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Operator and

Maintenance
Manual
PART NO. 412450

Infinity Blasthole Drill


Series SKF
This manual covers models
manufactured after January 1, 1999
Introduction

WARNING:
Operator and maintenance personnel MUST read and
understand this manual BEFORE operating or performing
maintenance work. Each person must be satisified that
they have adequate knowledge to perform the required
tasks on this machine.

DRILL MODEL: _________________________________________________


DRILL SERIAL NO.: _________________________________________________
DATE DRILL DELIVERED: _________________________________________________
DEALER: _________________________________________________
CUSTOMER: _________________________________________________

Introduction i
Parts Ordering and Product Support

Use only genuine Reedrill parts in the maintenance, rebuild, or repair, of Reedrill machines. Reedrill shall have
no liability as to any unauthorized modification of machines or parts and shall have no obligation or liability as
to any machines or parts which have been improperly handled, or which have not been operated, maintained,
or repaired according to Reedrill's furnished manuals, or other written instructions, or which are operated with
other than genuine Reedrill parts.

Your cooperation in furnishing as much information as possible will


assist us in filling your orders correctly and in the shortest possible time.

1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MACHINE


Always furnish the Reedrill Model Number and Serial Number when ordering parts.
This information is found on the machine nameplate. Rock Drills have the serial number stamped
on the cylinder.

2. PART NUMBER AND DESCRIPTION


In addition to the Serial Number, always give the part number and description of each part
ordered. If there is any doubt as to the correct part number and description, furnish a dimensioned
sketch or return the part to be replaced, transportation charges prepaid.

3. SHIPMENT
Unless otherwise instructed, all shipments will be made via motor freight collect or UPS prepaid
and charged on our invoice. Shipments cannot be made on open account until your credit has
been approved by our Accounting Department.

MAILING ADDRESS SHIPPING ADDRESS


Reedrill Reedrill
P. O. Box 998 3501 S. FM Hwy 1417
Sherman, TX. 75091-0998 Denison, TX. 75020

FOR PARTS ORDER ENTRY FOR PRODUCT SERVICE & WARRANTY


In North America Telephone 1-800-854-9030 In North America Telephone 1-800-258-0009
In North America Telefax 1-800-582-6570 Telephone (903) 786-2981
Telephone (903) 786-2981 Telefax (903) 786-6408
Telefax (903) 786-6407

ii Introduction
Product Description

WARNING:
DO NOT use this machine for any other purpose than
blasthole drilling.
The SKF series rotary blasthole drills are designed for
blasthole drilling purposes only.
Any other use could result in personal injury, property
damage and will void the warranty.

The Reedrill Infinity Series is specifically designed for Blast Hole Drilling Operations.

The Infinity Series SKF are crawler mounted drill rigs, which consist of two (2) major assem-
blies:

1. Rotary Drill Assembly


2. Excavator Type Undercarriage

The Rotary Drill assembly is made up of the Engine Package, Compressor Package, Hydraulic
System, Rotary Drive, Pulldown and Hoisting System and Drill Pipe Handling mechanism.

The Crawlers are powered by two (2) hydrostatic motors. Each Crawler has its own indepen-
dent, variable and reversible speed control, and is equipped with 33.5 inch (85 cm) wide triple
cleated grousers.

Manual Contents
This manual is furnished with your Reedrill Infinity Series Blasthole Drill to acquaint you with the
correct operating procedures and to provide the necessary daily equipment maintenance informa-
tion required to maintain your machine in a reasonable condition.

NOTE This manual should be considered a permanent part of your machine and
must remain with the machine at all times.

The instructions in this manual are not intended to cover all details about this machine, nor do
they intend to provide for every possible contingency that may be encountered in connection with
the daily operation or maintenance of this machine.

Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise which are not cov-
ered sufficiently in this manual, the matter should be referred to Reedrill.

The descriptions and specifications contained in this manual were in effect at the time of printing.
The right is reserved to make changes at any time without notice and without obligation.

Introduction iii
SKF Component Locator

FRONT OF MACHINE

Fig. i-1 SKF Top View

iv Introduction
SKF Component Locator

Fig. i-2 SKF Rear View

Introduction v
SKF Component Locator

Fig. i-3 SKF Right Side View

vi Introduction
SKF Component Locator

Fig. i-4 SKF Left Side View

Introduction vii
Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
Machine Data .......................................................................................................................... i
Parts Ordering & Product Support ........................................................................................... ii
Product Description ................................................................................................................ iii
Manual Contents ..................................................................................................................... iii
Locator Drawings ............................................................................................................... iv-vii

SAFETY SECTION 1
Overview of Potential Hazards .............................................................................................. 1-2
Before Operation ................................................................................................................. 1-3
Operation ............................................................................................................................ 1-3
After Operation .................................................................................................................... 1-4
Maintenance ........................................................................................................................ 1-4
Equipment Transfer.............................................................................................................. 1-4

OPERATOR CONTROLS SECTION 2


Graphic Symbol Legend ........................................................................................................ 2-2
Operator Control Panel ........................................................................................................ 2-8
Instrument Panel ................................................................................................................ 2-10
System Pressure Gauge Panel ............................................................................................ 2-12
Switch Panel ...................................................................................................................... 2-14
Cab Heater ........................................................................................................................ 2-18

LUBRICATION AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SECTION 3


Service Points - SKF ............................................................................................................. 3-2
Lubrication & Maintenance Chart .......................................................................................... 3-5
Lubrication - General ............................................................................................................ 3-8
Equipment Lubrication ........................................................................................................ 3-8
Care of Lubrication Points .................................................................................................. 3-8
Compressor Lubrication Procedure ...................................................................................... 3-9
Winch Assembly Lubrication.................................................................................................. 3-9
Lubricant Specifications ..................................................................................................... 3-10
Compressor .................................................................................................................... 3-10
Lubricating Grease ........................................................................................................... 3-10
Gear Lubricant ................................................................................................................. 3-10
Selection of Hydraulic Oil .................................................................................................. 3-11
Hydraulic Tank Capacity ...................................................................................................... 3-11
Fan Drive - Lubrication and Maintenance .............................................................................. 3-12
Hydraulic System Maintenance ............................................................................................ 3-13
Cooling System Maintenance .............................................................................................. 3-13
Cooling System Freeze Protection ...................................................................................... 3-14
Air Cleaners ...................................................................................................................... 3-14
Air Filter Elements ............................................................................................................ 3-14
Electrical System ............................................................................................................... 3-14

viii Introduction
Table of Contents

Scheduled Oil Sampling Analysis .......................................................................................... 3-15


Torque Values for Standard Fasteners................................................................................. 3-16
Torque Values for Split Flange Connections ......................................................................... 3-17
Torque Values for Hydraulic Tubes & Fittings ....................................................................... 3-18

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS SECTION 4


Pre-Start Checks ................................................................................................................. 4-2
Commissioning A New Machine .......................................................................................... 4-2
Walk Around Checks: ......................................................................................................... 4-2
Pre-Start Checklist ............................................................................................................. 4-3
Fluid Levels: ....................................................................................................................... 4-3
Operator Controls: ............................................................................................................. 4-3
Fire Extinguisher Specifications: .......................................................................................... 4-3
Start-Up Procedure .............................................................................................................. 4-4
To Start Engine: ................................................................................................................. 4-4
After Start Checks: ............................................................................................................ 4-5
Shut Down: ......................................................................................................................... 4-5
Emergency Shutdown .......................................................................................................... 4-6
Emergency Shutdown Circuit .............................................................................................. 4-7
Cold Weather Operation ....................................................................................................... 4-8
Hydraulic System Warm-Up ................................................................................................. 4-8
Compressor Warm-Up (Low Pressure) ................................................................................. 4-9
Compressor Warm-Up (High Pressure) .............................................................................. 4-10
Propelling Machine ............................................................................................................. 4-11
Propelling Up, Down and Across Grades: .......................................................................... 4-12
Propelling Over Electrical Cables: ...................................................................................... 4-13
Leveling Machine ............................................................................................................... 4-14
Raising Machine (lowering jacks) ....................................................................................... 4-14
Lowering Machine (raising jacks) ....................................................................................... 4-14
Leveling Procedure .......................................................................................................... 4-15
Re-Leveling Procedure ...................................................................................................... 4-15
Raising Mast...................................................................................................................... 4-16
Lowering Mast .................................................................................................................. 4-17
Loading Drill Pipe ............................................................................................................... 4-18
Equipment Required: ........................................................................................................ 4-18
Procedure: ...................................................................................................................... 4-18
Preparing to Drill ............................................................................................................... 4-19
Installing and Removing Drill Bit ......................................................................................... 4-19
Drilling Procedures ............................................................................................................ 4-20
Drilling with Standard Bit ................................................................................................... 4-21
Drilling with a Down The Hole Hammer .............................................................................. 4-23
Multiple Pass Drilling .......................................................................................................... 4-29
Adding Drill Pipe ............................................................................................................... 4-29
Retracting Drill Pipe .......................................................................................................... 4-31

Introduction ix
Table of Contents

DRILLING PRACTICES SECTION 5


Drilling Terminology .............................................................................................................. 5-2
Bit Weight & Rotary Speeds .................................................................................................. 5-3
Rotary Drill Bits .................................................................................................................... 5-5
Drag Bits ........................................................................................................................... 5-5
Tri-Cone Roller Bits ............................................................................................................. 5-6
Rotary Blast Hole Drill Strings ............................................................................................... 5-8
Drill Pipe ............................................................................................................................ 5-8
Fabricated Drill Pipe............................................................................................................ 5-8
Pipe Threads ..................................................................................................................... 5-9
A.P.I. Regular Threads ........................................................................................................ 5-9
BECO Threads ................................................................................................................... 5-9
Thread Grease ................................................................................................................. 5-10
Substitutes ...................................................................................................................... 5-10
Drill Bit Stabilizers .............................................................................................................. 5-11
Compressed Air................................................................................................................. 5-12
Air Requirements ............................................................................................................ 5-12
Up-Hole Velocity Calculations ............................................................................................. 5-12
Drilling Related Problems .................................................................................................... 5-13
Human Error Problems .................................................................................................... 5-13
Operational Related Problems ........................................................................................... 5-13
Formation Related Problems ............................................................................................. 5-13
Operating Problems and Indicators ..................................................................................... 5-14
Solving Drilling Problems .................................................................................................... 5-15

MACHINE TRANSPORT AND SPECIFICATIONS SECTION 6


Transporting Machine .......................................................................................................... 6-2
Mast Removal and Installation ............................................................................................... 6-2
Mast Removal: ................................................................................................................. 6-2
Mast Installation: ............................................................................................................. 6-3
Loading and Unloading of Machine ........................................................................................ 6-4
Loading Machine: ............................................................................................................. 6-4
Unloading Machine: .......................................................................................................... 6-5
Transient Stability Limits ....................................................................................................... 6-6
Loading and Unloading of Mast............................................................................................. 6-7
Loading Mast: .................................................................................................................. 6-7
Unloading Mast: ............................................................................................................... 6-7
Machine Specifications ......................................................................................................... 6-8
SKF Base Machine Dimensions ........................................................................................... 6-8
Shipping Dimensions and Weights ....................................................................................... 6-9
Metric Conversions ............................................................................................................ 6-10

x Introduction
Section 1

Safety

Safety 1-1
Overview of Potential Hazards
The Rotary Drill is a heavy moving machine with a mast which raises vertically for drilling. Like all moving objects and
reach extending devices, there are potential hazards associated with its use. These hazards will be minimized if the
machine is properly inspected and maintained. The operators should read this manual and have been trained to use the
machine in an appropriate and safe manner. Should any questions arise concerning the maintenance or operation of the
machine contact Reedrill at 1-800-258-0009.

In this section and those that follow, the word:


DANGER means that severe injury or death will result from failure to follow instruction.
WARNING means that severe injury or death can result from failure to follow instruction.
CAUTION means that minor injury or property damage can result from failure to follow instruction.
NOTE means that special attention should be given to the instruction.

POTENTIAL HAZARD EFFECT PREVENTION

Electrical Contact DANGER: Will cause Serious Injury Maintain minimum clearance from
or Death. high voltage power lines. Refer to
"Minimum Clearance for High Volt-
age Lines" chart in this section.
Machine is NOT insulated.

Contaminated Air DANGER: WILL cause Serious Injury Do Not run machine in an area
or Death. without good ventilation.

Unit Overturn WARNING: Can Cause Serious Injury Do Not travel on steep inclines or
or Death. tram crosswise to grades.

Moving Parts WARNING: Can Cause Serious Injury Do Not operate machine until
or Death. all people are clear of the area.
Do Not lubricate or service while
machine is running.

High Pressure Air or Fluid WARNING: Can Cause Serious Injury Relieve pressure on hydraulic and
or Death. pneumatic systems before loosen-
ing hoses or connections.

Clearances from High Voltage Lines


Voltage Minimum Clearance
up to 50 kv 10 ft. (3 m)
over 50 to 75 kv 11 ft. (3.4 m)
over 75 to 125 kv 13 ft. (4 m)
over 125 to 175 kv 15 ft. (4.6 m)
over 175 to 250 kv 17 ft. (5.2 m)
over 250 to 370 kv 21 ft. (6.4 m)
over 370 to 550 kv 27 ft. (8.2 m)
over 550 to 1000 kv 42 ft. (12.8 m)
1-2 Safety
Safety

Before Operation

• Do study this manual and fully understand the controls.


• Do be sure all safety guards are securely in place.
• Do wear safety helmet, glasses and hearing protection when operating or working on machine.
• Do be sure all personnel are clear of the machine and work area before starting the engine or
operating machine.
• Do be sure drill area is clear of all obstructions before operating machine.
• Do attach safety chain when using towbar.
• Do Not operate machine with:
• A hydraulic leak
• Broken or damaged electrical wiring
• Damaged hydraulic hoses or fittings

Operation

• Do provide sufficient ventilation when running the engine in an enclosed area. Exhaust gasses
contain carbon monoxide, a deadly poison, which is colorless and odorless.
• Do make sure the drill pipe is secured in the loader before raising or lowering the mast, if your
machine is equipped with a drill pipe loader
• Do examine the surface before drilling to determine the possible presence of unfired explosives.
• Do Not drill into or near a "bootleg" hole or any hole that may contain explosives.
• Do Not use the machine for any other purpose than what it was designed for. This machine is
designed for rotary blasthole drilling operations only.
• Do Not wear jewelry or loose fitting clothing when working on machinery. Keep clothing and
hands clear of moving parts.
• Do Not travel on steep inclines soft or unstable ground or close to unsupported excavations.
• Do Not move machine if Rotary Drill is in a potentially unstable position.
• Do Not propel machine with mast up.

After Operation

• Follow Shut Down Procedures given in Section 4 of Operator Manual.

Safety 1-3
Safety

Maintenance

• Do be sure two people are present when performing service work, both being fully trained on the
safety issues. One person shall supervise from the operator's position and have immediate
access to an emergency stop in all situations. Visual, audible or verbal communication signals
must be established and understood by both persons.
• Do be sure each person is adequately trained to perform service and maintenance procedures.
• Do place a warning tag on starting controls to alert personnel that someone is working on the
machine and disconnect battery before making repairs or adjustments to machine.
• Do be sure you have adequate lighting when performing service work at night.
• Do relieve pressure on hydraulic or pneumatic systems before loosening connections or parts.
• Do be sure machine and components are well supported before servicing or replacing parts.
• Do maintain a metal-to-metal contact between the fill nozzle and fuel tank when filling the fuel
tank. This will prevent sparks and the possibility of an explosion.
• Do Not hammer bit or drill pipe. Use only proper tools to make repair or adjustments.
• Do Not weld or grind near oil lines.
• Do Not attempt to remove radiator cap when engine is hot or has overheated.
• Do Not smoke or use an open flame near batteries, when servicing the batteries. Batteries can
give off hydrogen which is a highly explosive gas.
• Do Not leave tools or other loose objects on the engine, drive mechanisms or drilling platform.
They could be thrown by this equipment with a powerful force.

Equipment Transfer

• If all or part of the equipment is shipped to a new destination, always include a complete instruc-
tion manual or a copy of the following topics from the operator's manual:
• Safety Section
• Operation Instructions including:
• Pre-Start Checks
• Start-up
• After Start Checks
• Shutdown Procedure
• Propelling Machine

1-4 Safety
Section 2

Operator Controls

Operator Controls 2-1


Graphic Symbol Legend

The following is an alaphabetical listing of the graphic symbols and their basic description. The
control functions are described in detail, following these pages.

Auxiliary Pump - OFF


Drill Stem Thread Lube

Auxiliary Pump - ON
DRILL (Drill/Propel Switch)

Breakout Wrench (Manual)

Drilling Air Pressure

Compressor Discharge Temperature

Dust Collector

Drill Hourmeter

Dust Curtain
Drill Pipe Support (Positioner)

2-2 Operator Controls


Graphic Symbol Legend

Fuel Level

Engine Coolant Temperature

Fast Down
Engine Hourmeter

Engine Oil Pressure


Hoist/Pulldown - RAISE & LOWER

Engine RPM
Holdback

Engine START
Hydraulically Operated Breakout
Wrench (HOBO) - CLAMP

Engine STOP (also By-Pass)

Hydraulically Operated Breakout


Wrench (HOBO) - SWING

Ether Injection
Operator Controls 2-3
Graphic Symbol Legend

Mast Lock
Hydraulic System Pressure

Jack - LEFT REAR

Ignition - OFF Oil Injection

Ignition - ON
Jack - RIGHT REAR
Pipe Rack Lock

Jack - DOWN Main Air


Pipe Rack Index

Jack - UP
Mast - LOWER
Pipe Rack Swing

Jack - FRONT
Mast - RAISE

2-4 Operator Controls


Graphic Symbol Legend

PROPEL (Drill/Propel Switch)


Rotation - FORWARD

Propel - FORWARD

Rotation - REVERSE
Propel - REVERSE

Rotation Pressure

Pulldown Pressure

Throttle - FAST

Pulldown System (Auto Feed) Throttle - SLOW

Tool Wrench - ENGAGE

Pulldown System Pressure - DECREASE

Tool Wrench - RETRACT

Pulldown System Pressure - INCREASE

Operator Controls 2-5


Graphic Symbol Legend

Voltage (Battery Charging)

Water Injection

Water Injection Flow Control - DECREASE

Water Injection Flow Control - INCREASE

Winch - LOWERS HOOK

Winch - RAISES HOOK

2-6 Operator Controls


Notes:

Operator Controls 2-7


Operator Control Panel

Fig. 2-1 Operator Control Panel

NOTE "PUSH" LEVER - Move lever AWAY FROM OPERATOR


"PULL" LEVER - Move lever TOWARDS OPERATOR
1. Level Indicator
Indicates when the machine is level.
2. Throttle
Used to control the engine speed. Minimum engine speed is 1300 RPM, Maximum speed is 2100
RPM.
3. Jack Levers
Used for lowering and raising the jacks to level the machine. Pull the levers to lower the jacks.
Push the levers to raise the jacks.
3a. Right Rear Jack
3b. Front Jacks
3c. Left Rear Jack
4. Mast Lever
DO NOT raise mast close to power lines. See section 1 for Clearances from High Voltage Lines.
Controls the lowering and raising of the mast.
• Pull lever to raise mast.
• Push lever to lower mast.
2-8 Operator Controls
Operator Control Panel

5. Propel Levers
Control the speed and the direction of the tracks.
• Push levers to propel forward (radiator end).
• Pull levers to propel in reverse (cab end).
5a. Right Track Lever
5b. Left Track Lever
6. Rotation Lever
Controls rotary head speed and direction.
• Push lever for forward rotation.
• Pull lever for reverse rotation.
7. Hoist/Pulldown System Lever
Controls the raising and lowering of the rotary head.
• Push lever to raise the rotary head.
• Pull lever to lower the rotary head.
8. Engine Diagnostic Lamp
Light flashes to indicate engine fault.
Refer to Caterpillar C-15 engine manual for fault codes and remedy.
9. Remote Pulldown Relief
Controls the pressure to the feed system to increase or decrease the weight on bit.
• Turn control clockwise to increase pressure.
• Turn counterclockwise to decrease pressure.
9a. Holdback System Pressure Control
This valve is used on high pressure machines using down the hole hammers and is used in conjunc-
tion with the Holdback System Switch (see switch panel detail) which activates the solenoid
valve. Normally this valve is wide open (all the way out, counterclockwise) when drilling begins. As
pipe sections are added, the weight on the bit increases. To avoid too much pressure on the bit
turn valve IN (clockwise) to increase oil restriction from pulldown cylinder to tank.
• Turn control clockwise to decrease pressure on bit.
• Turn counterclockwise to increase pressure on bit.
10. Compressor Start-Run Valve
Low Pressure Machines:
When starting machine, valve should be in the "Start" position so compressor is unloaded or in low
pressure mode. When machine is warmed up, turn valve to "Run" position.
High Pressure Machines:
When starting machine, valve should be in the "Low" position. When machine is warmed up, turn
valve to "High" position.
11. Main Circuit Breaker Panel
Pull to disconnect, push to reset breakers.
11a.Circuit Breaker Panel
For Air Conditioner and Heater.
12. Light Switches
Used to turn on and off outside drill and cab interior lights.

Operator Controls 2-9


Operator Control Panel

Fig. 2-1 Operator Control Panel

Fig. 2-2 Instrument Panel


2-10 Operator Controls
Operator Control Panel

13. Compressor Air Filter Indicator


Shows RED when filter element needs to be changed. Indicates differential pressure across filter
element.
14. Engine Air Filter Indicator
Shows RED when filter element needs to be changed. Indicates differential pressure across filter
element.
15. Ignition
The ignition Key is used to turn the electrical power ON/OFF.
(a) Turn key ON to supply electrical power.
(b) Turn key OFF to stop engine.
16. Starter
The Start button is used to start the engine.
(a) Press Start button to start the engine.
(b) Release button once engine is running.
17. Ether Injection (optional)
Aids in starting cold engine.
(a) Press for 3 seconds.
(b) Release to discharge.
(c) Wait 3 seconds to start engine.
18. Drill Hourmeter
Meter records actual drilling hours.
19. Engine Hourmeter
Meter records total engine hours.
20. Engine Oil Pressure
Gauge indicates engine oil pressure.
21. Engine Tachometer
Gauge indicates engine revolutions per minute.
22. Engine Coolant Temperature
Gauge indicates the temperature of the engine coolant.
23. Compressor Discharge Temperature
Gauge indicates the temperature of the compressor discharge air.
24. Fuel Level
Gauge indicates fuel level in tank.
25. Voltage
Gauge indicates voltage output of the electrical charging system.

Operator Controls 2-11


System Pressure Gauge Panel

Fig. 2-3 System Pressure Gauge Panel

2-12 Operator Controls


System Pressure Gauge Panel

26. Rotation / Left Track Pressure

WARNING:
Maximum pressure 5000 PSI (344.7 bar). Avoid stalling
the rotary head for extended periods.

Gauge indicates hydraulic pressure required to rotate the drill string and when in propel mode,
indicates pressure to left track motor.
27. Pulldown Pressure
WARNING:
Maximum pressure 2600 PSI (179 bar). Higher pres-
sures may cause the machine to tip.

Gauge indicates hydraulic pressure at feed cylinder.


28. Hydraulic System Pressure
Indicates auxiliary pump pressure.
29. Drilling Air Pressure

WARNING:
When the drilling air is turned OFF, there should be zero
pressure on this gauge.

Gauge indicates the air pressure in the drilling air line.

Operator Controls 2-13


Switch Panel

Fig. 2-4 Switch Panel

30. Hydraulically Operated Break-Out Wrench (HOBO) - Swing


The break-out wrench is used to undo tight thread connections. This switch is used to swing the
break-out wrench into or away from the drill pipe.
• Push and hold switch up to swing break-out wrench out.
• Push and hold switch down to swing break-out wrench in.
31. Hydraulically Operated Break-Out Wrench (HOBO) - Clamp
The break-out wrench is used to undo tight thread connections. This switch is used to clamp and
unclamp the break-out wrench and to turn the wrench.
• Push and hold switch right to disengage (open) break-out and unclamp wrench.
• Push and hold switch left to clamp wrench and engage (close) break-out.

2-14 Operator Controls


Switch Panel

32. Holdback System


Push switch down to activate the holdback system solenoid valve. This switch is used in conjunc-
tion with the Holdback Pressure Control Valve (item 9a).
33. Drill Stem Thread Lube
• Push and hold switch down to activate grease pump to lubricate drill pipe threads.
34. Air Line Lubricator
• Push switch down to activate lubricator pump to provide lubrication for "In The Hole Hammers"
used on high pressure machines.
35. Water Injection / Dust Collector
This switch is used to engage the water injection or dust collector systems to control drilling dust.
• Push switch up to engage water injection system.
• Push switch down to engage dust collector system.
36. Drill Pipe Support
The drill pipe support is used to support the drill pipe in the center of the mast when using the drill
pipe loader for multiple pass drilling.
• Push and hold switch up to engage drill pipe support.
• Push and hold switch down to disengage drill pipe support.
37. Dust Curtain
Switch is used to raise or lower the dust curtain at the rear of the machine.
• Push and hold switch up to lift dust curtain.
• Push and hold switch down to lower dust curtain.
38. Mast Lock
WARNING:
BE SURE to visually check to see that the mast lock pins are fully
engaged in the holes in the mast before drilling. Also be sure pins
are fully retracted from holes before lowering mast.

Switch UNLOCKS or LOCKS mast in the vertical or angle drilling positions.


• Push and hold switch left to unlock (retract) mast pins.
• Push and hold switch right to lock (engage) mast pins into mast.
39. Auxiliary Pump
This switch activates the auxiliary pump, which provides power for the drill set-up and tooling
functions, i.e., winch, breakout wrench, deck wrench, pipe positioner and pipe rack.
• Switch down - Pump loaded.
• Switch up - Pump unloaded.
40. Drill Pipe Loader - Swing
This switch is used to swing the drill pipe loader out from and into the center of the mast when
adding and retracting drill pipe and for storing the drill pipe loader when propelling or lowering the
mast.

Operator Controls 2-15


Switch Panel

Fig. 2-4 Switch Panel

41. Drill Pipe Loader - Rotate


This switch is used to rotate the drill pipe loader left or right to the next position.
• Push and hold switch left to rotate drill pipe loader left.
• Push and hold switch right to rotate drill pipe loader right.
42. Drill Pipe Loader - Lock
This switch is used to lock or unlock the drill pipe loader so the loader can be indexed left or right
to the next position.
• Push and hold switch down to lock pin IN.
• Push and hold switch up to move pin OUT.

2-16 Operator Controls


Switch Panel

43. Drilling Air


Turns the air ON/OFF for drilling procedures.
• Push switch up to turn drilling air ON.
• Push switch down to turn drilling air OFF.
44. Pulldown System (Auto Feed)

WARNING:
DO NOT engage this switch on unless you are actually drilling.
Once drilling is finished, this switch must be disengaged

The pulldown system switch engages and disengages the pulldown for drilling operations.
• Push switch up to disengage pulldown.
• Push switch down to engage pulldown.
45. Fast Down
Push switch down to activate "fast down". Use this feature to increase speed of rotary head
coming down the mast.
46. Winch
• Push and hold switch up to raise winch hook.
• Push and hold switch down to lower winch hook.
47. Tool (Deck) Wrench
Switch retracts or extends the deck wrench to hold the drill pipe when breaking thread joints or
when multiple pass drilling is required.
• Push and hold switch up to retract tool wrench.
• Push and hold switch down to engage tool wrench.
48. Drill / Propel Switch

WARNING:
Drill mode must be selected if not propelling the ma-
chine or when the machine is unattended. Drill mode
engages the propel brakes.

Engages the drill controls or propel system.


• Push switch up to engage the propel system.
• Push switch down to engage the drilling controls.

Operator Controls 2-17


Cab Heater

Cab Heater

1. Allow diesel engine to warm up thoroughly, then turn on blower and check that the circulated air is
warm.
2. If heater fails to heat, check cutoff valves at plumbing connections to engine (see fig. 2-5) to be
sure they are turned on.

Fig. 2-5 Heater Connections and Cutoff Valves (Cat. C-15 engine shown)
1. Water Outlet to Heater
2. Water Inlet from Heater

2-18 Operator Controls


Section 3

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


NOTE This section contains recommended procedures and instructions which the
operator will need in order to properly perform necessary lubrication and
preventive maintenance. This information should be considered as the
manufacturer's recommendations only and are based upon normal opera-
tion. For severe or unusual conditions the recommended lubrication instruc-
tions should be varied in accordance with extended hours of operation,
climate and drilling conditions.

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-1


Service Points - SKF

Fig. 3-1 SKF Service Points

3-2 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Service Points - SKF

Fig. 3-1a Remote Grease Fittings - mounted on pump Fig. 3-2 Rotary Drive Oil Fill/Check
drive bracket (dust collector side).

Fig. 3-3 Right Side of Machine


Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-3
Service Points - SKF

Fig. 3-4 Left Side of Machine

3-4 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Lubrication & Maintenance Chart

Interval Service Point Service Required Lubricant Required Capacity

Daily Engine Oil (Cat 3406, C-15) Check / Add if required 15W-40 (factory fill) 36 qt. (34 L)
or Engine Oil (Cat 3408) Check / Add if required 15W-40 (factory fill) 48 qt. (45.5 L)
Each Engine Oil (Cat 3412) Check / Add if required 15W-40 (factory fill) 72 qt. (68 L)
Shift Fuel Tank Check/Fill if required Diesel Fuel (see note 1) 375 gal. (1419 L
Fuel/Water Separator Drain water
Engine Coolant Check / Add if required 50/50 Anti-freeze/Water see note 2
Hydraulic Oil Tank Check / Add if required Chevron AW MV ISO 32 225 gal. (852 L)
see note 3
Separator Tank (low press) Check / Add if required Dexron III ATF 58 gal. (220 L)
Separator Tank (high press) Check / Add if required Dexron III ATF 35 gal. (132.5 L)
Water Tank (optional) Check / Add if required Water/Anti-freeze 200 gal. (757 L)
Pump Drive Gearcase Check / Add if required 80W-90 Gear Oil 6.75 qt. (6.4 L)
Air Cleaners Check Service Indicators
Oil Filters Check Service Indicators
NOTE: Indicators may show change or by-pass when fluid is cold; reset and check again.
Radiator & Coolers Check / Clean
Shock Sub & Air Swivel Lubricate NLGI No. 1 Grease
Tracks, Rollers, Sprockets Check / Clean
Track Frames, Axles, Mounts Inspect Integrity / damage
Mast & A-Frame Inspect Integrity / damage
Cab Mountings Inspect Integrity / damage
DecK & Surrounds Inspect Integrity / damage
Rotary Head & Motor(s) Check
Pulldown/Hoist Ropes Inspect
Pulldown Sheaves Check that they are getting grease.
Grease Pump Lubricator Top Up Dexron III
Pipe Thread Lubricator Top Up Dexron III
DTH Hammer Reservoir Top Up Rock Drill Oil - Grade 30 15 gal. (57 L)
(optional for use with down-the -hole hammer)
Fire Suppression System Charged?
Fire Extinguisher Charged / Secure
Operating Controls Check that all function correctly
Walk Around Inspection Report any leaks, damage, etc.

Weekly Cooler Fan Check / Torque mounting bolts


or Hydraulic Filters Initial Change, then every 500 hours
50 Hours Coolant Filter (if equipped) Initial Change, then every 500 hours
Separator Tank Initial Change, then every 300 hours Dexron III ATF
Compressor Oil Filter Initial Change, then every 250 hours
Rotary Gearcase Check / Add if required 80W-90 Gear Oil
PLUS ALL ITEMS LISTED IN DAILY SERVICE

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-5


Lubrication & Maintenance Chart

Interval Service Point Service Required Lubricant Required Capacity


150 Track Final Drive (Cat) Initial Change, 150 hrs., then yearly 80W-90 Gear Oil 3.4 gal. (13 L)
to Track Final Drive (L&S) Initial Change, 150 hrs., then yearly 80W-90 Gear Oil 9 qt. (8.5 L)
250 Track Final Drive (Intertrac) Initial Change, 200 hrs., then yearly 80W-90 Gear Oil
Hours Water Injection Pump (opt.) Initial Change, then every 500 hours SAE 30 (API MM or better) 1 qt. (.95 L)
Winch Initial Change at 24 hours of winch 80W-90 Gear Oil 1/2 to 2 pints
operation. (.24 to .95 L)
Fan Drive Check Bearings / Add Oil if required 80W-90 Gear Oil 2.2 oz.
Compressor Oil Filter Change
Engine Oil & Filter Change at 250 hours 15W-40 (factory fill) see daily
Engine Fuel Filter(s) Replace
Engine Air Filter (primary) Replace
Engine Air Filter (safety) Check
Engine Coolant Condition Check/Refill/Test Water/Anti-Freeze 50/50 see daily
Engine Coolant Filter Replace
Radiator Cap Check Condition
Batteries Clean / Top Up Distilled Water
Fuel Tank Drain Water
Comp. Air Filter (primary) Replace
Comp. Air Filter (safety) Check
Comp. Receiver Tank Drain Water
Receiver Tank Oil Level Check/Refill Dexron III
Comp. Main Oil Filter Replace
Comp. Control Cyl. Orifice (HP) Clean
Comp. Control Regulator (HP) Check / Adjust
Press. Control Regulators (HP) Check/Adjust
Pump Drive Gearbox Check / Refill 80W-90 Gear Oil 6.75 qt. (6.4 L)
Track Final Drive Gearboxes Check / Refill 80W-90 Gear Oil see daily
Rotary Drive Gearbox Drain & Replace Oil 80W-90 Gear Oil
Rotary Drive Spindle Check End Float (.002 - .004")
Rotary Head Wearpads Check / Replace (shim as required)
Water Pump Pressure Check, LP=150 PSI (10 bar),
HP=375 - 400 PSI (26 - 28 bar)
Water Pump Oil Level Check / Refill SAE 30 1 qt. (.95 L)
Water Pump Strainer Clean
Water Pump Coupling Check
Air Conditioner Belts Check / Adjust
Alternator Belts Check / Adjust
Mast Pivot Pins/Bushings Check / Lube NLGI No. 1 Grease
Hoist/Pulldown Ropes Check / Adjust per service manual
Track Chains Check / Adjust per service manual NLGI No. 1 Grease
PLUS ALL ITEMS LISTED IN DAILY & 50 HOURS SERVICE
Every Separator Tank Change Oil Dexron III see daily
300 See Compressor Oil Lubrication Chart for alternate oils and change intervals.
Hours

3-6 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Lubrication & Maintenance Chart

Interval Service Point Service Required Lubricant Required Capacity

500 Hydraulic Fluid Initial Change, then every 1000 hrs. Chevron AW MV ISO 32 225 gal. (852 L)
Hours Hydraulic Filters Replace
Engine Air Filter (safety) Replace
Engine Crankcase Breather Check / Clean
Comp. Control Air Filter Replace
Comp. Air Filter (safety) Replace
Air Filter Housings Clean
Pump Drive Gearbox Oil Drain/Replace 80W-90 Gear Oil 6.75 qt. (6.4 L)
Water Injection Pump (opt.) Change Oil SAE 30 1 qt. (.95 L)
Water Injection Pump Strainer Replace
Dust Collector Check Timer Cycle (3.5 - 6 sec.)
Check air pressure, approx. 40 psi (2.8 bar)
Air Conditioner Filter Replace
PLUS ALL ITEMS LISTED IN DAILY / 50 / 100 - 250 HOURS
1000 Track Final Drive Gearbox Oil Drain / Replace 80W-90 Gear Oil see daily
Hours Winch Gearbox Oil Drain / Replace 80W-90 Gear Oil 1/2 - 2 pints
(.24 - .95 L)
Rotary Drive Spindle Check End Float (.002 - .004")
Hydraulic Tank Drain, Clean, Replace Oil Chevron AW MV ISO 32 225 gal. (852 L)
PLUS ALL ITEMS LISTED IN DAILY / 50 / 100-250 / 500 HOURS
2000 Comp. T -Tank Separator Replace
Hours Comp. Return Strainer Replace
Engine Coolant Drain, Flush, Replace Water / Anti-Freeze 50/50 see daily
All Pump Pressure Settings Check / Adjust Per Service Manual
All Valve/Other Settings Check / Adjust Per Service Manual
PLUS ALL ITEMS IN DAILY / 50 / 100-250 / 500 / 1000 HOURS.

NOTES:
1. No. 1-D or No. 2-D diesel fuels as listed in ASTM D975 are acceptable
fuels.
2. Distilled water or deionized water is recommended for use in engine cool-
ing systems. Do not use hard water, softened water that has been condi-
tioned with salt or sea water. Use a 1:1 mixture of water/glycol for opti-
mum performance.
3. Chevron AW MV ISO 32 is the standard factory fill for hydraulic fluid. Other
fluids may be used if they meet the specifications listed in this section.

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-7


Lubrication - General

Equipment Lubrication
Determination of when oil changes are made, filters and filter elements are to be cleaned and/or
replaced, and lubrication of equipment is required, should be based on the severity of operation.

CAUTION:
Recommended lubrication instructions provided herein
are based upon normal operation, and should be varied
in accordance with other than normal operating condi-
tions.

Equipment lubrication diagrams and charts have been included to show the general location of
points and equipment which require scheduled and periodic lubrication. The lubrication charts list the
various lube and check points, filters and filter elements, and provides data such as quantities, types of
lubricants recommended, and the recommended frequency of lubrication.

NOTE For additional lubrication information, refer to vendor manuals provided with the
drill.

Care of Lubrication Points


Before lubricating, or filling hydraulic fluids, the fittings, caps, and filler plugs should be thoroughly
cleaned to prevent contamination.

WARNING:
After lubrication and filling, remove excess spills.
Always keep fittings, caps and fill plugs clean of
foreign matter.

3-8 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Lubrication - Compressor & Winch

Compressor Lubrication Procedure


• Service air filter as required:
• The dry air filter, supplied as standard equipment, should be serviced as indicated by the restric-
tion gauge located on the filter housing or instrument panel. When this gauge shows red, it is time
for service.
• In conditions of contaminated atmosphere, it is recommended to frequently clean the oil cooler.
• Drain Receiver Condensate:
In periods of cold weather and/or high humidity, partially open receiver drain valve prior to start-
up to remove water. Close when oil appears.
• Check oil level each shift:
The level is checked at the sight glass with machine levelled. To check the oil level, the machine
must be shut down long enough to permit oil foam to settle or check before start-up at the begin-
ning of the shift. Oil level should be at the center of the sight glass.
• Change oil every 500 hours:
Use Dexron III ATF - consult factory for specific recommendations if extremely severe duty is
encountered. Change oil filter element.
• Lubricate control and linkage. Clean oil return line strainer.

Winch Assembly Lubrication


1. Gear housing should be kept filled to the level of the side plug with SAE 80W/90 all purpose gear
oil.
2. Gear housing should be drained and filled with new oil after the first 24 hours of winch operating
time. Then oil should be changed every 100 hours of winch operating time or every six (6)
months, whichever occurs first.
3. Do not mix different kinds of oil.

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-9


Lubricant Specifications

Compressor - Compressor oil should conform to the following specifications:

A. Non-Detergent Turbine or Hydraulic Type Oil


Viscosity @ 100oF 160-200 SSU
Viscosity @ 0oF 11,000 SSU Maximum
Viscosity Index 90 Minimum
Pour Point oF 20o Lower than minimum starting temperature
Flash Point oF 400 Minimum
Rust Inhibitor ASTM, D665-54 No Rust after 24 hours
Oxidation Inhibitor ASTM, D943-54 Neutral No. 2.0 or less after 1000 hours
Anti-Foam Inhibitor ASTM, D892-46T, 3 cycles stability nil.

B. Automatic Transmission Fluid


Viscosity @ 100oF 184.2 SSU
Viscosity @ 210oF 49.1 SSU
Viscosity Index 150.
Pour Point oF -40
Flash Point 390

C. Premium quality heavy-duty engine oil which meets the performance classification,
letter designation, SE or CD of SAW J183 or MIL-L-2104C.
Ambient Temperature: Grade
-10o F to 90o F SAE 10W
Above 90o F SAE 20W, 20

NOTE Most oils approved for use in the closed loop system are satisfactory compressor
lubricants.

Lubricating Grease
Use SAE designation MPGM which contains 3-5% Molybdenum disulfide conforming to MIL-M-7866
and a suitable corrosion inhibitor.

NLGI Grade No. 2 is suitable for most temperatures. Use NLGI No. 1 or 0 for extremely low tem-
peratures.

Gear Lubricant
Use any oil which meets EP gear lubricant specification MIL-L-2105C or API-GL-5 of SAE J3083C.
Lubricant Grades:
o o
Below -10 F (-23 C) ambient use 40W.
o o o o
Above -10 F (-23 C) and up to 100 F (37.8 C) ambient use 80W-90 or EP90.
o o
Above 100 F (37.8 C) ambient use 85W-140.
Optional: Mobil SHC 635 synthetic or equivalent (all temperature ranges).

3-10 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Lubricant Specifications

Hydraulic System
Selection of Hydraulic Oil:
These selections assume "normal operating conditions" as expected in quarry or quarry-like opera-
tions.
Hydraulic oils meeting the following specifications will be acceptable for use in the SKF and SKS
Rotary Blasthole Drills. Machines are factory filled with ISO 32 oil, unless specified otherwise when or-
dered.
CHEVRON AW MV or EQUAL
ISO Grade 15 32 46 68 100
CPS Number 232953 255678 255679 232952 232950
API Gravity 27.3 32.6 31.9 30.9 30.7
Viscosity, Kinematic
cSt at 40OC 15.8 30.4 43.7 64.6 95.0
cSt at 100OC 4.0 6.1 8.0 10.6 13.5
Viscosity, Saybolt
SUS at 100OF 85.3 155 222 329 487
SUS at 210OF 39.7 46.6 53.0 62.3 73.4
Viscosity Index 159 153 157 154 143
Pour Point, OC (OF) -54 (-65) -48 (-54) -42 (-44) -42 (-44) -39 (-38)
Flash Point, OC (OF), min 150 (302) 190 (374) 186 (367) 212 (414) 232 (450)
Oxidation Life
ASTM D 943 hr.1 _ 3000+ 3000+ 3000+ 2000+

DO NOT use these products in high pressure systems in areas subject to fire hazard.
1
6000+ hours for IS0 32, 46 & 68 from the West Coast (Richmond, El Segundo and Willbridge).

Diesel fuel or kerosene used as dilutants for cold weather operation are not recommended, as they
are not sufficiently refined products.

Do not use any fire resistant fluids or non-petroleum oils without consulting Reedrill.

Hydraulic Tank Capacity


Model Capacity Notes

SKF 225 gal. (852 liters) Fluid level should be at the half-way point on the
sight gauge on the tank, when all cylinders are
fully extended.
Fluid level should be near the top of the sight
gauge, when all cylinders are fully retracted.

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-11


Lubrication - Fan Drive

Fig. 3-5 Fan Drive and Motor


1. Fan Drive
2. Plug/Vent (behind fan guard)
3. Hydraulic Motor

Fan Drive Lubrication and Maintenance


WARNING:
Disconnect battery and place an "Out of Service" tag on
the ignition switch before servicing machine.

1. Disconnect battery and place an "Out of Service" tag on the ignition switch.
2. Remove fan guard to gain access to fan drive plug/vent.
3. Clean area around plug/vent and remove.
4. Fan drive housing should be 2/3 full of lubricant. Use 80W-90 gear lubricant.

NOTE Normally this unit requires little maintenance, unless fluid is leaking from the front
or rear seals. Check for oil leakage around housing and check for any radial play
in the fan, indicating worn bearings. If bearings are worn, repair or replace fan
drive unit.
5. After checking and/or repairing fan drive unit, replace fan guard and reconnect battery cable(s).

3-12 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Preventive Maintenance

A regular program of preventive maintenance should be adopted. It is recommended that such a


maintenance program be established on the basis of the operator and/or maintenance personnel per-
forming specific maintenance work during various periods of equipment operations, at intervals during
which the equipment will be idle, and during extended periods of time when the equipment will be in
storage. When the drill is in continual, daily use, it is further recommended that a program of daily service
requirements be established with preventive maintenance being performed on a "before operation", "dur-
ing operation", and "after operation" schedule.

Hydraulic System Maintenance


The hydraulic components of the drill are built for many years of trouble-free operation. Only one
preventive maintenance step is necessary to insure the expected life of the system - CLEANLINESS.

When dirty filters are indicated, change the filter as follows:


a. Clean the area around the filter covers to prevent dirt entering the filter housings.
b. Pull filters from the housings. Install new filter and install the covers making sure
the cover o-ring is in place.
Sight gauges are provided on the sides of the tanks for checking oil levels.
a. Oil level should be at the halfway point of the sight gauge when all cylinders are extended.
b. A temperature gauge is also provided on the sight gauge.
CLEANLINESS cannot be over-stressed:
a. Use new oil only from previously unopened containers.
b. Clean all tank openings.
c. ALWAYS fill hydraulic tank using the filler pump and filter.

Cooling System Maintenance


WARNING:
Remove the Radiator Pressure Cap slowly and only when
the engine is cool or painful burns could result.

The engine's cooling system is designed to provide adequate cooling during all normal operating
conditions. To keep the cooling system operating at peak efficiency, it is important to adhere to the
cooling system maintenance schedule listed in this section. Refer to radiator service manuals in section
4 of this manual for complete radiator repair and maintenance information.

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-13


Preventive Maintenance

Cooling System Freeze Protection


o o
In the late fall, before temperatures drop below 32 F. (0 C), the complete cooling system should be
drained and flushed. The thermostat should be removed during flushing. Check for proper operation or
replace before reinstalling. When refilling, add a sufficient amount of anti-freeze for your climate. A 50/50
mixture is recommended for maximum protection.

Air Cleaners
The air cleaner should be inspected periodically to maintain engine and compressor protection and
maximum service life. These inspections should include the following points:

1. Inspect the air transfer duct between the air cleaner and the engine to be sure all clamps are
tight, all flange joints are tight, and there are no cracks in the ducting.
2. Air cleaner mounting bolts and clamps must be tight to hold the air cleaner securely.
o
3. Check the dust cup to make sure it is sealing 360 around the air cleaner body.
4. Vacuator valve must be in place, not inverted, and free from obstruction.
5. Check for dents and damage to the air cleaner which could mean a leak.
6. Make sure all accessories are free from obstructions and securely mounted.

Air Filter Elements


CAUTION:
DO NOT clean filter element with high pressure air (30 PSI
[2.1 bar] max.). Advise replacement of filter element.
DO NOT start engine when the filter element(s) is removed
from the air cleaner
NEVER attempt to clean the element by rapping it. Rap-
ping the element will dent the metal covering. The inner
paper element will in turn rub this dent, causing the ele-
ment to puncture.

Replace air filter elements as required. Refer to Lubrication & Maintenance chart.

Electrical System
Be sure battery is filled and kept charged. A discharged battery will freeze at much higher tempera-
tures than a fully-charged battery.
Battery terminals should be kept clean and tight for dependable operation.

3-14 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Preventive Maintenance

Scheduled Oil Sampling Analysis


Reedrill recommends that scheduled oil sampling be taken at regular intervals. This will maintain all
warranty requirements and monitor condition of component wear in the system.
Oil sampling must be carried out at regular intervals to serve as an effective indicator for compo-
nent wear. Intermittent oil sampling does not allow a wear pattern to be established.
Samples should be taken from the following components:
• Hydraulic Oil
• Compressor Oil
• Engine Oil
• Rotary Gearbox and Pump Drive Gearbox Oil

When To Take Samples:


Reedrill recommends taking oil samples every 200 hours.
How To Take Samples:
Take samples when oil is warm and well mixed to assure an accurate reading.
What The Analysis Consists of:
A proper oil analysis should include the following three elements:
1. Wear Analysis
2. Chemical and Physical Tests
3. Oil Condition Analysis

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-15


Torque Values for Standard Fasteners
Procedure No. 1-87 REVISION A

Torque Values: Bolts, Screws and Studs (Lubricated or Plated)


Tolerance Values in all cases to +5 % - 0 % of the Value listed below.
Note: K = .15 for plated or lubricated fasteners.

Nominal SAE Grade 5 ASTM A-449 SAE Grade 8


Diameter Tightening Torque Ft. Lbs. Tightening Torque Ft. Lbs.
(Nm) Newton meter (Nm) Newton meter

1/4 6 (8.2) 9 (12.2)


5/16 13 (17.7) 18 (24.5)
3/8 23 (31.3) 33 (44.9)
7/16 35 (47.6) 55 (74.8)
1/2 57 (77.5) 80 (108.8)
9/16 82 (111.5) 115 (156.4)
5/8 113 (153.7) 159 (216.2)
3/4 200 (272) 282 (383.5)
7/8 322 (437.9) 455 (618.8)
1 483 (656.9) 681 (926.2)
UNC 1-1/8 596 (810.6) 966 (1313.8)
1-1/4 840 (1142.4) 1363 (1853.7)
1-3/8 1102 (1498.7) 1786 (2429)
1-1/2 1462 (1988.3) 2371 (3224.6)
1-3/4 1714 (2331)
2 2576 (3503.4)
2-1/4 3768 (5124.5)
2-1/2 5155 (7010.8)
2-3/4 6996 (9514.6)
3 9231 (12554.2)
1/4 7 (9.5) 10 (13.6)
5/16 14 (19) 20 (27.2)
3/8 26 (35.4) 37 (50.3)
7/16 40 (54.4) 60 (81.6)
1/2 64 (87) 90 (122.4)
9/16 91 (123.8) 128 (174.1)
5/8 127 (172.7) 180 (244.8)
UNF 3/4 223 (303.3) 315 (428.4)
7/8 355 (482.8) 502 (682.7)
1 528 (718.1) 746 (1014.6)
1-1/8 668 (908.5) 1083 (1472.9)
1-1/4 930 (1264.8) 1509 (2052.2)
1-3/8 1254 (1705.4) 2034 (2766.2)
1-1/2 1645 (2237.2) 2668 (3628.5)

1-3/4 1879 (2555.4)


2 2857 (3885.5)
2-1/4 4127 (5612.7)
UN 2-1/2 5726 (7787.4)
2-3/4 7693 (10462.5)
3 10064 (13687)

3-16 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Torque Values for Split Flange Connections

The following chart provides the tightening torques for split flange connections used in hydraulic
systems. Split flanges and fitting shoulders should fit squarely. Install all bolts, finger tight and then torque
evenly.

Over-torquing bolts will damage the flanges and/or bolts, which may cause leak-
NOTE
age.

Bolt Torque
Flange Size Bolt Size Newton Meters Pound-Force/Foot
in Inches (*) in Inches (N m) (lbf.-ft.)
1/2 5/16 20-24 15-18
3/4 3/8 30-37 22-27
1 3/8 37-47 27-35
1-1/4 7/16 47-61 35-45
1-1/2 1/2 62-79 46-58
2 1/2 75-88 55-65
2-1/2 1/2 107-123 79-91
3 5/8 187-203 138-150
3-1/2 5/8 159-180 117-133

NOTE (*) Inside diameter of hydraulic tube or hose fitting

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 3-17


Torque Values for Hydraulic Tubes & Fittings

"O" Rings Boss Plugs


Tube Nuts and Swivel Nuts
o
for 37 Flared Fittings JIC 37o Seat
Torque Torque
Size Tubing Thread Newton Pound- Newton Pound-
O.D. Size Meters Force/Foot Meters Force/Foot
in Inches in Inches (N m) (lbf.-ft.) (N m) (lbf.-ft.)
4 1/4 7/16-20 14-27 10-20 8-14 6-10
5 5/16 1/2-20 20-34 15-25 14-20 10-15
6 3/8 9/16-18 34-47 25-35 20-27 15-20
8 1/2 3/4-16 54-75 40-55 34-41 25-30
10 5/8 7/8-14 75-102 55-75 47-54 35-40
12 3/4 1-1/16-12 102-129 75-95 81-95 60-70
14 7/8 1-3/16-12 129-156 95-115 95-108 70-80
16 1 1-5/16-12 156-197 115-145 108-122 80-90
20 1-1/4 1-5/8-12 203-244 150-180 129-156 95-115
24 1-1/2 1-7/8-12 271-339 200-250 163-190 120-140
32 2 2-1/2-12 407-475 300-350 339-407 250-300

NOTE Above Torque figures are recommended for plain, cadmium or zinc plated fit-
tings, dry or wet installations.
These torques are not recommended for tubes with wall thickness of 0.035 in.
(0.89 mm) or less.

3-18 Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance


Section 4

Operating Instructions

Operating Instructions 4-1


Pre-Start Checks

Commissioning A New Machine


The rotary blasthole drill will (in most cases) arrive on two trucks. The mast is shipped separate (in
most cases) from the drill rig itself. With the drill rig unloaded from the truck and on level and stable
ground, the mast will need to be installed. A Reedrill serviceman will be on hand to make adjustments
and settings on a new machine.

CAUTION:
Load drill pipe using a crane whenever possible, this is
the best and safest method. If a crane is not available
when drill pipe is being loaded, follow the procedure in
this section titled "Loading Drill Pipe".

Walk Around Checks:


It is the responsibility of the operator to report any damage or service problems to the supervisor.
You may wish to develop your own checklist and standard operating procedure, such as starting
point, what to look for, etc. Generally, you should check the following areas before start-up, this applies
to new and used machines:

• Check around and under machine for leaks. Determine source of leak and have repairs made.
• Check crawler belts for broken or cracked pads, missing lock pins or bolts, loose track pins and
crawler belt tension. Check track rollers for proper lubrication and wear. Check crawler frames for
cracks or damage.
• Check dust curtains for wear and tear.
• Check for loose or missing bolts. Report any damage and have repairs made.
• Check connections to air filters, make sure they are tight. Check to see that filter elements are in
place.
• Check radiator and oil cooler hoses for cracks and loose clamps.
• Check engine vee belts for cracks or other damage.
• Check engine fuel/water separator if so equipped and drain water.
• Check all pivot points to be sure they are receiving adequate lubrication.
• Check fire suppression equipment to be sure they are adequately charged.
• Check to see that all alarm systems and EMERGENCY STOPS are functioning properly.
• Check to be sure all safety guards are in place and not damaged.
• Check engine/pump driveshaft. Check for loose or missing bolts and adequate lubrication.
• Check all cables for damage or fraying, loose or missing clamps.
• Check drill bit for wear, broken or missing carbides.
• Check that all decals and nameplates are in place and are not damaged.
• Check wiring for damage and loose connections.

4-2 Operating Instructions


Pre-Start Checks

Pre-Start Checklist
Fluid Levels:
A. Radiator Coolant
B. Batteries
C. Engine Oil
D. Fuel
E. Pump Drive Gearcase
F. Water Tank
G. Hydraulic Tank
H. Compressor Oil Separator Tank
I. Rotary Drive Gearcase (check with mast vertical)
J. Winch Gearcase
K. Track Drive Gearcases

Operator Controls:

• Safety first! Become familiar with all the controls and their functions.
• Take it slow at first, as the drilling cycle and controls become more familiar, you can gradually
increase your speed to the full operating capability of the machine.
• Accidents happen quickly, which is why you should operate the machine slowly at first, until you
are satisfied that you comfortable with all the control functions.
• Check that all system gauges are operating properly after start-up.
• Be alert for any unusual noises or smells.
• Know the location of EMERGENCY STOP devices and fire extinguishers and how they operate
(refer to machine locator drawing in introduction of manual).

Fire Extinguisher Specifications:

Fire extinguishers shall comply with EN791:1995 paragraph 5.12.2 and EN 3:1975. Each fire extin-
guisher shall have an agent with a mass of not less than 13.2 lbs. (6 kg). Fire extinguishers shall be
suitable for extinguishing both oil and electrical fires.

Operating Instructions 4-3


Start-Up Procedure

WARNING:
Before starting the engine, warn nearby members of the
work crew that you are starting the machine.

To Start Engine:
1. Be sure all controls are in the Off or Neutral position.
2. Place the compressor Start-Run valve (10) in the start position or low position on high pres-
sure machines.
3. Place throttle lever (2) at about 1/3 speed.
4. Turn the ignition switch (15) On.

NOTE The engine diagnostic lamp (8) will flash while the engine is cranking. The lamp
should turn off after proper oil pressure is reached. If lamp continues to flash
after engine is running, the ECM has detected a problem in the system. Refer to
engine manual for diagnostic codes.

5. Push the engine start button (16) until the engine starts, when engine is started, release start
button. Do not crank engine for more than 30 seconds, then allow starter to cool for two minutes
before attempting to start again.

WARNING:
DO NOT USE ETHER on engines equipped with an Air
Inlet Heater (electrically or fuel ignited manifold heater).
o o
6. If temperature is below 32 F (0 C) use the optional ether injection (17) for starting, use caution
not to use too much as engine damage can occur. Press button for 3 seconds and release, then
allow 3 seconds before starting engine.

Fig. 4-1 Instrument Panel - Right Side


15. Ignition Switch
16. Engine Start Button
17. Ether Injection (optional)
18. Drill Hourmeter
19. Engine Hourmeter
20. Engine Oil Pressure

4-4 Operating Instructions


Start-Up Procedure

Fig. 4-1a Control Panel - Right Side


1. Level
2. Engine Throttle Lever
8. ECM Diagnostic Lamp
10. Compressor Start-Run Valve

After Start Checks:


After start checks are carried out to ensure that the machine is in a safe working condition before
the operator commences drilling procedures.

1. Check to ensure engine oil pressure is in normal operating range (consult engine manual).
2. Check to ensure compressor air pressure is at least 100 PSI (6.9 bar) for low pressure
machines or 300 PSI (20.7 bar) for high pressure machines.

WARNING:
Compressor air pressure must not exceed 125 PSI (8.6
bar) for low pressure machines or 350 PSI (24.1 bar)
for high pressure machines.

3. Check entire machine for oil leaks.

Normal Shut Down:

1. Allow engine to idle for a minimum of five (5) minutes before stopping.
2. Turn the ignition key to OFF position.
3. Check machine for any unusual conditions.
4. Report any defects to your immediate supervisor.

Operating Instructions 4-5


Emergency Shutdown

WARNING:
DO NOT use the emergency STOP switch to stop the machine,
except in an emergency.

CAUTION:
Shutting the engine down without the proper idle down period
can cause engine damage.

Be sure you know where EMERGENCY STOP device(s) are located (refer to machine locator drawing
and operator controls section of this manual). These devices are optional, therefore not all machines will
be equipped with them.
In the event of emergency shutdown, the operator should notify the supervisor and be sure correc-
tive action is taken to remedy the fault that caused the emergency shutdown, before restarting the
machine.

1. Take necessary corrective action to correct the fault.


2. Make a walk around inspection of the machine to be sure no additional damage has been done or
could occur. Pay particular attention to the engine and compressor systems.
3. Check circuit breakers and reset the emergency stop device.

Fig. 4-2 Typical Emergency Stop device - designs and location may vary somewhat (ref. 409402).

4-6 Operating Instructions


Emergency Shutdown

Emergency Shutdown Circuit

Fig. 4-3 Emergency Shutdown Circuit (ref. 409402).

Operating Instructions 4-7


Cold Weather Operation

Hydraulic System Warm-Up


CAUTION:
BE SURE machine does not overheat. Observe hydraulic and water
temperature gauges.
When pump drive gearbox is disconnected all hydraulic functions
are inoperative, including the cooler fan.

1. For cold weather start, disengage the pump drive gearbox using the lever on the
gearbox (if so equipped). Start the engine and warm up for at least five (5) minutes
(refer to "Engine Start-Up Procedure" on preceding page).
2. Stop the engine, engage the pump drive gearbox and restart the engine.
3. Level the Drill Machine.

WARNING:
NEVER ATTEMPT to commence drilling unless the machine has
been leveled and is located on stable ground conditions. Machine
can turn over, causing serious injury or death.
DO NOT position jacks on cribbing or timber bridging.
DO NOT position machine close to a highwall.

a. Set the throttle at approximately 1600 RPM and lower all jack pads to the
ground by operating the rear and front jack control levers to the down
position.
b. Operate rear right and rear left jack controls to down position until rear
of machine track is clear of the ground and approximately level by watching
level indicator (refer to "Leveling Machine").
c. Operate the front jack control to down position, until front of machine track
is clear of the ground, approximately level.

4. Raising the Mast

DANGER:
LOOK UP before raising or lowering mast. Operating near, or
coming in contact with electrical power lines will result in
serious personal injury or death. Machine is not insulated.
See section 1 for Clearances from High Voltage Lines chart.

WARNING:
ALWAYS level machine before raising or lowering mast and
before drilling.

4-8 Operating Instructions


Cold Weather Operation

a. Be sure the machine is level and solidly stabilized with the leveling
jacks before attempting to raise the mast.
b. Be absolutely sure that the mast will not come in contact with power
lines, telephone lines or any other obstructions.
c. Be sure the winch lines, hydraulic hoses and air hoses are clear and that all
equipment stowed in the mast is secured.
d. Raise mast up using Mast Lever (4). As mast approaches the break-over point, gently bring
the mast against the base of the machine.
e. Engage the mast locks pins by using the Mast Lock switch (38).
f. Swing pipe rack out, using Drill Pipe Loader Swing switch (40). Set Drill/Propel switch
(48) to Drill position.

5. Hold Rotation Lever (6) to one-quarter speed and operate rotation in forward position.

CAUTION:
DO NOT engage or disengage track drive while engine is run-
ning and tracks are in contact with ground. Immediate machine
damage could result.
Verify right and left tracks are a minimum of 3" (7.6 cm) off the
ground.

6. Set Drill/Propel switch (48) to Propel position.


7. Hold Propel Levers (5) at 1/4 position and operate tracks alternately in both directions.
8. Work all hydraulic controls to distribute warming oil and to help elevate oil temperature. Pay
particular attention to winch warm-up by cycling several times without load.
9. When hydraulic oil temperature reaches 1000 F (37.80 C) the system is operational.

Compressor Warm-Up (Low Pressure)


1. Run machine with Compressor Start-Run Valve (10) in the Start position until temperature
o o
reaches 160 F (71.1 C). After warm-up, turn selector to Run position.
2. Gradually load compressor by opening air service valve, using the Drilling Air switch (43) until
pressure drops to 70 - 80 PSI (4.8 - 5.5 bar). If temperature rises above 210o F (99o C), close air
service valve and continue warm-up.
3. Partially open air service valve, using the Drilling Air switch (43). If compressor has stabilized at
o o
160 F (71.1 C) it is now operational.
4. Gradually increase engine speed to 2100 RPM. Compressor pressure should read 100 PSI (7
o o
bar) and temperature should be 160 - 200 F (71.1 - 93.3 C). Temperature should be monitored
and maintained by the air flow direction through the cooler.

Operating Instructions 4-9


Cold Weather Operation

Compressor Warm-Up (High Pressure)


1. Run machine with Compressor Start-Run Valve (10) Low until compressor temperature
o o
reaches 180 F (82.2 C). After warm-up turn selector valve to High position.
2. Gradually load compressor by opening air service valve, using the Drilling Air switch (43) until
o o
pressure drops to 140 PSI (9.7 bar). If temperature rises above 210 F (98.9 C), close air service
valve and continue warm-up.
3. Partially open air service valve, using the Drilling Air switch (43). If compressor has stabilized at
o o
180 F (82.2 C) it is now operational.
4. Gradually increase engine speed to 2100 RPM. Compressor pressure should read 350 PSI (24.1
o o
bar) and temperature should be 210 F (99 C). Temperature should be monitored and maintained
by the air flow direction through the cooler.

4-10 Operating Instructions


Propelling Machine

WARNING:
ALWAYS propel the machine in reverse (towards operator's cab)
where possible to provide maximum visibility. Propel the machine
slowly when working on slopes, ramps, or rough terrain. Be ex-
tremely careful when working around trenches or banks.
DO NOT travel on steep slopes or crosswise to grades.
DO NOT propel machine with mast up as this causes machine to
become unstable.
Failure to follow these recommendations could result in a machine
roll over.

When propelling this machine, forward is towards the radiator end of the machine,
NOTE
and reverse is towards the operator's cab.

5b 5a

48

Fig. 4-4 Operator Control Panel


5a. Right Track Lever
5b. Left Track Lever
48. Drill/Propel Switch

Operating Instructions 4-11


Propelling Machine

1. Select Propel mode with the Drill/Propel switch (item 48, fig. 4-4)
2. Engage right and left track propel levers (items 5a, 5b, fig. 4-4) together slowly in the required
direction of travel. Propel speed is varied by the degree of travel, forwards or backwards of the
propel levers. To propel in a straight line, the propel levers must be operated equally from the
neutral positions.
3. To turn the machine left or right, one propel lever may be engaged more than the other to make
the machine turn. For very tight turns one propel lever may be engaged to the full forward position
and the opposite lever engaged to the full reverse position.

CAUTION:
Both tracks must be operated when propelling the machine.
Never allow either track to drag while propelling in a straight
line or turning.

4. To stop propelling machine once at destination, move the propel levers back to the neutral
position.
5. Select Drill mode with the Drill/Propel switch (item 48, fig. 4-4).

WARNING:
ALWAYS select Drill mode once propelling functions are fin-
ished as Drill mode engages the brakes. Never leave the ma-
chine unattended unless Drill/Propel switch is in the Drill mode.
Failure to follow these procedures could result in personal
injury or property damage.

Propelling Up, Down and Across Grades:

1. The mast should always be lowered before propelling the machine up, down or across grades.
2. When propelling up or down a grade, index the pipe loader to a mid position, so drill pipes cannot
slide forward out of the carousel.
3. When propelling up or down a steep grade, the operator's cab should be facing downhill. With the
mast down, the front end of the machine is heavier than the rear (cab end). This makes the
machine more stable.
4. When propelling up a steep grade, a spotter should be used to guide you, as visibility is restricted
to the operator.
5. Always be careful when propelling machine across grades, as the machine is more unstable
sideways than it is lengthways. Propel with the operator's cab facing uphill when crossing grades
whenever possible.

4-12 Operating Instructions


Propelling Machine

Propelling Over Electrical Cables:

1. Always use an approved crossing point, if one has been constructed. Always cross at right angles
and do not turn machine while crossing.

WARNING:
NEVER propel machine across electric cables. Severe personal
injury or death could occur, as well as property damage.

2. If no approved crossing point exists, then the following procedure should be used to cross electric
cables:
o
a. Use a spotter to help guide you. Approach the cable at 90 and stop machine when cable is
between the jack pads and the tracks.
b. Carefully lower jacks, making sure the jack pads will not rest on the cable. Raise machine up
on the jacks until tracks are clear of the ground.
c. Move cable under tracks until it is between the opposite end of the tracks and jack pads at
the other end of machine.
d. Carefully lower machine, making sure cable is not under tracks and retract jacks fully before
continuing to propel machine.

5b 5a

48

Fig. 4-4 Operator Control Panel


5a. Right Track Lever
5b. Left Track Lever
48. Drill/Propel Switch

Operating Instructions 4-13


Leveling Machine

Leveling Machine

WARNING:
NEVER ATTEMPT to commence drilling unless the machine has
been leveled and is located on stable ground conditions. Ma-
chine can turn over, causing serious injury or death.
DO NOT position jacks on cribbing or timber bridging.
DO NOT position machine close to a highwall.
If machine needs to be re-leveled after it is already on all four
jacks:
FIRST level rear (cab end) of machine.
ALWAYS extend front (radiator end) jacks to equalize pressure
in both front jacks after re-leveling machine.

Raising Machine (lowering jacks)


When raising machine, level the rear (cab end) of the machine first, then level the front (radiator end).
Refer to leveling procedure on following page.

Lowering Machine (raising jacks)


When lowering machine, lower the front (radiator end) of the machine first, keeping jack pads close
to the ground. When tracks are on the ground and machine is stable, jacks may be raised fully. Refer to
leveling procedure on following page.

Fig. 4-5 Control Console - Right Side


1. Level 3c. Left Rear Jack
3a. Right Rear Jack 4. Mast Lever
3b. Front Jacks

4-14 Operating Instructions


Re-Leveling Machine

Leveling Procedure
1. Using the Rear Jack levers (3a & 3c), extend the jacks to contact the ground. Level the rear
(cab end) of the machine using the Level Indicator (1) as your guide.
Front jacks must be lowered AFTER using rear jacks to level machine. This is to
NOTE
insure equal hydraulic pressure in both front jacks.

2. Using the Front Jack Lever (3b), lower the jacks until they contact the ground. Level the front
(radiator end) of the machine.
3. Level machine as near to level as possible.

WARNING:
ALWAYS keep the machine as low to the ground as possible when
leveling the machine. This machine has safety check valves in the
leveling system to prevent the jacks from moving in the case of a
power failure. Should it be noticed that the jacks are creeping, the
machine should not be operated and repairs completed immediately.
Failure to follow these instructions could lead to serious personal
injury or equipment damage.

4. To raise the jacks (lower machine), move Jack Lever (3b) to the raise position to lower the front
(radiator end) of the machine. Move Jack Levers (3a & 3b) to the raise position to lower the
rear (cab end) of the machine. Rear jacks may be raised individually or together.

WARNING:
If machine needs to be re-leveled after it is already on all four
jacks:
FIRST level rear (cab end) of machine.
ALWAYS extend front (radiator end) jacks to equalize pressure in
both front jacks after re-leveling machine.

Re-Leveling Procedure
If machine has been leveled and is up on all four jacks and you need to re-level the machine, use the
following procedure (refer to fig. 4-5 for leveling jack controls):

1. Level the rear (cab end) of the machine first using levers 3a and 3c.
2. Level the front (radiator end) of the machine using lever 3b even if it appears level. This MUST be
done to equalize the hydraulic pressure to the front jacks.

Operating Instructions 4-15


Raising Mast

DANGER:
LOOK UP before raising or lowering mast. Operating near, or
coming in contact with electrical power lines will result in seri-
ous personal injury or death. Machine is not insulated.
Refer to Clearances from High Voltage Lines chart below.

WARNING:
ALWAYS level machine before raising or lowering mast and
before drilling.
BE SURE to visually check to see that mast lock pins are fully
engaged in the holes in the mast lock brackets before drilling.
Also be sure pins are fully retracted before lowering mast.

Clearances from High Voltage Lines


Voltage Minimum Clearance
up to 50 kv 10 ft. (3 m)
over 50 to 75 kv 11 ft. (3.4 m)
over 75 to 125 kv 13 ft. (4 m)
over 125 to 175 kv 15 ft. (4.6 m)
over 175 to 250 kv 17 ft. (5.2 m)
over 250 to 370 kv 21 ft. (6.4 m)
over 370 to 550 kv 27 ft. (8.2 m)
over 550 to 1000 kv 42 ft. (12.8 m)
Table 4-1 Minimum safe distances from high voltage lines.

1. Level the machine.


2. Check mast for loose drilling tools or parts.
3. Be sure mast lock pins are retracted and drill bit will clear work deck area.
4. Raise mast by engaging the Mast Lever (4) to the raise position. The mast should start to lift; if
not, check the auxiliary hydraulic pressure gauge to see if any other functions are engaged.
5. As the mast approaches the vertical position, the mast raising speed will tend to increase, so it
will become necessary to slow the speed to stop the mast from hitting into the base of the
machine too hard.
6. The mast angle may be set from 70 degrees to the vertical depending on drilling applications.
7. Once the mast has been set at the desired angle, lock the mast into position by pushing the Mast
Lock/Unlock Switch (38) to the Lock position. Always visually check to be sure the mast lock
pins are fully engaged into the mast lock brackets.

4-16 Operating Instructions


Lowering Mast

DANGER:
LOOK UP before raising or lowering mast. Operating near, or
coming in contact with electrical power lines will result in seri-
ous personal injury or death. Machine is not insulated.
Refer to Clearances from High Voltage Lines chart.

WARNING:
ALWAYS level machine before raising or lowering mast and
before drilling.
BE SURE to visually check to see that mast lock pins are fully
engaged in the holes in the mast lock brackets before drilling.
Also be sure pins are fully retracted before lowering mast.

1. Retract the drill string from the hole, ensuring that the drill bit will clear the work deck area.
2. Rotate the drill pipe loader to the stored position and swing the loader into the center of the
mast.
3. Unlock the mast by pushing the Mast Lock/Unlock Switch (38) to the Unlock position.
4. Lower the mast by engaging the Mast Lever (4) to the Lower position, controlling the lowering
speed with the mast lever.

38

Fig. 4-5 Control Console - Right Side Fig. 4-6 Drill Function Panel
1. Level 3c. Left Rear Jack 38. Mast Lock Switch
3a. Right Rear Jack 4. Mast Lever
3b. Front Jacks

Operating Instructions 4-17


Loading Drill Pipe

CAUTION:
Load drill pipe using a crane whenever possible, this is
the best and safest method. If a crane is not available
when drill pipe is being loaded, follow the procedure
outlined below.

Equipment Required:
1. Service truck with service winch capable of lifting male end of pipe above the drilling platform of the
machine.
2. Adequate lifting straps.

Procedure:
1. Be sure machine is on level and solid ground.
2. Check all pipe rack control functions to be sure they operate according to labels on control panel.
Switch hoses if necessary. Check fluid level in rotary gearbox.
3. Lift the male end of the pipe to approximately the height of the middle railing around the drilling
platform. Be sure pipe is secure and won't slip.
4. Raise mast to the same angle as pipe and back machine up to the pipe.
5. Apply grease to drill pipe threads and lower the rotary head until the top sub-adapter engages the
threads of the pipe. Thread the pipe all the way to the shoulder of the pipe and top sub-adapter.
6. Stabilize machine by lowering all four jacks to the ground. Machine does not have to be lifted off
the ground, but jack pads should be in solid contact with ground.
7. Raise the rotary head up the mast with the pipe, but do not let the pipe go above the deck
bushing in the mast base. It is also a good idea to use the pipe support if you have an angle hole
machine.
8. When the lower end of the drill pipe approaches the deck bushing, stop the rotary head and raise
the mast to the vertical position. Use the pipe rack controls to rack the pipe (refer to instructions on
"Retracting Drill Pipe" in this section).
9. Repeat steps 3-8 for the remaining pipe sections.

4-18 Operating Instructions


Preparing to Drill

Installing and Removing Drill Bit


Before drilling can commence, you must first install the drill bit sub and the drill bit.

1. Remove the rotary deck bushing from the work deck and insert the drill bit breakout basket into
the work deck.
2. Place the drill bit into the bit basket.
3. Place the bit sub onto the drill bit and make-up thread joint "hand" tight.
4. Engage the drill pipe to the bit sub and rotate drill pipe clockwise slowly until the thread joint
becomes tight. Tighten thread joint to 3000 PSI (207 bar) on the rotation pressure gauge.
5. For removal of drill bit, place bit breakout basket into the work deck.
6. Lower drill bit into the breakout basket and use the breakout wrench to break the thread joint.
7. Once thread joint is loose, simultaneously rotate drill pipe counterclockwise and slowly raise drill
pipe until the drill bit is unscrewed.

Operating Instructions 4-19


Drilling Procedures

DANGER:
LOOK UP before raising or lowering mast. Operating near, or
coming in contact with electrical power lines will result in seri-
ous personal injury or death. Machine is not insulated.
Refer to Clearances from High Voltage Lines chart in Section 1.

WARNING:
ALWAYS level machine before raising or lowering mast and
before drilling.
DO NOT operate machine when wind speed is above 75 MPH
(120.8 Km/h).

26 27
9a

29 28
49 35
9

7
6

44 43
Fig. 4-7 Drilling Controls

6. Rotation Lever 28. Hydraulic System Pressure Gauge


7. Hoist/Pulldown Lever 29. Drilling Air Pressure Gauge
9. Pulldown System Pressure Control 35. Water Injection/Dust Collector Switch
9a. Holdback System Pressure Control 43. Drilling Air Switch
26. Rotation/Left Track Pressure Gauge 44. Pulldown System (Auto Feed) Switch
27. Pulldown Pressure Gauge 49. Water Injection Flow Control

4-20 Operating Instructions


Drilling Procedures

Drilling with Standard Bit


The machine MUST be level and up on all four jacks BEFORE the mast is raised. Once the drill pipe,
bit sub, and drill bit have been coupled up, drilling operations are ready to commence.

1. Lower the drill bit until it comes in contact with the ground.
2. Zero the drill monitor, if equipped.
3. Turn on the drilling air by switching the Drilling Air switch (43) to the ON position. Note the air
pressure on the Drilling Air Pressure Gauge (29).
4. Start rotating the drill string forward slowly (30-40 RPM) using Rotation Lever (6). Forward
rotation is clockwise.
5. Slowly lower the drill string using Pulldown Lever (7) until the drill bit is firmly collared in the drill
hole (about 2 - 3 ft.[0.6 - 0.9 m]). Collaring of the hole should be done slowly and carefully to
ensure that the hole will be straight.
6. Once the hole is collared, engage the Auto Feed (44) by pushing the switch down to the engage
position, then start increasing the Pulldown Pressure (9) and rotation speed until a satisfactory
rate of penetration is achieved. Pulldown pressure and rotation speed will be dictated by the type
of ground being drilled. Refer to Section 5 - Drilling Practices for more information.

NOTE Applying excessive weight or using too fast of rotation speed will result in damage
to the drill bit.
7. Watch the air and rotation pressure gauges while drilling. If a rise in pressure is noted, gently push
the Hoist/Pulldown Lever (7) back towards the hoist position just enough to take weight off the
bit, then move back to original position. Repeat as necessary until drill string "sounds right" for
normal drilling.
8. If dust suppression is required, either the dust collector or water injection systems may be used.
Switch Water Injection/Dust Collector Switch (35) Down for dust collector, Up for water
injection. Adjust water flow for water injection with Flow Control Valve (49).

NOTE Do not use the dust collector if ground water is encountered. Excessive water
injection will reduce drill bit service life.

9. Drill down until the desired depth of the hole is reached, then disengage the Auto Feed Switch
(44) and start raising the drill string out of the hole using the Hoist/Pulldown Lever (7). As the
drill bit approaches the top of the hole, turn off the air and stop rotating the pipe. Lift the drill bit
clear of the ground, high enough to allow good clearance when moving to the next hole.

NOTE If depths of more than one drill pipe are required, follow the operating proce-
dures for multiple pass drilling.

Operating Instructions 4-21


Drilling Procedures

DANGER:
LOOK UP before raising or lowering mast. Operating near, or
coming in contact with electrical power lines will result in seri-
ous personal injury or death. Machine is not insulated.
Refer to Clearances from High Voltage Lines chart in Section 1.

WARNING:
ALWAYS level machine before raising or lowering mast and
before drilling.
DO NOT operate machine when wind speed is above 75 MPH
(120.8 Km/h).

26 27
9a

29 28
49 35
9

7
6

44 43
Fig. 4-7 Drilling Controls

6. Rotation Lever 28. Hydraulic System Pressure Gauge


7. Hoist/Pulldown Lever 29. Drilling Air Pressure Gauge
9. Pulldown System Pressure Control 35. Water Injection/Dust Collector Switch
9a. Holdback System Pressure Control 43. Drilling Air Switch
26. Rotation/Left Track Pressure Gauge 44. Pulldown System (Auto Feed) Switch
27. Pulldown Pressure Gauge 49. Water Injection Flow Control

4-22 Operating Instructions


Drilling Procedures

Drilling with a Down The Hole Hammer


CAUTION:
ALWAYS check bit manufacturer's literature for proper bit
size, safety, operation and maintenance information.
It is the responsibility of the operator to be sure he/she
understands the proper operating procedures supplied by the
bit manufacturer.
REEDRILL will not be responsible for equipment damage due
to improper use or mis-application of down-the-hole hammer
equipment.

The following is a general guideline for drilling with down-the-hole hammers. Always refer to
manufacturer's specifications for correct application and specific drilling procedures.
Preparation
1. Tighten all joints to recommended torque by bit supplier.
2. Use proper size choke in the rigid valve (according to manufacturer's specifications) before tool is
operated.
3. Always use the largest diameter bit first, and if necessary, follow with the next smaller diameter
bit. Never use the bit to ream; this will damage the carbides.
4. Place driver sub over bit, followed by o ring and bit retainer ring. Screw the driver sub/bit assem-
bly into the piston case hand tight before using power make-up. Use slow rotation to tighten to the
recommended torque provided by the bit supplier.
Start Up
1. Be sure the lubricator is working properly and oil has fully coated the drill pipe inside diameter.
2. Turn on Drilling Air switch (43) and rotate slowly.
3. Lower the tool slowly into the hole until the bit contacts the bottom and the piston starts operat-
ing. Add just enough pressure to start breaking rock.

CAUTION:
ALWAYS apply air and start rotation before putting weight on
bit to avoid damage to bit.

4. As the bit starts breaking rock, apply minimum total weight on bit (refer to manufacturer's specifi-
cations).
5. After drilling a few feet, increase weight on bit until the tool runs smoothly. The air pressure will
rise slowly and then stabilize.

NOTE Additional weight on bit will not increase penetration rate appreciably.

Operating Instructions 4-23


Drilling Procedures

Drilling with a Down The Hole Hammer - continued


Total Weight On Bit
It is important that the minimum weight on the bit be maintained throughout the hole depth. As the
hole gets deeper and pipe sections are added the holdback pressure control (9a) must be turned IN
(clockwise) to decrease pressure on the bit to compensate for the added weight of the drill pipe.
NOTE When reading the pulldown pressure gauge (27), remember this is hydraulic
pressure and not weight in actual pounds (see bit manufacturer's specifications for
minimum total weight on bit).

26 27
9a

29 28
49 35
9

7
6

44 43
Fig. 4-7 Drilling Controls

6. Rotation Lever 28. Hydraulic System Pressure Gauge


7. Hoist/Pulldown Lever 29. Drilling Air Pressure Gauge
9. Pulldown System Pressure Control 35. Water Injection/Dust Collector Switch
9a. Holdback System Pressure Control 43. Drilling Air Switch
26. Rotation/Left Track Pressure Gauge 44. Pulldown System (Auto Feed) Switch
27. Pulldown Pressure Gauge 49. Water Injection Flow Control

4-24 Operating Instructions


Drilling Procedures

Back Pressure
When a pneumatic tool is operating near the surface, it is exhausting directly to atmosphere and is
producing the maximum horsepower for a given inlet pressure. If any positive pressure above atmo-
spheric pressure (back pressure) is encountered at the exhaust, the tool's efficiency will be reduced.
As the hole is drilled deeper, back pressure is constantly increasing, therefore blow energy will be
reduced.
To compensate for this reduced efficiency, it is necessary to increase air pressure at the inlet.
Increase the inlet pressure until normal drilling rate is obtained.
Rotation Speed
Proper rotation speed is important for long bit life and good penetration.
Refer to manufacturer's bit size vs. rotation speed specifications.
Recommended Rotation Speed Range: 5 - 60 RPM
Use slower rotation for hard abrasive formations.
Use faster rotation for softer, less abrasive formations.
The bit should penetrate about 3/8" (9.7 mm) per tool revolution (except for bits 10" (25.4 cm)
diameter and larger).
For example:
If the rate of penetration is 50 ft. (15.25 m) per hour, the RPM should be about 25.
RPM is about one-half of the penetration rate in feet per hour.
Adjust the rotation to obtain the best drilling rate and to minimize wear on the bit.

Water or Foam Injection


During drilling operations, water or foam injection can be beneficial in some applications.
• Reduces dust damage to drilling equipment on the surface.
• Reduces dust inhalation of the drilling personnel.
• Reduces temperature of the compressed air, preventing close fitting parts from seizing or galling.
• Helps clean the drilled hole when the formation is producing small amounts water.

The following are helpful hints when using water or foam injection:
1. Increase the oil injection rate when water or foam is being used.
2. Test water periodically to assure the proper pH factor. Water with a pH of less than 10 will cause
corrosion on steel parts.
3. Insure that water being used is free from solids contamination.
4. Upon completion of each hole or any time tool is not being used for three or more hours, clean
the tool and the drill pipe by blowing lubricated air through the system.
5. Water or foam injection will cause the tool to corrode if the tool is not properly maintained. Follow
bit manufacturer's maintenance procedures to assure long bit life.

Operating Instructions 4-25


Drilling Procedures

26 27
9a

29 28
49 35
9

7
6

44 43
Fig. 4-7 Drilling Controls

6. Rotation Lever 28. Hydraulic System Pressure Gauge


7. Hoist/Pulldown Lever 29. Drilling Air Pressure Gauge
9. Pulldown System Pressure Control 35. Water Injection/Dust Collector Switch
9a. Holdback System Pressure Control 43. Drilling Air Switch
26. Rotation/Left Track Pressure Gauge 44. Pulldown System (Auto Feed) Switch
27. Pulldown Pressure Gauge 49. Water Injection Flow Control

4-26 Operating Instructions


Drilling Procedures

Drilling with a Down The Hole Hammer - continued


Suggested Operating Procedures
1. Maintain good pulldown pressure on the tool and insure that the hole is being cleaned.
2. Small amounts of water may form mud and partially block the hole. Inject about 1-4 GPM (3.8 -
15 l/min) of water into the air stream during drilling (see manufacturer's specifications for tool
size vs. water injection rate).
CAUTION:
If the tool starts drilling extremely fast, the pulldown system may not
be capable of maintaining the recommended weight required on the
bit. The piston will strike the bit when it is not against the rock face,
causing severe damage to the bit. Every effort must be made to avoid
this condition.

3. If there is a drop off in the size and volume of cuttings or an air pressure build-up while the tool is
operating at a normal rate, raise the tool without turning off the rotation. Work the tool up and
down to assure that the tool and pipe are free and the hole is clean before continuing to drill.
4. Cracks in the formation may cause the tool to bind in the hole. Raise the tool, clear the hole with
air and work the tool up and down to assure the tool and pipe are free, before continuing to drill.
Rotate slowly and feed the tool down the hole slowly to resume drilling.
5. If the top of the hole craters and cuttings and debris fall into the hole, install a short length of
casing into the hole. Allow the casing to extend about 6 in. (15.2 cm) above the surface and pack
rags, clay or dirt around the outside of the casing.
6. When rotation stops, the tool will continue hammering until it is raised up off the bottom. If the tool
is not raised up off the bottom, the bit carbides will become buried in the formation. Severe
damage to the bit can occur if rotation is resumed without first raising the tool up off the rock
surface.
7. Very rough rotation can be caused by a dull bit or in certain rock formations.
8. If tool fails to function properly, refer to manufacturer's service and troubleshooting information.

Operating Instructions 4-27


Multiple Pass Drilling

26 27
9a

29 28
49 35
9

7
6

44 43
Fig. 4-7 Drilling Controls

6. Rotation Lever 28. Hydraulic System Pressure Gauge


7. Hoist/Pulldown Lever 29. Drilling Air Pressure Gauge
9. Pulldown System Pressure Control 35. Water Injection/Dust Collector Switch
9a. Holdback System Pressure Control 43. Drilling Air Switch
26. Rotation/Left Track Pressure Gauge 44. Pulldown System (Auto Feed) Switch
27. Pulldown Pressure Gauge 49. Water Injection Flow Control

31 32 33

30 Fig. 4-8a Drill Function Panel


30. Breakout Wrench - Swing
31. Breakout Wrench - Clamp
32. Holdback System
35 33. Drill Stem Thread Lube
35. Water Injection/Dust Collector
42 40. Drill Pipe Loader - Swing
41
41. Drill Pipe Loader - Rotate
43 42. Drill Pipe Loader - Lock
43. Drilling Air
40 47 44. Auto Feed
45. Fast Down
47. Tool (Deck) Wrench
44

45
4-28 Operating Instructions
Multiple Pass Drilling

Adding Drill Pipe


1. Drill down until the rotary head stops at the bottom of the mast.
2. Disengage the pulldown system by switching Auto Feed Switch (44) OFF. Stop rotation with
Rotation Lever (6).
3. Lift the drill string and align the flats on the drill pipe with the deck wrench. Turn Dust Suppres-
sion Switch (35) OFF, engage Deck Wrench with switch (47) onto pipe, and turn Drilling Air
Switch (43) OFF.
4. Using reverse rotation, break the thread joint and undo the threads slowly, simultaneously raising
the rotary head clear of the bottom threads.

CAUTION:
DO NOT allow drill pipe to drop in deep holes, pipe thread
damage and bit damage will occur.

5. Apply thread grease to the drill pipe threads by pressing Drill Stem Thread Lube Switch (33).
6. Raise the rotary head to the top of the mast with Hoist/Pulldown Lever (7).
7. Swing the drill pipe loader into position using the Pipe Loader Swing Switch (40). A drill pipe
should now be located under the rotary head. If not, you will need to rotate the loader to align the
next pipe.
To Rotate Drill Pipe Loader
a. Unlock the pipe loader by switching the Drill Pipe Loader Lock Switch (42) to UNLOCK.
b. Index the pipe loader to the next position by using the Pipe Loader Rotate Switch (41).
Once in position, lock the loader by switching the Drill Pipe Loader Lock Switch (42) to
LOCK.
8. Lower the rotary head slowly onto the drill pipe, once the head engages the drill pipe thread, stop
lowering the head. Slowly engage forward rotation, keep rotating until the thread joint becomes
tight, which is indicated by an increase in rotation pressure as seen on the Rotation Pressure
Gauge (26).

CAUTION:
ALWAYS tighten the drill pipe joints in the pipe loader.

9. Lift the drill pipe clear of the holder on the pipe loader and swing the loader out to the drilling
position using the Drill Pipe Loader Swing Switch (40).
10. Lower the drill pipe until it engages with the pipe in the deck wrench. Slowly rotate the drill pipe in
the forward direction until the joint becomes tight, which is indicated by an increase in rotation
pressure as seen on the Rotation Pressure Gauge (26).
11. Retract the deck wrench, using the Deck Wrench switch (47). You are now ready to resume
drilling.

Operating Instructions 4-29


Retracting Drill Pipe

26 27
9a

29 28
49 35
9

7
6

44 43
Fig. 4-7 Drilling Controls

6. Rotation Lever 28. Hydraulic System Pressure Gauge


7. Hoist/Pulldown Lever 29. Drilling Air Pressure Gauge
9. Pulldown System Pressure Control 35. Water Injection/Dust Collector Switch
9a. Holdback System Pressure Control 43. Drilling Air Switch
26. Rotation/Left Track Pressure Gauge 44. Pulldown System (Auto Feed) Switch
27. Pulldown Pressure Gauge 49. Water Injection Flow Control

31 32 33

30 Fig. 4-8a Drill Function Panel


30. Breakout Wrench - Swing
31. Breakout Wrench - Clamp
32. Holdback System
35 33. Drill Stem Thread Lube
35. Water Injection/Dust Collector
42 40. Drill Pipe Loader - Swing
41
41. Drill Pipe Loader - Rotate
43 42. Drill Pipe Loader - Lock
43. Drilling Air
40 47 44. Auto Feed
45. Fast Down
47. Tool (Deck) Wrench
44

45
4-30 Operating Instructions
Retracting Drill Pipe

1. Once the desired hole depth is reached, turn the Auto Feed switch (44) OFF and raise the rotary
head with the Hoist/Pulldown lever (7) until the drill pipe thread joint is above the deck wrench.
2. Turn the Water Injection/Dust Collector Switch (35) and Drilling Air switch (43) OFF.
3. Align the flats on the lower drill pipe with the deck wrench, the flats should be approximately 2
inches above the deck wrench. Engage the deck wrench on the flats of the drill pipe using Deck
Wrench switch (47).
4. Slowly place the Rotation lever (6) into reverse and allow the rotation pressure to increase until
the drill pipe joint breaks loose.

WARNING:
If the upper thread joint becomes loose before the lower joint,
retighten the upper joint and use the breakout wrench to loosen the
lower joint.
DO NOT allow the upper drill pipe joint to unscrew unless positioned
in the drill pipe loader.

5. Once the pipe joint is broken loose, continue reverse rotation and simultaneously raise the rotary
head with the Hoist/Pulldown lever (7) until the threads are disengaged. Stop rotation.
6. Raise the drill pipe until the bottom of the drill pipe will clear the drill pipe holder when the loader
is swung into the center of the mast.
7. Align the flats on the drill pipe to the same position that would be required to engage the deck
wrench.
8. Swing the pipe loader into the center of the mast with the Drill Pipe Loader Swing switch (40),
ensuring that the drill pipe goes into the pipe loader easily. Do not force the drill pipe into the pipe
loader.
9. Once the loader is in position, lower the drill pipe into the holder, stop the pipe approximately 2
inches (5 cm) from the bottom of the holder.
10. Slowly place the Rotation lever (6) in reverse, allowing the rotation pressure to increase until
the top joint breaks, which can be identified by a decrease in rotation pressure. Once the joint
breaks, continue reverse rotation until the drill pipe drops into the holder.

WARNING:
NEVER use excessive force when breaking joints. Make sure loader
locking pin is locked before attempting to break joints. Make sure drill
pipe is properly secured in loader.

11. Once the rotary head is disengaged from the drill pipe, raise the rotary head at least 8 inches,
so it will clear the top of the drill pipe.
12. Swing pipe loader to the drilling position. Use Drill Pipe Loader Rotate switch (41) to rotate
carousel to the next position if required.
13. Lower rotary head to the drill pipe in the deck wrench using the Hoist/Pulldown lever (7). Use
the Fast Down switch (45) to increase the lowering speed of the rotary head. Use forward
rotation to engage and tighten to full rotation pressure to ensure joint will remain tight.
14. Repeat items 3-13 until all pipes have been removed.

Operating Instructions 4-31


Notes

4-32 Operating Instructions


Section 5

Drilling Practices

Drilling Practices 5-1


Drilling Terminology

A.P.I. Thread Penetration Rate


American Petroleum Industry Standard type thread. The speed at which the drill bit is cutting.

Beco Thread Pulldown


A heavy duty thread type used on Blast Hole drill The amount of weight that is being applied to the bit.
pipe.
Stabilizers
Bit Basket Stabilizers are used to reduce possible hole deflec-
Used to hold the drill bit when adding or removing the tion.
bit.
Substitutes (Subs)
Blade Bit Subs or adapters are used where different thread
A drill bit with three or four fixed cutting edges. sizes or types are required to be joined together.

Bootleg T.C.I.
The portion of the borehole remaining after the blast. Tungsten Carbide Inserts, used on Tri-Cone roller
bits.
Carousel
The carousel or drill pipe loader is used to hold spare Thread Grease
drill pipe in the mast for deeper drilling Thread Grease is used to lubricate the threads on
requirements. the pipe.

Compressed Air Tri-Cone Roller Bit


Used to blow drilled cuttings from the hole and to A drill bit with three rolling cones, inserted with
cool the bit bearings. tungsten carbide buttons or milled teeth.

Down-The-Hole Hammer U.H.V.


A pneumatically operated bottom-hole percussion Up Hole Velocity, is the speed at which the drill
drill that is rotated mechanically by the drill rig. cuttings are being blown out of the hole,
this speed is usually referred to in feet per minute.
Drill Bit
Drill bits are used to break the rock by a chipping or Water Injection
cutting action Used to help with dust suppression and aid hole
cleaning.
Drill Pipe
Drill pipe is used as a modem to rotate the drill bit,
transfer force to the drill bit and to pass air or water
to the bit to aid in hole cleaning.

Dust Collector
Used to control dust exiting the drill hole.

Nozzles
Orifices in the bit used to control air flow and pres-
sure.

5-2 Drilling Practices


Bit Weight & Rotary Speeds

Many variations in formation characteristics can affect the weight on bit and rotary speed require-
ments. Your own field experience is the best guideline for determining the appropriate weight on bit and
rotation speed combination for your particular drilling operation. However, bit force and rotation speeds
must be kept within the safe and economic limits of the drill rig and drill string.
When calculating the pulldown force on the drill bit, you must include the weights of the rotary head
and drill string into your calculation, because when more drill pipes are added, the weight on the bit will
increase and in some cases it may be necessary to reduce the hydraulic pulldown force being supplied to
avoid blocking or damaging the drill bit.
Drill bit manufacturers suggest that a pulldown force of 3500-7000 pounds per inch of drill bit
diameter can be exerted to the drill bit in the right drilling conditions, however this is only a guideline and
ground conditions will dictate how much weight can be applied.

PULLDOWN FORCE CALCULATION

Bit Diameter = 7- 7/8"


7.875 x 3500 = 27,562.5 Pounds Force
7.875 x 7000 = 55,125 Pounds Force

The Reedrill Infinity Series Drills utilize hydraulic pressure to exert pulldown force on the drill bit; this
pressure is indicated on the pulldown system pressure gauge. However, the pressure readings on this
gauge indicate hydraulic pressure only and must be converted into actual Weight on Bit (pounds force)
per square inch of drill bit diameter.

Check with your bit supplier for optimum drilling efficiency operation.

Laboratory experiments have shown that uniform rock formations, when drilled with rotary drill bits
react as follows:

1. Penetration rate is at least directly proportional to the weight on bit.


2. Penetration rate is directly proportional to the rotary speed.

In principal, the faster that we could rotate and the more weight we put on the drill bit, the higher the
rate of penetration. Although in actual drilling practices it is important to note that the many variations in
formation characteristics, drill bit condition and chip removal affect the rate of penetration, therefore
statements 1 and 2 must only serve as a guideline.

In soft, easily drilled formations, the use of high pulldown pressures are restricted due to the drill bit's
tendency to "Ball Up" thereby reducing its efficiency. However, it is usually possible to offset the reduction
in pulldown force by increasing the rotary speed. The danger of bit damage is reduced in low strength
formations.

The extent to which you can increase the rotary speed is limited by the presence of abrasive prop-
erties and the ability to clear the cuttings immediately from the bit face, which would prematurely erode
the cutting structure or bit bearings under excessive rotary speeds.

Drilling Practices 5-3


Bit Weight & Rotary Speeds

In hard formations, it is necessary to use higher pulldown pressures to overcome the compressive
strength of the rock formation. The operation of tri-cone roller bits in hard rock is complicated by the sliding
and skipping of the bit cutters as the rock breaks away unevenly. Failure to get complete clearing of the drill
cuttings becomes a larger problem when high rotation speeds are used. The use of excessive rotation
speeds can cause increased abrasive wear and create shock loads too great for the drill bit, pipe and drill
rig. Therefore, there may be little advantage in increasing rotary speeds above recommended levels.
Smooth vibration free drilling produces holes most efficiently and possible gains from high rotation speeds
may need to be sacrificed to get a constant rate of penetration and economical bit life.

5-4 Drilling Practices


Rotary Drill Bits

The two main bit types available for rotary blast hole drilling are:

1. Drag or Blade Bits


2. Tri-Cone Roller Bits

Rotary drill bits operate using a combination of two forces:

1. Thrust "Weight on Bit"


2. Torque "Rotation"

Drill bits must make chips or cuttings and combined with air pressure and volume contribute to the
clearing of the drilled cuttings.

Drag Bits
Drag bits are used in soft formations like clay, shale, and soft overburden materials. These bits
make maximum use of rotary torque for chip making.
Drag bits generally have 3 or 4 cutting wings which are tipped with tungsten carbide inserts to resist
heat during drilling.

Advantages of Drag Bits

1. Relatively low in cost compared to tri-cone roller bits.


2. High penetration rates in soft formations.
3. Good penetration of difficult formations such as clay.

Disadvantages of Drag Bits

1. Shorter service life than tri-cone bits.


2. Not good for drilling hard formations.
3. Unstabilized drag bits are prone to drill crooked holes.

Drilling Practices 5-5


Rotary Drill Bits

Tri-Cone Roller Bits


Tri-Cone roller bits are made for four general types of drilling conditions, these are soft, medium, hard
and very hard ground formations.

Roller bits consist of a bit body with three cones equipped with steel teeth or tungsten carbide buttons.
The teeth or buttons are distributed over the three roller cones in such a manner that the entire bottom of
the hole is worked when the bit is rotated.

General characteristics for soft formation bits are that the bits have larger, more widely spaced teeth
or buttons and differing cone centering geometry, while hard formation bits have smaller tungsten carbide
inserts for cutting teeth which are closely spaced to reduce torque and the size of the chips in hard material.

The cones of the drill bit are mounted on bearings which are designed to withstand the thrust and
rotation forces exerted on the bit. The gauge or size for the bit is protected by hard facing or tungsten
compacts on the outer surface of the cones and the shirt tails of the bit body.

Tri-cone bits are fitted with air tubes and nozzles which allow air to pass through the bit. The air tubes
are designed to allow air to pass through the bit. The air tubes are designed to allow air to flow through to
the bit bearings, the air then aids in cooling and cleaning the bearings.

The bit nozzles allow the main volume of air to flow through the bit for cleaning the cuttings from the
hole. These nozzles are designed so that different sized orifices can be installed for different drilling condi-
tions.

To make sure air gets down to the bearing air tubes, ensure a certain amount of working air pressure
at the bit face. Change this pressure by changing the size of the nozzles, which might be needed if the
drilling conditions get softer. The orifice size would probably need to be increased to allow more air to pass
through the bit for better hole cleaning.

Advantages of Tungsten Carbide, Tri-Cone Roller Bits

1. Four to Ten times more footage per bit than conventional hard formation steel tooth bits.
2. The penetration rate will usually equal or exceed that of conventional hard formation bits.
3. Higher feed pressures can be used in hard formations.
4. Bits can be used in both soft and hard formations.

Disadvantages of Tungsten Carbide, Tri-Cone Roller Bits

1. More expensive than conventional bits.


2. Generally not good for drilling clay formations.

5-6 Drilling Practices


Rotary Drill Bits

Tri-Cone Roller Bits (continued)


Tungsten carbide bits may cost more than steel tooth bits and economics must be considered when
choosing the correct bits for each application and should enter into your decision when to use them.

All tungsten carbide bit designs incorporated the use of compacts in the gauge surface or the
cones, and varying combinations of compacts and hard facing on the gauge surface of the bit leg to
provide increased resistance to abrasive wear.

When the formation is relatively uniform, these bits characteristically drill at a constant penetration
rate throughout their life.

Sufficient weight must be applied to the bit to produce an effective chipping-crushing action of the
formation. However, you should be aware that weights in excess of "sufficient" are not necessarily eco-
nomical, as they may result in breakage of the compacts as well as reducing the life of the bearings.

Normally the weights used on tri-cone roller bits range from 3,500 to 7,000 pounds per inch of bit
diameter with rotary speeds varying up to 200 revolutions per minute.

Drilling Practices 5-7


Rotary Blast Hole Drill Strings

Drill Pipe
Drill pipe is used as a modem to transfer rotation to the drill bit and to convey air to clean the
cuttings from the hole.

Blast hole drill pipe is selected to suit the diameter of the hole being drilled, the pulldown and
hoisting capacity of the machine, and up-hole velocity requirements to clean the hole.

Standard drill pipe is designed to be run in tension. Drill pipe run in tension is held relatively straight,
bending and wear are therefore kept to a minimum. However, Blast Hole rigs apply pressure to the bit
through the pull-down system on the machine.

Since blast hole pipe is run in compression it must be made from heavy wall tubing to resist forces
which not only may be high, but are also changing rapidly. The pipe must continue to do this in spite of
abrasive wear and continual bending stresses. Drilling operations often place great stresses on the drill
string, therefore the drill pipe must be manufactured to the highest degree to achieve the ultimate ser-
vice life.

Periodic inspections should be made of the condition of your drill pipe and should include the follow-
ing items:

1. Outside diameter measurement of pipe.


2. Check welded joints for cracks or excess wear.
3. Check threads for excessive wear or galling.
4. Check pipe for bends or eccentric joints.

Fabricated Drill Pipe


Blast hole drill pipe design features tool joints made from steels selected specifically for the applica-
tion and heat treated to obtain optimum strength and toughness.

The tool joints are designed with long tangs that are internally tapered, which enables them to be
forced or shrink fitted to the tubing and then welded. Wrench slots or flats are milled to suit the break-out
requirements of the drill.

5-8 Drilling Practices


Rotary Blast Hole Drill Strings

Pipe Threads
There are many different types of threads available for drill pipe connections most of which are not
acceptable for blast hole drilling because of their vulnerability to damage from excessive forces to the drill
string in blast hole drilling.

The two most commonly used threads are:

1. A.P.I. Regular (American Petroleum Industry Standard)


2. BECO style thread

With the increase in demand for efficient, economical blast hole drilling, it was observed that several
factors caused greater thread wear on blast hole drills.

1. The drilling of multiple pass holes demands frequent pipe changes. This increased frequency greatly
contributes to thread wear.
2. The coupling of the rotary head to a drill pipe in the pipe loader often occurs at an elevation high in
the mast, affording very poor visibility to the operator. This operation is often done by feel and
cross threading is not an uncommon result.
3. Thread loading during joint make-up should be instrument controlled. The rotary head used on blast
hole drills can generate very high torque and the skills of the operator usually determines the actual
magnitude of the axial forces used. A careless operator can destroy the threads if care is not
exercised.
4. All drill pipe that operates in compression has the tendency to bend and rub on the walls of the hole.
These bending forces also act on the threads which increases the possibility of cracks, breaks and
tool joint failures.

A.P.I. Regular Threads


Field experiences have shown that the normal A.P.I. Regular threads have displayed less than satisfac-
tory life under the above conditions. The majority of drill bits are provided with A.P.I. Regular pins, but since
bit changes are less frequent than pipe changes, thread wear is less, making the A.P.I. Regular threads
acceptable for bit connections.

BECO Threads
The primary feature of the BECO thread series is that 2 threads per inch pitch is utilized. This coarser
thread survives much better under adverse conditions. The coarse threads are stronger, less susceptible to
damage, more tolerant of wear and easier to loosen from a tight condition. Since the incorporation of the
BECO thread system in the early 1960's, the thread has become an unofficial world wide standard for drill
pipe used in rotary blast hole drilling operations.

Drilling Practices 5-9


Rotary Blast Hole Drill Strings

Thread Grease
Precision machined threads and shoulders must be protected from damage. Threads are subjected to
a lot of abuse, therefore it is imperative that they are inspected and greased regularly. Prior to each use,
clean and visually inspect each pin and box for thread and shoulder damage. Check carefully for galls,
burrs, scratches and particularly for cracks. Clean or repair if necessary. Use a zinc, lead or copper based
lubricant that is recommended for rotary connections and apply thoroughly to all thread and shoulder
surfaces. Ensure grease is clean and free of dust and debris.

Substitutes
Substitutes (subs) or adapters are used where threads of one size or type must be coupled with
threads of another size or type. They are also used at points of heat wear to provide readily replaceable
threads. Changes in drill pipe diameter must occur gradually. Subs should be gently tapered.

5-10 Drilling Practices


Drill Bit Stabilizers

Drill bit stabilizers are used to reduce possible hole deflection and to ensure that the drill bit runs
concentrically (evenly in the center of the hole) about its axis and thereby optimizes bit life and penetration
rates.

There are two main types of stabilizers available, blade and roller. Blade stabilizers have fixed wings
that have been either hard faced or mounted with tungsten carbide inserts. Roller stabilizers are mounted
with replaceable rollers which are built up with a special tungsten carbide weld and held in place by long
lasting non grease bearings.

Advantages of Blade Type Stabilizers

1. Generally cheaper.
2. May use replaceable wear bars for rapid rebuilding.
3. Can use replaceable sleeves.

Disadvantages of Blade Type Stabilizers

1. Require rebuilding for each new drill bit.


2. Have relatively high torque requirements.
3. In hard ground they may provide little stabilization after the first couple of holes.

Advantages of Roller Type Stabilizers

1. Lower torque requirements than blades.


2. Better stabilization.
3. Generally give more economical life.
4. Throw away or replaceable rollers.

Disadvantages of Roller Type Stabilizers

1. High purchase cost.


2. Expensive replacement of parts

Drilling Practices 5-11


Compressed Air

Compressed air is the most common method used with blast hole drills for clearing chips from the
hole. The advantages of drilling blast holes with compressed air are fast chip removal, and that holes are
normally left dry.

In some circumstances a controlled amount of water or foam can be injected into the air stream to
aid chip removal, enhance hole stability and control dust problems.

Chips not cleared immediately will be broken into smaller pieces. Secondary breaking wastes en-
ergy and increases bit wear.

Air Requirements
In rotary blast hole drilling we must always be concerned with delivery of air in sufficient volume and
at the proper pressure to assure optimum bit life when drilling with recommended bit weight and RPM.
Sufficient air volume should be provided to produce an up-hole velocity of 4,000 to 6,000 feet per minute
( 1220 to 1830 meters per minute).

Up-Hole Velocity Calculations


Cubic Feet Per Minute:

Velocity = Free Air CFM x 183.4


2
(D2 - d ) .7854 in inches
D = Bit Diameter d = Drill Pipe Diameter

5-12 Drilling Practices


Drilling Related Problems

The majority of drilling problems originate from errors in judgement or simply from making a bad
decision. Drilling problems generally offer several courses or action to overcome the drilling problem,
therefore we must make a decision to try another method of operation to rectify the problem. Drilling
decisions often avert or accelerate the complex drilling difficulties which we refer to as drilling problems.

EXAMPLE:

a. A decision may be made a long time before the problem is evident, like deciding to use
inadequate up hole air velocity. This may lead to slow, inefficient drilling or stuck drill strings.

b. Or the decision can bring immediate problems, like a decision to increase the pulldown
pressure may result in premature failure of the drill bit.

During drilling operations every action taken may have consequences. Operators must recognize
that their job involves a continuous sequence of making decisions and the quality of these decisions
determines the quality of the operator's performance.

Drilling consists of a continuing sequence of:

1. Being aware
2. Interpreting indicators or messages
3. Making decisions
4. Monitoring results

Many drilling problems are revealed to the operator by an indicator. This indicator can take almost
any form (e.g.: a reduction in the volume of drill cuttings being cleared from the hole). This may not be a
problem in itself, but it could be an indicator of a problem developing down the hole, therefore if the
operator knows the indicators, they are then made aware of the pending problem.

Human Error Problems


These problems have a direct and usually short term connection with a decision (e.g.: The operator
decides to try and drill one more hole with a badly worn bit before changing the bit).

Operational Related Problems


These problems are connected with the failure of the drilling equipment (e.g.: Engine fails while drill
string is in the hole, possibly leading to the drill string becoming stuck while engine is repaired).

Formation Related Problems


Some formations present problems that are not readily solved using the available drilling equipment
or skills (e.g.: Swelling ground formations due to high levels of ground water). These situations should be
viewed as a challenge rather than a problem.

Drilling Practices 5-13


Operating Problems and Indicators

1. Drill Bit Penetration Slows or Stops


This is a statement of an indicator rather than a problem. The solution depends on the correct
diagnosis of the problem, which could be:
a. Formation Change
b. Drill Bit Blocked Up
c. Incorrect Bit Type
d. Dull Drill Bit
e. Incorrect Pulldown Pressure or Rotary Speed
f. Inadequate Hole Cleaning

2. High Drill String Torque


Excessive drill string torque is also an indicator of a pending problem, some of which might be:
a. Excessive Pulldown Pressure
b. Inadequate Hole Cleaning
c. Crooked Hole
d. Damaged or Badly Worn Drill Bit

3. Drill String Vibration


This itself often seems like a problem, but the true problem usually lies in the reason for the vibra-
tion, some of which are:
a. Incorrect Rotary Speed
b. Bent Drill Pipe
c. Eccentric Drill Pipe Joints
d. Incorrect Drill Pipe to Hole Size
e. Crooked Hole
f. Worn Deck Bushing or Stabilizer

4. Stuck Drill Pipe


a. Inadequate Hole Cleaning
b. Crooked Hole
c. Faulty Formations

5-14 Drilling Practices


Solving Drilling Problems

1. Recognize the problem. The operator must be aware of the small problems before they develop into
bigger ones.
2. Analyze the problem. Determine exactly what the problem is, what caused it and what is involved to
rectify the problem.
3. Compare the current problem with others previously encountered to assist in finding the most likely
solution. Decide on a solution.

Experienced operators make decisions almost automatically, they are immediately aware of the signifi-
cance of an indicator. They react spontaneously because their experience tells them the appropriate action
to take. By correctly selecting the desirable action in each situation, an operator will:

1. Maximize the quality of the products of drilling


2. Maximize drilling production

Drilling Practices 5-15


Notes

5-16 Drilling Practices


Section 6

Machine Transport
and Specifications

Specifications and Transport 6-1


Transporting Machine

Mast Removal and Installation


Generally, when transporting the machine, it will be necessary to remove the mast and ship it on a
separate truck, due to weight and height restrictions. Follow the steps outlined below for removal and
installation of the mast.

WARNING:
BE SURE machine is on level and solid ground before
performing any service procedures.
BE SURE hydraulic and pneumatic systems are not
pressurized before removing any fittings or connections.

Mast Removal:
1. Remove drill pipe from mast (refer to "loading and unloading drill pipe" in section 4) and swing
carousel all the way in.
2. Lower mast to horizontal position, so that mast is resting on mast support.
3. Shut down the machine and be sure pressure has been relieved before removing any connections
or fittings. Tag and remove all hydraulic, pneumatic and grease lines to the mast. Use numbered
or lettered caps and plugs to aid in reassembly. Disconnect electrical plug from mast valve bank.
If using one crane for lifting the mast, the lifting slings should be positioned at
NOTE
about a 45o angle from the mast.
4. Attach four (4) steel cable lifting slings to the mast at the lifting points. Two are located at the
mast crown and two are located at the mast base. Use a crane capable of supporting the weight
of the mast and able to lift the mast high enough to clear the height of the machine (refer to
machine specifications). Attach two guide ropes to mast to control swinging of mast.
5. Remove the two capscrews that secure the mast pivot lug cap and remove cap from each side
of mast (fig. 6-1).
6. Support the mast cylinders to prevent movement after the cylinder pins are removed. Raise the
mast slightly to take weight off the mast cylinder pins and remove the cotter pins and cylinder
pins from mast.

WARNING:
Keep all personnel clear of mast when lifting. Do not
allow anyone under mast when lifting.

7. Lift mast clear of machine and tram machine out from under mast. Position trailer under mast and
lower mast onto trailer and secure for transport (refer to loading and unloading procedures).
8. Using a suitable lifting device lean the mast cylinders forward and secure to the "A" Frame if the
machine is being transported.

6-2 Specifications and Transport


Transporting Machine

Fig. 6-1 SKF Mast Assembly (lower end)


1. Pivot Lug (2)
2. Capscrew (4), Torque to 1363 Ft. Lbs. (1853.7 Nm)

Mast Installation:

WARNING:
Keep all personnel clear of mast when lifting. Do not
allow anyone under mast when lifting.

NOTE If using one crane for lifting the mast, the lifting slings should be positioned at
about a 45o angle from the mast.
1. Attach four (4) steel cable lifting slings to the mast at the lifting points. Two are located at the
mast crown and two are located at the mast base . Use a crane capable of supporting the weight
of the mast and able to lift the mast high enough to clear the height of the machine (refer to
machine specifications on previous pages). Attach two guide ropes to mast to control swinging of
mast.
2. Be sure area of mast installation is level and ground is solid. Apply a coat of grease to the mast
pivot bushings. Position machine under mast and carefully lower mast, aligning the mast pivot lugs
with the pivot bushings on the "A" Frame. Mast should be resting on the pivot bushings and the
mast rest at the front of the machine.
3. Position the mast lift cylinders to line up with the holes in the mast. The mast may have to be
lifted slightly to align the holes. Install pins, washers and cotter pins.
4. Install the pivot lug caps with capscrews and washers. Torque capscrews to 1363 Ft. Lbs.
(1853.7 Nm).
5. Connect all hoses, by matching the numbered or lettered caps and plugs. Be sure all grease lines
are installed (if used). Connect electrical connection to mast valve bank. Be sure all connections
are tight. Start machine and check for any leaks.

Specifications and Transport 6-3


Transporting Machine

Loading and Unloading of Machine

1
1 1
1

Fig. 6-2 Machine ready for transport


1. Tiedown points (4 per side)

Loading Machine:
WARNING:
This machine is to be operated only by trained personnel, or a
copy of the SKF Operator Manual must be provided to person-
nel involved with loading and unloading of machine. Operator
must read and understand the safety, start-up, shutdown and
operation sections of the manual.

1. Raise dust curtains and secure with rope to prevent interference with trailer wheels (fig. 6-3).
2. Place any loose items into tool box, such as brass bushings from mast pivot, bit sub, etc.
3. Place mast raise cylinders against mast "A" frame and secure with rope to keep them from
moving.
4. Remove walkway from cab. Support walkway with forklift or overhead lifting device and remove the
four bolts that secure walkway to frame. Load walkway onto trailer with mast. Install the four bolts
back on the frame, so they do not get lost.
5. Cross tape all windows with duct tape.
6. Be sure jacks are raised all the way up and secure jack pads with chain and nut (provided on each
pad). Tram machine onto trailer in reverse for greater visibility.
7. If lifting machine onto trailer or ship, use the lifting lugs welded to the jack housings. If unit is not
equipped with lifting lugs, contact Reedrill for lifting information for your machine.
8. Tape exhaust(s) closed, clip all chains on handrail openings, check to see that all doors are closed
tight and ignition is turned off. If unit is equipped with a battery disconnect switch, this should be
turned off.
9. Machine should be secured to trailer at four places on each side (fig. 6-2). Secure frame to trailer at
front and rear and secure track to trailer at front and rear.

6-4 Specifications and Transport


Transporting Machine

Fig. 6-3 Dust Curtain - tied up

Unloading Machine:

WARNING:
This machine is to be operated only by trained personnel, or a
copy of the SKF Operator Manual must be provided to person-
nel involved with loading and unloading of machine. Operator
must read and understand the safety, start-up, shutdown and
operation sections of the manual.

1. Inspect machine for damage before unloading.


2. Remove tape from exhaust(s) and switch battery disconnect switch on (if so equipped).
3. With all tie-downs removed, propel machine off trailer and position on solid level ground.
4. Install cab walkway and mast (refer to mast installation on previous page).
5. Complete checklist on "Commissioning A New Machine" in section 4 of this manual or complete the
"Pre Start" checklist also in section 4 of this manual.

Specifications and Transport 6-5


Transient Stability Limits

6-6 Specifications and Transport


Transporting Machine

Loading and Unloading of Mast

1 1 2
1

Fig. 6-4 Mast ready for transport


1. Tiedown points - mast crown lifting lug, middle and mast base lifting lug
2. Cab Walkway
Loading Mast:

WARNING:
Keep all personnel clear of mast when lifting. Do not
allow anyone under mast when lifting.

If using one crane for lifting the mast, the lifting slings should be positioned at
NOTE o
about a 45 angle from the mast.
1. Attach four (4) steel cable lifting slings to the mast at the lifting points. Two are located at the mast
crown and two are located at the mast base. Use a crane capable of supporting the weight of the
mast and able to lift the mast high enough to clear the height of the machine (refer to machine
specifications on previous pages). Attach two guide ropes to mast to control swinging of mast.
2. Load mast on trailer with mast crown (top) at rear of trailer. Secure mast to trailer using the lifting
lugs (two at mast crown and two at mast base) as tiedown points. Secure mast to trailer at midpoint
also.
Unloading Mast:
1. For unloading of mast, refer to "Mast Installation" on page 3 of this section.

Fig. 6-5 Mast Tie Down Detail

Specifications and Transport 6-7


Machine Specifications

Fig. 6-6 SKF dimensions - less mast

6-8 Specifications and Transport


Machine Specifications

Shipping Dimensions and Weights


Base Machine
Length Width Height Weight
30'-6 5/8" (931.2 cm) 13'-2" (401.3 cm) 13'-6" (411.5 cm) 82,000 lbs. (37,228 kg.)

25 Ft. (7.6 m) Mast


Length Width Height Weight
33' (1005.8 cm) 5'-6" (167.6 cm) 6' (182.9 cm) 26,000 lbs. (11,804 kg.)

30 Ft. (9.2 m) Mast


Length Width Height Weight
40' (1219.2 cm) 5'-6" (167.6 cm) 6' (182.9 cm) 28,000 lbs. (12,712 kg.)

35 Ft. (10.7 m) Mast


Length Width Height Weight
49' (1493.5 cm) 7' (213.4 cm) 7' (213.4 cm) 41,000 lbs. (18,614 kg.)

Specifications and Transport 6-9


Metric Conversions

CONVERT STANDARD INTO METRIC MULTIPLY BY

Lengths
Inches (") Millimeters (mm) 25.4
Feet (') Meters (m) 0.3
Yards (yds) Meters (m) 0.91
Miles (mls) Kilometers (km) 1.61

Area
Square Inches Centimeters Squared 6.5
Square Feet Meters Squared 0.09
Square Yards Meters Squared 0.084

Volume
Cubic Inches Centimeters Cubed 16.4
Cubic Feet Meters Cubed 0.0283
US Gallons Liters 3.8
Imperial Gallons Liters 4.5

Density
Pounds / US Gallon Kilograms / Liter 0.12

Mass
Ounces (oz) Grams 28.3
Pounds (lbs) Kilograms 0.45
Pounds (lbs) Tons (short) 0.0005

Force
Pounds Newtons 4.4
Kilograms Newtons 9.8

Torque
Foot Pounds Kilogram Meters 0.14
Foot Pounds Newton Meters 1.4

Pressure
Pounds / Square Inch KiloPascals 6.9
Pounds / Square Inch Bars (atmospheres) 0.07

Power
Horse Power Kilowatts 0.746

Temperature
Fahrenheit Celsius C = 5/9 (F-32)

6-10 Specifications and Transport