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BRIDGE OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

OPERATION & 3
MAINTENANCE

A WORLD LEADER
For the past 80 years, COWI has been dedicated to providing state-of-the-art services in
bridge operation and maintenance. Over the same period, our world-class engineers have
pushed the boundaries of bridge design, designing more than 3,000 bridges across the globe
– including several of the world’s longest suspension and cable-stayed bridges.

Today, we are a world leader – not just in bridge design, but also in bridge cover all stages of the bridge life cycle, ranging from service-life
operation and maintenance (O&M). It is a position we have achieved over design through to caretaking and decommissioning.
time, through building up our skills, knowledge and experience, and by
developing our methodologies and technological applications. Our people With a full repertoire of world-class competencies in operation
are among the best in the industry – comprehensively trained and commit- and maintenance, we are ready to advise and support bridge
ted to delivering outstanding services in all aspects of bridge operation and owners on any bridge, anywhere in the world – no matter its
maintenance. condition, size or age.

A bridge is a long-term investment. Taking excellent care of it is paramount Together, we will deliver the right solutions to keep your bridge in
to achieving and extending its intended service life. COWI has the expertise satisfactory condition for continued operation.
to develop and deliver the right strategies and solutions to keep your invest-
ment safe and operational for years to come.

We are driven by innovation. We can provide lean services as well as high-


technology solutions to take your bridge into the future. Our O&M services
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MAINTENANCE

WORLDWIDE REACH SELECTED GLOBAL


ENGAGEMENTS

At COWI, we take pride in our achievements. For nearly a century, Sortlands Bridge Hålogaland Bridge
Strömsund Bridge
we have been at the forefront of bridge operations and maintenance, Ny Svinesund Bridge
setting the standard for tomorrow’s best practices. Øresund Bridge
Storebælt Bridge Ölands Bridge
Forth Road Bridge Lithuania Railway Bridges
We are present in more than 90 countries, with offices all over the world. In Severn Bridge Russian Highway Bridges
close partnership with our customers, our teams are involved in operation and Lions Gate Bridge Aquitaine Bridge Danube Bridges
maintenance projects around the globe, providing services tailored to project Messina Bridge

requirements, local regulations and codes of practice. Our assignments range A. L. Macdonald Bridge
Bosphorus Bridges No. 1, 2 and 3 Seo-Hai Grand Bridge
Busan Goeje
from conventional road, rail and pedestrian bridges to landmark bridges. New Bay Bridge Constantine Bridge
Izmit Bay Bridge

Old Champlain Bridge


Naini Bridge Haicang Bridge
New NY Bridge, Qeshm Bridge
Sitra Bridges Second Iswar Stonecutters Bridge
George Washington Bridge Gupta Bridge
Walt Whitman Bridge Shoaiba Jetty
Ohio River Downtown Crossing

Maracaibo Bridge
TOTAL EMPLOYEES: OFFICES Uganda Railway Bridges
6,400+ Denmark (head office) Nicaragua Highway Bridges
Kenya Railway Bridges
Norway El Salvador Highway Bridges Thailand Highway Bridges
BRIDGE, TUNNEL and MARINE Sweden Laos Highway Bridges
EMPLOYEES: United Kingdom Malaysia Railway Bridges
1,200+ Germany Singapore Highway Bridges
Rio Niteroi Bridge Luangwa Bridge

O&M ENGINEERS: Qatar


250+ United Arab Emirates
Bahrain
India

Hong Kong West Gate Bridge


Korea
Uruguay Highway Bridges
USA Zárate - Brazo Largo Bridges
Canada Chacao Bridge
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MAINTENANCE

DIFFERENT NEEDS EMERGENCIES


In case of an emergency, we

DIFFERENT SERVICES
are here to assist. Whatever the
incident, trained experts will be CABLE REHABILITATION
readily available to provide the The cable systems are a principal
SURVEYING OF GEOMETRY
necessary guidance and support. element of most large bridges
and need to be kept in excellent
AND LOADS
We have the experience and
By combining teams of
know-how to put together the condition. Our experts provide
surveyors and structural experts,
right response team to handle and assessments of cables, suspenders
and applying advanced laser
REHABILITATION AND mitigate any unforeseen incident. and hand ropes – and then
technology, we can determine
recommend the right solution to
STRENGTHENING the geometry and loads of bridge
any issues that arise, whether it is
When it is time for rehabilitation, we decks as well as cable systems.
water causing corrosion or wind that
design, plan, manage and supervise
is causing vibrations and fatigue.
on site together with the permanent
Cable dehumidification and vibration
O&M team. By combining our
dampers are among our core
leadership in bridge design with our
competencies.
maintenance knowledge, we deliver
durable solutions that minimise the
impact on traffic. We have experience
in all types of rehabilitations, from
replacing bearings and expansion
joints to cables and pavement.
STRUCTURAL HEALTH
MONITORING SYSTEM
O&M SYSTEMS We provide new or retrofitted
We perform operation and
structural health monitoring systems
maintenance in a structured,
(SHMS) designed to obtain additional
systematic and transparent
information on bridge operation
SERVICE-LIFE DESIGN way. We have procedures to
INSPECTION AND CONDITION and overall condition. We can use
COWI has a reputation as a keep track of bridge condition
ASSESSMENT the system to provide short-term
leading bridge design company and maintain records, and we
Our inspection engineers assessments as well as long-term
that delivers bridges designed to can even provide you with an
are specialists in their field of predictions on structural performance,
last. We have built this reputation intelligent bridge management CORROSION PROTECTION
knowledge. Some hold rope access on a scale agreed with you. Further
by always adhering to the highest system. Our approach is We can specify the right
certificates while others are certified benefits can be achieved by integrating
standards, best practices and tailor-made to your specific materials to protect your bridge the results with visual inspection OPERATION
requirements. to fly drones or are experts in long- We aim to keep your bridge open for
strong management principles. term instrumentation. For every against corrosion, whether you data through the use of a bridge
Our signature designs utilise need a repaint or a retrofit of a management system. traffic, even in severe weather. No one
CONCRETE DEGRADATION task, we provide a carefully chosen can control the weather, but we have the
durable materials, minimise team for assessing your structure. dehumidification system. We will
fatigue, offer effective drainage AND REPAIR assess the environment and the experience, tools and techniques to deal
details as well as easy access Our experts can inspect the condition bridge condition, look at the costs with wind, falling ice or vibrations that
for inspection, maintenance of your concrete on site as well as and provide you with the most may cause disruption. We will help you to
and replacement. We can even in our laboratory. We have the latest suitable solution. ensure maximum uptime of your bridge.
provide you with a lifetime NDT tools, and can provide corrosion
budget for operating the bridge. monitoring using smart sensors,
detecting corrosion before it develops
into a serious durability problem.
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MAINTENANCE

OUR TEAMS
Since designing our first bridge in 1938, COWI has actively recruited, trained and
coached the best engineers. Now, our O&M teams are among the best in the
world, adopting the latest techniques as well as cutting-edge technologies and
materials. We push boundaries to innovate and maximise value, but at the same
time, our engineers are focused on finding workable solutions.

Every bridge job is unique, so we select a specific team to deliver a solution


tailored to you.
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MAINTENANCE

O&M TEAM LEADER STRUCTURAL CABLE EXPERTS DRONE INSPECTION ROPE ACCESS SURVEYING TEAM FATIGUE EXPERTS CORROSION PAINT AND PAVEMENT STRUCTURAL WIND SEISMIC
An experienced chief project ENGINEERS Our cable experts have TEAM TEAM The surveying team are Our fatigue experts ENGINEERS COATING EXPERTS HEALTH ENGINEERS EXPERTS
manager or specialist heads Structural engineers extensive experience and Our experienced drone Our rope access team are experienced surveyors using identify any cracks and Corrosion engineers SPECIALISTS Pavement engineering MONITORING Our wind engineers Seismic experts can
up each O&M team and will provide structural assess- insight so they are able inspection team can provide not only excellent IRATA- state-of-the-art technology can make a prediction on have an experienced Paint and coating is a specialist area that SYSTEM EXPERTS assess wind climate and model local seismic
complete the assignment ments by analysing and to identify any problem aerial screening of bridge certified climbers, they are and tools such as 3D laser the remaining service life eye for identifying the specialists assess existing requires our experts Our team of SHMS experts bridge loads through conditions and combine
in close cooperation with the modelling the structure and find the right solution, structures using drones, to also experienced qualified scanning and photo mapping, of a structure. corrosion mechanism coatings and provide a to have excellent and engineers combine the sophisticated numerical that with structural
customer. and help find the right even for complex cable determine the full condition inspection engineers. and are supported by structural and the knowledge cost-effective solution knowledge of condition science of instrumentation models, measurements models to identify any
solutions. systems. of the bridge. experts who link geometry with to select the right for renewing paint and assessment together and knowledge of meth- and laboratory tests. requirement for retrofit
bridge condition. corrective maintenance. coatings. with the capability to odologies to extract useful designs as well as
pick the right design for data about structural per- criteria for operation
a durable pavement. formance and condition. and monitoring.
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MAINTENANCE

OPERATION
FROM DAY 1
To ensure full and safe bridge operation, O&M should be carried
out from day one of the service life. However, it is never too late
to start taking care of your bridge assets.

In a perfect world, the bridge has been designed with due


consideration to service life aspects such as durability, access
and efficient operation and maintenance. However, bridges also
happen to be in the less glamorous world. O&M may have been
forgotten for a period, or problems may have been inherited from
the construction phase.

No matter the challenge, COWI has the expertise to help and


provide due diligence.
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MAINTENANCE

SERVICE-LIFE DESIGN CARETAKING 24/7


To achieve a long service life, modern bridge design must take into account durability, access and Every bridge is a unique structure that requires a well-considered caretaking routine of inspection and
the right O&M instructions for the management of the bridge. The goal of service-life design is to maintenance activities developed specifically to meet its needs. Having worked on a range of unique
minimise life cycle costs. bridges, COWI has an exceptional vantage point to recognise the special caretaking needs involved.

Durability design using reliability-based engineering provides the foundation for achiving the target
service life of a bridge with minimum life cycle costs. A comprehensive service-life design also
comprises an access strategy ensuring efficiency in operation, inspection and maintenance, and
an O&M manual allowing the owner to take over and manage the bridge efficiently from day one.

An important focus is to produce a practical O&M manual adapted to local laws and regulations.
INSPECTION REHABILITATION
With a manual in hand, a bridge management system can be specified and purchased. This All structures must be inspected regularly to ensure that any changes are recorded, During the service life of a bridge, it may need to undergo some form of rehabilitation.
allows for effective electronic bridge management and may even be developed into a true 6D BIM investigated and the significance of any identified defect is understood. This allows We can conduct assessments and develop a cost-effective plan of strengthening,
system with easy access to as-built data. To optimise O&M, a structural health monitoring the appropriate response to be developed and planned. Structural components that improvements and enhanced protection measures that enable optimum serviceability
system (SHMS) dedicated to the bridge may be used to support and optimise O&M. are critical or vulnerable require more frequent inspections than other parts. Knowing levels to be maintained. We have gained valuable knowledge and experience from
the optimum inspection frequencies for different areas and components can result our extensive repair, refurbishment and strengthening works on a wide variety of
in significant cost savings. We undertake many criticality and vulnerability ratings for bridges, which ensures that the schemes we develop are viable – and that any
complex structures in addition to optimisation of inspection and monitoring programmes. potential risks are identified, understood and mitigated before work commences.

ASSESSMENT PROTECTION
All bridges need to be assessed from time to time to ensure that assumptions made Protection measures must be implemented before damage and degradation
at the time of design, (e.g. loading, construction workmanship, settlement and occur. At COWI, our engineers are well-versed on protection details and the
creep), remain valid for the bridge to operate as intended. Any changes to the original variety of established and developing protection strategies. We strive to be at the
design assumptions may affect the medium and long-term serviceability of particular forefront of the latest protection measures that are required and how these should
Durability design Bridge management system components. Our experts can identify the critical and the vulnerable parts of a bridge best be provided. These include measures such as protective coating systems,
and develop targeted inspection and monitoring protocols that deliver the data dehumidification techniques and cathodic protection options.
necessary for us to undertake comprehensive structural assessments to enable any
Access design O&M manual Operation emergency plans SHMS BIM system
areas of concern to be identified. 

Reliability-based engineering
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INSPECTION
ROPE ACCESS TEAM DRONES
The great benefit of rope access is that it allows for inspections without Drone inspections offer an exciting new way of working, where the
traffic disruption. Normally, damage to bridges cannot be detected without drones make it possible to perform fast, inexpensive screenings of
a close look so it is vital that inspectors have access to all parts of a large areas.
structure. With traditional access methods such as temporary platforms,
sky lifts or hoists, it can be difficult to access all components of the bridge, The drone method offers better efficiency, saves time and money,
not to mention being time-consuming and expensive. Costs can escalate if reduces traffic interference, and minimises risk compared to more
traffic lanes need to be closed to make room for such access equipment. traditional methods.

Rope access is a quick and safe way of conducting an inspection. COWI employs a team of highly skilled drone pilots and inspectors
It avoids lane closures, does not disrupt traffic flow, minimises associated with global experience. Our advanced drones make it possible for the
road user costs, making it a far more attractive alternative. inspectors to operate a separate live camera feed that they can control
independently. This ensures that no areas are missed and any damage
COWI has an in-house rope access team. It is an international IRATA- or defects are registered as the inspectors monitor the structure
certified team of qualified engineers with an established record of themselves. Furthermore, the drone photos can be used to provide a
inspection experience in corrosion, steel coating, cables and concrete. 6D BIM-like user interface to inspection and as-built data.

Drones can also be equipped with different sensors such as a


thermographic sensor, which makes it possible to detect
delamination and flaws in pavements or in concrete.
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MAINTENANCE

ASSESSMENT
SURVEYING STRUCTURAL MONITORING
Surveying deals not only with geometry, but also with loads and bridge A structural health monitoring system (SHMS) is essential for optimising inspection
conditions. We provide long-term monitoring of bridge movements to and maintenance of bridges. COWI’s SHMS can provide a safe and cost-efficient
account for geometry, settlement, bridge condition and loads. COWI has way for the bridge manager to operate the bridge with minimal traffic restrictions.
a large surveying unit of 400+ employees and can provide a specialist
surveying team to perform surveys with high-precision equipment. For all bridge structures where a structural monitoring system is considered
necessary, COWI carries out initial analyses for recognised hazards and deterioration
The surveying teams carry out measurements to monitor ground mechanisms to map out the requirements for the SHMS. We can then establish
movement, earthquake impacts and other incidents, delivering a the parameters of the on-structure installations and the functions of the data
time-efficient service with high-quality results. If required, conventional management and control in order to secure the most reliable, easy-to-operate
high-precision surveying may be extended to include 3D laser scanning. and cost-efficient system to design and install.

3D laser scanning also allows as-built dimensions to be established by By monitoring the actual exposure conditions and performance of the structures
sampling a point cloud. This can then be used to set up very accurate through the SHMS systems, the bridge manager can compare the data collected
drawings of the available space and access options when performing against the fundamental design assumptions and make an assessment of the
inspections, maintenance and larger rehabilitations. For instance, the structure’s remaining service life and plan hands-on inspections if required.
replacement of bridge elements such as bearings, expansion joints and The data can also be used to identify areas where mitigation may be necessary
cables etc. may be critical with respect to the available space for using before significant degradation occurs, minimising future maintenance costs and
access ways and installing new bridge elements. enhancing the bridge’s service life.

Virtual reality tools may be used to mazimise the interaction and COWI’s SHMS consists of four important technical elements:
understanding of such data.
›› Sensors placed on the structure. These modules house various types of sensors,
depending on the nature of the structure. This also includes a signal collection and
3D laser scanning is also an effective tool for scanning the geometry of
conditioning unit.
cable systems and assessing their condition and loads. A large number
of cables can be measured over a very short period, thereby minimising ›› A data communication system for the transfer of the collected data to
the impact on traffic flow. It may even be carried out during a single night. a remote computer.
Through the use of these structural models, our specialists can efficiently
›› A database application, which collects, stores and processes the sensor data
extract valuable insights from gigabytes of data.
in real time, providing an evaluation of the condition of the structure based on
application areas such as user safety, trouble shooting, natural disaster
follow-up and maintenance optimisation.

›› Processed data can be used to derive service life models, enabling the bridge
owner to decide if structural components shall be replaced or whether the service
life of the component can be prolonged.
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MAINTENANCE

PROTECTION
DEHUMIDIFICATION CABLE INTEGRITY
COWI is a pioneer in using dehumidification systems for corrosion COWI has many years of international experience in inspecting and
protection and has been a leader in the field for more than 45 years. maintaining cable systems. We offer a wide range of valuable services.
It is a state-of-the-art technological solution that has been adopted
for large bridge structures all over the world. Our specialists provide solutions for coping with fatigue damage,
corrosion damage, fire damage as well as water in cable systems.
A dehumidification system blows dry air through the main cables or We have assisted owners with replacing suspenders, cable stags
box girders, keeping the atmosphere so dry that corrosion cannot and main cables. We have experience with inspecting all types of
occur. Integrated monitoring components provide real-time data from cable systems with components, such as wires and strands, HDPE
the dehumidification systems and automatically indicate areas that coatings, paints, anchorages, sealants, dampers and deviators.
require maintenance or repair, avoiding the need for regular manual
inspections. Life-cycle cost analyses show that dehumidification Our experts solve vibration problems by designing and installing
systems are a sound investment and increase the overall life vibration dampers such as hydraulic, friction, impact and stockbridge
expectancy of steel structures. dampers. This serves to prevent further fatigue damage while
addressing public concern about cable vibrations.
COWI started designing dehumidification systems with the box girders
of the New Little Belt Bridge in Denmark in 1970. Later, in 2003, the To help owners be proactive, COWI offers planning of inspections,
main cables were retrofitted with elastomeric wrapping and connected NDT and monitoring programmes. Where feasible, we also contribute
to a dehumidification system. These areas of the bridge have been with design and installation of cable monitoring systems for vibrations,
protected from corrosion successfully ever since. corrosion and water ingress. Proactively, we secure improved drainage
conditions and sealing systems and install cable dehumidification and
Since then, COWI has designed dehumidification systems for corrosion fire protection.
protection on new and existing suspension bridges all over the world
including the Great Belt Bridge in Denmark, Höga Kusten, Älvsborg,
Walt Whitman, George Washington, Izmit Bay Bridge and the A.L.
Macdonald Bridge.
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MAINTENANCE

OPERATION
SAFEGUARDING OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RESPONSE
Historically, carrying out maintenance activities has required lane Unforeseen and unexpected emergencies do sometimes occur.
closures, carriageway closures and, in some cases, bridge closures.  When this happens, bridge owners know that they can call upon us
to provide rapid support to deal with the consequences of incidents
Customers often ask us to develop alternative methods or strategies such as vehicle fires, accidents, ship collision or sudden failure of a
to minimise such traffic disruption, which is costly for the owner and major component.
an inconvenience for users. Furthermore, traffic management activities
often have health and safety implications that need to be addressed. Bridges are usually closed or severely restricted whilst damage
assessments are undertaken. A prudent amount of pre-planning
Through experience and insight, we know the degree of traffic disruption for such emergencies can ensure that disruption and loss of use
that can result from maintenance activities. Based on our customer’s are minimised as far as possible.
preferences for limiting such restrictions, we can propose alternative
processes to be considered and developed.  Our experienced teams can work with you to help identify ‘unlikely
but high-consequence’ incidents and to proactively develop a range
For instance, the use of drones or high-definition photography to record of emergency procedures.
the condition of structures above road level are means to avoiding the
disruption caused by providing access for a visual inspection team. 
Another example is the installation of temporary bridging units to enable
work to remove and replace expansion joint units to be undertaken
outside peak traffic hours.
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MAINTENANCE

DIFFERENT CHALLENGES
DIFFERENT TOOLS STRAIN GAUGE
The strain gauge is a device used to
measure strains and stresses, and
evaluate steel and concrete fatigue.
SURVEYING
Surveying instruments such as 3D laser
scanning of geometry, 3D photo mapping,
GPS coordinate measurements and
ENDOSCOPE INSPECTION
The endoscope inspection uses an
instrument to check out inaccessible
locations such as small cavities,
Connected to a data logger, it can inclinometer slope monitoring provide channels and tubes. The results may
At COWI, we have a comprehensive set of expert be used for testing as well as for
continuous long-term monitoring.
important information about the global and
local geometry.
be documented with photos or movies.

competencies and array of tools to help deliver the


solution to your challenge. This list shows
a selection of the tools we use.

BEARINGS INSPECTION THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERA DRONES ACCELEROMETER


Feeler gauges are used to measure The thermographic camera takes images Instrument-carrying drones are used to INSTRUMENTATION
clearances and the wear between sliding using infrared radiation. The technique conduct complete inspections of large Accelerometers are used to measure
surfaces to help determine the remaining utilises variations in the exchange of heat. structures. The drone is controlled by a drone the oscillations of decks, pylons and
surface life of sliding components. The camera captures possible defects and pilot paired with an experienced inspection cables. Connected to a data logger,
moisture in concrete, coatings and sealings. engineer controlling the camera. The drone they can be used for testing as well
identifies defects effectively over large areas. as for continuous long-term automatic
structural monitoring.

CONCRETE NDT CABLE TESTING COATING NDT


Handheld NDT tools are primarily used Cable load measurements using jacks A coating thickness gauge is used to
to inspect concrete. The GalvaPulse is can be supplemented with COWI’s assess the condition of coatings. This
used to measure the speed of corrosion frequency testing or laser scanning handheld device can be used to obtain
while the Impact-Echo Hammer, MIRA techniques. In addition, electromagnetic samples from structures and determine
tool, Schmidt-hammer and georadar or ultrasound scanners can be used to its remaining service life. A pull-off test
are used to check for delamination and identify faults in the cables. may be needed to check coating quality.
cavities in the concrete.
OPERATION & 27
MAINTENANCE

MAINTAINED AND
INSPECTED BY COWI

GREAT BELT EAST AND WEST THE ÄLVSBORG BRIDGE, IZMIT BAY BRIDGE, TURKEY NAINI BRIDGE, INDIA HUMBER BRIDGE, UK CLIFTON SUSPENSION WEST GATE BRIDGE, OLD CHAMPLAIN BRIDGE,
BRIDGES, DENMARK SWEDEN BRIDGE, UK AUSTRALIA CANADA

FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS


›› Year of completion: 1998 ›› Year of completion: 1966 ›› Year of completion: 2017 ›› Year of completion: 2004 ›› Year of completion: 1981 ›› Year of completion: 1864 ›› Year of completion: 1978 ›› Year of completion: 1962
›› Type: Suspension and twin girder bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Steel truss and concrete
(road and rail) ›› Length: 933 m with 408 m main span ›› Length: 2,682 m with ›› Length: 610 m with 260 m main span ›› Length: 1,410 m main span (national heritage) ›› Length: 2,600 m with 336 m main span girder bridge
›› Length: 17 km with East Bridge ›› Period of services: 1999-ongoing 1,550 m main span ›› Period of services: 2004-ongoing ›› Period of services: 2000-ongoing ›› Length: 214 m main span ›› Period of services: 1970-1978 ›› Length: 3,440 m
1,624 m main span ›› Client: Trafikverket ›› Period of services: 2010-2017 ›› Client: National Highway Authorities ›› Client: Humber Bridge Board. ›› Period of services: 2006-ongoing ›› Client: Roads Corporation of Victoria. ›› Period of services: 1991-ongoing
›› Period of services: 1998-ongoing (Swedish Transportation Agency). ›› Client: IHI Corporation. of India. ›› Client: Clifton Suspension ›› Client: Jacques Cartier and Champlain
›› Client: A/S Storebælt. Bridge Trust. Bridges Incorporated.

SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES


›› Serviceability design ›› Principal and special inspections ›› Durability design ›› Bridge asset management for the owner ›› Inspections ›› Emergency response to failure ›› Strengthening scheme due to ›› Assessment
›› Inspection and maintenance manual ›› Cable force measurements ›› Access design ›› Inspection and maintenance manual ›› Fatigue assessment of deck ›› Investigation traffic increase ›› Emergency repair
›› Advanced structural and corrosion ›› Replacement of suspenders ›› Inspection and maintenance manual ›› Advanced structural health monitoring ›› Structural assessments ›› Structural assessment ›› Maintenance and damage repair. ›› Structural strengthening and repair
monitoring systems ›› Maintenance of pendulums ›› Advanced structural health monitoring ›› Principal and special inspections ›› Load monitoring ›› Replacement of hangers ›› Minimisation of disturbances to traffic.
›› O&M assistance ›› Maintenance of expansion joints ›› Main girder dehumidification system ›› Pavement and deck assessment. ›› Replacement of hangers ›› Resurfacing
›› Railway expansion joints testing ›› Dehumidification of main cable ›› Main cable dehumidification system. and handstrands ›› Strengthening
›› Vibration and fatigue assessment ›› Operational safety analysis. ›› Resurfacing ›› Asset management.
of deck and suspenders ›› Supervision of works.
›› Principal and special inspections
of steel and concrete
›› Emergency assistance on ship damages.
OPERATION & 29
MAINTENANCE

FARO BRIDGES, DENMARK TJÖRN BRIDGE, SWEDEN ERSKINE BRIDGE, SCOTLAND UDDEVALLA BRIDGE, SWEDEN NEW SVINESUND BRIDGE, SEVERN BRIDGE, ENGLAND FATIH SULTAN MEHMET THE HÖGAKUSTEN BRIDGE,
NORWAY-SWEDEN BRIDGE, TURKEY SWEDEN

FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS


›› Year of completion: 1985 ›› Year of completion: 1981 ›› Year of completion: 1976 ›› Year of completion: 2000 ›› Year of completion: 2005 ›› Year of completion: 1966 ›› Year of completion: 1988 ›› Year of completion: 1997
›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge and ›› Type: Arch bridge with suspender and ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge
and concrete girder bridges ›› Length: 664 m with 366 m main span ›› Length: 1,320 m with 305 m main span girder bridges approach bridges ›› Length: 1.6 km with 988 m main span ›› Length: 1,510 m with ›› Length: 1,867 m with
›› Length: 3,332 m with 290 m main span ›› Period of services: 2010-ongoing ›› Period of services: 1998-ongoing ›› Length: 1,712 m with 414 m main span ›› Length: 704 m with 247 m main span ›› Period of services: 1976-ongoing 1,090 m main span 1,210 m main span
›› Period of services: 1985-ongoing ›› Client: Trafikverket ›› Client: Renfrewshire Council, ›› Period of services: 2001-ongoing ›› Period of services: 2010-2011 ›› Client: Department of Transport, ›› Period of services: 2005-2009 ›› Period of services: 2004-ongoing
›› Client: The Road Directorate. (Swedish Transportation Agency). Amey Infrastructure Services, Scotland ›› Client: Trafikverket (Swedish ›› Client: Statens Vegvesen (Norwegian Highways Agency, Severn River ›› Client: KGM ›› Client: Trafikverket
Transerv. Transportation Agency). Road Agency), Trafikverket Crossing plc. (General Directorate of Highways). (Swedish Transportation Agency).
(Swedish Transportation Agency).

SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES


›› Inspection programmes ›› Principal and special inspections ›› Inspections ›› Principal and special inspection ›› Inspection manual ›› Inspections ›› Structural assessment ›› Principal and special inspections
›› Principal and special inspections ›› Improvement of access conditions ›› Structural assessment ›› Assessment of ingress of water into ›› Principal and special inspections ›› Structural assessment ›› Bridge specific live load assessment ›› Main cable dehumidification system
›› Maintenance and repair of expansion and drainage of cable anchorage ›› Strengthening design cable stays ›› Assessment of water in cable stays ›› Strengthening design ›› Development and implementation of ›› Assessment of suspender vibrations
joints and bearings ›› Laser surveying and monitoring of ›› Resurfacing design ›› Monitoring programme ›› Assessment of structural cracking ›› Replacement of hangers and structural health monitoring systems ›› Rope access inspections
›› Cathodic protection of piers cable forces ›› Supervision of works ›› Repair of broken upper cable anchorage ›› Rope access inspection. handstrands ›› Inspection and strengthening ›› O&M assistance.
›› NDT and frequency testing of cables ›› Calibration of finite element model to ›› Improved access ›› Rope access inspections ›› Resurfacing planning.
›› Cost estimates bridge full-scale performance ›› Upgrading of vehicle barriers ›› Inspection of cable-stay friction dampers. ›› Supervision of works.
›› Seabed surveys ›› Safety assessment of cable system ›› Enhanced public safety barrier
›› Rope access inspections. ›› Laboratory test of corroded cables ›› Impact damage
›› Cable replacement with specification, ›› Emergency assessment and repair
procurement and supervision. after ship impact.
OPERATION & 31
MAINTENANCE

THE CHACAO BRIDGE, CHILE VIADUC TRANSRHUMEL, YAVUZ SULTAN SELIM BRIDGE THE NEW N.Y. BRIDGE NEW LITTLE BELT BRIDGE, ZÁRATE-BRAZO LARGO LUANGWA BRIDGE, ZAMBIA AQUITAINE BRIDGE, FRANCE
ALGERIA (3RD BOSPOROUS BRIDGE) (TAPPAN ZEE), USA DENMARK BRIDGE, ARGENTINA

FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS


›› Year of completion: 2021 (expected) ›› Year of completion: 2014 ›› Year of completion: 2016 ›› Year of Completion: 2018 ›› Year of completion: 1970 ›› Year of completion: 1977 ›› Year of completion: 1968 ›› Year of completion: 1967
›› Type: Consecutive suspension bridges ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type. Suspension-cable stay Bridge ›› Type: Twin cable stay bridges with ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge
›› Length: 2,635 m, two main spans of with access bridges ›› Length: Main span 1408 m approach bridges ›› Length: 1,700 m with 600 m main span ›› Length: 550 m with 320 m main span ›› Length: 222 m main span ›› Length: 1,776 m with 400 m main span
1,055 and 1,100 m ›› Length: 1,119 m with 259 m main span ›› Period of services: 2016 ›› Length: 4,800 m with 365 m main span ›› Period of services: 1970-ongoing ›› Period of services: 1996-2000 ›› Period of services: 1993-1997 ›› Period of services: 1999-2003
›› Period of services: 2014-ongoing ›› Period of services: 2012-2014 ›› Client: ICA (Ictas Construction ›› Period of services: 2012-2018 ›› Client: The Road Directorate. ›› Client: Direccion Nacional de Vialidad ›› Client: Ministry of Works and Supply. ›› Client: DDE de la Gironde, Bordeaux.
›› Client: MOP ›› Client: Construtora Andrade and Astaldi). ›› Client: Tappan Zee Constructors. (National Road Administration).
(Ministry of Public Transportation). Gutierrez S.A.

SERVICES
›› Independent checker and advisor on: SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES
›› Durability design for a 100-year ›› Durability design ›› Commissioning inspections of ›› Corrosion protection plans ›› Operation, inspection and maintenance ›› Structural assessment after cable ›› Inspection and NDT ›› Feasibility study for main
service life ›› Access design construction works for the contractor. ›› Access strategy ›› Rehabilitation of expansion joints, failures ›› Condition and bearing capacity cable replacement
›› Access design ›› Inspection and maintenance manual ›› Access and inspection manual pavement, concrete, steel coating etc. ›› Inspection, testing and NDT assessment ›› Tender rehabilitation design
›› O&M organisation ›› Geotechnical instrumentation ›› Operation and maintenance manual ›› Vibration monitoring and damping ›› Emergency strengthening ›› Structural analysis ›› Tender evaluation
›› Inspection and maintenance manual and monitoring ›› Life cycle cost estimate ›› Noise and wind screens for road ›› Stuctural analysis ›› Project for replacement of cable stays ›› Technical follow-up during construction.
›› Dehumidification project ›› Structural health monitoring. ›› Structural monitoring system. ›› Dehumidification of girder and main cables ›› Reliability assessment and strengthening of girder and towers
›› Operational risk analysis ›› Drone inspections ›› Rehabilitation design and tender ›› Tendering
›› Structural health monitoring. ›› Emergency assistance on fire damages ›› Inspection and maintenance manual. ›› Site supervision.
to cable systems.
OPERATION & 33
MAINTENANCE

ÖLAND BRIDGE, SWEDEN ORESUND LINK BRIDGE, BOSPHORUS BRIDGE, TURKEY A. L. MACDONALD BRIDGE, BUSAN-GEOJE LINK, KOREA RIO NITEROI BRIDGE, BRAZIL BJÖRNAFJORD BRIDGE, HAICHANG LINK, CHINA
DENMARK-SWEDEN CANADA NORWAY

FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS


›› Year of completion: 1972 ›› Year of completion: 2000 ›› Year of completion: 1973 ›› Year of completion: 1955 ›› Year of completion: 2011 ›› Year of completion: 1974 ›› Year of completion: TBC ›› Year of completion: 1999
›› Type: Consecutive girder bridges ›› Type: Cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge ›› Type: Two cable-stayed bridges ›› Type: Consecutive girder bridges ›› Type: Floating cable-stayed bridge ›› Type: Suspension bridge
›› Length: 6,000 m with approach bridges ›› Length: 1,560 m with 1,074 m main span ›› Length: 441 m main span ›› Length: Two bridges with 2,364 m ›› Length: 13,000 m bridge, ›› Length: 4,200 m link with approach bridges
›› Period of services: 2003-2014 ›› Length: 7,800 m with 490 m main span ›› Period of services: 2005-2009 ›› Period of services: 2005-ongoing and 1,856 m main spans 300 m main span ›› Period of services: 2015 ›› Length: 6,000 m link with 600 m main span
›› Client: Trafikverket ›› Period of services: 1997-2000, 2015 ›› Client: KGM ›› Client: Halifax Harbour Bridges. ›› Period of services: 2003-2011 ›› Period of services: 2015 ›› Client: Norwegian Road Authority. ›› Period of services: 2000-2003
(Swedish National Road Administration). ›› Client: Sundlink contractors and (National Highways Directorate). ›› Client: Daewoo Engineering & ›› Client: Studio Franchetti/Ecorodovias ›› Client: Corporation of Xiamen.
Øresundsbron. Construction Co. ltd. (Operator).

SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES


›› Principal and special inspections ›› Service life strategy ›› Structural assessment ›› Suspended spans deck replacement ›› O&M system ›› Special inspections ›› O&M concept for floating bridge ›› O&M system
›› Condition assessment ›› Design of corrosion monitoring system ›› Structural health monitoring system ›› Hanger cables replacement ›› O&M organisation ›› Validation of previous inspections. ›› Access concept design ›› O&M organisation
›› Preparation of maintenance strategy for concrete substructures development and installation ›› Dehumidification of main cables ›› O&M life cycle costs ›› Durability concept design. ›› Inventory listing
›› Preparation of concrete repair methods ›› System specifications ›› Monitoring of structural behaviour and main towers ›› Operation, inspection ›› Operation, inspection
›› Design of cathodic protection ›› System installation ›› Detailed inspection of critical components ›› Supervisory control and maintenance manuals and maintenance manuals
›› Tender and supervision assistance. ›› System operaton ›› Improved access provision. ›› Inspection. ›› Basis for bridge management system. ›› Basis for bridge management system.
›› Strategy for steel coating maintenance.
OPERATION & 35
MAINTENANCE

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