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ANSYS Fluent Tutorial – Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Mixing Elbow Piping System

Problem Definition.
A cold fluid at 20℃ flows into the pipe through a large inlet mixes with a warmer fluid at 40℃ through a small inlet. Analyse the velocity, heat transfer and pressure inside the piping system.

Step 1
Start ANSYS Workbench. It will appear 2 zones such as
1. Toolbox
2. Project Schematic

Step 2
As shown in “toolbox tab”, under Analyses Systems, find “Fluid Flow Fluent” and drag and
drop it to the “Project Schematic” zone.

Step 3
Click on the “Geometry” cell. In the “Properties” tab “Analysis Type” to 3D.

Step 4
Double click on the “Geometry” cell to start the Design Modeller. Design Modeller has 3
zones such as
1. Tree Outline (consist of sketching and modelling)
2. Details view
3. Section planes
4. Graphics
Step 5
In the “Tree outline” the Sketching. Then under Draw select Circle on YZ Plane. Draw a
circle by locating it is at the centre of origin. Then click “F7” for zoom to fit. Then select
“dimension’ and “general”. Change the value in the “details view” to 4 inches (D2). Then
click “F7” for zoom to fit.

Then, click on the XY Plane for new sketching. Draw a horizontal and vertical line using the
line. For the dimension, change the value of H3 to 12 inch and V4 to 12 inch. Then click
“F7” for zoom to fit.
Then, click on “modify” choose fillet. Click at the end of the horizontal and vertical line. For
dimension click on the radius and put 4 inch (R5) for the dimension, Then click “F7” for
zoom to fit.

Then, click on “sweep” button on the toolbar. In the “Details of Sweep”, for “profile” choose
“sketch1” (sketch on YZ Plane) and click apply while for “path” choose “sketch2” (sketch on
XY Plane) and click apply. Generate and then click “F7” for zoom to fit.
Then, click on YZ plane and new plane on the toolbar. You will have a new plane which
bases plane from Z plane. Go to the transform 1 choose offset Y and put the value of 4 inch
and transform 4 choose offset Z and put the value of 1.8 in. Then generate the model.

Then, select on Plane4 for new sketching. Find a circle and draw on the plane. For the
dimension, put 1 inch and generate. Click on the sketch and choose to Extrude with normal
direction. Set the value of 4 inch and generate.

Then go to “1 part 1 Body” change the name to elbow and details of the body to the fluid.
Step 6
Then select “mesh” in the outline zone. Go to details of “Mesh”, change relevance center to
“fine”, smoothing to “high” and curvature normal angle to “10.00”. Then generate the mesh.
After that, right click on the mesh, insert the body sizing. Put the value 6e-3m and generate.

Then, search for the statistic. Double check on “skewness” and “orthogonal.”

Criteria of Mesh Metric Spectrums

a. Skewness Mesh Metrics Spectrum

Excellent Very Good Good Acceptable Silver Degenerate

0-0.24 0.24-0.50 0.50-0.80 0.80-0.94 0.95-0.97 0.98-1.00

b. Orthogonal Quality Mesh Metrics Spectrum

Unacceptable Bad Acceptable Good Very Good Excellent

0-0.001 0.002-0.14 0.15-0.20 0.21-0.69 0.70-0.95 0.95-1.00


Step 13
Then click on the “face” button of the toolbar in order to be able to select the face of an
elbow domain. Choose the face, right click and select “create named selection”. Put the name
such as Inlet-velocity, small-inlet, pressure-outlet and wall. All this named selection will be
useful for later assign for boundary conditions.

Step 14
Then, double-click “Setup” to start Fluent. Click on “double precision” which will have a
significant effect on accuracy but will increase the memory usage and computational cost.
Then click “ok”.
Step 15
Under “setup”, do not change anything in “general tab”. Just use the default system. Then
click on “check”. Then tick on the gravity and put the value -9.81 m/s on the Y axis.

Step 16
Then moved to “models” below the “general”. Activate “energy” equation, use K-epsilon for
the viscous model. Others just used the default suggested by Fluent.
Step 17
Then moved to “material” search for water-liquid in the Fluent database. Then click
“change/create” and close the window to go back to the “Setup” window.

Then moved to “cell zone condition” click on edit and chose the material name as “water-
liquid” then click “ok.”
Step 18
Then moved to “boundary conditions”. Set the BCs according to the problem definition. All
settings, then click “ok”. For velocity specification set to components.
Temperature of the inlet can be set under “thermal” tab in inlet-velocity setting.

BCs Value
Velocity 0.4 m/s, normal to boundary
Inlet-velocity temperature 293K
Velocity 1.2 m/s, normal to boundary
Small-inlet temperature 313K
Pressure-outlet 0 Pascal gauge pressure (default)
Wall No slip (default)

Step 19
For solution method, for convergence, we use green-gauss node based on the gradient, and all
equations are solved in first order. Then Algebraic Multi-Grid (AMG) method was applied to
accelerate the convergence which set energy to flexible. (in solution controls)
Step 20
Then moved to “monitors”. For the residual, we stick to the default 1e -3 for all equations. Then
on the surface monitor, click “create”. Alter the name to “exit-velocity” then change the report
type as “mass-weighted average”, change field variables to “velocity and velocity magnitude”.
Choose the pressure-outlet as a surface. Then select “create and close”. Finally, click “ok.”.

Then moved to “solution initialization” choose hybrid initialization and click “initialize”. It
will perform automated hybrid initialization.
After that moved to “run calculation”, click on “check” and put the value 1000 inside the
“number of iterations”. Then click on the “Calculate” button.

Step 21
The calculation will run until it converged. All equations must below the scaled residual
RMS error down to 1e-3
Step 22
Save the project and close it to go back to the Workbench window. It will appear green tick
on “setup and solution” cell. Then click on “refresh project” to have a green tick on “result.”

Step 23
Then, double click “Results” to start the CFD-post. Search on the location, choose plane. In
the details of the Plane, use the method of XY plane and click ok.

Then click on button “contour” on the toolbar, change the location to “plane 1”, variable to
“velocity” and range to “local”. To have better resolution, change “of contour” to 100. Then
click on “default legend view” search for “appearance” and changed text parameters of
scientific precision to “fixed”. Then try another variable such as temperature and pressure.
Here also, we can analyse vector. Click on the “vector” button on the toolbar, change the
location to “plane 1”. Sampling used an equally speeds with 10000 of points with the variable
of velocity. Then click Apply. Finally, you can try others tool by yourself to know its
functions. Good Luck.
1. Velocity

2. Temperature
3. Pressure

4. Velocity vector