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J. Opt. Commun.

2019; aop

Farman Ali*, Yousaf Khan and Shahryar Shafique Qureshi

Transmission Performance Comparison of 16*100 Gbps Dense
Wavelength Division Multiplexed Long Haul Optical Networks
at Different Advance Modulation Formats under the Influence
of Nonlinear Impairments
https://doi.org/10.1515/joc-2018-0185 communication system [1, 2]. Optical fiber offer very
Received September 11, 2018; accepted January 15, 2019 large bandwidth so multiple channels can be transmitted
through the common fiber using concept of WDM system.
Abstract: Higher spectral efficiency and data rate per
In Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) sys-
channel are the most cost-effective approaches to meet
tem, spaces among wavelengths more closely than WDM
the exponential demand of data traffic in optical fiber
optical transmission technique spaces among wave-
network communication system. In this paper, diverse
lengths more closely than WDM system and therefore
modulation formats are analyzed for Dense Wavelength
DWDM has data rate speed more than 10 Gbps/channel
Division Multiplexed system at 100 Gbps * 16 = 1600 Gbps
in long-haul fiber optics communication system. The
data rates. The performance analysis of proffered system
ultra-high data rates and long-haul optical network
for Non-Return to Zero, Return to Zero, Carrier-
includes dispersion and nonlinearity effects which must
Suppressed Return to Zero and Duo binary RZ with duty
be managed to achieve high transmission range [3–5].
cycle 0.5 to 0.7 ranges like modulation formats are con-
The key technique that keeps the total accumulated dis-
sidered to find optimum modulation format for a 100
persion low while suppressing nonlinear effects is the
Gbps bit rate per channel optical fiber transmission net-
opposite value of dispersion . Fiber Bragg Grating (FBR),
work system. The simulations are analyzed for different
Dispersion Compensation Fiber (DCF), optical phase con-
values of input power, length of fiber, nonlinear refrac-
jugation and electrical equalizer are the ways through
tive index, nonlinear dispersion and nonlinear effective
which dispersion compensation can be achieved. DCF
area for all above mentioned modulation formats with
and FBR techniques are used in this paper for dispersion
spacing 100 to 250 GHz. to evaluate the effect of modula-
compensation. Positive dispersion of a Single Mode Fiber
tion format Fiber Bragg Gratting, optical fiber amplifier
(SMF) can be compensated by negative dispersion of DCF
and Dispersion Compensation Fiber dispersion compen-
in dispersion management system [6, 7]. RZ and NRZ
sation techniques are enacted on this proposed optical
modulation formats are most often used in conventional
network system.
standard fiber transmission lines. CSRZ and duo binary
Keywords: carrier suppressed return to zero (CSRZ), non [6–9] modulation formats are also analyzed in this paper.
return to zero (NRZ), return to zero (RZ), duo binary At high bit rates the modulation formats, type of
return to zero (DRZ) dispersion compensation scheme, and channel power
become important issues for optimum system design.
The factors such as spectral efficiency, power margin
1 Introduction and tolerance against Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD)
and against fiber nonlinearities like SPM (Self Phase
Recent advances in optical fiber communication caters to Modulation), XPM (Cross Phase Modulation) FWM (Four
the explosive demand of huge internet traffic by relying Wave Maxing) and SRS (Stimulated Raman Scattering)
on WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) system are necessary terms that should be considered for right
using all optical amplifier and programmable switching choice of modulation format.
modules to offer long range, robust and repeater less The spectral efficiency is define as

*Corresponding author: Farman Ali, Electrical, Iqra National

University Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan, ηSE = Bch (1)
E-mail: farman_pukhtun@yahoo.com
Yousaf Khan, Electrical, University of Engineering and Technology
Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan, E-mail: yousafkhalil@gmail.com where B means signal channel bit rate and Δvch denotes
Shahryar Shafique Qureshi, Electrical, Iqra National University channel spacing. The throughput of a DWDM transmis-
Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan, E-mail: its.shahryar@gmail.com sion system can be increased by increasing spectral

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2 F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance

efficiency. To enhance spectral efficiency of the optical 2.2 Self-phase modulation

communication system high advance modulation format
can be used [10]. Optical fiber nonlinearity is the main It is type of non-linear effect which is occurred because
factor limiting the transmission, the modulation formats of the light component interaction. When light travel
are constructed such that they are less susceptible to along the optical fiber with different refractive index
nonlinearity of fiber. The type of modulation format it creates SPM. Hence a change will occur in pulse
which consists of high dimensional code, will present frequency spectrum. The relation of refractive index,
high non-linearity tolerance capability [11]. Power margin nonlinear refractive index and optical intensity [16] is
is the power range in which BER ≤ 10–9 for optical trans- given as
mission system. At low power levels the system perfor-
mance becomes unacceptable and independent of n0 = n1 + n2 I0p (4)
modulation format. By contrast the high levels of power
depend on modulation format choices. Hence the modu-  
lation type which has capability of chirped pulses will P
n0 = n1 + n2 (5)
give clear power property and in results propagation effective Area
distance will be increased [12]. Moreover, the GVD can
Here n0 is the real refractive index regarding to SPM
be compensated by front end compensation and back end
effect, n1 is ordinary refractive index, p is the lunch
compensation. For back end compensation model a bitter
power and nonlinear refractive index represented by n2
option of modulation format is needed [13].
The SPM effect is that optical power variation be con-
In this paper the research is extended to find the
verted to phase variation in same wave.
most suitable modulation format for higher transmission
distance 600 km at 100 GB/s data rate per channel for 16
channel DWDM system with 100 to 250 GHz channel spa-
cing. NRZ, RZ, CSRZ and duo binary modulation formats 2.3 Four wave mixing review
are analyzed in this paper using symmetrical dispersion
compensation schemes on the basis of Bit Error Rate As it is known efficiency of long-haul optical communi-
values in terms of fiber length, nonlinear effective area cation network degraded due to several nonlinear para-
and launch optical power with nonlinear issues. meters. The key parameter which is considered one of the
crucial sources of non-linear effect is FWM. In this pro-
cess, when data is transmitted via Dense Wavelength
Division Multiplexing (DWDM) source the signals inter-
2 Theoretical model acts due to less space of signal frequencies in result some
new un-useful mixed frequencies in the range of original
2.1 Chromatic dispersion frequencies will generate as shown in Figure 1 [17–21]:.

Dispersion is one of the most important impairment in

optical fiber, which occurs due to refractive index of
silica if dependents on wavelength. As light is launched
into fiber as a result various spectral components will
traverse with different group velocities, known as GVD
and can be calculated using [14]

Figure 1: Four waves mixing of three different frequencies with equal

T= (2) spaces.

Where L is used length of the fiber optics proposed Such generated frequencies are given by
system and v shows group velocity. It can also be calcu-
lated in terms of wavelength as shown f = a3 − a2 (6)

ΔT = DLΔλ (3) Where f is the mixed frequencies and a is the passing

Where D is dispersion parameter in ps/nm-km [15]. waves.

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F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance 3

Channel spacing, refractive index, length of fiber and channels. This leads to broadening of pulse. It can be
number of channel are the main causes of the FWM greatly mitigated in WDM system operating over standard
non-linear effect [22, 23]. The extra generated signals non-dispersion shifted SMF [25, 26].
also known as beat frequencies which can be calcu-
lated as:

f new = f l ± f m ± f n (7) 3 Network architecture for different

modulation formats
Here fl, fm and fn signify the frequency of the input
signals and fnew embodies the new generated frequency.
3.1 Overview on network architecture of non
return to zero modulation technique
2.4 Cross phase modulation Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the NRZ transmit-
ter with fiber and receiver parameters. The NRZ mod-
In a multichannel system, the excess bandwidth gener-
ulation pulses a narrow optical spectrum due to lower
ated by the XPM effect is given by
on-off transitions. The lower spectral width improves
the dispersion tolerance but it limits the property of
Δϕnl Δp0 Δp1
= γLe + 2γLe (8) inter symbol interference (ISI) between the pulses. This
Δt Δt Δt evident for isolated spaces between sequences of marks
where the energy of neighboring marks becomes trans-
Where ϕnl is the phase change due to optical power, γ is
formed in the time slot of the isolated spaces resulting
nonlinear parameter, Le is nonlinear effective length and
in ISI effects.
p is the optical power. The XPM induced chirp is twice as
much as that of the SPM induced chirp [18, 19]. Therefore,
it appears that XPM can impose more severe limitation
than SPM for WDM System because effect is twice as 3.2 Overview on network architecture
large for each interfering channel and there can be a lot of return to zero modulation technique
of interfering channels. Theoretically, for a 100 channels
system, XPM imposes a power limit of 0.1 mW per chan- The network design of the RZ modulation format is show
nel. However, fiber dispersion plays a significant role in in Figure 3. The RZ pulse occupies just a part of the bit
the system impact of XPM [22]. In normal dispersion slot, so it has a duty cycle which must be smaller than 1
regime (D0) [24]. This feature leads to a walk off effect with broad spectrum. The RZ signal amplitude between
that tends to reduce XPM effect. In a WDM system, XPM adjacent 1’s return to zero. The RZ spectrum power peak
converts power fluctuation in a particular wavelength larger twice than NRZ spectrum peak power. the main
channel to phase fluctuations in other co-propagating characteristics of RZ modulated signals is a relatively

Figure 2: Network framework of Non Return to

Zero Modulation Format.

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4 F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance

Figure 3: The Network architecture of the RZ

modulation format.

broad spectrum, resulting in a reduced dispersion toler- improved due to its reduced spectral with compared
ance and a reduced spectral efficiency. The RZ pulse to RZ modulation setup [22].
shape enables an increased robustness to fiber nonlinear
effects and to the effects of PMD.

3.4 Overview on duo binary return to zero

advance modulation format
3.3 Overview on carrier suppressed return
to zero (CSRZ) advance modulation format Figure 5 illustrates the schematic diagram of the 100
Gbps per channel duo binary transmitter. The duo binary
CSRZ modulation format is special form of RZ where was generated by first creating RZ duo binary signal
the carrier is suppressed as present in Figure 4 block using a duo-binary Precoder, RZ generator and duo bin-
illustration diagram. It’s main role is reduction in non- ary pulse generator. The generator drives first MZM and
linear impairments, and improvement of the spectral the cascade this modulation process with second modu-
efficiency in a channel for long haul transmitting lator that is driven by sinusoidal electrical signal with the
higher data rate beyond Tbps optical network system. 64 GHZ phase 90. The duo binary Precoder used here is
π phase shift among adjacent bits is the main differ- composed of an exclusive with a delayed feedback path.
ence between CSRZ and conventional RZ modulation Duo-binary RZ advance modulation format are very
formats. This phase shift in optical domain produces attractive because its bandwidth capacity can be com-
non DC component for CSRZ. It can be expected that pressed to high data rate bit speed which is half of NRZ
the dispersion tolerance of CSRZ modulation can be modulation format [24].

Figure 4: Block setup of the CS-RZ modulation

format for 1.6 Tbps high data rate setup.

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F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance 5

Figure 5: Block description diagram Duo Binary

advance modulation set up for 1.6 Tbps data rate.

4 Simulation setup for different The effective areas of SMF and DCF are assumed to
be 80 and 22 μm2, and the included nonlinear process are
modulation formats high data SPM, XPM and FWM. In the receiver the signal is de-
rates transmission network multiplexed via optical Dense wavelength multiplexer
with BW of 2R and 4R bit rate, where then the signals
There are three kinds of simulation software are used pass to FBR for the purpose of further filtration: after
named the Optilux, the Optisystem and the VPI detected by PIN detector with 1 A/W responsitivity,
Photonics. Optisystem simulation software v13.0 is used passed through Low Bessel Filter consist of 0.8*bit rate
for calculating experimentally the proposed research cut off frequency.
work. Figure 6(a–d) show the all four discussed modula- The filtered electrical signal is given to the 3R regen-
tion formats based proposed simulation setup diagram of erator the output of which is connected directly to BER
16 channel long-haul high data rate DWDM optical net- analyzer which is used as a visualize to generate graphs
work with central frequency 193.1 THz. The parameters of and results such as eye diagram, BER, Q-factor and eye
NRZ modulation format for both simulation and fiber opening etc. with 2D and 3D representation.
used in the in the proposed system model are supple-
mented in Table 1.
The proposed simulation models are consisting
of transmitter, medium and the receiver end. Here in 5 Results and discussion
this proposed model the elements of the medium and
the receiver end are the same for all four different The four different modulation formats RZ, NRZ, DRZ and
modulation formats at transmitter end as explained CSRZ have been numerically compared for symmetrical
earlier and mentioned in Figure 6(a–d) at the trans- dispersion compensation schemes for 1600 Gbps DWDM
mitter side. system in terms of received BER value. To analyze the
Optical signals of high data rate from these used four long-haul and high data system, the results of the first
different modulation techniques are fed to 16 input parts channel have been taken. Table 2 shows tabular compar-
of an optical dense wavelength division multiplexer. The ison for modulation formats which clarify the simulation
transmission channel at 1.6 Tbs is designed by using the results of the long-haul and high data rate optical fiber
fiber parameters of DCF and SMF in such a way that network setup.
dispersion is compensated exactly. The gain of the Figure 7 shows the graphical representation of BER
erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and optical fiber value as a function of signal optical input power after
amplifier placed after fiber span such that it compensate transmission distance 600 km for symmetrical compen-
the losses of the preceding fiber. The noise figure of the sation schemes respectively for various modulation for-
amplifier is constant and set to 6 dB. mats. It can be seen for all the modulation formats that

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6 F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance

Figure 6: (a) Simulation set up for symmetrical compensation scheme NRZ modulation based. (b) Simulation set up for symmetrical
compensation scheme RZ modulation based. (c) Simulation set up for symmetrical compensation scheme CSRZ modulation based.
(d) Simulation set up for symmetrical compensation scheme DRZ modulation based.

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F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance 7

Figure 6: (continued)

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8 F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance

Table 1: List of Parameters used for the proposed long-haul high improves with the increase in input optical power.
data rate system. however at higher launch power the wavelengths
tends to overlap each other causing more dominance
Name of the parameter Measurement of the parameter
of non-linear effect like XPM and FWM caused by
Data rate * GHz = . Tbps optical kerr’s effect and thus results in the BER value
Span of SMF  km increase.
Span of DCF  km As shown in Figure 7 for 200 GHz channel spacing
Effective area for SMF and DCF  and  um
and −7 to 0 dBm input optical power level NRZ gives
Channel spacing  GHz
the best performance while RZ with duty cycle 0.5 gives
Reference wavelength  nm
Attenuation . dB/km the worst performance compared with other modula-
Dispersion . ps/nm/km tion formats in terms of BER value. As optical power
Beta- − ps/km level increases above 0 dBm, performance of NRZ
Nonlinear refractive index E-m/w degrades while DRZ and CSRZ achieve lowest BER
value at 7 dBm launch optical power. for optical launch
power above 7 dBm BER value increases for all four
Table 2: Simulations results comparison for all discussed four modulations causing more dominance of linear effects
different modulation formats. like XPM and FWM.
As mention in Figure 8 the graphical results for
Non-linear NRZ RZ DRZ CSRZ 200 GHz channel spacing and 1600 Gbps high data rate
Effective Modulation Modulation Modulation Modulation in terms of BER against function of fiber length. Up to
Area type type type type
600 km length of the optical fiber is used for 1.6 Tbps
 E- .E- .E- .E- data rate. From simulation results it is realized DRZ
 .E- .E- .E- .E- achieve stable performance and at the other side RZ
 .E- .E- .E- .E- modulation technique shows bad performance compare
 .E- .E- .E- .E-
with CSRZ, DZR and NRZ formats. Figure 8 also explains
 .E- .E- .E- .E-
 .E- .E- .E- E-
as the length increases due SPM, XPM and FWM nonli-
 .E- .E- .E- .E- nearity performance of the proposed system degrades for
all four discussed modulation formats. As the length
increases from 600 km of the optical network system
the Kerr effect increases and thus system degrades it
quality position.

Figure 7: BER value against optical input power after transmission

distance of 600 km for 200 GHz channel spacing.

as the signal input power decreases BER value Figure 8: Comparison of BER value as a function of transmission
increases. This can be understood from fact that for distance for proposed four modulation formats in terms of 1.6 Tbps
low launch powers, the performance of DWDM systems high data rate.

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F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance 9

The effect of nonlinear effective area for all four

modulation formats have also discussed as shown in
Figure 9. Results clearly show that BER improves with
increase in non-linear effective area due to minimum
impact of SPM, XPM and FWM nonlinear factors. DRZ
modulation format shows better performance compare
with other three mention modulation formats.
Further addition in simulation results Figure 10(a–d)
show the BER analyzer-diagrams of the different four
modulation formats, which clarify the performance of
the system for 600 km length and 1.6 Tbps high data
rate including non-linearity factors such as XPM, SPM
and FWM.

Figure 9: Comparison of four different modulation formats for high data

rate and long haul optical fiber based on nonlinear effective area vs. BER.

Figure 10: (a) BER analyzer diagram using DRZ modulation format for long-haul and high data rate proposed system. (b) BER analyzer diagram
using NRZ modulation format for long-haul and high data rate proposed system. (c) BER analyzer diagram using CSRZ modulation format for long-
haul and high data rate proposed system. (d) BER analyzer diagram using RZ modulation format for long-haul and high data rate proposed system.

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10 F. Ali et al.: Transmission Performance

10. Fattah AY. Spectral efficiency improvement of the optical com-

6 Conclusion munication systems. Ijccce. 2014;14:44–57.
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