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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MOQUEGUA

LANGUAGE CENTER

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

MONOGRAPH

“MINING AND SOCIAL CONFLICTS”

PRESENTED BY

RAMOS CHIPANA ALAN CECILIO

TEACHER:

Msc. MARTHA ESTHER TICONA ORDOÑEZ

MOQUEGUA – PERU

2018
CONTENT

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 4

CHAPTER I: MINING.................................................................................. 5

1.1. What is the mining? ............................................................................. 5

1.2. Artisanal, illegal and informal mining .................................................... 5

1.2.1. Artisanal mining. ...................................................................... 5

1.2.2. Illegal minery. .......................................................................... 5

1.2.3. Informal mining. ....................................................................... 5

1.3. Importance of mining activity in Peruvian society ................................. 6

CHAPTER II: SOCIAL CONFLICT .............................................................. 7

2.1. Definition of social conflict .................................................................... 7

2.2. Elements of social conflict .................................................................... 7

2.3. Factors behind the social conflict caused by mining activity ................. 8

2.3.1. Environmental factors. ............................................................. 8

2.3.2. Economic factors. .................................................................... 9

2.3.3. Social factors. ........................................................................ 10

2.4. Consequences of social conflict caused by mining activity ................. 10

VOCABULARY ......................................................................................... 11

CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................... 12

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES............................................................. 13

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DEDICATION

To my parents: whom with great


respect and patience they instilled values
in me, whom were a support to reach my
goals. To my brothers whom were a
support moral in my student life.

To the teachers: which patiently


shared with me their knowledge and
attitudes during my learning, for the
support and willingness to teach me.

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INTRODUCTION

Peru is and has been a country conflicting. Many demands and aspirations have
come to social conflicts. The roots of the conflict are in those demands and aspirations,
in the relationship of man with nature, in everyday life , in the abandonment of the state,
in that accumulation of resentment, in stories local, in traditions, in citizenship emerging,
in the new leaders, in respect to the other. Evidence shows that as of January 2015,
according to the Ombudsman's Office, 210 social conflicts are reported at the national
level, registering 140 social-environmental types, 23 for Local Government matters, 15
for territorial demarcation, 10 for communal matters, 8 National Government matters, 6
other conflicts, 5 labor and 4 for matters of Regional Government. In this context, this
monograph has as main objective to study, analyzing and assess the importance of
social conflict produced by activity mining.

The work is divided into two chapters, Chapter I develops the general aspects
related to mining activity in Peru, and in Chapter II, we detail the aspects of social conflict
caused by mining activity.

The following conclusions are reached: The mining activity is an economic activity
that generates considerable economic income that could contribute to develop our
country; however, there are environmental liabilities that have generated distrust in the
population, so that today there are many projects miners without license social. The
environmental degradation generated by the mining sector is one of the country's most
significant problems in this field. A process conflictive leaves adverse consequences
among the actors, especially economic losses and impacts on culture. An inadequate
regulatory system and weak capacity government dramatically limit the contribution of
the mining sector to social development.

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CHAPTER I:

MINING

1.1. What is the mining?

Mining is the extraction selective of the mineral and other materials from the
crust's earth from which an economic benefit can be obtained, as well as the
primary economic activity related to it. Depending on the type of material to extract,
the mining is divided into metallic, non-metallic and ornamental stones and
construction (Cisneros Vasquez, 2015, pág. 39).

After reviewing, the literature to define what is the mining, according to


various authors it is an extractive economic activity.

1.2. Artisanal, illegal and informal mining

1.2.1. Artisanal mining.


Artisanal and small-scale mining (MAPE) refers to informal activities carried
out that use little technology and machinery. It is estimated that more than 100
million people carry out these activities, especially in developing countries. In some
areas you can find conflicts that are due to ASM being practiced in the vicinity of
large-scale mines.

1.2.2. Illegal minery.


They are mining activities that are carried out in breach of the requirements
of administrative, technical, social and environmental standards that govern such
activities, which are located in areas that are not authorized for the exercise of said
activity. Normally, it is possible to develop in remote places, where there are few
State institutions, which makes it difficult to supervise and supervise, in detriment
of legality.

1.2.3. Informal mining.


It is the mining activity that having characteristics of illegal mining, is carried
out in areas authorized for the mining activity and that those who carry it out have
begun a process of formalization within the terms and modalities established in the
regulations on the matter.

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1.3. Importance of mining activity in Peruvian society

“Mining contributes with 11% of internal taxes and with 24.2% of third
category on income tax, that is, it contributes above what it represents in the
structure of the Gross Domestic Product. GDP” (Santillana Santos, 2006).

The contribution of Mining to the economic and social development of the country
can be seen by the economic indicators: more than 5.7% of the national GDP is
produced by mining, as well as more than 59% of total exports is the product of
this activity. Also in the period from 1998 to 2009, the mining sector has invested
US $ 15,863 Million Dollars, which has contributed to generate jobs, boosting the
economy national and regional. Peru is the second largest producer of silver and
copper in the world, the third largest producer of zinc, the fourth largest producer
of lead and the sixth largest producer of gold. In addition, to own other natural
resources (such as natural gas, fish and wood). However, it is a poor country. The
mining sector is characterized by distrust among its main agents and its tendency
to social conflicts (Almeida, Espinoza, Perales, & Luna, 2012).

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CHAPTER II:

SOCIAL CONFLICT

2.1. Definition of social conflict

A social conflict is a complex process in which sectors of society, the State


or companies perceive that their objectives, interests, values or needs are
contradictory. We are therefore facing the demands of many people who feel
threatened or harmed by the pollution of a river, the poor provision of a public
service, the affectation to their labor rights or other reasons, and who are mobilized
to seek explanations about what happened and find solutions. (Defensoría del
Pueblo, 2017)

According to (Tanaka, y otros, 2007) “The conflicts are visualized as a series


of events organized around the differences built between local actors and mining
companies and the positions and actions undertaken by both types of agents to
over time”

2.2. Elements of social conflict

According to (Defensoría del Pueblo, 2017) each conflict has at least three
elements that make it up : the actors, the problems, and the process.

The actors are those whose interests are directly faced. By one side, there
are those who posed the demands and, on the other, those presumed responsible
for the problems. Also are actors who collaborate with the solution to the problems.
The Ombudsman's Office, for example.

The problems occur because at the first no one perspective, everyone talks
from their interests or beliefs. But if we do it a good analysis and you socialize the
information you can move forward to ideas increasingly shared.

The process is the way how the conflict goes, its dynamics. There may be
public protests or measures force looking pressure in favor of their objectives; there
may be processes of dialogue guided by rules accepted by the parties or
precarious meetings and unreliable; you can have a facilitator or mediator or
negotiate directly. It is clear that the processes that are closest to reaching
solutions are those that have legitimacy, are collaborative and effective.

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2.3. Factors behind the social conflict caused by mining activity

2.3.1. Environmental factors.


The mining industry is an extractive activity that in the past has
generated environmental pollution, with the new focus of exploitation mining
(mining green) has reduced its negative effects, however, it can still see in
the mining environmental liabilities in many closed mining projects.

Abandoned mining has a wide range of impacts environmental and


socioeconomic (Worral, Neil, Brereton, & Mulligan, 2009). Among the most
frequent environmental impacts of the abandoned mines are: landscapes
altered physically , waste piles, subsidence, spontaneous combustion of
waste coal , water pollution, buildings and plants abandoned, loss of
vegetation, open shafts, holes . In addition, in abandoned mines there are
numerous sources of contamination for surface water and groundwater as
well as for the soil; for example: acid leaks, metal washing, increase in
sediments and pollution by hydrocarbons. Frequently, mining exposes
materials that are not suitable for the growth of plants, leaving landscapes
deforested, where it is difficult to establishing plants native and plants
colonizers. As a result, mines abandoned are inhospitable to wildlife and
many species do not return to these areas (Worral, Neil, Brereton, &
Mulligan, 2009).

Also (Mundial, 2005) announced that the impact negative and


cumulative of mining operations and smelting (the miner environmental
liabilities or PAMs) that are located throughout the Peruvian territory
constitute a serious health risk and is an important cause of social unrest
between the local communities. The inadequate disposal of tailings and
dismantling, as well as inappropriate methods for the disposal of effluents
hazardous and materials contaminating from mining operations, have
already caused serious cases of leakage, acid drainage and contamination
of bodies water, as well as other negative effects on the biodiversity and
ecosystems. For example, some of the mining activities and metallurgical it
develop along the Rímac River, in conjunction with other sources, including
agricultural-type one, contaminate the sources of drinking water that supplies

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to Metropolitan Lima region where more than 7 million people living. , or,
approximately one third of the Peruvian population. Other river basins
affected by pollution of PAMs include those of Mantaro, Pisco, Madre de
Dios, Llaucano and Santa.

The effects caused by loss or damage to areas agricultural and loss or


degradation of water resources also has caused that the population take an
increasing awareness of effects adverse of mining operations and the
foundries, both of the past and currently, irritating the opposition of the
community to the operations existing and projected and it creating it so
possible sources of conflict.

2.3.2. Economic factors.


According to (Mundial, 2005) Peru, a mining country that is still poor,
due to environmental contamination by the mining activity and due to
limitations in the use and distribution of revenues mining.

Also the mining activity competes with the agricultural activity for the
sources of the water and soil mainly, such as made it know (Zegarra Méndez,
Orihuela, & Paredes, 2006) The relationship between mining and the activity
agrarian is the competition for productive resources. Relation that in our
opinion is a key mobilizer of the tensions that exist between the mining
activity and its rural-agrarian environments. In the sierra, in particular, this
competition for resources seems to be more important, and therefore, the
conditions of conflict for the most obvious.

“The income generated by the investment mining does not reach to


the local communities affected. Mining activity is carried out in areas
socially sensitive, which cause conflicts” (De Echave, y otros, 2009, pág.
330).

Socioeconomic impacts are directly related to environmental impacts


and are often inseparable from these (Worral, Neil, Brereton, & Mulligan,
2009). An important example is the loss of soil with productive potential,
either because the waste mining are buried or because there are erosion,
drainage bad or the contamination directly of the soil. In general, the socio-
economic impacts occurring because it alters a good-needed to human
survival, such as water or the soil productivity or because removes jobs.

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2.3.3. Social factors.
“…Local communities are the actors most affected throughout the process
of coexistence with the mining company, due to the alteration inevitable
of their traditional ways of life due to the exploitation mining of the territory
where they live…” (De Echave, y otros, 2009)

2.4. Consequences of social conflict caused by mining activity

The social conflicts leave in their actors diverse adverse consequences, such
as it manifested (Cisneros Vasquez, 2015) “A process conflictual leaves
consequences among the actors, especially economic losses and impacts on
culture”

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VOCABULARY

Mining /ˈmaɪnɪŋ/

n.

1. the act, process, or industry of extracting ores, coal, etc., from mines.

Environmental /ɛnˈvaɪrənmənt, -ˈvaɪɚn-/

n.

1. the external factors and forces surrounding and affecting an organism, person, or
population:

Investment /ɪnˈvɛstmənt/

n.

the investing of money in order to make a profit.

Liabilities /ˌlaɪəˈbɪlɪtɪz/
n.
moneys owed; debts or pecuniary obligations (opposed to assets).

Throughout /θruːˈaʊt/
prep.
1. in or to every part of:
2. from beginning to end of:
adv.
3. in every part or aspect:
4. at every moment or point:

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CONCLUSIONS

First: The mining activity is an economic activity that generates considerable


economic income that could contribute to develop our country; however, there are
environmental liabilities that have generated mistrust in the population, so that
today there are many mining projects without license social.

Second: A process conflictive leave adverse consequences among the


actors, especially economic losses and impacts on culture.

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BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

Almeida, E., Espinoza, Y., Perales, C., & Luna, S. (2012, Julio 03). Minería en el Perú.
Retrieved Mayo 22, 2018, from http://mineriaperu2012.blogspot.pe/2012/07/la-
importancia-de-la-mineria-en-el-peru.html

Arango Aramburo, M., & Olaya, Y. (2012). Problemática de los pasivos ambientales
mineros en Colombia.

Cisneros Vasquez, R. (2015). Minería y conflicto social en las Comunidades de Tintay y


Huacaña, distrito de Morcolla, pprovincia de Sucre, región Ayacucho 2014.
(Tesis de licenciatura). Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, Huancayo.

De Echave, J., Huber, L., Revesz, B., Ricard Lanata, X., Tanaka, M., & Diez, A. (2009).
Minería y Conflicto Social. Lima: IEP.

Defensoría del Pueblo. (2017, Marzo 13). Blog de la defensoría del pueblo. Retrieved
Mayo 22, 2018, from http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/blog/que-es-un-conflicto-
social/

Hernández Sampieri, R., Fernández Collado, C., & Baptista Lucio, P. (2014).
Metodología de la investigación. México: McGraw-Hill.

Mundial, B. (2005). Riqueza y Sostenibilidad: Dimensiones Sociales y Ambientales de


la Minería en el Perú. 33545.

Sabino, C. (1992). El Proceso de Investigación. Buenos Aires: Lumen.

Santillana Santos, M. E. (2006). La importancia de la actividad minera en la economía y


sociedad peruana. Santiago: CEPAL.

Tanaka, M., Huber – IEP, L., Revesz, B., Diez, A., Xavier Ricard, & de Echave, J. (2007).
Minería y conflicto social. Economía y Sociedad 65, CIES, 11.

Worral, A., Neil, D., Brereton, D., & Mulligan, D. (2009). Towards a sustainability criteria
and indicators framework for legacy mine. Journal of Cleaner Production 17,
1426–1434.

Zegarra Méndez, E., Orihuela, J. C., & Paredes, M. (2006). Minería y economías
familiares: explorando impactos y espacios de conflicto. (Informe Final). Grupo
de Análisis Para el Desarrollo, Lima.

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