar end of a soap molecule that are hydrophobic,
gravitate towards and surround the dirt (fat or oil with dust absorbed in
it). The short polar end containing the carboxylate ion, face the water
away from the dirt. A number of soap molecules surrounded or
encircled dirt and grease in a clustered structure called ‘micelles’ , which
encircles such particles and emulsify them.

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Soap samples of various brands are taken and their foaming

capacity is noticed. Various soap samples are taken separately and

their foaming capacity is observed. The soap with the maximum

foaming capacity is thus, said to be having the best cleaning

capacity. The test requires to be done with distilled water as well as

with tap water. The test of soap on distilled water gives the actual

strength of the soaps cleaning capacity.

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Five 250 ml conical flasks, five test tubes, 100 ml measuring cylinder,

weighing machine, test tube stand, stop watch.

Chemicals required:

Five different soap samples, distilled water, tap water

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The foaming capacity of soap depends upon the nature of the soap and

its concentration. This may be compared by shaking equal volumes of

solutions of different samples having the same concentration with same

force for the same amount of time. The solutions are then allowed to

stand when the foam produced during shaking disappears gradually.

The time taken for disappearing 2 cm of the foam in each sample is

determined. The longer the time taken for the disappearance of the foam

for the given sample of soap, greater is its foaming capacity or cleansing

action.

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 Take five 100 ml conical flasks and number them 1, 2,3,4 and 5.

Put 125 ml of water in each flask and add 8 gm. of soap.

 Warm the contents to get a solution.

 Take five test tubes; add 1 ml of soap solution to 3 ml of water.

Repeat the process for each soap solution in different test tubes.

 Close the mouth of the test tube and shake vigorously for a

minute. Do the same for all test tubes and with equal force.

 Start the timer immediately and notice the rate of disappearance of

2 cm of froth.

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Soap brands 1st 2nd 3rd Mean Positions

recorded recorded recorded time for

time time time foaming

capacity

Chandrika 14 min 12 min 12m 30 s 12 m 50 4th

Rexona 14 min 16 min 14 min 14 m 40 2nd

Hammam 16 min 14 min 16 min 15 m 20 1st

Pears 13 min 12 m 45 s 13 m 15 s 13 min 3rd

Avea 5 m 30 s 6 min 4 m 40 s 5 m 23 s 5th

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The cleansing capacity of the soaps taken is in the order:

Hammam > Rexona > Pears > Chandrika > Avea

From this experiment, we can infer that Hammam has the highest

foaming capacity.

On the other hand Avea is found have taken the least amount of time

for the disappearance of foam produced and thus is said to be having the

least foaming capacity and cleansing capacity.

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3 test tubes, Test tube stand, Bunsen burner and Stop watch.

Chemicals required:

1ml soap solution and M/10 Na2CO3 solution.

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When Sodium or potassium soaps are put into water containing calcium
and magnesium ions(hard water), results in formation of scum which
applies grey appearance on the cloth. To achieve the same washing or
cleaning action, more soap must be added.

Hard water is water that has high mineral content (mainly calcium and
magnesium ions )( In contrast with soft water). Hard water minerals
primarily consists of calcium and magnesium metal cations, and
sometimes other dissolved components such as bicarbonates and
sulphates. Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium carbonate
( CaCO3), in the form of limestone and chalk or calcium
sulphate(CaSO4) in the form of other mineral deposit.

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 Dissolve 1 ml soap solution in 03 ml water.

 Take five test tubes and number them 1,2,3,4 and 5.

 Add soap solution to the five test tubes.

 Now shake the solutions for formation of foam.

 Calculate the time taken for the disappearance of 2 mm foam.

 Record the observations.

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Soap brands 1st 2nd recorded 3rd recorded Mean time

recorded time time

time

Chandrika 6 min 4 min 4 m 30 sec 4 m 50 s

Rexona 8 min 7 m 30 s 8 min 7 m 50 s

Hammam 9 min 8 min 8 m 30 s 8 m 30 s

Pears 8 min 7 min 7 m 30 sec 7 m 30 s

Avea 2 m 30 s 2 m 50 s 2 m 46 s 2 m 40 s

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The cleansing capacity of the soaps taken is in the order:

Hammam > Rexona > Pears > Chandrika > Avea

From this experiment, we can infer that Hammam has the highest

foaming capacity in hard water.

On the other hand Avea is found have taken the least amount of time

for the disappearance of foam produced in hard water and thus is said

to be having the least foaming capacity and cleansing capacity.

Also, capacity to produce foam decrease in hard water.

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Books referred:

 NCERT Class X
 Comprehensive chemistry class XII

Website referred:

 www.wikipedia.com
 www.icbse.com
 www.academia.edu
 www.goole.com
 www.thechemistryguru.com

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